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Sample records for conceptual fusion fission hybrid

  1. On the safety of conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.; Badham, V.; Caspi, S.; Chan, C.K.; Ferrell, W.J.; Frederking, T.H.K.; Grzesik, J.; Lee, J.Y.; McKone, T.E.; Pomraning, G.C.; Ullman, A.Z.; Ting, T.D.; Kim, Y.I.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary examination of some potential safety questions for conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors is presented in this paper. The study and subsequent analysis was largely based upon one design, a conceptual mirror fusion-fission reactor, operating on the deuterium-tritium plasma fusion fuel cycle and the uranium-plutonium fission fuel cycle. The major potential hazards were found to be: (a) fission products, (b) actinide elements, (c) induced radioactivity, and (d) tritium. As a result of these studies, it appears that highly reliable and even redundent decay heat removal must be provided. Loss of the ability to remove decay heat results in melting of fuel, with ultimate release of fission products and actinides to the containment. In addition, the studies indicate that blankets can be designed which will remain subcritical under extensive changes in both composition and geometry. Magnet safety and the effects of magnetic fields on thermal parameters were also considered. (Auth.)

  2. Hefei experimental hybrid fusion-fission reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Lijian; Luan Guishi; Xu Qiang

    1992-03-01

    A new concept of hybrid reactor is introduced. It uses JET-like(Joint European Tokamak) device worked at sub-breakeven conditions, as a source of high energy neutrons to induce a blanket fission of depleted uranium. The solid breeding material and helium cooling technique are also used. It can produce 100 kg of 239 Pu per year by partial fission suppressed. The energy self-sustained of the fusion core is not necessary. Plasma temperature is maintained by external 20 MW ICRF (ion cyclotron resonance frequency) and 10 MW ECRF (electron cyclotron resonance frequency) heating. A steady state plasma current at 1.5 Ma is driven by 10 MW LHCD (lower hybrid current driven). Plasma density will be kept by pellet injection. ICRF can produce a high energy tail in ion distribution function and lead to significant enhancement of D-T reaction rate by 2 ∼ 5 times so that the neutron source strength reaches to the level of 1 x 10 19 n/s. This system is a passive system. It's power density is 10 W/cm 3 and the wall loading is 0.6 W/cm 2 that is the lower limitation of fusion and fission technology. From the calculation of neutrons it could always be in sub-critical and has intrinsic safety. The radiation damage and neutron flux distribution on the first wall are also analyzed. According to the conceptual design the application of this type hybrid reactor earlier is feasible

  3. Some safety studies for conceptual fusion--fission hybrid reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this study was to make a preliminary examination of some potential safety questions for conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors. The study and subsequent analysis was largely based upon reference to one design, a conceptual mirror fusion-fission reactor, operating on the deuterium-tritium plasma fusion fuel cycle and the uranium-plutonium fission fuel cycle. The blanket is a fast-spectrum, uranium carbide, helium cooled, subcritical reactor, optimized for the production of fissile fuel. An attempt was made to generalize the results wherever possible

  4. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  5. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  6. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Guo Haiping; Mou Yunfeng; Zheng Pu; Liu Rong; Yang Xiaofei; Yang Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established. It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium. The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D + beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode. The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α, β) thermal scattering model, so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. (authors)

  7. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  8. Conceptual design of a hybrid fusion-fission reactor with intrinsic safety and optimized energy productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, Hosein; Sadat Kiai, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Designing a high yield and feasible Dense Plasma Focus for driving the reactor. • Presenting a structural method to design the dual layer cylindrical blankets. • Finding, the blanket production energy, in terms of its geometrical and material parameters. • Designing a subcritical blanket with optimization of energy amplification in detail. - Abstract: A hybrid fission-fusion reactor with a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) as a fusion core and the dual layer fissionable blanket as the energy multiplier were conceptually designed. A cylindrical DPF, energized by a 200 kJ bank energy, is considered to produce fusion neutron, and these neutrons drive the subcritical fission in the surrounding blankets. The emphasis has been placed on the safety and energy production with considering technical and economical limitations. Therefore, the k eff-t of the dual cylindrical blanket was defined and mathematically, specified. By applying the safety criterion (k eff-t ≤ 0.95), the geometrical and material parameters of the blanket optimizing the energy amplification were obtained. Finally, MCNPX code has been used to determine the detailed dimensions of the blankets and fuel rods.

  9. Progress on the conceptual design of a mirror hybrid fusion--fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design study was made of a fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of producing fissile material and electricity. The fusion component is a D-T plasma confined by a pair of magnetic mirror coils in a Yin-Yang configuration and is sustained by neutral beam injection. The neutrons from the fusion plasma drive the fission assembly which is composed of natural uranium carbide fuel rods clad with stainless steel and helium cooled. It was shown conceptually how the reactor might be built using essentially present-day technology and how the uranium-bearing blanket modules can be routinely changed to allow separation of the bred fissile fuel

  10. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  11. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  12. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  13. Brief review of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Much of the conceptual framework of present day fusion-fission hybrid reactors is found in the original work of the early 1950's. Present day motivations for development are quite different. The role of the hybrid reactor is discussed as well as the current activities in the development program

  14. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. 12-month progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Rao, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design and preliminary feasibility assessment for the hybrid blanket and power conversion system of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. Existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology is directly applicable to the Mirror Hybrid Reactor. There are a number of aspects of the present conceptual design that require further design and analysis effort. The blanket and power conversion system operating parameters have not been optimized. The method of supporting the blanket modules and the interface between these modules and the primary loop helium ducting will require further design work. The means of support and containment of the primary loop components must be studied. Nevertheless, in general, the conceptual design appears quite feasible

  15. Hybrid fission-fusion nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid could contribute to all components of nuclear power - fuel supply, electricity production, and waste management. The idea of the fusion-fission hybrid is many decades old. Several ideas, both new and revisited, have been investigated by hybrid proponents. These ideas appear to have attractive features, but they require various levels of advances in plasma science and fusion and nuclear technology. As a first step towards the development of hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources can be considered as an option. Compact high-field tokamaks can be a candidate for being the neutron source in a fission-fusion hybrid, essentially due to their design characteristics, such as compact dimensions, high magnetic field, flexibility of operation. This study presents the development of a tokamak neutron source for a material testing facility using an Ignitor-based concept. The computed values show the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion materials testing. Some full-power months of operation are sufficient to obtain relevant radiation damage values in terms of dpa. (Author)

  16. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or 233 U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of 238 U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical

  17. Fusion--fission hybrid concepts for laser-induced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid concepts are viewed as subcritical fission reactors driven and controlled by high-energy neutrons from a laser-induced fusion reactor. Blanket designs encompassing a substantial portion of the spectrum of different fission reactor technologies are analyzed and compared by calculating their fissile-breeding and fusion-energy-multiplying characteristics. With a large number of different fission technologies to choose from, it is essential to identify more promising hybrid concepts that can then be subjected to in-depth studies that treat the engineering safety, and economic requirements as well as the neutronic aspects. In the course of neutronically analyzing and comparing several fission blanket concepts, this work has demonstrated that fusion-fission hybrids can be designed to meet a broad spectrum of fissile-breeding and fusion-energy-multiplying requirements. The neutronic results should prove to be extremely useful in formulating the technical scope of future studies concerned with evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of hybrid concepts for laser-induced fusion

  18. Fusion-Fission hybrid reactors and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-09-01

    New options for the development of the nuclear energy economy which might become available by a successful development of fusion-breeders or fusion-fission hybrid power reactors, identified and their nonproliferative attributes are discussed. The more promising proliferation-resistance ettributes identified include: (1) Justification for a significant delay in the initiation of fuel processing, (2) Denaturing the plutonium with 238 Pu before its use in power reactors of any kind, and (3) Making practical the development of denatured uranium fuel cycles and, in particular, denaturing the uranium with 232 U. Fuel resource utilization, time-table and economic considerations associated with the use of fusion-breeders are also discussed. It is concluded that hybrid reactors may enable developing a nuclear energy economy which is more proliferation resistant than possible otherwise, whileat the same time, assuring high utilization of t he uranium and thorium resources in an economically acceptable way. (author)

  19. Mirror hybrid (fusion--fission) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Devoto, R.S.; Galloway, T.R.; Fink, J.H.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.; Rao, S.

    1977-10-01

    The reference mirror hybrid reactor design performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. The resulting reactor may thus be viewed as a comparatively near-term goal of the fusion program, and we project improved performance for the hybrid in the future as more advanced technology becomes available

  20. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  1. Pulsed fission/fusion hybrid engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    Research into high-thrust, high-specific impulse rocket engines using energy from nuclear reactions which has been conducted at this organization will be discussed. The engines are all conceptual in nature, yet are within the realization of conventional or near-term technology. The engine concepts under study at Foundation, Inc. are designed to obviate or minimize these negative effects of the ORION scheme. By using non-chemical triggers to initiate a non-breakeven fusion reaction at the core of a target composed of both fission and fusion fuel, it should be possible to employ the fusion neutrons thus produced to begin a fission reaction in U-235 or Pu-239. Since the density of the target can be increased by as much as a factor of 250 through compression of the pellet, the amount of fission material necessary to produce a critical mass can be greatly reduced. (This also means that the amount of fission products produced for a giventhrust level is also reduced from the ORION levels.) Coupling this eeffect to the large number of 14 MeV fusion neutrons produced early in the compression process and subsequently to the heating of some additional fusion fuel surrounding the critical mass leads to the very efficient burnup of the target. This insures both high yield from the target as well as low cost per MJ energy released. Finally, the use of such small pellets allows the scale of the energy released to be tailored to a level usable in rocket engines of a few tens of tons thrust level. (orig.) [de

  2. Fusion--fission hybrid reactors: a capsule introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A short introduction to fusion-fission hybrid systems is provided touching on (a) basic technological characteristics; (b) potential applications; (c) relevance of environmental considerations in the development rationale for hybrids. References to the more technical literature are supplied

  3. The LOFA analysis of fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.-C.; Xie, H.

    2014-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor can produce energy, breed nuclear fuel, and handle the nuclear waste, etc, with the fusion neutron source striking the subcritical blanket. The passive safety system, consisting of passive residual heat removal system, passive safety injection system and automatic depressurization system, was adopted into the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor in this paper. Modeling and nodalization of primary loop, passive core cooling system and partial secondary loop of the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor using RELAP5 were conducted and LOFA (Loss of Flow Accident) was analyzed. The results of key transient parameters indicated that the PRHRs could mitigate the accidental consequence of LOFA effectively. It is also concluded that it is feasible to apply the passive safety system concept to fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor. (author)

  4. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a 233 U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed

  5. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWR's) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario is insensitive to the capital cost of the hybrid, increasing by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  6. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWRs) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario increases by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  7. Neutronics issues in fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan

    1995-01-01

    The coupled neutron and γ-ray transport equations and nuclear number density equations, and its computer program systems concerned in fusion-fission hybrid reactor design are briefly described. The current status and focal point for coming work of nuclear data used in fusion reactor design are explained

  8. Optimization of the fission--fusion hybrid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltmarsh, M.J.; Grimes, W.R.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-04-01

    One of the potentially attractive applications of controlled thermonuclear fusion is the fission--fusion hybrid concept. In this report we examine the possible role of the hybrid as a fissile fuel producer. We parameterize the advantages of the concept in terms of the performance of the fusion device and the breeding blanket and discuss some of the more troublesome features of existing design studies. The analysis suggests that hybrids based on deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion devices are unlikely to be economically attractive and that they present formidable blanket technology problems. We suggest an alternative approach based on a semicatalyzed deuterium--deuterium (D--D) fusion reactor and a molten salt blanket. This concept is shown to emphasize the desirable features of the hybrid, to have considerably greater economic potential, and to mitigate many of the disadvantages of D--T-based systems

  9. Utility market penetration assessment of fusion-fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.K.; Nour, N.E.; Piascik, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the utility generation expansion evaluation procedure and to present the results of a fusion-fission hybrid market penetration assessment in a model of a typical utility system. The analysis addresses the key factors and tradeoffs affecting the utility's evaluation of generation alternatives

  10. Scoping studies of 233U breeding fusion fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hansen, L.F.; Allen, W.O.

    1978-05-01

    Neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to design a laser fusion driven hybrid blanket which maximizes 233 U production per unit of thermal energy (greater than or equal to 1 kg/MW/sub T/-year) with acceptable fusion energy multiplication (M/sub F/ approximately 4). Two hybrid blankets, a thorium and a uranium-thorium blanket, are discussed in detail and their performance is evaluated by incorporating them into an existing hybrid design (the LLL/Bechtel design). The overall performance of the two laser fusion driven 233 U producers is discussed and estimates are given of (1) the number of equivalent thermal power fission reactors (LWR, HWR, SSCR and HTGR) that these fusion breeders can fuel, (2) their capital cost, and (3) the cost of electricity in the combined fusion breder-converter reactor scenario

  11. Scoping studies of 233U breeding fusion fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hansen, L.F.; Allen, W.O.

    1978-01-01

    Neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to design a laser fusion driven hybrid blanket which maximizes 233 U production per unit of thermal energy (greater than or equal to 1 kg/MW/sub T/-year) with acceptable fusion energy multiplication (M/sub F/ approx. 4). Two hybrid blankets, a thorium and a uranium--thorium blanket, are discussed in detail and their performance is evaluated by incorporating them into an existing hybrid design (the LLL/Bechtel design). The overall performance of the two laser fusion driven 233 U producers is discussed and estimates are given of (1) the number of equivalent thermal power fission reactors (LWR, HWR, SSCR and HTGR) that these fusion breeders can fuel, (2) their capital cost, and (3) the cost of electricity in the combined fusion breeder-converter reactor scenario

  12. New Burnup Calculation System for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isao Murata; Shoichi Shido; Masayuki Matsunaka; Keitaro Kondo; Hiroyuki Miyamaru

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear waste incineration has positively been carried out worldwide from the standpoint of environmental issues. Some candidates such as ADS, FBR are under discussion for possible incineration technology. Fusion reactor is one of such technologies, because it supplies a neutron-rich and volumetric irradiation field, and in addition the energy is higher than nuclear reactor. However, it is still hard to realize fusion reactor right now, as well known. An idea of combination of fusion and fission concepts, so-called fusion-fission hybrid system, was thus proposed for the nuclear waste incineration. Even for a relatively lower plasma condition, neutrons can be well multiplied by fission in the nuclear fuel, tritium is thus bred so as to attain its self-sufficiency, enough energy multiplication is then expected and moreover nuclear waste incineration is possible. In the present study, to realize it as soon as possible with the presently proven technology, i.e., using ITER model with the achieved plasma condition of JT60 in JAEA, Japan, a new calculation system for fusion-fission hybrid reactor including transport by MCNP and burnup by ORIGEN has been developed for the precise prediction of the neutronics performance. The author's group already has such a calculation system developed by them. But it had a problem that the cross section libraries in ORIGEN did not have a cross section library, which is suitable specifically for fusion-fission hybrid reactors. So far, those for FBR were approximately used instead in the analysis. In the present study, exact derivation of the collapsed cross section for ORIGEN has been investigated, which means it is directly evaluated from calculated track length by MCNP and point-wise nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data file like JENDL-3.3. The system realizes several-cycle calculation one time, each of which consists of MCNP criticality calculation, MCNP fixed source calculation with a 3-dimensional precise

  13. Evaluations of fusion-fission (hybrid) concepts: market penetration analysis for fusion-fission hybrids. Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.L.; Deonigi, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes findings of the fusion-fission studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. This particular study focused on the evaluation of fissile material producing hybrids. Technical results of the evaluation of actinide burning are presented in a companion volume, Part B

  14. Thermal safety analysis for pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie

    1998-01-01

    Pebble bed blanket hybrid reactor may have more advantages than slab element blanket hybrid reactor in nuclear fuel production and nuclear safety. The thermo-hydraulic calculations of the blanket in the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor developed in China are carried out using the Code THERMIX and auxiliary code. In the calculations different fuel pebble material and steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow accident conditions are included. The results demonstrate that the conceptual design of the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor with dump tank is feasible and safe enough only if the suitable fuel pebble material is selected and the suitable control system and protection system are established. Some recommendations for due conceptual design are also presented

  15. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  16. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalick, S.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1980-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  17. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrides are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpaint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  18. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  19. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  20. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor Design Study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Feng Kaiming; Deng Baiquan; Deng, P.Zh.; Zhang Guoshu; Hu Gang; He Kaihui; Wu Yican; Qiu Lijian; Huang Qunying; Xiao Bingjia; Liu Xiaoping; Chen Yixue; Kong, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The motivation for developing fusion-fission hybrid reactors is discussed in the context of electricity power requirements by 2050 in China. A detailed conceptual design of the Fusion Experimental Breeder (FEB) was developed from 1986-1995. The FEB has a subignited tokamak fusion core with a major radius of 4.0 m, a fusion power of 145 MW, and a fusion energy gain Q of 3. Based on this, an engineering outline design study of the FEB, FEB-E, has been performed. This design study is a transition from conceptual to engineering design in this research. The main results beyond that given in the detailed conceptual design are included in this paper, namely, the design studies of the blanket, divertor, test blanket, and tritium and environment issues. In-depth analyses have been performed to support the design. Studies of related advanced concepts such as the waste transmutation blanket concept and the spherical tokamak core concept are also presented

  1. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  2. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  3. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. Addendum 1. Alternate concepts. 12-month progress report addendum, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Dee, J.B.; Backus, G.A.; Culver, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor study several alternate concepts were considered for various reactor components. Several of the alternate concepts do appear to exhibit features with potential advantage for use in the mirror hybrid reactor. These are described and should possibly be investigated further in the future

  4. Power-balance analysis of muon-catalyzed fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A power-balance model of a muon-catalyzed fusion system in the context of a fission-fuel factory is developed and exercised to predict the required physics performance of systems competitive with either pure muon-catalyzed fusion systems or thermonuclear fusion-fission fuel factory hybrid systems

  5. Neutron analysis of a hybrid system fusion-fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes C, J. J.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    The use of energy at world level implies the decrease of natural resources, reduction of fossil fuels, in particular, and a high environmental impact. In view of this problem, an alternative is the energy production for nuclear means, because up to now is one of the less polluting energy; however, the nuclear fuel wastes continue being even a problem without being solved. For the above mentioned this work intends the creation of a device that incorporates the combined technologies of fission and nuclear fusion, called Nuclear Hybrid Reactor Fusion-Fission (HRFF). The HRFF has been designed theoretically with base in experimental fusion reactors in different parts of the world like: United States, Russia, Japan, China and United Kingdom, mainly. The hybrid reactor model here studied corresponds at the Compact Nuclear Facility Source (CNFS). The importance of the CNFS resides in its feasibility, simple design, minor size and low cost; uses deuterium-tritium like main source of neutrons, and as fuel can use the spent fuel of conventional nuclear reactors, such as the current light water reactors. Due to the high costs of experimental research, this work consists on simulating in computer a proposed model of CNFS under normal conditions of operation, to modify the arrangement of the used fuel: MOX and IMF, to analyze the obtained results and to give final conclusions. In conclusion, the HRFF can be a versatile system for the management of spent fuel of light water reactors, so much for the possibility of actinides destruction, like for the breeding of fissile material. (Author)

  6. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    The 1978 Source Book for Fusion--Fission Hybrid Systems was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. It reviews the current status of fusion--fission hybrid reactors, and presents the prevailing views of members of the fusion community on the RD and D timetable required for the development and commercialization of fusion--fission hybrids. The results presented are based on a review of related references as well as interviews with recognized experts in the field. Contributors from the academic and industrial communities are listed

  7. Conceptual design study of Hyb-WT as fusion–fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design study of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation. • MCNPX and MONTEBURNS are compared for transmutation performance of WT-Hyb. • Detailed neutronic performance of final optimized Hyb-WT design is analyzed. • A new tube-in-duct core design is implemented and compared with pin type design. • Study shows many aspects of hybrid reactor even though scope was limited to neutronic analysis. - Abstract: This study proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). The design of Hyb-WT is based on a low-power tokamak (less than 150 MWt) and an annular ring-shaped reactor core with metal fuel (TRU 60 w/o, Zr 40 w/o) and a fission product (FP) zone. The computational code systems MONTEBURNS and MCNPX2.6 are investigated for their suitability in evaluating the performance of Hyb-WT. The overall design performance of the proposed reactor is determined by considering pin-type and tube-in-duct core designs. The objective of such consideration is to explore the possibilities for enhanced transmutation with reduced wall loading from fusion neutrons and reduced transuranic (TRU) inventory. TRU and FP depletion is analyzed by calculating waste transmutation ratio, mass burned per full power year (in units of kg/fpy), and support ratio. The radio toxicity analysis of TRUs and FPs is performed by calculating the percentage of toxicity reduction in TRU and FP over a burn cycle

  8. Critical masses of miniexplosion in fission-fusion hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliski, S [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki

    1976-01-01

    The critical mass of the fissionable material subjected to the explosive compression and the action of the neutron stream originating from the process of D-T fusion in the spherical cavity was estimated. High energy recovery from the fissionable material was obtained and the energy of the laser pulse was minimized.

  9. Advanced nuclear fuel production by using fission-fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Sahin, S.; Abdulraoof, M.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are made at the College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh to lay out the main structure of a prototype experimental fusion and fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor blanket in cylindrical geometry. The geometry is consistent with most of the current fusion and hybrid reactor design concepts in respect of the neutronic considerations. Characteristics of the fusion chamber, fusion neutrons and the blanket are provided. The studies have further shown that 1 GWe fission-fusion reactor can produce up to 957 kg/year which is enough to fuel five light water reactors of comparable power. Fuel production can be increased further. 29 refs

  10. Preliminary neutronics calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xubo; Chen Yixue; Gao Bin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel in PWR was preliminarily studied in this paper. According to the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel characteristics, PWR assembly including fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel was designed. The parameters such as fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and their variation were investigated. Results show that the neutron properties of uranium-based assembly and hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly are similar. The design of this paper has a smaller uniformity coefficient of power at the same fissile isotope mass percentage. The results will provide technical support for the future fusion-fission hybrid reactor and PWR combined with cycle system. (authors)

  11. Survey on the fusion/fission-hybrid-reactors, a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey, based on existing literature, of the work being pursued worldwide on fusion - fission (hybrid) reactor systems is presented. Six areas are reviewed: Plasma physics parameters; Blankets concepts; Fuel cycles; Reactor conceptual designs; Safety and environmental problems; System studies and economic perspectives. Attention has been restricted to systems using magnetically confined plasmas, mainly to mirror and Tokamak - type concepts. The aim is to provide sufficient information, even if not exhaustive, on hybrid reactor concepts in order to help understand what may be expected from their possible development and the ways in which hybrids could affect the future energy scenario. Some concluding remarks are made which represent the personal view of the authors only

  12. Conceptual scheme of a hybrid mesocatalytic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    To test the practical realization of the mesocatalytic method for energy production a preliminary engineering analysis and calculation of the separate units of the conceptual scheme of the hybrid mesocatalytic reactor was made. The construction and efficiency of the most characteristic separate blocks of the conceptual scheme for muon-catalyzed fusion are examined. The muon catalysis cycle in a dt mixture was assessed. The kinetics and energetics of muon production through a pion-forming target and a converter were evaluated. Concomitant questions, particularly the removal of helium from hydrogen, are discussed. Fusion chamber requirements were calculated and problems of heat removal were assessed. Blanket construction and efficiency were examined. The efficiency of different methods for power generation were comparatively reviewed including hybrid thermonuclear, electronuclear nuclear, and hybrid mesocatalytic methods. Energy balances and economic restrictions were examined

  13. Conceptual design of a fission-based integrated test facility for fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Deis, G.A.; Hsu, P.Y.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Miller, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will become increasingly important because of lack of fusion engineering test devices in the immediate future and the increasing long-term demand for fusion testing when a fusion reactor test station becomes available. This paper presents the conceptual design of a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF) developed by EG and G Idaho. This facility can accommodate entire first wall/blanket (FW/B) test modules such as those proposed for INTOR and can also accommodate smaller cylindrical modules similar to those designed by Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) and Westinghouse. In addition, the facility can be used to test bulk breeder blanket materials, materials for tritium permeation, and components for performance in a nuclear environment. The ITF provides a cyclic neutron/gamma flux as well as the numerous module and experiment support functions required for truly integrated tests

  14. A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more

  15. Review of Battelle-Northwest technical studies on fusion--fission (hybrid) energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, R.C.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Wolkenhauer, W.C.; Aase, D.T.

    1974-01-01

    A variety of studies conducted over the past few years and the principal results of these studies are summarized. Studies of power producing hybrids, the use of fusion neutrons for transmutation of radioactive wastes, and the evaluation of the most likely combinations of fusion and fission technologies are discussed. (U.S.)

  16. Safety analysis on tokamak helium cooling slab fuel fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie; Jian Hongbing

    1992-01-01

    The thermal analyses for steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow in the tokamak helium cooling slab fuel element fusion-fission hybrid reactor are presented. The design parameters, computed results of HYBRID program and safety evaluation for conception design are given. After all, it gives some recommendations for developing the design

  17. Fusion--fission hybrid reactors based on the laser solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Quimby, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion-fission reactors, based on the laser solenoid concept, can be much smaller in scale than their pure fusion counterparts, with moderate first-wall loading and rapid breeding capabilities (1 to 3 tonnes/yr), and can be designed successfully on the basis of classical plasma transport properties and free-streaming end-loss. Preliminary design information is presented for such systems, including the first wall, pulse coil, blanket, superconductors, laser optics, and power supplies, accounting for the desired reactor performance and other physics and engineering constraints. Self-consistent point designs for first and second generation reactors are discussed which illustrate the reactor size, performance, component parameters, and the level of technological development required

  18. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  19. Physical Investigation for Neutron Consumption and Multiplication in Blanket Module of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid reactor can be the first milestone of fusion technology and achievable in near future. It can provide operational experience for tritium recycling for pure fusion reactor and be used for incineration of high-level long-lived waste isotopes from existing fission power reactors. Hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT) was designed and optimized to assess its otential for waste transmutation. ITER will be the first large scaled experimental tokamak facility for the testing of test blanket modules (TBM) which will layout the foundation for DEMO fusion power plants. Similarly hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) will be the foundation for rationality of fusion fission hybrid reactors. Designing and testing of hybrid blankets will lead to another prospect of nuclear technology. This study is initiated with a preliminary design concept of a hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) which would be tested in ITER. The neutrons generated in D-T fusion plasma are of high energy, 14.1 MeV which could be multiplied significantly through inelastic scattering along with fission in HTBM. In current study the detailed neutronic analysis is performed for the blanket module which involves the neutron growth and loss distribution within blanket module with the choice of different fuel and coolant materials. TRU transmutation and tritium breeding performance of HTBM is analyzed under ITER irradiation environment for five different fuel types and with Li and LiPb coolants. Simple box geometry with plate type TRU fuel is adopted so that it can be modelled with heterogeneous material geometry in MCNPX. Waste transmutation ratio (WTR) of TRUs and tritium breeding ration (TBR) is computed to quantify the HTBM performance. Neutron balance is computed in detail to analyze the performance parameters of HTBM. Neutron spectrum and fission to capture ratio in TRU fuel types is also calculated for detailed analysis of HTBM

  20. Physical Investigation for Neutron Consumption and Multiplication in Blanket Module of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Fusion-fission hybrid reactor can be the first milestone of fusion technology and achievable in near future. It can provide operational experience for tritium recycling for pure fusion reactor and be used for incineration of high-level long-lived waste isotopes from existing fission power reactors. Hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT) was designed and optimized to assess its otential for waste transmutation. ITER will be the first large scaled experimental tokamak facility for the testing of test blanket modules (TBM) which will layout the foundation for DEMO fusion power plants. Similarly hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) will be the foundation for rationality of fusion fission hybrid reactors. Designing and testing of hybrid blankets will lead to another prospect of nuclear technology. This study is initiated with a preliminary design concept of a hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) which would be tested in ITER. The neutrons generated in D-T fusion plasma are of high energy, 14.1 MeV which could be multiplied significantly through inelastic scattering along with fission in HTBM. In current study the detailed neutronic analysis is performed for the blanket module which involves the neutron growth and loss distribution within blanket module with the choice of different fuel and coolant materials. TRU transmutation and tritium breeding performance of HTBM is analyzed under ITER irradiation environment for five different fuel types and with Li and LiPb coolants. Simple box geometry with plate type TRU fuel is adopted so that it can be modelled with heterogeneous material geometry in MCNPX. Waste transmutation ratio (WTR) of TRUs and tritium breeding ration (TBR) is computed to quantify the HTBM performance. Neutron balance is computed in detail to analyze the performance parameters of HTBM. Neutron spectrum and fission to capture ratio in TRU fuel types is also calculated for detailed analysis of HTBM.

  1. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  2. Fusion-fission hybrids: environmental aspects and their role in hybrid rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The rationale for developing hybrids depends on real or perceived liabilities of relying on pure fission to do the same job. Quite possibly the main constraint on expanded use of fission will be neither lack of fuel nor high costs, but perceived environmental liabilities - radioactive wastes, reactor safety, and links to nuclear weaponry. The environmental characteristics of hybrid systems and pure-fisson systems are compared here in detail. The findings are that significant environmental advantages for hybrids cannot now be demonstrated and may not exist. Therefore, if environmental drawbacks constrain the application of pure fission, hybrids probably also will be thus constrained

  3. Major features of a mirror fusion--fast fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design was made of a fusion-fission reactor. The fusion component is a D-T plasma confined by a pair of magnetic mirror coils in a Yin-Yang configuration and sustained by hot neutral beam injection. The neutrons from the fusion plasma drive the fission assembly which is composed of natural uranium carbide fuel rods clad with stainless steel and is cooled by helium. It was shown how the reactor can be built using essentially present day construction technology and how the uranium bearing blanket modules can be routinely changed to allow separation of the bred fissile fuel of which approximately 1200 kg of plutonium are produced each year along with the approximately 750 MW of electricity. (U.S.)

  4. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility

  5. Advantages of Production of New Fissionable Nuclides for the Nuclear Power Industry in Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Rodionova, E. V.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    A concept of a large-scale nuclear power engineering system equipped with fusion and fission reactors is presented. The reactors have a joint fuel cycle, which imposes the lowest risk of the radiation impact on the environment. The formation of such a system is considered within the framework of the evolution of the current nuclear power industry with the dominance of thermal reactors, gradual transition to the thorium fuel cycle, and integration into the system of the hybrid fusion-fission reactors for breeding nuclear fuel for fission reactors. Such evolution of the nuclear power engineering system will allow preservation of the existing structure with the dominance of thermal reactors, enable the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with low burnup, and prevent the dangerous accumulation of minor actinides. The proposed structure of the nuclear power engineering system minimizes the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment and the SNF reprocessing facilities, decreasing it by more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the proposed scheme of closing the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle based on the reprocessing of SNF with high burnup from fast reactors.

  6. Neutronic Parametric Study on a Conceptual Design for a Transmutation Fusion Blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Fusion energy may be the one of options of future energy. In all over the world, researchers are putting their efforts for its commercial and economical availability. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors have been studied for various applications in China. First milestone of fusion energy is expected to be the fusion fission hybrid reactors. In fusion-fission hybrid reactor the blanket design is of second prime importance after fusion source. In this study conceptual design of a fusion blanket is initiated for calculation of tritium production, transmutation of minor actinides (MA) and fission products (FP) and energy multiplication calculations

  7. Burn-up calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor using thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shido, S.; Matsunaka, M.; Kondo, K.; Murata, I.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A burn-up calculation system has been developed to estimate performance of blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor which is a fusion reactor with a blanket region containing nuclear fuel. In this system, neutron flux is calculated by MCNP4B and then burn-up calculation is performed by ORIGEN2. The cross-section library for ORIGEN2 is made from the calculated neutron flux and evaluated nuclear data. The 3-dimensional ITER model was used as a base fusion reactor. The nuclear fuel (reprocessed plutonium as the fission materials mixed with thorium as the fertile materials), transmutation materials (minor actinides and long-lived fission products) and tritium breeder were loaded into the blanket. Performances of gas-cooled and water-cooled blankets were compared with each other. As a result, the proposed reactor can meet the requirement for TBP and power density. As far as nuclear waste incineration is concerned, the gas-cooled blanket has advantages. On the other hand, the water cooled-blanket is suited to energy production. (author)

  8. Preliminary design and analysis on nuclear fuel cycle for fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Wang Minghuang; Jiang Jieqiong

    2012-01-01

    A wet-processing-based fuel cycle and a dry-processing were designed for a fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner (FDS-SFB). Mass flow of SFB was preliminarily analyzed. The feasibility analysis of initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing were preliminarily evaluated. The results of mass flow of FDS-SFB demonstrated that the initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing of nuclear fuel cycle of FDS-SFB is preliminarily feasible. (authors)

  9. Fusion-fission hybrid as an alternative to the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.; Hardie, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    This report compares the fusion-fission hybrid on the plutonium cycle with the classical fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle as a long-term nuclear energy source. For the purpose of comparison, the current light-water reactor once-through (LWR-OT) cycle was also analyzed. The methods and models used in this study were developed for use in a comparative analysis of conventional nuclear fuel cycles. Assessment areas considered in this study include economics, energy balance, proliferation resistance, technological status, public safety, and commercial viability. In every case the characteristics of all fuel cycle facilities were accounted for, rather than just those of the reactor

  10. Neutronics analysis of water-cooled energy production blanket for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jieqiong; Wang Minghuang; Chen Zhong; Qiu Yuefeng; Liu Jinchao; Bai Yunqing; Chen Hongli; Hu Yanglin

    2010-01-01

    Neutronics calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of blanket energy multiplication factor (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for energy production named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-EM (Energy Multiplier) blanket. The most significant and main goal of the FDS-EM blanket is to achieve the energy gain of about 1 GWe with self-sustaining tritium, i.e. the M factor is expected to be ∼90. Four different fission materials were taken into account to evaluate M in subcritical blanket: (i) depleted uranium, (ii) natural uranium, (iii) enriched uranium, and (iv) Nuclear Waste (transuranic from 33 000 MWD/MTU PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and depleted uranium) oxide. These calculations and analyses were performed using nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) and a home-developed code VisualBUS. The results showed that the performance of the blanket loaded with Nuclear Waste was most attractive and it could be promising to effectively obtain tritium self-sufficiency and a high-energy multiplication.

  11. Study of DD versus DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission hybrid energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce fissile fuel for fission reactors. DD and DT fusion reactors were examined in this study with either a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion reactor. Various fuel cycles were examined for light-water reactors including the denatured fuel cycles (which may offer proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles); these fuel cycles include a uranium fuel cycle with 239 Pu makeup, a thorium fuel cycle with 239 Pu makeup, a denatured uranium fuel cycle with 233 U makeup, and a denatured thorium fuel cycle with 233 U makeup. Four different blankets were considered for this study. The first two blankets have a tritium breeding capability for DT reactors. Lithium oxide (Li 2 O) was used for tritium breeding due to its high lithium density and high temperature capability; however, the use of Li 2 O may result in higher tritium inventories compared to other solid breeders

  12. Conceptual innovations in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A number of innovations in the conception of fusion-fission hybrid reactors, including the blanket, the fusion driver, the coupling of the fusion and the fission components as well as the application of hybrid reactors are described, and their feasibility assessed

  13. Fusion-fission hybrid design with analysis of direct enrichment and non-proliferation features (the SOLASE-H study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.; Maynard, C.W.; Magheb, M.M.H.; Sviatolslavsky, I.N.; Vogelsang, W.F.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The role of a fusion-fission hybrid in the context of a nuclear economy with and without reprocessing is examined. An inertial confinement fusion driver is assumed and a consistent set of reactor parameters are developed. The form of the driver is not critical, however, to the general concepts. The use of the hybrid as a fuel factory within a secured fuel production and reprocessing center is considered. Either the hybrid or a low power fission reactor can be used to mildly irradiate fuel prior to shipment to offsite reactors thereby rendering the fuel resistant to diversion. A simplified economic analysis indicates a hybrid providing fuel to 10 fission reactors of equal thermal power is insensitive to the recirculating power fraction provided reprocessing is permitted. If reprocessing is not allowed, the hybrid can be used to directly enrich light water reactor fuel bundles fabricated initially from fertile fuel (either ThO 2 or 238 UO 2 ). A detailed neutronic analysis indicates such direct enrichments is feasible but the support ratio for 233 U or 239 Pu production is only 2, making such an approach highly sensitive to the hybrid cost. The hybrid would have to produce considerable net power for economic feasibility in this case. Inertial confinement fusion performance requirements for hybrid application are also examined and an integrated design, SOLASE-H, is described based upon the direct enrichment concept. (orig.)

  14. The neutronics studies of a fusion fission hybrid reactor using pressure tube blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Youqi; Zu Tiejun; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi; Yang Chao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fusion fission hybrid reactor used for energy producing is proposed based on the situation of nuclear power in China. The pressurized light water is applied as the coolant. The fuel assemblies are loaded in the pressure tubes with a modular type structure. The neutronics analysis is performed to get the suitable design and prove the feasibility. The energy multiplication and tritium self-sustaining are evaluated. The neutron load is also cared. From different candidates, the PWR spent fuel is selected as the feed fuel. The results show that the hybrid reactor can meet the expected reactor core lifetime of 5 years with 1000 MWe power output. Two ways are discussed including burning the discharged PWR spent fuel and burning the reprocessed plutonium. The energy multiplication is big enough and the tritium can be self-sustaining for both of the two ways. The neutron wall load in the operating time is kept smaller than the one of ITER. The way to use the reprocessed plutonium brings low neutron wall load, but also brings additional difficulties in operating the hybrid reactor. The way to use the discharged spent fuel is proposed to be a better choice currently.

  15. Relevance of environmental concerns in contemplating development of fission fusion hybrids: a personal view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.

    1974-01-01

    A brief comparison of hybrids to pure fusion systems with respect to timing and economics is given. The relevance of environmental concerns is discussed along with environmental criteria for hybrid designs. (U.S.)

  16. Neutronic performance of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor designed for fuel enrichment for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapici, H.; Baltacioglu, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the breeding performance of a fission hybrid reactor was analyzed to provide fissile fuel for Light Water Reactors (LWR) as an alternative to the current methods of gas diffusion and gas centrifuge. LWR fuel rods containing UO 2 or ThO 2 fertile material were located in the fuel zone of the blanket and helium gas or Flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) fluid was used as coolant. As a result of the analysis, according to fusion driver (D,T and D,D) and the type of coolant the enrichment of 3%-4% were achieved for operation periods of 12 and 36 months in case of fuel rods containing UO 2 , respectively and for operation periods of 18 and 48 months in case of fuel rods containing ThO 2 , respectively. Depending on the type of fusion driver, coolant and fertile fuel, varying enrichments of between 3% and 8.9% were achieved during operation period of four years

  17. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephs, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors. The storage option is found to be most favorable; however, even this option represents a significant economic impact due to radioactivity of 0.074 mills/kW-h which amounts to $4 x 10 9 over a 30 year period assuming a 200 gigawatt supply of electrical power

  18. The Radiological and Thermal Characteristics of Fission Waste from a Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LIFE) and Implications for Repository Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, H.F.; Blink, J.; Farmer, J.; Latkowski, J.; Kramer, K.

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the use of a Laser Inertial-confinement Fusion Engine (LIFE) to drive a hybrid fusion-fission system that can generate electrical power and/or burn nuclear waste. The system uses the neutrons from laser driven ICF to produce tritium and to drive nuclear reactions in a subcritical fission blanket. The fusion neutron source obviates the need for a self-sustaining chain reaction in the fission blanket. Either fissile or fertile could be used as fission fuel, thus eliminating the need for isotopic enrichment. The 'driven' system potentially allows very high levels of burnup to be reached, extracting a large fraction of the available energy in the fission fuel without the need for reprocessing. In this note, we discuss the radionuclide inventory of a depleted uranium (DU) fuel burned to greater than 95% FIMA (Fissions per Initial heavy Metal Atom), the implications for thermal management of the resulting waste, and the implications of this waste for meeting the dose standards for releases from a geological repository for high-level waste. The fission waste discussed here would be that produced by a LIFE hybrid with a 500-MW fusion source. The fusion neutrons are multiplied and moderated by a sequence of concentric shells of materials before encountering the fission fuel, and fission in this region is largely due to thermal neutrons. The fission blanket consists of 40 metric tons (MT) of DU, assumed to be in the form of TRISO-like UOC fuel particles embedded in 2-cm-diameter graphite pebbles. (It is recognized that TRISO-based fuel may not reach the high burnup of the fertile fuel considered here, and other fuel options are being investigated. We postulate the existence of a fuel that can reach >95% FIMA so that the waste disposal implications of high burnup can be assessed.) The engine and plant design considered here would receive one load of fission fuel and produce ∼2 GWt of power (fusion + fission) over its 50- to 70-year lifetime. Neutron and

  19. XEUS: Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s for Fission Fusion Hybrid Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Jeong, Wi S.; Son, Hyung M.

    2008-01-01

    World energy outlook requires environmental friendliness, sustain ability and improved economic feasibility. The Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s (XEUS) is being developed at the Seoul National University (SNU) to satisfy these demands. Generation IV (Gen IV) and fusion reactors are considered as candidates for the primary system. Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor which is one of the Gen IV concepts. Fusion Engineering Lifetime Integral Explorer (FELIX) is a fusion demonstration reactor for power generation. These two concepts are considered as dominant options for future nuclear energy source from the environmental, commercial and nonproliferation points of view. XEUS may as well be applied to the fusion-fission hybrid system. The system code is being developed to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the primary system. Compact and high efficiency heat exchangers are designed in the Loop Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS). Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) incorporates a Brayton cycle with supercritical fluid to achieve high power conversion ratio. The high volumetric energy density of the Brayton cycle enables designers to reduce the size and eventually the cost of the system when compared with that of the Rankine cycle. MOBIS is home to heat exchangers and turbo machineries. The advanced shell-and-tube or printed circuit heat exchanger is considered as heat transfer components to reduce size of the system. The supercritical fluid driven turbines and compressor are designed to achieve higher component efficiency. Thermo hydrodynamic characteristics of each component in MOBIS are demonstrated utilizing computational fluid dynamics software CFX R . Another key contributor to the reduction of capital costs per unit energy has to do with manufacturing and assembly processes that streamline plant construction by minimizing construction work and time. In a three

  20. Fusion-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Grotowski, K.

    1992-01-01

    Classical dynamical calculations of the heavy ion induced fission processes have been performed for the reactions 40 Ar+ 141 Pr, 20 Ne+ 165 Ho and 12 C+ 175 Lu leading to the iridium like nucleus. As a result prescission lifetimes were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The comparison between the calculated and experimental lifetimes indicates that the one-body dissipation picture is much more relevant in describing the fusion-fission dynamics than the two-body one. (orig.)

  1. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity

  2. Survey of Materials for Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors Vol 1 Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph Collin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry Materials and Life Sciences Directorate

    2007-07-03

    Materials for fusion-fission hybrid reactors fall into several broad categories, including fuels, blanket and coolant materials, cladding, structural materials, shielding, and in the specific case of inertial-confinement fusion systems, laser and optical materials. This report surveys materials in all categories of materials except for those required for lasers and optics. Preferred collants include two molten salt mixtures known as FLIBE (Li2BeF4) and FLINABE (LiNaBeF4). In the case of homogenous liquid fuels, UF4 can be dissolved in these molten salt mixtures. The transmutation of lithium in this coolant produces very corrosive hydrofluoric acid species (HF and TF), which can rapidly degrade structural materials. Broad ranges of high-melting radiation-tolerant structural material have been proposed for fusion-fission reactor structures. These include a wide variety of steels and refractory alloys. Ferritic steels with oxide-dispersion strengthening and graphite have been given particular attention. Refractory metals are found in Groups IVB and VB of the periodic table, and include Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W, as serve as the basis of refractory alloys. Stable high-melting composites and amorphous metals may also be useful. Since amorphous metals have no lattice structure, neutron bombardment cannot dislodge atoms from lattice sites, and the materials would be immune from this specific mode of degradation. The free energy of formation of fluorides of the alloying elements found in steels and refractory alloys can be used to determine the relative stability of these materials in molten salts. The reduction of lithium transmutation products (H+ and T+) drives the electrochemical corrosion process, and liberates aggressive fluoride ions that pair with ions formed from dissolved structural materials. Corrosion can be suppressed through the use of metallic Be and Li, though the molten salt becomes laden with colloidal suspensions of Be and Li corrosion

  3. Neutronic calculation and cross section sensitivity analysis of the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Price, W.G. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    The neutronic calculation for the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket was performed using the PPPL cross section library. Significant differences were found in the tritium breeding and plutonium production in comparison to the results of the LLL calculation. The cross section sensitivity study for tritium breeding indicates that the response is sensitive to the cross section of 238 U in the neighborhood of 14 MeV and 1 MeV. The response is also sensitive to the cross sections of iron in the vicinity of 14 MeV near the first wall. Neutron transport in the resonance region is not important in this reactor model

  4. Liquid metal coolants for fusion-fission hybrid system: A neutronic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Renato V.A.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Barros, Graiciany P. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Based on a work already published by the UFMG Nuclear Engineering Department, it was suggested to use different coolant materials in a fusion-fission system after a fuel burnup simulation, including that one used in reference work. The goal is to compare the neutron parameters, such as the effect multiplication factor and actinide amounts in transmutation layer, for each used coolant and find the best(s) coolant material(s) to be applied in the considered system. Results indicate that the lead and lead-bismuth coolant are the most suitable choices to be applied to cool the system. (author)

  5. Fusion-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Grotowski, K.

    1991-04-01

    Classical dynamical calculations of the heavy ion induced fission process for the reactions 40 Ar+ 141 Pr, 20 Ne+ 165 Ho and 12 C+ 175 Lu leading to the iridium like nucleus have been performed. As a result prescission lifetimes were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The agreement between the calculated and experimental lifetimes indicates that the one-body dissipation picture is much more relevant in describing the fusion-fission dynamics than the two-body one. Somewhat bigger calculated times than the experimental ones in case of the C+Lu reaction at 16 MeV/nucleon may be a signal on the energy range applicability of the one-body dissipation model. (author)

  6. Development and testing of multigroup library with correction of self-shielding effects in fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jun; He Zhaozhong; Zeng Qin; Qiu Yuefeng; Wang Minghuang

    2010-01-01

    A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the K eff , neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.

  7. Opimization of fusion-driven fissioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.; Mills, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Potential advantages of hybrid or fusion/fission systems can be exploited in different ways. With selection of the 238 U-- 239 Pu fuel cycle, we show that the system has greatest value as a power producer. Numerical examples of relative revenue from power production vs. 239 Pu production are discussed, and possible plant characteristics described. The analysis tends to show that the hybrid may be more economically attractive than pure fusion systems

  8. Investigation of tritium and 233U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, K.; Sahin, S.; Sahin, H. M.; Acir, A.; Yalcin, S.; Altinok, T.; Bayrak, M.; Alkan, M.; Durukan, O.

    2007-01-01

    In the world, thorium reserves are three times more than natural Uranium reserves. It is planned in the near future that nuclear reactors will use thorium as a fuel. Thorium is not a fissile isotope because it doesn't make fission with thermal neutrons so it could be converted to 2 33U isotope which has very high quality fission cross-section with thermal neutrons. 2 33U isotope can be used in present LWRs as an enrichment fuel. In the fusion reactors, tritium is the most important fossil fuel. Because tritium is not natural isotope, it has to be produced in the reactor. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tritium and 2 33U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO 2 for Δt=10 days during a reactor operation period in five years. The neutronic analysis is performed on an experimental hybrid blanket geometry. In the center of the hybrid blanket, there is a line neutron source in a cylindrical cavity, which simulates the fusion plasma chamber where high energy neutrons (14.1 MeV) are produced. The conventional fusion reaction delivers the external neutron source for blankets following, 2 D + 3 T →? 4 He (3.5 MeV) + n (14.1 MeV). (1) The fuel zone made up of natural-ThO 2 fuel and it is cooled with different coolants. In this work, five different moderator materials, which are Li 2 BeF 4 , LiF-NaF-BeF 2 , Li 2 0Sn 8 0, natural Lithium and Li 1 7Pb 8 3, are used as coolants. The radial reflector, called tritium breeding zones, is made of different Lithium compounds and graphite in sandwich structure. In the work, eight different Lithium compounds were used as tritium breeders in the tritium breeding zones, which are Li 3 N, Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 3 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , LiBr and LiH. Neutron transport calculations are conducted in spherical geometry with the help of SCALE4.4A SYSTEM by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code CSAS and XSDRNPM, under consideration of unresolved and resolved resonances, in S 8 -P 3

  9. Fusion-fission type collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeschler, H.

    1980-01-01

    Three examples of fusion-fission type collisions on medium-mass nuclei are investigated whether the fragment properties are consistent with fission from equilibrated compound nuclei. Only in a very narrow band of angular momenta the data fulfill the necessary criteria for this process. Continuous evolutions of this mechnism into fusion fission and into a deep-inelastic process and particle emission prior to fusion have been observed. Based on the widths of the fragment-mass distributions of a great variety of data, a further criterion for the compound-nucleus-fission process is tentatively proposed. (orig.)

  10. Fission--fusion systems: classification and critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    A useful classification scheme for hybrid systems is described and some common features that the scheme makes apparent are pointed out. The early history of fusion-fission systems is reviewed. Some designs are described along with advantages and disadvantages of each. The extension to low and moderate Q devices is noted. (U.S.)

  11. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  12. Fusion--fission energy systems, some utility perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, R.A.; Burger, J.M.; Lotker, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the issues that are important in assessing fusion-- fission energy systems from a utility perspective are discussed. A number of qualitative systems-oriented observations are given along with some economic quantification of the benefits from fusion--fission hybrids and their allowed capital cost. (U.S.)

  13. Simulations of fusion chamber dynamics and first wall response in a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, J.M., E-mail: qjm06@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangz_es@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Chu, Y.Y., E-mail: chuyanyun@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Li, Z.H., E-mail: lee_march@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Z-FFR utilizes DT neutrons to drive a sub-critical fission blanket to produce energy. • A metal shell and Ar gas are employed in the fusion chamber for shock mitigation. • Massive materials can effectively mitigate the thermal heats on the chamber wall. • The W-coated Zr-alloy first wall exhibits good viability as a long-lived component. - Abstract: In a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR), the fusion target will produce enormous energy of ∼1.5 GJ per pulse at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Almost 20% of the fusion energy yield, approximately 300 MJ, is released in forms of pulsed X-rays. To prevent the first wall from fatal damages by the intense X-rays, a thin spherical metal shell and rare Ar buffer gas are introduced to mitigate the transient X-ray bursts. Radiation hydrodynamics in the fusion chamber were investigated by MULTI-1D simulations, and the corresponding thermal and mechanical loads on the first wall were also obtained. The simulations indicated that by optimizing the design parameters of the metal shell and Ar buffer gas, peak power flux of the thermal heats on the first wall could be mitigated to less than 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2} within a time scale of several milliseconds, while peak overpressures of the mechanical loads varying from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa. In addition, the thermomechanical response in a W–coated Zr-alloy first wall was performed by FWDR1D calculations using the derived thermal and mechanical loads as inputs. The temperature and stress fields were analyzed, and the corresponding elastic strains were conducted for primary lifetime estimations by using the Coffin–Manson relationships of both W and Zr-alloy. It was shown that the maximum temperature rises and stresses in the first wall were less than 50 K and 130 MPa respectively, and lifetime of the first wall would be in excess of 10{sup 9} cycles. The chamber exhibits good viability as a long-lived component to sustain the Z-FFR conceptual

  14. Case for the fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear fusion to produce fuel for nuclear fission power stations is discussed in the context of a crucial need for future energy options. The fusion hybrid is first considered as an element in the future of nuclear fission power to provide long term assurance of adequate fuel supplies for both breeder and convertor reactors. Generic differences in neutronic characteristics lead to a fuel production potential of fusion-fission hybrid systems which is significantly greater than that obtainable with fission systems alone. Furthermore, cost benefit studies show a variety of scenarios in which the hybrid offers sufficient potential to justify development costs ranging in the tens of billions of dollars. The hybrid is then considered as an element in the ultimate development of fusion electric power. The hybrid offers a near term application of fusion where experience with the requisite technologies can be derived as a vital step in mapping a credible route to eventual commercial feasibility of pure fusion systems. Finally, the criteria for assessment of future energy options are discussed with prime emphasis on the need for rational comparision of alternatives

  15. Role of a hybrid (fusion--fission) reactor in a nuclear economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the hybrid concepts which have been proposed to date are separated into groups according to their apparent neutronic characteristics. An attempt is made to identify these hybrid groups with two possible roles in a nuclear economy. An analysis is made to see if there is enough current information to determine which hybrid concepts appear most promising when assigned to these roles. (U.S.)

  16. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  17. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept

  18. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  19. An introduction to hybrid fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to some hybrid fusion proposals. The idea is to take advantage of the high neutron energy in fusion compared to fission either to breed fuel more efficiently than in a fast reactor, or increase the power output by fission of U 238 or transmute radioactive waste. The penalty is an increased cost and complexity of the blanket and the loss of environmental and safety arguments for fusion systems which rest on their low inventory of radioactive materials. (author)

  20. Material synergism fusion-fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankara Rao, K.B.; Raj, B.; Cook, I.; Kohyama, A.; Dudarev, S.

    2007-01-01

    In fission and fusion reactors the common features such as operating temperatures and neutron exposures will have the greatest impact on materials performance and component lifetimes. Developing fast neutron irradiation resisting materials is a common issue for both fission and fusion reactors. The high neutron flux levels in both these systems lead to unique materials problems like void swelling, irradiation creep and helium embitterment. Both fission and fusion rely on ferritic-martensitic steels based on 9%Cr compositions for achieving the highest swelling resistance but their creep strength sharply decreases above ∝ 823K. The use of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys is envisaged to increase the operating temperature of blanket systems in the fusion reactors and fuel clad tubes in fast breeder reactors. In view of high operating temperatures, cyclic and steady load conditions and the long service life, properties like creep, low cycle fatigue,fracture toughness and creepfatigue interaction are major considerations in the selection of structural materials and design of components for fission and fusion reactors. Currently, materials selection for fusion systems has to be based upon incomplete experimental database on mechanical properties. The usage of fairly well developed databases, in fission programmes on similar materials, is of great help in the initial design of fusion reactor components. Significant opportunities exist for sharing information on technology of irradiation testing, specimen miniaturization, advanced methods of property measurement, safe windows for metal forming, and development of common materials property data base system. Both fusion and fission programs are being directed to development of clean steels with very low trace and tramp elements, characterization of microstructure and phase stability under irradiation, assessment of irradiation creep and swelling behaviour, studies on compatibility with helium and developing

  1. Economic regimes for fission--fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this hybrid fusion-fission economic regimes study are to: (1) define the target costs to be met, (2) define the optimum fissile/electrical production ratio for hybrid blankets, (3) discover synergistic configurations, and (4) define the windows of economic hybrid design having desirable cost/benefit ratios. (U.S.)

  2. Conceptual design of a Tokamak hybrid power reactor (THPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, F.; Imamura, Y.; Inoue, M.; Asami, N.; Kasai, M.; Yanagisawa, I.; Ida, T.; Takuma, T.; Yamaji, K.; Akita, S.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid tokamak reactor has been carried out to investigate the engineering feasibility and promising scale of a commercial hybrid reactor power plant. A tokamak fusion driver based on the recent plasma scaling law is introduced in this design study. The major parameters and features of the reactor are R=6.06 m, a=1.66 m, Ip=11.8 MA, Pf=668 MW, double null divertor plasma and steady state burning with RF current drive. The fusion power has been determined with medium energy multiplication in the blanket so as to relieve thermal design problems and produce electric power around 1000 MW. Uranium silicide is used for the fast fission blanket material to promise good nuclear performance. The coolant of the blanket is FLIBE and the tritium breeding blanket material is Li 2 O ceramics providing breeding ratio above unity

  3. A cost/benefit analysis of commercial fusion-fission hybrid reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoff, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A simple algorithm was developed that allows rapid computation of the ratio R, of present worth of benefits to present worth of hybrid RandD program costs as a function of potential hybrid unit electricity cost savings, discount rate, electricity demand growth rate, total hybrid RandD program cost, and time to complete a demonstration reactor. In the sensitivity study, these variables were assigned nominal values (unit electricity cost savings of 4 mills/k W-hr, discount rate of 4%/year, growth rate of 2.25%/year, total RandD program cost of $20 billion, and time to complete a demonstration reactor of 30 years), and the variable of interest was varied about its nominal value. Results show that R increases with decreasing discount rate and increasing unit electricity savings and ranges from 4 to 94 as discount rateranges from 5 to 3%/year and unit electricity savings range from 2 to 6 mills/k W-hr. R increases with increasing growth rate and ranges from 3 to 187 as growth rate ranges from 1 to 3.5%/year and unit electricity cost savings range from 2 to 6 mills/k W-hr. R attains a maximum value when plotted against time to complete a demonstration reactor. The location of this maximum value occurs at shorter completion times as discount rate increases, and this optimal completion time ranges from 20 years for a discount rate of 4%/year to 45 years for a discount rate of 3%/year

  4. A cost and safety superiority of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereslavtszev, P.E.; Luan Guishi; Xia Chengang

    1994-08-01

    Considering economy and safety, an optimization model of nuclear energy developing scenarios of China was set up. An objective function to optimize was determined. Three prospective developing scenarios of China nuclear energy system including hybrid reactor were calculated and discussed. In the system which has no fissile material exchange with other system, a smooth developing model has a smooth distribution of inventory of Pu, thus the potential danger of whole nuclear energy system will be decreased. This scheme will improve investment effectiveness. Result shows that the optimization is necessary and the significant profit in cost and safety can be obtained. (5 tabs., 8 figs., 12 refs.)

  5. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  6. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  7. Perspective on the fusion-fission energy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, R.C.; Perry, R.T.; Teofilo, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    A concept which has potential for near-term application in the electric power sector of our energy economy is combining fusion and fission technology. The fusion-fission system, called a hybrid, is distinguished from its pure fusion counterpart by incorporation of fertile materials (uranium or thorium) in the blanket region of a fusion machine. The neutrons produced by the fusion process can be used to generate energy through fission events in the blanket or produce fuel for fission reactors through capture events in the fertile material. The performance requirements of the fusion component of hybrids is perceived as being less stringent than those for pure fusion electric power plants. The performance requirements for the fission component of hybrids is perceived as having been demonstrated or could be demonstrated with a modest investment of research and development funds. This paper presents our insights and observations of this concept in the context of why and where it might fit into the picture of meeting our future energy needs. A bibliography of hybrid research is given

  8. Advanced burnup calculation code system in a subcritical state with continuous-energy Monte Carlo code for fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaka, Masayuki; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao

    2009-01-01

    The fusion-fission (FF) hybrid reactor is a promising energy source that is thought to act as a bridge between the existing fission reactor and the genuine fusion reactor in the future. The burnup calculation system that aims at precise burnup calculations of a subcritical system was developed for the detailed design of the FF hybrid reactor, and the system consists of MCNP, ORIGEN, and postprocess codes. In the present study, the calculation system was substantially modified to improve the calculation accuracy and at the same time the calculation speed as well. The reaction rate estimation can be carried out accurately with the present system that uses track-length (TL) data in the continuous-energy treatment. As for the speed-up of the reaction rate calculation, a new TL data bunching scheme was developed so that only necessary TL data are used as long as the accuracy of the point-wise nuclear data is conserved. With the present system, an example analysis result for our proposed FF hybrid reactor is described, showing that the computation time could really be saved with the same accuracy as before. (author)

  9. Non-electrical uses of thermal energy generated in the production of fissile fuel in fusion--fission reactors: a comparative economic parametric analysis for a hybrid with or without synthetic fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technologic quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plant, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission--fusion--synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion--fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. Assuming an electricity cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per power unit of 4.2 to 6 $/GJ (132 to 189 k$/MWty) for the fission--fusion complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ (47 to 95 k$/MWty) for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production net cost (i.e., revenue = cost) varies between 6.5 and 8.6 $/GJ. These costs can compete with those obtained by other processes (natural gas reforming, resid partial oxidation, coal gasification, nuclear fission, solar electrolysis, etc.). This study points out a potential use of the fusion--fission hybrid other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation

  10. Role of fission-reactor-testing capabilities in the development of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Takata, M.L.; Watts, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will be increasingly important in the future due to the near-term lack of fusion engineering test devices, and the long-term high demand for testing when fusion reactors become available. Fission testing is capable of filling many gaps in fusion reactor design information, and thus should be aggressively pursued. EG and G Idaho has investigated the application of fission testing in three areas, which are discussed in this paper. First, we investigated radiation damage to magnet insulators. This work is now continuing with the use of an improved test capsule. Second, a study was performed which indicated that a fission-suppressed hybrid blanket module could be effectively tested in a reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), closely reproducing the predicted performance in a fusion environment. Finally, we explored a conceptual design for a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF), which can accommodate entire First Wall/Blanket (FW/B) modules for testing in a nuclear environment, simultaneously satisfying many of the FW/B test requirements. This ITF can provide a cyclic neutron/gamma flux, as well as the necessary module support functions

  11. Some applications of fission-based testing capabilities in the development of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Takata, M.L.; Watts, K.D.

    1981-10-01

    The testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will be increasingly important in the future due to the near-term lack of fusion engineering test devices, and the long-term high demand for fusion testing when they do become available. Fission testing is capable of filling many gaps in fusion reactor design information, and should be aggressively pursued. EG and G Idaho has investigated the application of fission testing in three areas, which are discussed in this paper. First, work was performed on the irradiation of magnet insulators. This work is continuing with an improved test environment. Second, a study was performed which indicated that a fission-suppressed hybrid blanket module could be effectively tested in a reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), closely reproducing the predicted performance in a fusion environment. Finally, a conceptual design is presented for a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF), which can accommodate entire wall/blanket (FW/B) modules for testing in a nuclear environment, simultaneously satisfying many of the FW/B test requirements. This ITF can provide a cyclic neutron/gamma flux, as well as the necessary module support functions

  12. Proceedings of the Second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-02

    The agenda of the meeting was developed to address, in turn, the following major areas: specific problem areas in nuclear energy systems for application of fusion-fission concepts; current and proposed fusion-fission programs in response to the identified problem areas; target costs and projected benefits associated with fusion-fission energy systems; and technical problems associated with the development of fusion-fission concepts. The greatest emphasis was placed on the characteristics of and problems, associated with fuel producing fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  13. Fusion barrier distributions and fission anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Dasgupta, M.; Leigh, J.R.; Lestone, J.P.; Lemmon, R.C.; Mein, J.C.; Newton, J.O.; Timmers, H.; Rowley, N.; Kruppa, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion excitation functions for 16,17 O+ 144 Sm have been measured to high precision. The extracted fusion barrier distributions show a double-peaked structure interpreted in terms of coupling to inelastic collective excitations of the target. The effect of the positive Q-value neutron stripping channel is evident in the reaction with 17 O. Fission and evaporation residue cross-sections and excitation functions have been measured for the reaction of 16 O+ 208 Pb and the fusion barrier distribution and fission anisotropies determined. It is found that the moments of the fusion l-distribution determined from the fusion and fission measurements are in good agreement. ((orig.))

  14. Neutronics of Laser Fission-Fusion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.

    1976-01-01

    Neutronics of Fission-Fusion microsystems inertially confined by Lasers are analysed by transport calculation, both stationary (DTF, TIHOC) and time dependent (TDA, TIHEX), discussing the results obtained for the basic parameters of the fission process (multiplication factor, neutron generation time and Rossi-∞). (Author) 14 refs

  15. Neutronics of Laser Fission-Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, G

    1976-07-01

    Neutronics of Fission-Fusion microsystems inertially confined by Lasers are analysed by transport calculation, both stationary (DTF, TIHOC) and time dependent (TDA, TIHEX), discussing the results obtained for the basic parameters of the fission process (multiplication factor, neutron generation time and Rossi-{infinity}). (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Cold valleys in fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misicu, S.

    2003-01-01

    The cold fission configuration after the preformation of the fragments resembles a short-lived dinuclear or quasi-molecular system. The most conceivable scission configuration is given by two fission fragments in touching with the symmetry axes aligned (pole-pole orientation). This conclusion was based on the simple argument that this configuration offers the optimal tunneling time, i.e. the difference between the Coulomb barrier and the decay energy Q is minimal. Other orientations are apparently precluded in cold spontaneous fission and should be regarded as quasi-fission doorways in the synthesis of superheavy elements by cold fusion. (orig.)

  17. Consultancy to review and finalize the IAEA publication 'Compendium on the use of fusion/fission hybrids for the utilization and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the traditional fission reactor research, fusion R and D activities are becoming of interest also to nuclear fission power development. There is renewed interest in utilizing fusion neutrons, Heavy Liquid Metals, and molten salts for innovative systems (energy production and transmutation). Indeed, for nuclear power development to become sustainable as a long-term energy option, innovative fuel cycle and reactor technologies will have to be developed to solve the problems of resource utilization and long-lived radioactive waste management. In this context Member States clearly expressed the need for comparative assessments of various transmutation reactors. Both the fusion and fission communities are currently investigating the potential of innovative reactor and fuel cycle strategies that include a fusion/fission system. The attention is mainly focused on substantiating the potential advantages of such systems: utilization and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products, intrinsic safety features, enhanced proliferation resistance, and fuel breeding capabilities. An important aspect of the ongoing activities is the comparison with the accelerator driven subcritical system (spallation neutron source), which is the other main option for producing excess neutrons. Apart from comparative assessments, knowledge preservation is another subject of interest to the Member States: the goal, applied to fusion/fission systems, is to review the status of, and to produce a 'compendium' of past and present achievements in this area

  18. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  19. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions

  20. Mirror hybrid reactor blanket and power conversion system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Backus, G.A.; Baxi, C.B.; Dee, J.B.; Estrine, E.A.; Rao, R.; Veca, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a gas-cooled mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor is presented. The designs of the fuel, blanket module and power conversion system are based on existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology that has been developed at General Atomic Company. The uranium silicide fuel is contained in Inconel-clad rods and is cooled by helium gas. The fuel is contained in 16 spherical segment modules which surround the fusion plasma. The hot helium is used to raise steam for a conventional steam cycle turbine generator. The details of the method of support for the massive blanket modules and helium ducts remain to be determined. Nevertheless, the conceptual design appears to be technically feasible with existing gas-cooled technology. A preliminary safety analysis shows that with the development of a satisfactory method of primary coolant circuit containment and support, the hybrid reactor could be licensed under existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations

  1. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  2. Systems study of tokamak fusion--fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.; Bathke, C.G.; Price, W.G. Jr.; Bohlke, W.H.; Mills, R.G.; Johnson, E.F.; Todd, A.M.M.; Buchanan, C.H.; Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-11-01

    This publication reports the results of a two to three year effort at a systematic analysis of a wide variety of tokamak-driven fissioning blanket reactors, i.e., fusion--fission hybrids. It addresses the quantitative problems of determining the economically most desirable mix of the two products: electric power and fissionable fuel and shows how the price of electric power can be minimized when subject to a variety of constraints. An attempt has been made to avoid restricting assumptions, and the result is an optimizing algorithm that operates in a six-dimensional parameter space. Comparisons are made on sets of as many as 100,000 distinct machine models, and the principal results of the study have been derived from the examination of several hundred thousand possible reactor configurations

  3. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu fissionable fluids in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the effect of spent fuel grade plutonium content on {sup 239-243}Pu was investigated in a designed hybrid reactor system. In this system, the fluids were composed of a molten salt, heavy metal mixture with increased mole fractions 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. Beryllium (Be) is a neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. Thence, a Be zone of 3 cm thickness was used in order to contribute to fissile fuel breeding between the liquid first wall and a 9Cr2WVTa ferritic steel blanket which is used as structural material. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu was calculated in liquid first wall, blanket and shielding zones. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent version MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. (orig.)

  4. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment. Progress report No. 9, November 1, 1983-March 1, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, G.L.; Sitaraman, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Monte Carlo work done during this period focused on studying the effect of a 316-stainless steel ring which has been proposed to fit around the Haefely tube. The motivation for adding such a ring is to reflect more neutrons in the forward direction and hence minimize room return. Additional benefits which might be expected include an increase in the current of neutrons crossing the first wall, and a somewhat softer source spectrum. The latter is a desirable change since in an actual fusion reactor the spectrum of neutrons crossing the first wall consists of lower energy scattered neutrons in addition to the 14 MeV neutrons from the D-T reactions

  5. Prospective conceptual qualification of hybrid centrifugation/distillator for 6LI nuclear fusion technology scaled supply demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedano, L.; Herranz, J. L.; Casado, J. L.; Castro, P.; Xiberta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The change in the demand for exploitation of lithium as a resource appears during the last decade, related to the development of the ion-Li batteries market and with the requirements of Nuclear Fusion fuels (deuterium and lithium) as coming energy option. A prospective analysis of synergistic demands of both markets, in its technical and in its economic aspects appears of prospective interest. The civil market 6 Li/ 7 Li enrichment demand is analyzed. Specific technological developments permitting on-line production according to demand is discussed. A [centrifugation /thermal diffusion / combined distillation] technique is selected and qualified as technologically viable option for scaled production of litiated-forms. A conceptual design of a production plant is finally proposed according to the new technical capability.

  6. Fission, fusion and the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, S E [Aston Univ., Birmingham (UK)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: living on capital (energy reserves and consumption forecasts); the atom and its nucleus, mass and energy; fission and the bomb; the natural uranium reactor; enriched reactors; control and safety; long-term economics (the breeder reactions and nuclear fuel reserves); short-term economics (cost per kilowatt hour); national nuclear power programmes; nuclear power and the environment (including reprocessing, radioactive waste management, public relations); renewable energy sources; the fusion programme; summary and comment.

  7. Laser solenoid fusion--fission design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Taussig, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of breeding performance on system engineering parameters is examined for laser solenoid fusion-fission reactors. Reactor performance is found to be relatively insensitive to most of the engineering parameters, and compact designs can be built based on reasonable technologies. Point designs are described for the prototype series of reactors (mid-term technologies) and for second generation systems (advanced technologies). It is concluded that the laser solenoid has a good probability of timely application to fuel breeding needs

  8. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  9. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  10. Workshop summaries for the third US/USSR symposium on fusion-fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-07-01

    Workshop summaries on topics related to the near-term development requirements for fusion-fission (hybrid) reactors are presented. The summary topics are as follows: (1) external factors, (2) plasma engineering, (3) ICF hybrid reactors, (4) blanket design, (5) materials and tritium, and (6) blanket engineering development requirements

  11. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tandem-mirror hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.

    1982-04-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a U-233 producing fusion breeder consisting of a tandem mirror fusion device and two types of fission-suppressed blankets are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to the conceptual design and evaluation of the two blankets. However, studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, fuel reprocessing, other fuel cycle issues, economics, and deployment were also performed

  12. Tritium chemistry in fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Masson, M.; Briec, M.

    1986-09-01

    We are interested in the behaviour of tritium inside the solids where it is generated both in the case of fission nuclear reactor fuel elements, and in that of blankets of future fusion reactor. In the first case it is desirable to be able to predict whether tritium will be found in the hulls or in the uranium oxide, and under what chemical form, in order to take appropriate steps for it's removal in reprocessing plants. In fusion reactors breeding large amounts of tritium and burning it in the plasma should be accomplished in as short a cycle as possible in order to limit inventories that are associated with huge activities. Mastering the chemistry of every step is therefore essential. Amounts generated are not of the same order of magnitude in the two cases studied. Ternary fissions produce about 66 10 13 Bq (18 000 Ci) per year of tritium in a 1000 MWe fission generator, i.e., about 1.8 10 10 Bq (0.5 Ci) per day per ton of fuel

  13. Utilization of fission reactors for fusion engineering testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deis, G.A.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactors can be used to conduct some of the fusion nuclear engineering tests identified in the FINESSE study. To further define the advantages and disadvantages of fission testing, the technical and programmatic constraints on this type of testing are discussed here. This paper presents and discusses eight key issues affecting fission utilization. Quantitative comparisons with projected fusion operation are made to determine the technical assets and limitations of fission testing. Capabilities of existing fission reactors are summarized and compared with technical needs. Conclusions are then presented on the areas where fission testing can be most useful

  14. Symbiosis of near breeder HTR's with hybrid fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1978-07-01

    In this contribution to INFCE a symbiotic fusion/fission reactor system, consisting of a hybrid beam-driven micro-explosion fusion reactor (HMER) and associated high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) with a coupled fuel cycle, is proposed. This system is similar to the well known Fast Breeder/Near Breeder HTR symbiosis except that the fast fission breeder - running on the U/Pu-cycle in the core and the axial blankets and breeding the surplus fissile material as U-233 in its radial thorium metal or thorium oxide blankets - is replaced by a hybrid micro-explosion DT fusion reactor

  15. Conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR), September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.L.

    1978-12-01

    The flexibility of the fusion hybrid reactor to function as a fuel production facility, power plant, waste disposal burner or combinations of all of these, as well as the reactor's ability to use proliferation resistant fuel cycles, has provided the incentive to assess the feasibility of a near-term demonstration plant. The goals for a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) were established and an initial conceptual design was selected. Reactor performance and economics were evaluated and key developmental issues were assessed. The study has shown that a DTHR is feasible in the late 1980's, a significant quantity of fissile fuel could be produced from fertile thorium using present day fission reactor blanket technology, and a large number of commercially prototypical components and systems could be developed and operationally verified. The DTHR concept would not only serve as proof-of-principle for hybrid technology, but could be operated in the ignited mode and provide major advancements for pure fusion technology

  16. Development of DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alexeev, P. N.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The history of fusion-fission hybrid systems based on a tokamak device as an extremely efficient DT-fusion neutron source has passed through several periods of ample research activity in the world since the very beginning of fusion research in the 1950s. Recently, a new roadmap of the hybrid program has been proposed with the goal to build a pilot hybrid plant (PHP) in Russia by 2030. Development of the DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies, which is planned to be built by 2023, is the key milestone on the path to the PHP. This facility is in the phase of conceptual design aimed at providing feasibility studies for a full set of steady state tokamak technologies at a fusion energy gain factor Q ˜ 1, fusion power of ˜40 MW and opportunities for testing a wide range of hybrid technologies with the emphasis on continuous nuclide processing in molten salts. This paper describes the project motivations, its current status and the key issues of the design.

  17. An economic parametric analysis of the synthetic fuel produced by a fusion-fission complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A simple analytic model is used to examine economic constraints of a fusion-fission complex in which a portion of a thermal energy is used for producing synthetic fuel (synfuel). Since the values of many quantities are not well-known, a parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technological quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plants, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission-fusion-synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion-fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. This paper describes the energy flow diagram of fusion-fission synfuel concept, express the revenue-to-cost formulation and the breakeven synfuel selling price. The synfuel production cost given by the model is evaluated within a range of values of crucial parameters. Assuming an electric cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per energy unit of 4.2 to 6 $/FJ for the fusion-fission complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production cost lies between 6.5 and 8.5 $/GJ. These production costs can compete with those evaluated for other processes. The study points out a potential use of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor for other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation. (orig.) [de

  18. First wall material damage induced by fusion-fission neutron environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, Vladimir, E-mail: Khripunov_VI@nrcki.ru

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The highest damage and gas production rates are experienced within the first wall materials of a hybrid fusion-fission system. • About ∼2 times higher dpa and 4–5 higher He appm are expected compared to the values distinctive for a pure fusion system at the same DT-neutron wall loading. • The specific nuclear heating may be increased by a factor of ∼8–9 due to fusion and fission neutrons radiation capture in metal components of the first wall. - Abstract: Neutronic performance and inventory analyses were conducted to quantify the damage and gas production rates in candidate materials when used in a fusion-fission hybrid system first wall (FW). The structural materials considered are austenitic SS, Cu-alloy and V- alloys. Plasma facing materials included Be, and CFC composite and W. It is shown that the highest damage rates and gas particles production in materials are experienced within the FW region of a hybrid similar to a pure fusion system. They are greatly influenced by a combined neutron energy spectrum formed by the two-component fusion-fission neutron source in front of the FW and in a subcritical fission blanket behind. These characteristics are non-linear functions of the fission neutron source intensity. Atomic displacement damage production rate in the FW materials of a subcritical system (at the safe subcriticality limit of ∼0.95 and the neutron multiplication factor of ∼20) is almost ∼2 times higher compared to the values distinctive for a pure fusion system at the same 14 MeV neutron FW loading. Both hydrogen (H) and helium (He) gas production rates are practically on the same level except of about ∼4–5 times higher He-production in austenitic and reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels. A proper simulation of the damage environment in hybrid systems is required to evaluate the expected material performance and the structural component residence times.

  19. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium. In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles...... to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition...... fusion, fission and exocytosis....

  20. Fission: An object lesson for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a new, and possibly hazardous, long-range energy source is beset with two political problems (as well as the many technical ones): survival and public acceptance. By survival I mean continuing support, year after year, of a very expensive enterprise whose promise always seems greater than its achievement: can this support continue long enough to allow the promised goal to be achieved. By survival I mean continuing support, year after year, of a very expensive enterprise whose promise always seems greater than its achievement: can this support continue long enough to allow the promised goal to be achieved. By public acceptance, I mean the reaction the reaction of the public to the new energy source, assuming that it achieves its technological goals. Both of these problems have been faced by fission power : I propose to describe the experiences of fission in confronting these issues in the hope that they might be dealt with more deftly by fusion. My account will be anecdotal and personal

  1. Conceptual design of neutron diagnostic systems for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, T.; Kaneko, J.; Nakazawa, M.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron measurement in fusion experimental reactors is very important for burning plasma diagnostics and control, monitoring of irradiation effects on device components, neutron source characterization for in-situ engineering tests, etc. A conceptual design of neutron diagnostic systems for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor has been made, which consists of a neutron yield monitor, a neutron emission profile monitor and a 14-MeV spectrometer. Each of them is based on a unique idea to meet the required performances for full power conditions assumed at ITER operation. Micro-fission chambers of 235 U (and 238 U) placed at several poloidal angles near the first wall are adopted as a promising neutron yield monitor. A collimated long counter system using a 235 U fission chamber and graphite neutron moderators is also proposed to improve the calibration accuracy of absolute neutron yield determination

  2. Comparison of environmental impact of waste disposal from fusion, fission and coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Bruno [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The radiotoxic hazard of waste from fusion power plants has been compared with that of fission power and radioactive trace elements in coal ash within some research programs such as SEAFP and SEIF. Within another program, in 2005 a Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been finalized investigating 4 fusion power plant models A to D. In this paper, the radiotoxicity of model B is compared with a fission power plant, concentrating on the production of wastes. The hazard of the respective masses of enriched uranium before use in a fission power plant and coal ash of a power plant generating the same amount of electricity are used as benchmarks. It is evident that the development of ingestion and inhalation hazard of the PPCS model B is different from the results of earlier studies because of different assumptions on material impurities and other constraints. An important aspect is the presence of actinides in fusion power plant waste. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear data for structural materials of fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.

    1989-06-01

    The document presents the status of nuclear reaction theory concerning optical model development, level density models and pre-equilibrium and direct processes used in calculation of neutron nuclear data for structural materials of fission and fusion reactors. 6 refs

  4. Prospective conceptual qualification of hybrid centrifugation/distillatory for {sup 6}LI nuclear fusion technology scaled supply demands; Calificacion conceptual prospectiva de centrifugador/destilador hibrido para produccion de {sup 6}Li a demanda de la tecnologia Nuclear Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedano, L.; Herranz, J. L.; Casado, J. L.; Castro, P.; Xiberta, J.

    2013-07-01

    The change in the demand for exploitation of lithium as a resource appears during the last decade, related to the development of the ion-Li batteries market and with the requirements of Nuclear Fusion fuels (deuterium and lithium) as coming energy option. A prospective analysis of synergistic demands of both markets, in its technical and in its economic aspects appears of prospective interest. The civil market {sup 6}Li/{sup 7}Li enrichment demand is analyzed. Specific technological developments permitting on-line production according to demand is discussed. A [centrifugation /thermal diffusion / combined distillation] technique is selected and qualified as technologically viable option for scaled production of litiated-forms. A conceptual design of a production plant is finally proposed according to the new technical capability.

  5. Regulatory aspects of fusion power-lessons from fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Brunnader, H.; Sood, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Experience from fission reactors has shown the regulatory process for licensing a nuclear facility to be legalistic, lengthy, unpredictable, and costly. This experience also indicates that much of the regulatory debate is focused on safety margins, that is, the smaller the safety margins the bigger the regulatory debate and the greater the amount of proof required to satisfy the regulatory. Such experience suggests that caution and prudence guide the development of a regulatory regime for fusion reactors. Fusion has intrinsic safety and environmental advantages over fission, which should alleviate significantly, or even eliminate, the regulatory problems associated with fission. The absence of a criticality concern and the absence of fission products preclude a Chernobyl type accident from occurring in a fusion reactor. Although in a fusion reactor there are large inventories of radioactive products that can be mobilized, the total quantity is orders of magnitude smaller than in fission power reactors. The bulk of the radioactivity in a fusion reactor is either activation products in steel structures, or tritium fuel supplies safely stored in the form of a metal tritide in storage beds. The quantity of tritium that can be mobilized under accident conditions is much less than ten million curies. This compares very favorably with a fission product inventory greater than ten billion curies in a fission power reactor. Furthermore, in a fission reactor, all of the reactivity is contained in a steel vessel that is pressurized to about 150 atmospheres, whereas in a fusion reactor, the inventory of radioactive material is dispersed in different areas of the plant, such that it is improbable that a single event could give rise to the release of the entire inventory to the environment. With such significant intrinsic safety advantages there is no a priori need to make fusion requirements/regulations more demanding and more stringent than fission

  6. Dynamic treatment of fission and fusion in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazareth, R.A.M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The barrier penetrability in two dimensions for nuclear fusion and fission phenomena is studied. The equations of fission static trajectories (minimum potential) in Hofmann formalism are derived and the influence of inertia parameters on the penetrability is verified. For fusion case, a realistic potential for exactly penetrability calculation is proposed. The transverse momentum to the fusion and the unidimensional calculation in classical approximation by choose the trajectory which turn into maximum the penetrability are considered. The exact penetrability is compared with calculation in the classical approximation which takes in account the possibility of appearing discontinuity in the barrier along of fusion pathway. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Neutron emission as a probe of fusion-fission and quasi-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Pre- and post scission neutron yeilds have been measured as a function of projectile mass, compound nucleus fissility, and fission mass-split and total kinetic energy (TKE) for 27 fusion-fission and quasi-fission reactions induced by beams of 16,18 O, 40 Ar and 64 Ni. A new method of interpretation of experimental pre-scission neutron multiplicities ν-pre and mean kinetic energies ε ν allows the extraction of fission time scales with much less uncertainty than previously, all fusion-fission results being consistent with a dynamical time scale of (35±15) x 10 -21 s for symmetric fission. All reactions show that ν-pre falls quite rapidly with increasing mass-asymmetry; evidence is presented that for fusion-fission reactions this is partly due to a reduction of the dynamical fission time scale with mass-asymmetry. For quasi-fission, the data indicate that the pre-scission multiplicity and mean neutron kinetic energy are very sensitive to the final mass-asymmetry, but that the time scale is virtually independent of mass-asymmetry. It is concluded that for fusion-fission there is no dependence of ν-pre on TKE, whilst for 64 Ni-induced quasi-fission reactions, a strong increase of ν-pre with decreasing TKE is observed, probably largely caused by neutron emission during the acceleration time of the fission fragments in these fast reactions. Interpretation of post-scission multiplicities in terms of fragment excitation energies leads to deduced time scales consistent with those determined from the pre-scission data. 54 refs., 17 tabs., 25 figs

  8. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion's potential competitiveness

  9. Prospect of realizing nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Report describes the results of the research work on nuclear fusion, which CRIEPI has carried out for about ten years from the standpoint of electric power utilities, potential user of its energy. The principal points are; (a) economic analysis (calculation of costs) based on Japanese analysis procedures and database of commercial fusion reactors, including fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and (b) conceptual design of two types of hybrid reactors, that is, fission-fuel producing DMHR (Demonstration Molten-Salt Hybrid Reactor) and electric-power producing THPR (Tokamak Hybrid Power Reactor). The Report consists of the following chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Reactors. 3. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fusion Reactors. 4. Basic Studies Applicable Also to Nuclear Fusion Technology. 5. List of Published Reports and Papers; 6. Conclusion. Appendices. (author)

  10. Event tree analysis for the system of hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; Qiu Lijian

    1993-01-01

    The application of probabilistic risk assessment for fusion-fission hybrid reactor is introduced. A hybrid reactor system has been analysed using event trees. According to the character of the conceptual design of Hefei Fusion-fission Experimental Hybrid Breeding Reactor, the probabilities of the event tree series induced by 4 typical initiating events were calculated. The results showed that the conceptual design is safe and reasonable. through this paper, the safety character of hybrid reactor system has been understood more deeply. Some suggestions valuable to safety design for hybrid reactor have been proposed

  11. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m 2 and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of 233 U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U 3 O 8 depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management

  12. Fusion-fission of heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Alami, R.; Borderie, B.; Fuchs, H.; Gardes, D.; Gauvin, H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the entrance channel on fission processes was studied by forming the same composite system by two different target-projectile combinations ( 40 Ar + 209 Bi and 56 Fe + 187 Re, respectively). Compound nucleus fission and quasi fission were observed and the analysis was performed in the framework of the extra-extra-push model, which provides a qualitative interpretation of the results; limits for the extra-extra-push threshold are given, but problems with quantitative predictions for the extra-push are noted. (orig.)

  13. Fission, fusion and photonuclear physics. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, C.; Ribrag, M.

    Pronounced structures in the time of flight distribution of fission fragments, having a given energy, were recently reported. This experiment has been reproduced with a better time resolution and structures are not observed [fr

  14. Dynamics in heavy ion fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernholm, S.

    1972-01-01

    Dynamical aspects of heavy ion fussion and fission, mainly the aspect of damping which is meant as the dissipation of kinetic energy and the aspect of the effective mass of the fission motion, are discussed. Two categories of evidence of damping effects are given. One relates to the damping of the fission motion for the ground state shape and for the isomeric more elongated shape. The other relates to the damping of the fission motion from the last barrier to the scission point. The dependence of the effective mass associated with the fission motion on the deormation of nucleus is shown. As the elongation of the nucleus increases the effective mass of the fission motion varies strongly from being about forty times greater than the reduced mass in the beta-vibrational state of the ground state shape to being equal to the reduced mass in the moment of scission. Damping effects are expected to be propartional to the difference between the effective mass and the reduced mass. It is concluded that the damping in fussion reactions is relatively weak for lighter products and quite strong for superheavy products like 236 U or 252 Cf. (S.B.)

  15. Fusion-fission of superheavy nuclei at low excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkis, M.G.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Kozulin, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The process of fusion-fission of superheavy nuclei with Z = 102 -122 formed in the reactions with 22 Ne, 26 Mg, 48 Ca, 58 Fe and 86 Kr ions at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier has been studied. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR) using a time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET and a neutron multi-detector DEMON. As a result of the experiments, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments, fission and quasi-fission cross sections, multiplicities of neutrons and gamma-rays and their dependence on the mechanism of formation and decay of compound superheavy systems have been studied

  16. Hemi-fused structure mediates and controls fusion and fission in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Dong; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Wen, Peter J; Krystofiak, Evan S; Villarreal, Seth A; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Kachar, Bechara; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-06-23

    Membrane fusion and fission are vital for eukaryotic life. For three decades, it has been proposed that fusion is mediated by fusion between the proximal leaflets of two bilayers (hemi-fusion) to produce a hemi-fused structure, followed by fusion between the distal leaflets, whereas fission is via hemi-fission, which also produces a hemi-fused structure, followed by full fission. This hypothesis remained unsupported owing to the lack of observation of hemi-fusion or hemi-fission in live cells. A competing fusion hypothesis involving protein-lined pore formation has also been proposed. Here we report the observation of a hemi-fused Ω-shaped structure in live neuroendocrine chromaffin cells and pancreatic β-cells, visualized using confocal and super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This structure is generated from fusion pore opening or closure (fission) at the plasma membrane. Unexpectedly, the transition to full fusion or fission is determined by competition between fusion and calcium/dynamin-dependent fission mechanisms, and is notably slow (seconds to tens of seconds) in a substantial fraction of the events. These results provide key missing evidence in support of the hemi-fusion and hemi-fission hypothesis in live cells, and reveal the hemi-fused intermediate as a key structure controlling fusion and fission, as fusion and fission mechanisms compete to determine the transition to fusion or fission.

  17. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  18. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  19. Neutron rich clusters and the dynamics of fission and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1988-07-01

    In this lecture I want to discuss experimental evidence for the appearance of cluster aspects in the dynamics of large rearrangement processes, as fusion and fission. Clusters in the sense as used in my lecture are the strongly bound doubly magic nuclei as 20 Ca 28 48 , 28 Ni 50 78 , 132 50 Sn 82 , and 208 82 Pb 126 and the superheavy nucleus 298 114 184 . Two of these nuclei, 78 Ni and 298 114 have not yet been identified. I discuss first the experimental findings from heavy element production. Then I cover the stability of cluster aspects to intrinsic excitation energy in fusion and fission. (orig./HSI)

  20. System model for analysis of the mirror fusion-fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Carlson, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a system model for the mirror fusion-fission reactor. In this model we include a reactor description as well as analyses of capital cost and blanket fuel management. In addition, we provide an economic analysis evaluating the cost of producing the two hybrid products, fissile fuel and electricity. We also furnish the results of a limited parametric analysis of the modeled reactor, illustrating the technological and economic implications of varying some important reactor design parameters

  1. The role of the dinuclear system in the processes of nuclear fusion, quasi-fission, fission and cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear fusion, quasi-fission, fission and cluster formation in an excited nucleus are considered as the processes of the formation and evolution of the dinuclear system. This approach allows one to reveal new aspects of nuclear fusion, to show that quasi-fission plays an important role in nuclear reactions used to synthesise superheavy elements. A qualitative picture is given of the fission process of an excited nucleus and an important role of cluster formation in this process is shown

  2. Present status of laser driven fusion--fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hansen, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of laser fusion driven hybrids to produce fissile fuel and/or electricity has been investigated in the laser program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) for several years. Our earlier studies used neutronic methods of analysis to estimate hybrid performance. The results were encouraging, but it was apparent that a more accurate assessment of the hybrid's potential would require studies which treat the engineering, environmental, and economic issues as well as the neutronic aspects. More recently, we have collaborated with Bechtel and Westinghouse Corporations in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. With Bechtel, we have been engaged in a joint effort to design a laser fusion driven hybrid which emphasizes fissile fuel production while the primary objective of our joint effort with Westinghouse has been to design a hybrid which emphasizes power production. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering their most important operational parameters

  3. On fusion and fission breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B.; Schuurman, W.; Klippel, H.Th.

    1981-02-01

    Fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are suitable candidates for centralized, long-term energy production, their fuel reserves being practically unlimited. The technology of a durable and economical fusion reactor is still to be developed. Such a development parallel with the fast breeder is valuable by reasons of safety, proliferation, new fuel reserves, and by the very broad potential of the development of the fusion reactor. In order to facilitate a discussion of these aspects, the fusion reactor and the fast breeder reactor were compared in the IIASA-report. Aspects of both reactor systems are compared

  4. Joint ICFRM-14 (14. international conference on fusion reactor materials) and IAEA satellite meeting on cross-cutting issues of structural materials for fusion and fission applications. PowerPoint presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to the challenges in the development of new materials for advanced fission, fusion and hybrid reactors. The topics discussed include fuels and materials research under the high neutron fluence; post-irradiation examination; development of radiation resistant structural materials utilizing fission research reactors; core materials development for the advanced fuel cycle initiative; qualification of structural materials for fission and fusion reactor systems; application of charged particle accelerators for radiation resistance investigations of fission and fusion structural materials; microstructure evolution in structural materials under irradiation; ion beams and ion accelerators

  5. Nuclear structure in cold rearrangement processes in fission and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.

    1998-11-01

    In fission and fusion of heavy nuclei large numbers of nucleons are rearranged at a scale of excitation energy very small compared to the binding energy of the nuclei. The energies involved are less than 40 MeV at nuclear temperatures below 1.5 MeV. The shapes of the configurations in the rearrangement of a binary system into a monosystem in fusion, or vice versa in fission, change their elongations by as much as 8 fm, the radius of the monosystem. The dynamics of the reactions macroscopically described by a potential energy surface, inertia parameters, dissipation, and a collision energy is strongly modified by the nuclear structure of the participating nuclei. Experiments showing nuclear structure effects in fusion and fission of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The reaction kinematics and the multitude of isotopes involved are investigated by detector techniques and by recoil spectrometers. The advancement of the latter allows to find very small reaction branches in the range of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10}. The experiments reveal nuclear structure effects in all stages of the rearrangement processes. These are discussed pointing to analogies in fusion and fission on the microscopic scale, notwithstanding that both processes macroscopically are irreversible. Heavy clusters, as 132Sn, 208Pb, nuclei with closed shell configurations N=82,126, Z=50,82 survive in large parts of the nuclear rearrangement. They determine the asymmetry in the mass distribution of low energy fission, and they allow to synthesise superheavy elements, until now up to element 112. Experiments on the cold rearrangement in fission and fusion are presented. Here, in the range of excitation energies below 12 MeV the phenomena are observed most convincingly. (orig.)

  6. Fusion-fission dynamics and perspectives of future experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.I.; Itkis, M.G.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is focused on reaction dynamics of superheavy-nucleus formation and decay at beam energies near the Coulomb barrier. The aim is to review the things we have learned from recent experiments on fusion-fission reactions leading to the formation of compound nuclei with Z ≥ 102 and from their extensive theoretical analysis. Major attention is paid to the dynamics of formation of very heavy compound nuclei taking place in strong competition with the process of fast fission (quasifission). The choice of collective degrees of freedom playing a fundamental role and finding the multidimensional driving potential and the corresponding dynamic equation regulating the whole process are discussed. A possibility of deriving the fission barriers of superheavy nuclei directly from performed experiments is of particular interest here. In conclusion, the results of a detailed theoretical analysis of available experimental data on the 'cold' and 'hot' fusion-fission reactions are presented. Perspectives of future experiments are discussed along with additional theoretical studies in this field needed for deeper understanding of the fusion-fission processes of very heavy nuclear systems

  7. The existence and characterization of self-sustaining multiplicative fusion and fission reaction chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Heindler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical-physical similarities and differences between fusion and fission multiplication processes are investigated. It is shown that advanced fusion cycles can sustain excursion tendencies which are essentially analogous to conventional fission cycles. The result that fission excursions are unbounded and that fusion excursions eventually attain an asymptote represents a significant distinction between these fundamental self-sustaining nuclear multiplicative chains. (Auth.)

  8. Development of fine-group (315n/42γ) cross section library ENDL3.0/FG for fusion-fission hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qin; Zou Jun; Xu Dezhen; Jiang Jieqiong; Wang Minghuang; Wu Yican; Qiu Yuefeng; Chen Zhong; Chen Yan

    2011-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the neutron analyses for subcritical systems with thermal fission blanket, a coupled neutron and photon (315 n + 42γ) fine-group cross section library HENDL3.0/FG based on ENDF/B-Ⅶ. 0 has been produced by FDS team. In order to test the availability and reliability of the HENDL3.0/FG data library, shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed with VisualBUS code. The testing results indicated that the discrepancy between calculation and experimental values of nuclear parameters fell in a reasonable range. (authors)

  9. Tunneling process in heavy-ion fusion and fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kondratyev, V.; Bonasera, A.

    1998-10-01

    We present a model towards the many-body description of sub-barrier fusion and spontaneous fission based on the semiclassical Vlasov equation and the Feynman path integral method. We define suitable collective variables from the Vlasov solution and use the imaginary time technique for the dynamics below the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  10. Heavy cluster in cold nuclear rearrangements in fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental evidence for the appearance of cluster aspects in the dynamics of large rearrangements processes, as fusion and fission, is presented. Clusters in the sense as used in the following are strongly bound, doubly magic neutron rich nuclei as 48 Ca 28 , 78 Ni 50 , 132 Sn 82 , and 208 Pb 126 , the spherical nuclei Z=114 - 126 and N=184, and nuclei with closed shells N=28, 50, 82, and 126, and Z=28, 50, and 82. As with increasing nucleon numbers, the absolute shell corrections to the binding energies increase, the strongest effects are to be observed for the higher shells. The 132 cluster manifests itself in low energy fission (Faissner, H. and Wildermuth, K. Nucl. Phys., 58 (1964) 177). The 208 Pb cluster gave the new radioactivity (Rose, M.J. and Jones G.A., Nature, 307 (1984) 245) and the first superheavy elements (SHE) (Armbruster P., Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 35 (1985) 135-94; Munzenberg, G. Rep. Progr. Phys., 51 (1988) 57). The paper discuss experiments concerning the stability of clusters to intrinsic excitation energy in fusion and fission (Armbruster, P. Lect. Notes Phys., 158 (1982) 1). and the manifestation of clusters in the fusion entrance channel (Armbruster, P., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 58 (1989) 232). The importance of compactness of the clustering system seems to be equally decisive in fission and fusion. Finally, it s covered the importance of clusters for the production of SHEs)

  11. Conceptual design of the fusion-driven subcritical system FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Zheng, S.; Zhu, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, H.; Liu, S.; Bai, Y.; Chen, H.; Hu, L.; Chen, M.; Huang, Q.; Huang, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Chu, D.; Jiang, J.; Song, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The fusion-driven subcritical system (named FDS-I) was previously proposed as an intermediate step toward the final application of fusion energy. A conceptual design of the FDS-I is presented, which consists of the fusion neutron driver with relatively easy-achieved plasma parameters, and the He-gas/liquid lithium-lead Dual-cooled subcritical Waste Transmutation (DWT) blanket used to transmute long-lived radioactive wastes and to generate energy on the basis of self-sustainable fission and fusion fuel cycle. An overview of the FDS-I is given and the specifications of the design analysis are summarized

  12. Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient destruction of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.M.; Mahajan, S.M.; Schneider, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal nonfissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The center piece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast-spectrum reactors (FRs) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades

  13. Nuclear dynamics in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy ion induced fission and fission-like reactions evolve through a complex nuclear dynamics encountered in the medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the recent years, measurements of the fragment-neutron and fragment-charged particle angular correlations in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions, have provided new information on the dynamical times of nuclear deformations of the initial dinuclear complex to the fission saddle point and the scission point. From the studies of fragment angular distributions in heavy ion induced fission it has been possible to infer the relaxation times of the dinuclear complex in the K-degree of freedom and our recent measurements on the entrance channel dependence of fragment anisotropies have provided an experimental signature of the presence of fissions before K-equilibration. This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical status of the above studies with particular regard to the questions relating to dynamical times, nuclear dissipation and the effect of nuclear dissipation on the K-distributions at the fission saddle in completely equilibrated compound nucleus. (author). 19 refs., 9 figs

  14. Fission, fusion and photonuclear physics. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanger, M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Gerschel, C.; Hanappe, F.; Leblanc, M.; Mayault, J.F.; Ngo, C.; Paya, D.; Perrin, N.; Peter, J.; Tamain, B.; Valentin, L.

    The γ-ray multiplicity has been measured for the quasi-fission events in the Cu + Au reaction at 443MeV. Using the usual assumption on the γ-ray multipolarity and estimating the angular momentum carried away by the evaporated particles, a value of 57h is obtained for the angular momentum transferred to the fragments, in agreement with the sticking hypothesis [fr

  15. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.

    1977-12-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion reactors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket design, thermal hydraulics, tritium analysis, neutronics calculations, radiation effects, stress analysis, shield design, reactor and plant building layout, maintenance procedures, and power cycle design. The reactor is designed as a 1000 MW/sub e/ unit for central station electric power generation

  16. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.

    1977-12-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion ractors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket design, thermal hydraulics, tritium analysis, neutronics calculations, radiation effects, stress analysis, shield design, reactor and plant building layout, maintenance procedures, and power cycle design. The reactor is designed as a 1000 MW/sub e/ unit for central station electric power generation

  17. Enhanced fuel production in thorium fusion hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitulski, R.H.; Chapin, D.L.; Klevans, E.

    1979-01-01

    The multiplication of 14 MeV D-T fusion neutrons via (n,2n), (n,3n), and fission reactions by 238 U is well known and established. This study consistently evaluates the effectiveness of a depleted (tails) UO 2 multiplier on increasing the production of 233 U and tritium in a thorium/lithium fusion--fission hybrid blanket. Nuclear performance is evaluated as a function of exposure and zone thickness

  18. Validation of a new 39 neutron group self-shielded library based on the nucleonics analysis of the Lotus fusion-fission hybrid test facility performed with the Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-02-01

    The Swiss LOTUS fusion-fission hybrid test facility was used to investigate the influence of the self-shielding of resonance cross sections on the tritium breeding and on the thorium ratios. Nucleonic analyses were performed using the discrete-ordinates transport codes ANISN and ONEDANT, the surface-flux code SURCU, and the version 3 of the MCNP code for the Li 2 CO 3 and the Li 2 O blanket designs with lead, thorium and beryllium multipliers. Except for the MCNP calculation which bases on the ENDF/B-V files, all nuclear data are generated from the ENDF/B-IV basic library. For the deterministic methods three NJOY group libraries were considered. The first, a 39 neutron group self-shielded library, was generated at EIR. The second bases on the same group structure as the first does and consists of infinitely diluted cross sections. Finally the third library was processed at LANL and consists of coupled 30+12 neutron and gamma groups; these cross sections are not self-shielded. The Monte Carlo analysis bases on a continuous and on a discrete 262 group library from the ENDF/B-V evaluation. It is shown that the results agree well within 3% between the unshielded libraries and between the different transport codes and theories. The self-shielding of resonance cross sections results in a decrease of the thorium capture rate and in an increase of the tritium breeding of about 6%. The remaining computed ratios are not affected by the self-shielding of cross sections. (Auth.)

  19. Corrosion of oxide dispersion strengthened iron–chromium steels and tantalum in fluoride salt coolant: An in situ compatibility study for fusion and fusion–fission hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dasher, Bassem; Farmer, Joseph; Ferreira, James; Serrano de Caro, Magdalena; Rubenchik, Alexander; Kimura, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► ODS steel corrosion in molten fluoride salts was studied in situ using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► Steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface. ► The addition of tungsten to ODS steels increases corrosion resistance measurably at 600 °C. - Abstract: Primary candidate classes of materials for future nuclear power plants, whether they be fission, fusion or hybrids, include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels which rely on a dispersion of nano-oxide particles in the matrix for both mechanical strength and swelling resistance, or tantalum alloys which have an inherent neutron-induced swelling resistance and high temperature strength. For high temperature operation, eutectic molten lithium containing fluoride salts are attractive because of their breeding capability as well as their relatively high thermal capacity, which allow for a higher average operating temperature that increases power production. In this paper we test the compatibility of Flinak (LiF–NaF–KF) salts on ODS steels, comparing the performance of current generation ODS steels developed at Kyoto University with the commercial alloy MA956. Pure tantalum was also tested for comparative purposes. In situ data was obtained for temperatures ranging from 600 to 900 °C using a custom-built high temperature electrochemical impedance spectroscopy cell. Results for ODS steels show that steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface, however an increase in temperature to 900 °C causes this layer to break up and aggressive attack to occur. Performance of current generation ODS steels surpassed that of the MA956 ODS steel, with an in situ impedance behavior similar or better than that of pure tantalum.

  20. Fusion-fission in Ar-heavy nuclei collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaric, Alexandre

    1984-01-01

    Fusion-fission products have been studied for three reactions: Ar + Au, Ar + Bi and Ar + U (5.25-7.5 MeV/u). By measuring symmetric fragmentation components (fission-like events), cross sections for fusion were deduced and compared with the prediction of static and dynamic models. With increasing projectile energy, the width of the mass distributions strongly increases for the two lighter systems. By contrast, for Ar + U it remains essentially constant at a very large value. These results clearly demonstrate that the large increase of the width of the mass distribution cannot be attributed simply to large values of the angular momentum. However, they can be explained by the occurrence of a different dissipative process, fast fission, which can be expected if there is no barrier to fission. For the reaction Ar + Au, the total kinetic-energy distributions were also studied in detail. In this case fast fission occurs only at high incident energy. The average total kinetic energy (TKE) was found to be constant with increasing energy. (author) [fr

  1. Fission, fusion and photonuclear physics. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.; Babinet, R.; Cauvin, B.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Girard, J.; Guerreau, D.; Lefort, M.; Nifenecker, H.; Tarrago, X.

    Combined ΔE-E and time of flight techniques have been used at the ALICE facility to measure the mass and the charge of all light fragments emitted in heavy ion collisions. The following studies have been undertaken: binary character of the deep inelastic collisions in the 40 Ar (280MeV) + 58 Ni reaction, transition from deep inelastic to quasi-elastic processes in the same reaction, relaxation of the mass asymmetry mode in the 52 Cr (265 MeV) + 56 Fe reaction and equilibration of the charge to mass degree of freedom in the fast quasi-fission process, 40 Ar (220MeV) + Au [fr

  2. Review of fission-fusion pellet designs and inertial confinement system studies at EIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifriz, W [Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1978-01-01

    The article summarizes the work done so far at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) in the field of the inertial confinement fusion technique. The following subjects are reviewed: a) fission fusion pellet designs using fissionable triggers, b) uranium tampered pellets, c) tampered pellets recycling unwanted actinide wastes from fission reactors in beam-driven micro-explosion reactors, and d) symbiotic fusion/fission reactor studies.

  3. Conceptual Analysis of Fission Fragment Magnetic Collimator Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the current research work within the US DOE NERI Direct Electricity Conversion (DEC) Project on methods for utilizing direct electricity conversion in nuclear reactors, a detailed study of a Fission Fragment Magnetic Collimator Reactor (FFMCR) has been performed. The FFMCR concept is an advanced DEC system that combines advantageous design solutions proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors. The present study was focused on determining the electrical efficiency and other important operational aspects of the FFMCR concept. In principle, acceptable characteristics have been demonstrated, and results obtained are presented in the paper. Technological visibility of the FFMCR concept and required further design development are discussed. Preliminary characteristics of the promising design are outlined. (authors)

  4. Neutron dosimetry for radiation damage in fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of materials subjected to the intense neutron radiation fields characteristic of fission power reactors or proposed fusion energy devices is a field of extensive current research. These investigations seek important information relevant to the safety and economics of nuclear energy. In high-level radiation environments, neutron metrology is accomplished predominantly with passive techniques which require detailed knowledge about many nuclear reactions. The quality of neutron dosimetry has increased noticeably during the past decade owing to the availability of new data and evaluations for both integral and differential cross sections, better quantitative understanding of radioactive decay processes, improvements in radiation detection technology, and the development of reliable spectrum unfolding procedures. However, there are problems caused by the persistence of serious integral-differential discrepancies for several important reactions. There is a need to further develop the data base for exothermic and low-threshold reactions needed in thermal and fast-fission dosimetry, and for high-threshold reactions needed in fusion-energy dosimetry. The unsatisfied data requirements for fission reactor dosimetry appear to be relatively modest and well defined, while the needs for fusion are extensive and less well defined because of the immature state of fusion technology. These various data requirements are examined with the goal of providing suggestions for continued dosimetry-related nuclear data research

  5. Hybrid nuclear cycles for nuclear fission sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fission can play and must play an important role in paving the road to Energy Sustainability. Nuclear Fission does not produce CO 2 emissions, and it is already exploited at commercial level with the current NPP (Nuclear Power Plants). Most of them are based on LWR reactors, which have a very good safety record. It must be noted, however, that all LWR (including the advanced or evolutionary ones) have some drawbacks, particularly their very poor efficiency in exploiting the natural resources of nuclear fuels. In this paper, an analysis is presented on how to maximize the energy actually generated from the potential contents of fission natural resources. The role of fertile-to-fissile breeding is highlighted, as well as the need of attaining a very high safety performance in the reactors and other installations of the fuel cycle. The proposal presented in this paper is to use advanced and evolutionary LWR as energy producing reactors, and to use subcritical fast assemblies as breeders. The main result would be to increase by two orders of magnitude the percentage of energy effectively exploited from fission natural resources, while keeping a very high level of safety standards in the full fuel cycle. Breeders would not be intended for energy production, so that safety standards could rely on very low values of the thermal magnitudes, so allowing for very large safety margins for emergency cooling. Similarly, subcriticality would offer a very large margin for not to reach prompt criticality in any event. The main drawback of this proposal is that a sizeable fraction of the energy generated in the cycle (about 1/3, maybe a little more) would not be useful for the thermodynamic cycle to produce electricity. Besides that, a fraction of the generated electricity, between 5 and 10 %, would have to be recirculated to feed the accelerator activating the neutron source. Even so, the overall result would be very positive, because more than 50 % of the natural

  6. Fusion and fission of atomic clusters: recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    We review recent advances made by our group in finding optimized geometries of atomic clusters as well as in description of fission of charged small metal clusters. We base our approach to these problems on analysis of multidimensional potential energy surface. For the fusion process we have...... developed an effective scheme of adding new atoms to stable cluster geometries of larger clusters in an efficient way. We apply this algorithm to finding geometries of metal and noble gas clusters. For the fission process the analysis of the potential energy landscape calculated on the ab initio level...... of theory allowed us to obtain very detailed information on energetics and pathways of the different fission channels for the Na^2+_10 clusters....

  7. Energy for the long run: fission or fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Kessler, G.; Holdren, J.; Haefele, W.

    1979-01-01

    The alternatives of the most likely and controversial long-range energy sources, fusion and fast-breeder fission, are compared in several areas: potential biological and social hazards, costs of research and development, capital costs, technical complexity, and time factors. It is concluded that from biological and social hazards standpoint, fusion is preferable to fast-breeder fission reactors; however, the LMFBR has already passed on the threshold of scientific and engineering feasibility. It is pointed out that LMFBR should not be compared with short-term energy sources, e.g. coal or oil, but should be compared only with other long-term energy sources, e.g. other types of breeder reactors

  8. Neutron irradiation facilities for fission and fusion reactor materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of energy-conversion machines based upon nuclear fission or fusion reactors is critically dependent upon the behavior of the engineering materials used to construct the full containment and primary heat extraction systems. The development of radiation damage-resistant materials requires irradiation testing facilities which reproduce, as closely as possible, the thermal and neutronic environment expected in a power-producing reactor. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reference core design for the Center for Neutron Research (CNR) reactor provides for instrumented facilities in regions of both hard and mixed neutron spectra, with substantially higher fluxes than are currently available. The benefits of these new facilities to the development of radiation damage resistant materials are discussed in terms of the major US fission and fusion reactor programs

  9. Updated comparison of economics of fusion reactors with advanced fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The projected cost of electricity (COE) for fusion is compared with that from current and advanced nuclear fission and coal-fired plants. Fusion cost models were adjusted for consistency with advanced fission plants and the calculational methodology and cost factors follow guidelines recommended for cost comparisons of advanced fission reactors. The results show COEs of about 59--74 mills/kWh for the fusion designs considered. In comparison, COEs for future fission reactors are estimated to be in the 43--54 mills/kWh range with coal-fired plant COEs of about 53--69 mills/kWh ($2--3/GJ coal). The principal cost driver for the fusion plants relative to fission plants is the fusion island cost. Although the estimated COEs for fusion are greater than those for fission or coal, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion's competitiveness as a safe and environmentally sound alternative

  10. On fusion/fission chain reactions in the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Froelich, P.; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of fusion/fission chain reactions following d-d source reactions in electrochemical cold fusion experiments have been investigated. The recycling factors for the charged particles in fusion reactions with consumable nuclei deuteron, 6 Li nd 7 Li, are estimated. It is concluded that, based on the established nuclear fusion cross sections and electronic stopping power, the recycling factor is four to five orders of magnitude less than required for close to critical conditions. It is argued that the cross generation of charged particles by neutrons does not play a significant role in this process, even if increased densities at the surface of electrodes do occur

  11. Studies of conceptual spheromak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurai, M.; Yamada, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are carried out for a spheromak fusion reactor. Simplified circuit theory is applied to obtain the characteristic relations among various parameters of the spheromak configuration for an aspect ratio of A >or approx. 1.6. These relations are used to calculate the parameters for the conceptual designs of three types of fusion reactor: (1) the DT reactor with two-component-type operation, (2) the ignited DT reactor, and (3) the ignited catalysed-type DD reactor. With a total wall loading of approx. 4 MW.m -2 , it is found that edge magnetic fields of only approx. 4 T (DT) and approx. 9 T (Cat. DD) are required for ignited reactors of 1 m plasma (minor) radius with output powers in the gigawatt range. An assessment of various schemes of generation, compression and translation of spheromak plasmas is presented. (author)

  12. Conceptual design of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, T.; Fujisawa, N.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) have been performed. The FER has an objective of achieving selfignition and demonstrating engineering feasibility as a next generation tokamak to JT-60. Various concepts of the FER have been considered. The reference design is based on a double-null divertor. Optional design studies with some attractive features based on advanced concepts such as pumped limiter and RF current drive have been carried out. Key design parameters are; fusion power of 440 MW, average neutron wall loading of 1MW/m 2 , major radius of 5.5m, plasma minor radius of 1.1m, plasma elongation of 1.5, plasma current of 5.3MA, toroidal beta of 4%, toroidal field on plasma axis of 5.7T and tritium breeding ratio of above unity

  13. Afterheat assessment of a conceptual fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayatissa, S.P.; Goddard, A.J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Structural activation and decay heat deposition calculations have been undertaken for the DEMO fusion reactor design. The DEMO design was based on an earlier conceptual design of a blanket sector which could breed tritium and generate electricity. These calculations have taken account of the redistribution of energy by the transport of γ radiation. Calculated heat deposition patterns have been used as data for simplified heat transfer calculations to judge temperature rises in relation to materials limits in a severe accident involving complete coolant flow failure. (author)

  14. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report describes the engineering conceptual design of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which is to be built as a next generation tokamak machine. This design covers overall reactor systems including MHD equilibrium analysis, mechanical configuration of reactor, divertor, pumped limiter, first wall/breeding blanket/shield, toroidal field magnet, poloidal field magnet, cryostat, electromagnetic analysis, vacuum system, power handling and conversion, NBI, RF heating device, tritium system, neutronics, maintenance, cooling system and layout of facilities. The engineering comparison of a divertor with pumped limiters and safety analysis of reactor systems are also conducted. (author)

  15. Feasibility study of a fission supressed blanket for a tandem-mirror hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Barr, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A study of fission suppressed blankets for the tandem mirror not only showed such blankets to be feasible but also to be safer than fissioning blankets. Such hybrids could produce enough fissile material to support up to 17 light water reactors of the same nuclear power rating. Beryllium was compared to 7 Li for neutron multiplication; both were considered feasible but the blanket with Li produced 20% less fissile fuel per unit of nuclear power in the reactor. The beryllium resource, while possibly being too small for extensive pure fusion application, would be adequate (with carefully planned industrial expansion) for the hybrid because of the large support ratio, and hence few hybrids required. Radiation damage and coatings for beryllium remain issues to be resolved by further study and experimentation. Molten salt reprocessing was compared to aqueous solution reprocessing

  16. Fusion technology development: role of fusion facility upgrades and fission test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The near term national fusion program is unlikely to follow the aggressive logic of the Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. Faced with level budgets, a large, new fusion facility with an engineering thrust is unlikely in the near future. Within the fusion community the idea of upgrading the existing machines (TFTR, MFTF-B) is being considered to partially mitigate the lack of a design data base to ready the nation to launch an aggressive, mission-oriented fusion program with the goal of power production. This paper examines the cost/benefit issues of using fusion upgrades to develop the technology data base which will be required to support the design and construction of the next generation of fusion machines. The extent of usefulness of the nation's fission test reactors will be examined vis-a-vis the mission of the fusion upgrades. The authors show that while fission neutrons will provide a useful test environment in terms of bulk heating and tritium breeding on a submodule scale, they can play only a supporting role in designing the integrated whole modules and systems to be used in a nuclear fusion machine

  17. Fusion technology development: role of fusion facility upgrades and fission test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R.; Schmunk, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The near term national fusion program is unlikely to follow the aggressive logic of the Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. Faced with level budgets, a large, new fusion facility with an engineering thrust is unlikely in the near future. Within the fusion community the idea of upgrading the existing machines (TFTR, MFTF-B) is being considered to partially mitigate the lack of a design data base to ready the nation to launch an aggressive, mission-oriented fusion program with the goal of power production. This paper examines the cost/benefit issues of using fusion upgrades to develop the technology data base which will be required to support the design and construction of the next generation of fusion machines. The extent of usefulness of the nation's fission test reactors will be examined vis-a-vis the mission of the fusion upgrades. We will show that while fission neutrons will provide a useful test environment in terms of bulk heating and tritium breeding on a submodule scale, they can play only a supporting role in designing the integrated whole modules and systems to be used in a nuclear fusion machine

  18. Fusion-fission dynamics and synthesis of the superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yasuhisa

    2003-01-01

    Experiments of fusion-fission reactions clarify that the life time of nuclear fission is much longer than that expected from Bohr-Wheeler formula from the measurements of multiplicities of neutrons, gamma rays etc. emitted prior scission, and thereby appear to require a dynamical treatment of the process. Following the pioneering work by Kramers with the dissipation- fluctuation dynamics, the fissioning degree of freedom is described with the viewpoint of Brownian motion under incessant interactions with the heat bath particles, i.e., with nucleons in thermal equilibrium, in the present case. In the dynamical description the fission width is no more constant in time, but has a transient feature, as well as the reduction factor, the so-called Kramers factor. Both result in a longer life time, consistent with anomalous multiplicities measured. In the fusion process, Coulomb barriers play a crucial role in lighter heavy ion systems, but in very heavy systems it is known that there exists a hindrance in fusion. That is, the Coulomb barrier is not enough for determination of fusion probability, but an extra-energy above the barrier height is required for the system to fuse. This is understood by the properties of the Liquid Drop Model. After overcoming the Coulomb barrier, the ions touch with each other. But the united system, i.e., the pear-shaped configuration is located outside of the conditional saddle point or of the ridgeline. Therefore, in order to form the spherical compound nucleus, the system has to overcome one more barrier. Naturally, in such a situation, the kinetic energy carried in by the incident projectile has been more or less dissipated, i.e., the composite system is heated up. Thus, the shape evolution toward the spherical shape or toward the re-separation can be considered as a Brownian motion with the heat bath inside. The present author et al. have proposed the two-step model for fusion of massive heavy-ion systems where the fusion probability is

  19. Economic implications of fusion-fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Schulte, S.C.

    1979-04-01

    The principal conclusions that can be made based on the estimated costs reported in this paper are twofold. First, hybrid reactors operating symbiotically with conventional fission reactors are a potentially attractive supply alternative. Estimated hybrid energy system costs are slightly greater than estimated costs of the most attractive alternatives. However, given the technological, economic, and institutional uncertainties associated with future energy supply, differences of such magnitude are of little significance. Second, to be economically viable, hybrid reactors must be both fuel producers and electricity producers. A data point representing each hybrid reactor driver-blanket concept is plotted as a function of net electrical production efficiency and annual fuel production. The plots illustrate that the most economically viable reactor concepts are those that produce both fuel and electricity

  20. Feasibility study of applying the passive safety system concept to fusion–fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhang-cheng; Xie, Heng

    2014-01-01

    The fusion–fission hybrid reactor can produce energy, breed nuclear fuel, and handle the nuclear waste, etc., with the fusion neutron source striking the subcritical blanket. The passive safety system consists of passive residual heat removal system, passive safety injection system and automatic depressurization system was adopted into the fusion–fission hybrid reactor in this paper. Modeling and nodalization of primary loop, partial secondary loop and passive core cooling system for the fusion–fission hybrid reactor using relap5 were conducted and small break LOCA on cold leg was analyzed. The results of key transient parameters indicated that the actuation of passive safety system could mitigate the accidental consequence of the 4-inch cold leg small break LOCA on cold leg in the early time effectively. It is feasible to apply the passive safety system concept to fusion–fission hybrid reactor. The minimum collapsed liquid level had great increase if doubling the volume of CMTs to increase its coolant injection and had no increase if doubling the volume of ACCs

  1. Economics of fusion-fission (hybrid) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.

    1977-03-01

    This paper analyzes the range of allowable performance characteristics (capital costs, operating costs, plutonium production rate and thermal-to-electrical conversion) which will result in net benefits to the public through reduced electrical costs at levels ranging from zero to $20 billion. These targets for performance will be established in light of nine different development scenarios for the remaining electric generating alternatives

  2. Influence of fusion dynamics on fission observables: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.; Mazurek, K.; Nadtochy, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    An attempt to unfold the respective influence of the fusion and fission stages on typical fission observables, and namely the neutron prescission multiplicity, is proposed. A four-dimensional dynamical stochastic Langevin model is used to calculate the decay by fission of excited compound nuclei produced in a wide set of heavy-ion collisions. The comparison of the results from such a calculation and experimental data is discussed, guided by predictions of the dynamical deterministic HICOL code for the compound-nucleus formation time. While the dependence of the latter on the entrance-channel properties can straigthforwardly explain some observations, a complex interplay between the various parameters of the reaction is found to occur in other cases. A multidimensional analysis of the respective role of these parameters, including entrance-channel asymmetry, bombarding energy, compound-nucleus fissility, angular momentum, and excitation energy, is proposed. It is shown that, depending on the size of the system, apparent inconsistencies may be deduced when projecting onto specific ordering parameters. The work suggests the possibility of delicate compensation effects in governing the measured fission observables, thereby highlighting the necessity of a multidimensional discussion.

  3. Maintenance of fission and fusion reactors. 10. workshop on fusion reactor engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report contains copies of OHP presented at the title meeting. The presented topics are as follows, maintenance of nuclear power plants and ITER, exchange of shroud in BWR type reactors, deterioration of fission and fusion reactor materials, standards of pressure vessels, malfunction diagnosis method with neural network. (J.P.N.)

  4. Present status of the EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission experiment 'LOTUS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.; Frueh, R.; Ligou, J.; Schneeberger, J.P.; Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present status of the LOTUS project - a fusion-fission hybrid research facility under construction at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland - is presented. Emphasis is places on the description of the facility and on the design studies of an initial blanket of the ''fission-suppressed'' type. The LOTUS facility consists of a parallelepiped-shaped blanket, occupying roughly a volume of 1 m 3 , driven by a sealed 14 MeV (D,T) neutron generator with a rated source strength of 5x10 12 n/s. The experiment is housed in a massive concrete shielding of 220 cm thick walls, which leaves an experimental test chamber of 360 cm by 240 cm lateral dimensions and a height of 300 cm. (orig.) [de

  5. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  6. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) being developed at JAERI as a next generation tokamak to JT-60 has a major mission of realizing a self-ignited long-burning DT plasma and demonstrating engineering feasibility. During FY82 and FY83 a comprehensive and intensive conceptual design study has been conducted for a pulsed operation FER as a reference option which employs a conventional inductive current drive and a double-null divertor. In parallel with the reference design, studies have been carried out to evaluate advanced reactor concepts such as quasi-steady state operation and steady state operation based on RF current drive and pumped limiter, and comparative studies for single-null divertor/pumped limiter. This report presents major results obtained primarily from FY83 design studies, while the results of FY82 design studies are described in previous references (JAERI-M 83-213--216). (author)

  7. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Conceptual Design of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) of which the objective will be to realize self-ignition with D-T reaction is reported. Mechanical Configurations of FER are characterized with a noncircular plasma and a double-null divertor. The primary aim of design studies is to demonstrate fissibility of reactor structures as compact and simple as possible with removable torus sectors. The structures of each component such as a first-wall, blanket, shielding, divertor, magnet and so on have been designed. It is also discussed about essential reactor plant system requirements. In addition to the above, a brief concept of a steady-state reactor based on RF current drive is also discussed. The main aim, in this time, is to examine physical studies of a possible RF steady-state reactor. (author)

  8. SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Cooper, G.W.; Howard, J.; Magelssen, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual laser fusion reactor for electric power, SOLASE, has been designed. The SOLASE design utilizes a 1 MJ, 6.7% efficient laser to implode 20 fusion targets per second. The target gain is 150 and produces a net electrical power of 1000 MW. The reactor cavity is spherical with a 6 m radius. The first wall is graphite and has a neutron wall loading of 5 MW/m 2 . It is protected from the target debris by low pressure xenon gas that is introduced into the cavity. The blanket structure is a honeycombed graphite composite. The tritium breeding and heat transport medium is Li 2 O in the form of pellets that flow through the blanket. The tritium breeding ration is 1.34. Temperature decoupling of the graphite structure and the Li 2 O coolant enables the structure to operate at temperatures that minimize radiation damage effects. The graphite blanket is replaced every year but exhibits low levels of radioactivity so that limited hands on maintenance is possible two weeks after shutdown, thus facilitating rapid replacement

  9. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    A conceptual design study (option C) has been carried out for the fusion experimental reactor (FER). In addition to design of the tokamak reactor and associated systems based on the reference design specifications, feasibility of a water-shield reactor concept was examined as a topical study. The design study for the reference tokamak reactor has produced a reactor concept for the FER, along with major R D items for the concept, based on close examinations on thermal design, electromagnetics, neutronics and remote maintenance. Particular efforts have been directed to the area of electromagnetics. Detailed analyses with close simulation models have been performed on PF coil arrangements and configurations, shell effects of the blanket for plasma position unstability, feedback control, and eddy currents during disruptions. The major design specifications are as follows; Peak fusion power 437 MW Major radius 5.5 m Minor radius 1.1 m Plasma elongation 1.5 Plasma current 5.3 MA Toroidal beta 4 % Field on axis 5.7 T (author)

  10. Muon catalyzed fusion - fission reactor driven by a recirculating beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Tajima, T.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    The recent experimentally inferred value of multiplicity of fusion of deuterium and tritium catalyzed by muons has rekindled interest in its application to reactors. Since the main energy expended is in pion (and consequent muon) productions, we try to minimize the pion loss by magnetically confining pions where they are created. Although it appears at this moment not possible to achieve energy gain by pure fusion, it is possible to gain energy by combining catalyzed fusion with fission blankets. We present two new ideas that improve the muon fusion reactor concept. The first idea is to combine the target, the converter of pions into muons, and the synthesizer into one (the synergetic concept). This is accomplished by injecting a tritium or deuterium beam of 1 GeV/nucleon into DT fuel contained in a magnetic mirror. The confined pions slow down and decay into muons, which are confined in the fuel causing little muon loss. The necessary quantity of tritium to keep the reactor viable has been derived. The second idea is that the beam passing through the target is collected for reuse and recirculated, while the strongly interacted portion of the beam is directed to electronuclear blankets. The present concepts are based on known technologies and on known physical processes and data. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  12. Fission fragment simulation of fusion neutron radiation effects on bulk mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Guinan, M.W.; Stuart, R.N.; Borg, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    This research demonstrates the feasibility of using homogeneously-generated fission fragments to simulate high-fluence fusion neutron damage in niobium tensile specimens. This technique makes it possible to measure radiation effects on bulk mechanical properties at high damage states, using conveniently short irradiation times. The primary knock-on spectrum for a fusion reactor is very similar to that produced by fission fragments, and nearly the same ratio of gas atoms to displaced atoms is produced in niobium. The damage from fission fragments is compared to that from fusion neutrons and fission reactor neutrons in terms of experimentally measured yield strength increase, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and calculated damage energies

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  14. Comparative energetics of three fusion-fission symbiotic nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.W.; Harms, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The energetics of three symbiotic fusion-fission nuclear reactor concepts are investigated. The fuel and power balances are considered for various values of systems parameters. The results from this analysis suggest that symbiotic fusion-fission systems are advantageous from the standpoint of economy and resource utilization. (Auth.)

  15. What can we learn about heavy ion fusion by studying fission angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Determinations of complete fusion reactions leading to fissionable systems are associated with problems of separating fragments from quasi-fission reactions from those arising from fission of the completely fused system. Inferring complete fusion cross sections from the minute cross sections for the evaporation residue channel is hampered by the insufficient knowledge of the branching ratio for neutron emission and fission in the decay sequence of the completely fused system. From a quantitative analysis of the fragment angular distributions it is, however, possible under certain assumptions to deduce the relative contribution of complete fusion and quasi-fission. It is found that the complete fusion process is hindered for heavy projectiles. The excess radial energy over the interaction barrier needed to induce fusion with heavy projectiles is determined in several cases and systematic trends are presented

  16. Evaluation of DD and DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce a new source of fissile fuel for existing fission reactors. The denatured fuel cycles were used because it gives additional proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles. DT and DD fusion drivers were examined in this study with a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion driver. Various fuel cycles were studied for light-water and heavy-water reactors. The cost of electricity for each energy system was calculated

  17. Conceptual design of inertial confinement fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Sadao

    1994-01-01

    Presented is the status of the conceptual design studies of inertial confinement fusion reactors. The recent achievements of the laser fusion research enable us to refine the conceptual design of the power plant. In the paper, main features of several new conceptual designs of ICF reactor; KOYO, SIRIUS-P, HYLIFE-II and so on are summarized. In particular, the target design and the reactor chamber design are described. Finally, the overview of the laser fusion reactor and the irradiation system is also described. (author)

  18. Conceptual fusion reactor designs based on the laser heat solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the laser heated solenoid (LHS) as an approach to fusion and fusion-fission commercial power generation has been examined. The LHS concept is based on magnetic confinement of a long slender plasma column which is partly heated by the axially directed beam from a powerful long wavelength laser. As a pure fusion concept, the LHS configurations studied so far are characterized by fairly difficult engineering constraints, particularly on the magnet, a large laser, and a marginally acceptable system energy balance. As a fusion-fission system, however, the LHS is capable of a very attractive energy balance, has much more relaxed engineering constraints, requires a relatively modest laser, and as such holds great potential as a power generator and fissile fuel breeding scheme

  19. Predation risk shapes social networks in fission-fusion populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    Full Text Available Predation risk is often associated with group formation in prey, but recent advances in methods for analysing the social structure of animal societies make it possible to quantify the effects of risk on the complex dynamics of spatial and temporal organisation. In this paper we use social network analysis to investigate the impact of variation in predation risk on the social structure of guppy shoals and the frequency and duration of shoal splitting (fission and merging (fusion events. Our analyses revealed that variation in the level of predation risk was associated with divergent social dynamics, with fish in high-risk populations displaying a greater number of associations with overall greater strength and connectedness than those from low-risk sites. Temporal patterns of organisation also differed according to predation risk, with fission events more likely to occur over two short time periods (5 minutes and 20 minutes in low-predation fish and over longer time scales (>1.5 hours in high-predation fish. Our findings suggest that predation risk influences the fine-scale social structure of prey populations and that the temporal aspects of organisation play a key role in defining social systems.

  20. Predation Risk Shapes Social Networks in Fission-Fusion Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Inskip, Chloe; Krause, Jens; Croft, Darren P.

    2011-01-01

    Predation risk is often associated with group formation in prey, but recent advances in methods for analysing the social structure of animal societies make it possible to quantify the effects of risk on the complex dynamics of spatial and temporal organisation. In this paper we use social network analysis to investigate the impact of variation in predation risk on the social structure of guppy shoals and the frequency and duration of shoal splitting (fission) and merging (fusion) events. Our analyses revealed that variation in the level of predation risk was associated with divergent social dynamics, with fish in high-risk populations displaying a greater number of associations with overall greater strength and connectedness than those from low-risk sites. Temporal patterns of organisation also differed according to predation risk, with fission events more likely to occur over two short time periods (5 minutes and 20 minutes) in low-predation fish and over longer time scales (>1.5 hours) in high-predation fish. Our findings suggest that predation risk influences the fine-scale social structure of prey populations and that the temporal aspects of organisation play a key role in defining social systems. PMID:21912627

  1. Review of the safety concept for fusion reactor concepts and transferability of the nuclear fission regulation to potential fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Juergen; Weller, Arthur; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Jin, Xue Zhou; Boccaccini, Lorenzo V.; Stieglitz, Robert; Carloni, Dario [Karlsruher Institute fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pistner, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); Herb, Joachim [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    This paper summarizes the current state of the art in science and technology of the safety concept for future fusion power plants (FPPs) and examines the transferability of the current nuclear fission regulation to the concepts of future fusion power plants. At the moment there exist only conceptual designs of future fusion power plants. The most detailed concepts with regards to safety aspects were found in the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS). The plant concepts discussed in the PPCS are based on magnetic confinement of the plasma. The safety concept of fusion power plants, which has been developed during the last decades, is based on the safety concepts of installations with radioactive inventories, especially nuclear fission power plants. It applies the concept of defence in depth. However, there are specific differences between the implementations of the safety concepts due to the physical and technological characteristics of fusion and fission. It is analysed whether for fusion a safety concept is required comparable to the one of fission. For this the consequences of a purely hypothetical release of large amounts of the radioactive inventory of a fusion power plant and a fission power plant are compared. In such an event the evacuation criterion outside the plant is exceeded by several orders of magnitude for a fission power plant. For a fusion power plant the expected radiological consequences are of the order of the evacuation criterion. Therefore, a safety concept is also necessary for fusion to guarantee the confinement of the radioactive inventory. The comparison between the safety concepts for fusion and fission shows that the fundamental safety function ''confinement of the radioactive materials'' can be transferred directly in a methodical way. For a fusion power plant this fundamental safety function is based on both, physical barriers as well as on active retention functions. After the termination of the fusion

  2. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  3. Analytic description of the fusion and fission processes through compact quasi-molecular shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Normand, C.; Druet, E.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the characteristics of the entrance and exit channels through compact quasi-molecular shapes are compatible with the experimental data on fusion, fission and cluster radioactivity when the deformation energy is determined within a generalized liquid drop model. Analytic expressions allowing to calculate rapidly the main characteristics of this deformation path through necked shapes with quasi-spherical ends are presented now; namely formulas for the fusion and fission barrier heights, the fusion barrier radius, the symmetric fission barriers and the proximity energy. (author)

  4. Characterization of the fusion-fission process in light nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M. dos.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion cross sections measurements of highly damped processes and elastic scattering were performed for the 16, 17, 18 O + 10, 11 B and 19 F + 9 Be, in the incident energy interval 22 ≤ E LAB ≤ 64 MeV. Evidences are presented that highly damped binary processes observed in these systems are originated from a fusion-fission process rather than a dinuclear ''orbiting'' mechanism. The relative importance of the fusion-fission process in these very light systems is demonstrated both by the experimental results, which indicate a statistically balanced compound nucleus fission process occurrence, and theoretical calculations. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. Analytical definition of fission chain reaction parameters for cylindrical uranium bar and energy release evaluations for HIF hybrid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Within the conditions of Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) arises a possibility to obtain the fission chain reaction for a cylindrical HIF target. The paper contains the solution interpolated with the diffusion approximation in order to receive the general approximation expressions for the bar critical radius as well as for over-critical state. The obtained critical parameters generalized for uranium envelope are used for rough evaluation of the energy release in HIF hybrid targets [ru

  6. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting on neutron activation cross sections for fission and fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Vonach, H.

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings of a specialists' meeting on neutron activation cross sections for fission and fusion energy applications are divided into 4 sessions bearing on: - data needs: 4 conferences - experimental work: 11 conferences - theoretical work: 4 conferences - evaluation work: 5 conferences

  7. Storage and Containment of Nuclear Targets for Pulsed Fission-Fusion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The combined fission-fusion fuel target is the heart of an engine concept that can open the solar system to fast and efficient human exploration. This is a unique...

  8. Study of α-particle multiplicity in 16O+196Pt fusion-fission reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.; Kumar, A.; Bansal, N.

    2016-01-01

    Study of dynamics of fusion-fission reaction is one of the interesting parts of heavy-ion-induced nuclear reaction. Extraction of fission time scales using different probes is of central importance for understanding the dynamics of fusion-fission process. In the past, extensive theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to understand the various aspects of the heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions. Compelling evidences have been obtained from the earlier studies that the fission decay of hot nuclei is protracted process i.e. slowed down relative to the expectations of the standard statistical model, and large dynamical delays are required due to this hindrance. Nuclear dissipation is assumed to be responsible for this delay and more light particles are expected to be emitted during the fission process. One of neutron multiplicity measurements have been performed for the 16,18 O+ 194,198 Pt populating the CN 210,212,214,216 Rn and observed fission delay due to nuclear viscosity. In order to have complete understanding for the dynamics of 212 Rn nucleus, we measured the charged particle multiplicity for 16 O+ 196 Pt system. Study of charged particles will give us more information about the emitter in comparison to neutrons as charged particles faces Coulomb barrier and are more sensitive probe for understanding the dynamics of fusion-fission reactions. In the present work, we are reporting some of the preliminary results of charged particle multiplicity

  9. Determination of extra-push energies for fusion from differential fission cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.; Kapoor, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Apparent discrepancies between values of extra-push energies for fusion of two heavy nuclei derived through measurements of fusion evaporation residue cross sections and of differential fission cross sections have been reported by Keller et al. We show here that with the inclusion of the recently proposed preequilibrium fission decay channel in the analysis, there is no inconsistency between the two sets of data in terms of the deduced extra-push energies

  10. Generalized hybrid Monte Carlo - CMFD methods for fission source convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, Emily R.; Larsen, Edward W.; Martin, William R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the recently published 'CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo' method and present two new methods that reduce the statistical error in CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo. The CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo method uses Monte Carlo to estimate nonlinear functionals used in low-order CMFD equations for the eigenfunction and eigenvalue. The Monte Carlo fission source is then modified to match the resulting CMFD fission source in a 'feedback' procedure. The two proposed methods differ from CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo in the definition of the required nonlinear functionals, but they have identical CMFD equations. The proposed methods are compared with CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo on a high dominance ratio test problem. All hybrid methods converge the Monte Carlo fission source almost immediately, leading to a large reduction in the number of inactive cycles required. The proposed methods stabilize the fission source more efficiently than CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo, leading to a reduction in the number of active cycles required. Finally, as in CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo, the apparent variance of the eigenfunction is approximately equal to the real variance, so the real error is well-estimated from a single calculation. This is an advantage over standard Monte Carlo, in which the real error can be underestimated due to inter-cycle correlation. (author)

  11. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixue; Wu Yican

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  12. Confidence building in and through fission and fusion activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyojiro Fuketa

    1989-01-01

    The peaceful uses of atomic energy are most suitable for achieving worldwide confidence building for the following reasons. (1) In spite of the need for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the world is facing difficulties in the public perception and acceptance of nuclear works and facilities. (2) The above difficulties are due to many factors, such as the two sides of nuclear energy peaceful and military, the possibility of a large-scale reactor accident, the lack of understanding about radiation and radioactivity, and finally, emotion and egoism. Some of these factors are unique to nuclear-energy, but in other cases of public reactions, there are many facets similar to the above factors. (3) The public concern about safety is at its highest, broadest and severest point ever, coincident with the highest life expectancy in history. Over-precaution and over-protection about certain things may sometimes spoil one's health. Nuclear energy is most definitely suffering from such a trend. As a result, a severe nuclear accident in any country results in severe damage worldwide no manner in what form the real physical effects reach other countries. (4) The huge science and technology efforts required for fission and fusion activities cannot be fully achieved by one country. Explanations of some of the above factors are given. 2 refs

  13. A comparison of fusion breeder/fission client and fission breeder/fission client systems for electrical energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.J.; Parish, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric study that evaluated the economic performance of breeder/client systems is described. The linkage of the breeders to the clients was modelled using the stockpile approach to determine the system doubling time. Since the actual capital costs of the breeders are uncertain, a precise prediction of the cost of a breeder was not attempted. Instead, the breakeven capital cost of a breeder relative to the capital cost of a client reactor was established by equating the cost of electricity from the breeder/client system to the cost of a system consisting of clients alone. Specific results are presented for two breeder/client systems. The first consisted of an LMFBR with LWR clients. The second consisted of a DT fusion reactor (with a 238 U fission suppressed blanket) with LWR clients. The economics of each system was studied as a function of the cost of fissile fuel from a conventional source. Generally, the LMFBR/LWR system achieved relatively small breakeven capital cost ratios; the maximum ratio computed was 2.2 (achieved at approximately triple current conventional fissile material cost). The DTFR/LWR system attained a maximum breakeven capital cost ratio of 4.5 (achieved at the highest plasma quality (ignited device) and triple conventional fissile cost)

  14. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 2: Power from nuclear fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Different types of nuclear fission reactors and fissionable materials are compared. Special emphasis is placed upon the environmental impact of such reactors. Graphs and charts comparing reactor facilities in the U. S. are presented.

  15. Static aspects of the fission and fusion of liquid 3He drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilleumas, M.; Barranco, M.; Pi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Using an effective 3 He- 3 He interaction, the fission and fusion of 3 He drops have been investigated from a static point of view. The calculations show that a fission barrier develops for these neutral systems, and that their saddle configurations are rather elongate. The transition from oblate to prolate shapes as a function of the angular momentum L, as well as critical values for fission and fusion are discussed for some selected cases. A kind of proximity potential can be extracted from the drop-drop interaction potentials. (author) 33 refs.; 9 figs

  16. Design study of a fusion-driven tokamak hybrid reactor for fissile fuel production. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1979-05-01

    This study evaluated conceptual approaches for a tokamak fusion-driven fuel producing reactor. The conceptual design of this hybrid reactor was based on using projected state-of-the-art technology for the late 1980s. This reactor would be a demonstration plant and, therefore, first-of-a-kind considerations have been included. The conceptual definitions of two alternatives for the fusion driver were evaluated. A Two-Component Tokamak (TCT) concept, based on the TFTR plasma physics parameters, was compared to a Beam-Driven Thermonuclear (BDTN) concept, based on the USSR T-20 plasma physics parameters

  17. Definition and conceptual design of a small fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate various mirror fusion reactor concepts that might result in small systems for the effective production of electrical power or stored energy (e.g., nuclear and chemical fuels). The basic two-year program goal is to select a particular concept and develop the conceptual design of a pilot plant that could provide a useful output from fusion. The pilot plant would be built and operated in the late 1980s

  18. Genetically controlled fusion, exocytosis and fission of artificial vesicles-a roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; de Lucrezia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    were shown to fuse if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium (Nomura et al. 2004). In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we...... enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different...

  19. A comparison of microstructures in copper irradiated with fission, fusion, and spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroga, T.; Heinisch, H.L.; Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of the neutron energy spectrum in low dose irradiations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metals. The microstructures of pure copper irradiated to low doses at 36-90 C with spallation neutrons, fusion neutrons and fission neutrons are compared. The defect cluster densities for the spallation and fusion neutrons are very similar when compared on the basis of displacements per atom (dpa). In both cases, the density increases in proportion to the square root of the dpa. The difference in defect density between fusion neutrons and fission neutrons corresponds with differences observed in data on yield stress changes

  20. Status report on the conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    A preliminary conceptual design is presented for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants. The study has been made in sufficient depth to indicate no insurmountable technical problems exist and has provided a basis for valid cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources

  1. Extrap conceptual fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eninger, J.E; Lehnert, B.

    1987-12-01

    A study has recently been initiated to asses the fusion reactor potential of the Extrap concept. A reactor model is defined that fulfills certain economic and environmental criteria. This model is applied to Extrap and a reference reactor is outlined. The design is optimized by varying parameters subject to both physics and engineering constraints. Several design options are examined and key engineering issues are identified and addressed. Some preliminary results and conclusions of this work are summarized. (authors)

  2. Determination of procedures for transmutation of fission product wastes by fusion neutrons. Volume 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, G.P.

    1980-12-01

    This study is concerned with the engineering aspects of the transmutation of fission products utilizing neutrons generated in fusion reactors. It is assumed that fusion reactors, although not yet developed, will be available around the turn of the century. Therefore, early studies of this type are appropriate as a guide to the large amount of further investigations that will be needed to fully evaluate this concept. Not all of the radioactive products from light water reactors can be economically transmuted, but it appears that the most hazardous can. This requires that fission-product wastes must first be separated into a number of fractions, and in some instances this must be accomplished with extremely high separation factors. A review of current commercial separation processes and of promising methods that are now in the laboratory stage indicate that the necessary processes can most likely be developed but will require an active and sustained development program. Current fusion reactor concepts were examined as to their suitability for transmuting the separated fission wastes. It was concluded that the long-lived fission products were most amenable to transmutation. The medium-lived fission products, Cs-137 and Sr-90, require higher neutron fluxes than are available in the most developed fusion reactor concepts. Concepts which are less developed may eventually be adaptable as transmuters of these fission products

  3. Steady state technologies for tokamak based fusion neutron sources and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E.A.; Kuteev, B.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The development of demonstration fusion neutron sources for fusion nuclear science activity and hybrid applications has reached the stage of conceptual design on the basis of tokamak device in Russia. The conceptual design of FNS-ST has been completed in details (plasma current 1.5 MA, magnetic field 1.5 T, major radius 0.5 m, aspect ratio 1.67 and auxiliary heating power up to 15 MW) [1, 2]. A comparison of physical plasma parameters and economics for FNS-ST and a conventional tokamak FNS-CT (plasma current 1.5 MA, magnetic field 6.7 T, major radius 2.25 m, aspect ratio 3 and auxiliary heating power up to 30 MW) has been fulfilled [3]. This study suggested the feasibility to reach 1-20 MW of fusion power using these magnetic configuration options. Nevertheless, the efficiency of neutron production Q remains comparable for both due to the beam fusion input. The total ST-economics for the full project including operation and utilization costs is by a factor of 2 better than of CT. Zero [4] and one-dimensional [5] models have been developed and used in this system analysis. The characteristics of plasma confinement, stability and current drive in operation have been confirmed by numerous benchmarking simulations of modern experiments. Scenarios allowing us to reach and maintain steady state operation have been considered and optimized. The results of these studies will be presented. Prospective technical solutions for SSO-technology systems have been evaluated, and the choice of enabling technologies and materials of the basic FNS options has been made. A conceptual design of a thin-wall water cooled vacuum chamber for heat loadings up to 1.5 MW/m 2 has been fulfilled. The chamber consists of 2 mm Be tiles, pre-shaped CuCrZr 1 mm shell and 1 mm of stainless steel shell as a structural material. A concept of double-null divertor for FNS-ST has been offered that is capable to withstand heat fluxes up to 6 MW/m 2 . Lithium dust

  4. Role and use of nuclear theories and models in practical evaluation of neutron nuclear data needed for fission and fusion reactor design and other nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the various nuclear models used in the evaluation of neutron nuclear data for fission and fusion reactors is presented. Computer codes embodying the principles of the relevant nuclear models are compared with each other and with experimental data. The regions of validity and limitations of the conceptual formalisms are also included, along with the effects of the numerical procedures used in the codes themselves. Conclusions and recommendations for future demands are outlined.15 tables, 15 figures, 90 references

  5. The role and use of nuclear theories and models in practical evaluation of neutron nuclear data needed for fission and fusion reactor design and other nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the various nuclear models used in the evaluation of neutron nuclear data for fission and fusion reactors is presented. Computer codes embodying the principles of the relevant nuclear models are compared with each other and with experimental data. The regions of validity and limitations of the conceptual formalisms are also included, along with the effects of the numerical procedures used in the codes themselves. Conclusions and recommendations for future demands are outlined. (author)

  6. Nuclear irradiation parameters of beryllium under fusion, fission and IFMIF irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Chen, Y.; Leichtle, D.; Simakov, S.; Moeslang, A.; Vladimirov, P.

    2004-01-01

    A computational analysis is presented of the nuclear irradiation parameters for Beryllium under irradiation in typical neutron environments of fission and fusion reactors, and of the presently designed intense fusion neutron source IFMIF. The analysis shows that dpa and Tritium production rates at fusion relevant levels can be achieved with existing high flux fission reactors while the achievable Helium production is too low. The resulting He-Tritium and He/dpa ratios do not meet typical fusion irradiation conditions. Irradiation simulations in the medium flux test modules of the IFMIF neutron source facility were shown to be more suitable to match fusion typical irradiation conditions. To achieve sufficiently high production rates it is suggested to remove the creep-fatigue testing machine together with the W spectra shifter plate and move the tritium release module upstream towards the high flux test module. (author)

  7. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm 3 are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system

  8. New approach to description of fusion-fission dynamics in super-heavy element formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    A new mechanism of the fusion-fission process for a heavy nuclear system is proposed, which takes place in the (A 1 , A 2 ) space, where A 1 and A 2 are two nuclei, surrounded by a certain number of shared nucleons ΔA. The nuclei A 1 and A 2 gradually lose (or acquire) their individualities with increasing (or decreasing) a number of collectivized nucleons ΔA. The driving potential in the (A 1 , A 2 ) space is derived, which allows the calculation of both the probability of the compound nucleus formation and the mass distribution of fission and quasi-fission fragments in heavy ion fusion reactions. The cross sections of super-heavy element formation in the 'hot' and 'cold' fusion reactions have been calculated up to Z CN =118. (author)

  9. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed

  10. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  11. Multispecies exclusion process with fusion and fission of rods: A model inspired by intraflagellar transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Swayamshree; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a multispecies exclusion model where length-conserving probabilistic fusion and fission of the hard rods are allowed. Although all rods enter the system with the same initial length ℓ =1 , their length can keep changing, because of fusion and fission, as they move in a step-by-step manner towards the exit. Two neighboring hard rods of lengths ℓ1 and ℓ2 can fuse into a single rod of longer length ℓ =ℓ1+ℓ2 provided ℓ ≤N . Similarly, length-conserving fission of a rod of length ℓ'≤N results in two shorter daughter rods. Based on the extremum current hypothesis, we plot the phase diagram of the model under open boundary conditions utilizing the results derived for the same model under periodic boundary condition using mean-field approximation. The density profile and the flux profile of rods are in excellent agreement with computer simulations. Although the fusion and fission of the rods are motivated by similar phenomena observed in intraflagellar transport (IFT) in eukaryotic flagella, this exclusion model is too simple to account for the quantitative experimental data for any specific organism. Nevertheless, the concepts of "flux profile" and "transition zone" that emerge from the interplay of fusion and fission in this model are likely to have important implications for IFT and for other similar transport phenomena in long cell protrusions.

  12. Conceptual design of imploding liner fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.J.; Robson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The basic new ingredient is the concept of rotationally stabilized liquid metal liners accelerated with free pistons. The liner motion is constrained on its outer surface by the pistons, laterally by channel walls, during acceleration, and on its inner surface, where megagauss field levels are attained by the centrifugal motion of the liner material. In this way, stable, reversible motion of the liner should be possible, permitting repetitive, pulsed operation at interior pressures far greater than can be allowed in static conductor systems. Such higher operating pressures permit the use of simple plasma geometries, such as theta pinches, with greatly reduced dimensions. Furthermore, the implosion of thick, lithium-bearing liners with large radial compression ratios inherently provides the plasma with a surrounding blanket of neutron absorbing liquid metal, thereby substantially reducing the problems of induced radioactivity and first wall damage that haunt conventional fusion reactor designs. The following article discusses the basic operation of liner reactors and several important features influencing their design

  13. Conceptual design study of a scyllac fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1975-07-01

    The report describes a conceptual design study of a fusion test reactor based on the Scyllac toroidal theta-pinch approach to fusion. It is not the first attempt to describe the physics and technology required for demonstrating scientific feasibility of the approach, but it is the most complete design in the sense that the physics necessary to achieve the device goals is extrapolated from experimentally tested MHD theories of toroidal systems,and it uses technological systems whose engineering performance has been carefully calculated to ensure that they meet the machine requirements

  14. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant is extensively discussed. Recent advances in high gain targets are exploited in the design. A smaller blanket structure is made possible by use of a thick falling region of liquid lithium for a first wall. Major design features of the plant, reactor, and laser systems are described. A parametric analysis of performance and cost vs. design parameters is presented to show feasible design points. A more definitive follow-on conceptual design study is planned

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster fission and fusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2004-01-01

    Results of molecular dynamics simulations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ +Na_3^+ and Na_18^2+ --> 2Na_9^+ are presented. The dependence of the fission barriers on the isomer structure of the parent cluster is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the energy necessary for removing homothetic...... separation of the daughter fragments begins and/or forming a "neck" between the separating fragments. A novel algorithm for modeling the cluster growth process is described. This approach is based on dynamic search for the most stable cluster isomers and allows one to find the optimized cluster geometries...... groups of atoms from the parent cluster is largely independent of the isomer form of the parent cluster. The importance of rearrangement of the cluster structure during the fission process is elucidated. This rearrangement may include transition to another isomer state of the parent cluster before actual...

  16. Backtracing neutron analysis in the fusion-fission dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennand, E. de Goes; Hanappe, F.; Stuttge, L.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of multi parametric experimental data is used in the study of the dynamics of the fission process for the compound system 126 Ba. We apply this method to obtain the correlation between thermal energy related to the neutron total multiplicity and the correlation between pre-scission neutron and pos-scission neutron multiplicities. The results obtained are interpreted into the framework of a dynamical model. From this interpretation we have access to the following information: the friction intensity which drives the dynamical evolution of the system; the initial deformation of the compound system; the barrier evolution with temperature and angular momentum, and fission times. (author)

  17. Conceptual design of light ion beam inertia nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Light ion beam, inertia nuclear fusion system drew attention recently as one of the nuclear fusion systems for power reactors in the history of the research on nuclear fusion. Its beginning seemed to be the judgement that the implosion of fusion fuel pellets with light ions can be realized with the light ions which can be obtained in view of accelerator techniques. Of course, in order to generate practically usable nuclear fusion reaction by this system and maintain it, many technical difficulties must be overcome. This research was carried out for the purpose of discovering such technical problems and searching for their solution. At the time of doing the works, the following policy was adopted. Though their is the difference of fine and rough, the design of a whole reactor system is performed conformably. In order to make comparison with other reactor types and nuclear fusion systems, the design is carried out as the power plant of about one million kWe output. As the extent of the design, the works at conceptual design stage are performed to present the concept of design which satisfies the required function. Basically, the design is made from conservative standpoint. This research of design was started in 1981, and in fiscal 1982, the mutual adjustment among the design of respective parts was performed on the basis of the results in 1981, and the possible revision and new proposal were investigated. (Kako, I.)

  18. Fusability and fissionability in 86Kr induced reactions near and below the fusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisdorf, W.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hofmann, S.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Schneider, W.F.W.; Suemmerer, K.; Wirth, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Schlitt, K.; Sahm, C.C.

    1985-04-01

    Evaporation-residue excitation functions for the reactions 86 Kr + sup(70,76)Ge, sup(92,100)Mo, sup(99,102,104)Ru have been measured using activation methods and the velocity filter SHIP. The data span the region from well below the fusion barrier up to and beyond the energy where limitation by fission competition takes place. The data are shown to be compatible with the concept of complete fusion followed by the statistical decay of the equilibrated compound nucleus. Information on both the fusion probability at and below the fusion threshold and the fissionability of the compound nuclei formed is extracted. The model dependence of the extracted fission barriers is discussed in detail. In analogy to studies involving lighter projectiles, strong correlations between the low-energy nuclear-structure properties of the nuclei and the subbarrier fusion probability are found. A relative shift of the fusion barrier to higher energies, that increases with the number of valence neutrons in the target nuclei, is observed. (orig.)

  19. An optimized symbiotic fusion and molten-salt fission reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkin, V.L.; Novikov, V.M.

    A symbiotic fusion-fission reactor system which breeds nuclear fuel is discussed. In the blanket of the controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) uranium-233 is generated from thorium, which circulates in the form of ThF 4 mixed with molten sodium and beryllium fluorides. The molten-salt fission reactor (MSR) burns up the uranium-233 and generates tritium for the fusion reactor from lithium, which circulates in the form of LiF mixed with BeF 2 and 233 UF 4 through the MSR core. With a CTR-MSR thermal power ratio of 1:11 the system can produce electrical energy and breed fuel with a doubling time of 4-5 years. The system has the following special features: (1) Fuel reprocessing is much simpler and cheaper than for contemporary fission reactors; reprocessing consists simply in continuous removal of 233 U from the salt circulating in the CTR blanket by the fluorination method and removal of xenon from the MSR fuel salt by gas scavenging; the MSR fuel salt is periodically exchanged for fresh salt and the 233 U is then removed from it; (2) Tritium is produced in the fission reactor, which is a much simpler system than the fusion reactor; (3) The CTR blanket is almost ''clean''; no tritium is produced in it and fission fragment activity does not exceed the activity induced in the structural materials; (4) Almost all the thorium introduced into the CTR blanket can be used for producing 233 U

  20. Fission anisotropy of Tl produced in fusion reactions in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ... framework of the modified statistical model and the results were compared ... Later, it has been found that the fission times calculated using this model .... where P(K) = (T /hωeq) exp(−Veq/T) is the probability that the system is in a given K,.

  1. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong, S.A.; Tan, T.L.; Chen, C.-C.; Chang, W.-L.; Liu, Z.; Chew, L.Y.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Johnson, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting

  2. Study on conceptual design system of tritium production fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui

    2004-11-01

    Conceptual design of an advanced tritium production reactor based on spherical torus, which is intermediate application of fusion energy, was presented. Different from traditional tokamak tritium production reactor design, advanced plasma physics performance and compact structural characteristics of ST were used to minimize tritium leakage and to maximize tritium breeding ratio with arrangement of tritium production blankets as possible as it can within vacuum vessel in order to produce 1 kg excess tritium except self-sufficient plasma core, corresponding plant availability 40% or more. Based on 2D neutronics calculation, preliminary conceptual design of ST-TPR was presented. Besides systematical analyses; design risk, uncertainty and backup are introduced generally for the backgrounds of next detailed conceptual design. (author)

  3. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in

  4. Comparison of material irradiation conditions for fusion, spallation, stripping and fission neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2004-01-01

    Selection and development of materials capable of sustaining irradiation conditions expected for a future fusion power reactor remain a big challenge for material scientists. Design of other nuclear facilities either in support of the fusion materials testing program or for other scientific purposes presents a similar problem of irradiation resistant material development. The present study is devoted to an evaluation of the irradiation conditions for IFMIF, ESS, XADS, DEMO and typical fission reactors to provide a basis for comparison of the data obtained for different material investigation programs. The results obtained confirm that no facility, except IFMIF, could fit all user requirements imposed for a facility for simulation of the fusion irradiation conditions

  5. Synergies in the design and development of fusion and generation IV fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Carre, F.; Knebel, J.; Aoto, K.

    2007-01-01

    Future fusion reactors or systems and Generation IV fission reactors are designed and developed in worldwide programmes mostly involving the same partners to investigate and assess their potential for realisation and contribution to meet the future energy needs beyond 2030. Huge scientific and financial effort is necessary to meet these objectives. First programmes have been launched in Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for fission and in the Broader Approach for fusion reactor system development. Except the physics basis for the energy source, future fusion and fission reactors, in particular those with fast neutron core face similar design issues and development needs. Therefore the call for the identification of synergies became evident. Beyond ITER cooled by water, future fusion reactors or systems will be designed for helium and liquid metal cooling and higher temperatures similar to those proposed for some of the six fission reactor concepts in GIF with their diverse coolants. Beside materials developments which are not discussed in this paper, design and performance of components and systems related to the diverse coolants including lifetime and maintenance aspects might offer significant potentials for synergies. Furthermore, the use of process heat for applications in addition to electricity production as well as their safety approaches might create synergistic design and development programmes. Therefore an early identification of possible synergies in the relevant programmes should be endorsed to minimise the effort for future power plants in terms of investments and resources. In addition to a general overview of a possible synergistic work programme which promotes the interaction between fusion and fission programmes towards an integrated organisation of their design and R and D programmes, some specific remarks will be given for joint design tools, numerical code systems and joint experiments in support of common technologies. (orig.)

  6. Synergies in the design and development of fusion and generation IV fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Carre, F.; Knebel, J.U.; Aoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    Future fusion reactor and Generation IV fission reactor systems are designed and developed in worldwide programmes to investigate and assess their potential for realisation and contribution to the future energy needs beyond 2030 mostly involving the same partners. Huge scientific and financial effort is necessary to meet these objectives. First programmes have been launched in Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for fission and in the Broader Approach for fusion reactor system development. Except for the physics basis for the energy source, future fusion and fission reactors, in particular those with fast neutron core, face similar design issues and development needs. Therefore, the call for the identification of synergies became evident. Beyond ITER cooled by water, future fusion reactor systems will be designed for high-temperature helium and liquid metal cooling but also water including supercritical water and molten salt similar to those proposed for some of the six fission reactor concepts in GIF with their diverse coolants. Beside materials developments which are not discussed in this paper, design and performance of components and systems related to the diverse coolants including lifetime and maintenance aspects might offer significant potentials for synergies. Furthermore, the use of process heat for applications in addition to electricity production as well as their safety approaches can create synergistic design and development programmes. Therefore, an early identification of possible synergies in the relevant programmes should be endorsed to minimise the effort for future power plants in terms of investments and resources. In addition to a general overview of a possible synergistic work programme which promotes the interaction between fusion and fission programmes towards an integrated organisation of their design and R and D programmes, some specific remarks will be given for joint design tools, numerical code systems and joint experiments in

  7. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report

  8. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report.

  9. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements

  10. Conceptual design study for a mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Deng Boquan; Li Guiqing

    1986-01-01

    A mirror fusion breeder, CHD, has been designed for providing plenty of nuclear fuel for light water reactors to meet the needs for rapid development of nuclear power in the first half of next century. The breeder is able to support the nuclear fuel needs for more than 10 LWRs of equal scale in power with fuel enriched directly in CHD without reprocessing. Measures are taken to flatten the power density distribution in the blanket so that fission is suppressed in the region close to the plasma, and by this way fuel production is enhanced for this direct enriched fusion breeder. In order to reduce the MHD pressure drop, LiPb flows in the blanket axially. Though the tritium inventory in the reactor is very low, special material and design have to be developed to reduce the permeation of tritium through the coolant pipes. The cost of electricity from the system, consisting of 11 LWR plants and one fusion breeder is predicted to be 1.05 times of that from a traditional LWR plant. This figure is insensitive both to the cost of CHD and its support ratio

  11. Conceptual design of the SlimCS fusion DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji; Nishio, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Nishitani, Takeo; Isono, Takaaki; Sakurai, Shinji; Kurita, Genichi; Hayashi, Takao; Oyama, Naoyuki; Liu Changle; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Inoue, Takashi; Ozeki, Takahisa; Sato, Masayasu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Ezato, Koichiro; Tsuru, Daigo; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Sakamoto, Keiji; Ando, Masami; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Shibama, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takechi, Manabu; Takahashi, Koji; Hirose, Takanori; Sato, Satoru; Nozawa, Takashi; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Ide, Shunsuke; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Honda, Mitsuru; Nakamichi, Masaru; Nishi, Hiroshi; Seki, Yoji; Nakamura, Yukiharu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Yoshida, Tohru; Song Yuntao

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the results of the conceptual design study of the SlimCS fusion DEMO reactor aiming at demonstrating fusion power production in a plant scale and allowing to assess the economic prospects of a fusion power plant. The design study has focused on a compact and low aspect ratio tokamak reactor concept with a reduced-sized central solenoid, which is novel compared with previous tokamak reactor concept such as SSTR (Steady State Tokamak Reactor). Owing to low aspect ratio, the reactor will be capable of having comparatively high beta limit and high elongation (which can elevate the Greenwald density limit), having potential for high power density. The reactor has the main parameters of a major radius of 5.5 m, aspect ratio of 2.6, elongation of 2.0, normalized beta of 4.3, fusion out put of 2.95 GW and average neutron wall load of 3 MW/m 2 . This report covers various aspects of design study including systematic design, physics design, torus configuration, blanket, superconducting magnet, maintenance and building, which were carried out increase the engineering feasibility of the concept. (author)

  12. Conceptual design of laser fusion reactor KOYO-fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, K.; Kozaki, Y.; Norimatsu, T.

    2006-01-01

    A conceptual design of the laser fusion reactor KOYO-F based on the fast ignition scheme is reported including the target design, the laser system and the design for chamber. A Yb-YAG ceramic laser operated at 200 K is the primary candidate for the compression laser and an OPCPA (optical parametric chirped pulse amplification) system is the one for the ignition laser. The chamber is basically a wet wall type but the fire position is vertically off-set to simplify the protection scheme of the ceiling. The target consists of foam insulated, cryogenic DT shells with a LiPb, reentrant guide-cone. (authors)

  13. Application of uncertainty analysis in conceptual fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Maynard, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The theories of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described and applied to a new conceptual tokamak fusion reactor design--NUWMAK. The responses investigated in this study include the tritium breeding ratio, first wall Ti dpa and gas productions, nuclear heating in the blanket, energy leakage to the magnet, and the dpa rate in the superconducting magnet aluminum stabilizer. The sensitivities and uncertainties of these responses are calculated. The cost/benefit feature of proposed integral measurements is also studied through the uncertainty reductions of these responses

  14. Conceptual design of the JAERI demonstration fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, K.; Tone, T.; Seki, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design of a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor is carried out. This design is an extended and improved version of the previous design which was presented at the 5th IAEA Conference. The main design parameters are as follows: the reactor thermal power 2000 MW, torus radius 10.5 m, plasma radius 2.7 m, first wall radius 3.0 m, toroidal magnetic field on axis 6T, blanket fertile material Li 2 O, coolant He, structural material Mo-alloy and tritium breeding ratio 1.2

  15. DEMO and fusion power plant conceptual studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, David; Cook, Iau; Pierre, Sardain; Lorenzo, Boccaccini; Luigi, Di Pace; Luciano, Giancarli; Prachai, Norajitra; Aldo, Pizzuto

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) four fusion power plant 'models' have been developed. Two of these models were developed considering limited extrapolations both in physics and in technology. For the two other models, advanced physics scenarios have been identified and combined with advanced blanket concepts that allow higher thermodynamic efficiencies of the power conversion systems. For all the PPCS models, systems analyses were used to integrate the plasma physics and technology constraints to produce self-consistent plant parameter sets. The broad features of the conclusions of previous studies on safety, environmental impact and economics have been confirmed for the new models and demonstrated with increased confidence. The PPCS also helps in the definition of the objectives and in the identification of the design drivers of DEMO, i.e. the device between the next step (ITER) and a first-of-a-kind reactor. These will constitute the basis of the European DEMO Conceptual Study that has recently started

  16. Roles of plasma neutron source reactor in development of fusion reactor engineering: Comparison with fission reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Shoichi; Kawabe, Takaya

    1995-01-01

    The history of development of fusion power reactor has come to a turning point, where the main research target is now shifting from the plasma heating and confinement physics toward the burning plasma physics and reactor engineering. Although the development of fusion reactor system is the first time for human beings, engineers have experience of development of fission power reactor. The common feature between them is that both are plants used for the generation of nuclear reactions for the production of energy, nucleon, and radiation on an industrial scale. By studying the history of the development of the fission reactor, one can find the existence of experimental neutron reactors including irradiation facilities for fission reactor materials. These research neutron reactors played very important roles in the development of fission power reactors. When one considers the strategy of development of fusion power reactors from the points of fusion reactor engineering, one finds that the fusion neutron source corresponds to the neutron reactor in fission reactor development. In this paper, the authors discuss the roles of the plasma-based neutron source reactors in the development of fusion reactor engineering, by comparing it with the neutron reactors in the history of fission power development, and make proposals for the strategy of the fusion reactor development. 21 refs., 6 figs

  17. Investigation of lanthanides as neutron multipliers for hybrid and fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Sumer

    1982-01-01

    The neutronic performance of three lanthanides ( 149 Sm, europium, and gadolinium) as neutron multiplier for the blanket of a fusion-fission (hybrid) and a pure fusion reactor has been evaluated and compared with that of beryllium and lead. During the calculations, the fission zone is made up of UO 2 rods from the LOTUS experimental hybrid facility now under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. In fusion blanket the fuel zone is replaced by pure lithium. The calculations were performed for two different boundary conditions for the left boundary: (a) reflecting, representative of a typical confinement geometry, and (b) vacuum, which represents a typical blanket experiment in plane geometry. For a vacuum left boundary, threshold reactions are reduced by a factor of about 2 while 1/v-type reactions are decreased by a factor of between 5 and 10, as a consequence of the softer spectrum produced by a reflecting left boundary. In general, the results, notably tritium breeding and energy multiplication, are comparable for the lanthanide multipliers and for beryllium and lead if the left boundary is a vacuum. The use of 149 Sm is slightly less effective than europium or gadolinium and all of the lanthanides perform better for a vacuum left boundary than for the reflecting case. The analyses presented here also illustrate the importance of potential spectral shifts that can occur as the result of experimental exigencies

  18. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.; Beach, R.; Blink, J.; Caird, J.; Erlandson, A.; Farmer, J.; Halsey, W.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; MacIntyre, A.; Miles, R.; Storm, E.

    2008-01-01

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R and D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost

  19. Simulation of fusion first-wall environment in a fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    A novel concept to produce a realistic simulation of a fusion first-wall test environment has been proposed recently. This concept takes advantage of the (/eta/, α) reaction in 59 Ni to produce a high internal helium content in the metal while using the 3 He (/eta/, /rho/)T reaction in the gas surrounding the specimen to produce an external heat and particle flux. Models to calculate heat flux, erosion rate, implantation, and damage rate to the walls of the test module are presented. Preliminary results show that a number of important fusion technology issues could be tested experimentally in a fission reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor

  20. Mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins as novel therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Kalkhoran, Siavash Beikoghli; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A.; Hausenloy, Derek?J.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of exciting developments in the field of mitochondrial dynamics - a phenomenon in which changes in mitochondrial shape and movement impact on cellular physiology and pathology. By undergoing fusion and fission, mitochondria are able to change their morphology between elongated interconnected networks and discrete fragmented structures, respectively. The cardiac mitochondria, in particular, have garnered much interest due to their unique spatial arrangeme...

  1. Evaluation of divertor conceptual designs for a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.; Giancarli, L.; Kleefeldt, K.; Nardi, C.; Roedig, M.; Reimann, J.; Salavy, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the preliminary study of plants suitable for the energy production from the fusion power, particular emphasis has been given on the divertor studies. Since a significant percentage of the power generated from the fusion process is absorbed in the divertor, the thermal efficiency of the power conversion cycle requires a high coolant outlet temperature of the divertor, leading to solutions that are different from those adopted for the present experimental fusion plants. Therefore, copper alloys having extremely high thermal conductivity, cannot be used as structural material for this kind of devices. The most suitable coolants to be used in the divertor are water, helium and liquid metals. A conceptual design study has been developed for each of these three fluids, with the aim to evaluate the maximum allowable thermal flux at the divertor target plate and the R and D requirements for each solution. While a water-cooled divertor can be designed with a limited R and D effort, the development of helium or liquid metal cooled divertors requires a more engaging R and D program

  2. Fusion or Fission: The Destiny of Mitochondria In Traumatic Brain Injury of Different Severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Valentina; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Amorini, Angela Maria; Signoretti, Stefano; Hill, Lisa J; Porto, Edoardo; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio

    2017-08-23

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by a complex system of proteins representing the mitochondrial quality control (MQC). MQC balances antagonistic forces of fusion and fission determining mitochondrial and cell fates. In several neurological disorders, dysfunctional mitochondria show significant changes in gene and protein expression of the MQC and contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms of cell damage. In this study, we evaluated the main gene and protein expression involved in the MQC in rats receiving traumatic brain injury (TBI) of different severities. At 6, 24, 48 and 120 hours after mild TBI (mTBI) or severe TBI (sTBI), gene and protein expressions of fusion and fission were measured in brain tissue homogenates. Compared to intact brain controls, results showed that genes and proteins inducing fusion or fission were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in mTBI, but downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in sTBI. In particular, OPA1, regulating inner membrane dynamics, cristae remodelling, oxidative phosphorylation, was post-translationally cleaved generating differential amounts of long and short OPA1 in mTBI and sTBI. Corroborated by data referring to citrate synthase, these results confirm the transitory (mTBI) or permanent (sTBI) mitochondrial dysfunction, enhancing MQC importance to maintain cell functions and indicating in OPA1 an attractive potential therapeutic target for TBI.

  3. Tensile property changes of metals and irradiated to low doses with fission, fusion and spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Hamilton, M.L.; Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of the neutron energy spectrum in low dose irradiations on the microstructures and mechanical properties of metals. Radiation effects due to low doses of spallation neutrons are compared directly to those produced by fission and fusion neutrons. Yield stress changes of pure Cu, alumina-dispersion-strengthened Cu and AISI 316 stainless steel irradiated at 36-55 C in the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) are compared with earlier results of irradiations at 90 C using 14 MeV D-T fusion neutrons at the Rotating Target Neutron Source and fission reactor neutrons in the Omega West Reactor. At doses up to 0.04 displacements per atom (dpa), the yield stress changes due to the three quite different neutron spectra correlate well on the basis of dpa in the stainless steel and the Cu alloy. However, in pure Cu, the measured yield stress changes due to spallation neutrons were anomalously small and should be verified by additional irradiations. With the exception of pure Cu, the low dose, low temperature experiments reveal no fundamental differences in radiation hardening by fission, fusion or spallation neutrons when compared on the basis of dpa

  4. Physics of Fission and Fusion for the Diagnostics and Monitoring of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2015-03-01

    The physics of fission and fusion has been well known for the past several decades. It has been used primarily for destructive purposes (e. g., nuclear armaments) with both processes. However for peaceful purposes, e. g., generation of energy, only fission has been used, but not yet fusion. It is also well known that the deadliest illness of mankind is the group of illnesses called mental illnesses. A large segment of the world population is afflicted by them causing more loss of human lives, destruction of families, businesses and overall economy than all the other illnesses combined. Despite outstanding advancements in medical research and huge investments, unfortunately no diagnostic techniques have yet been found which can characterize the patient's mental illness. Consequently, no quantitative monitoring techniques are available to evaluate the efficacy of the various medicines used to treat the patients, and to develop them in the pharmaceutical labs. The purpose of this paper is to apply the constructive aspects of fission and fusion to identify the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Each patient is a unique human being, not a disease or a group of symptoms. This makes it even more difficult to treat the patients suffering from mental illnes

  5. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Luisa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sergio; Delicado, Ana [Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Anibal de Bettencourt, 9 1600-189 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly dissociated from traditional nuclear (fission) energy and from nuclear accidents. It tends to be portrayed as a safe, clean and unlimited source of energy, although less credited when confronted with research costs, technological feasibility and the possibility to be achieved in a reasonable period of time. On the contrary, fission is portrayed as a hazardous source of energy, expensive when compared to research costs of renewables, hardly a long-term energy option, susceptible to contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or rogue military use. Fukushima accident was consistently discussed in the context of safety problems of nuclear power plants and in many cases appeared not as an isolated event but rather as a reminder of previous nuclear disasters such as Three Miles Island and Chernobyl. (authors)

  6. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Luisa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sergio; Delicado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly dissociated from traditional nuclear (fission) energy and from nuclear accidents. It tends to be portrayed as a safe, clean and unlimited source of energy, although less credited when confronted with research costs, technological feasibility and the possibility to be achieved in a reasonable period of time. On the contrary, fission is portrayed as a hazardous source of energy, expensive when compared to research costs of renewables, hardly a long-term energy option, susceptible to contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or rogue military use. Fukushima accident was consistently discussed in the context of safety problems of nuclear power plants and in many cases appeared not as an isolated event but rather as a reminder of previous nuclear disasters such as Three Miles Island and Chernobyl. (authors)

  7. Recent developments in the design of conceptual fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribe, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    Since the first round of conceptual fusion reactor designs in 1973 - 1974, there has been considerable progress in design improvement. Two recent tokamak designs of the Wisconsin and Culham groups, with increased plasma beta and wall loading (power density), lead to more compact reactors with easier maintenance. The Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor has undergone considerable upgrading in the design of the first wall insulator and blanket. In addition, a conceptual homopolar energy storage and transfer system has been designed. In the case of the mirror reactor, there are design changes toward improved modular construction and ease of handling, as well as improved direct converters. Conceptual designs of toroidal-multiple-mirror, liner-compression, and reverse-field pinch reactors are also discussed. A design is presented of a toroidal multiple-mirror reactor that combines the advantages of steady-state operation and high-aspect ratio. The liner-compression reactor eliminates a major problem of radiation damage by using a liquid-metal first wall that also serves as a neutron-thermalizing blanket. The reverse-field pinch reactor operates at higher beta, larger current density and larger aspect ratio than a tokamak reactor. These properties allow the possibility of ignition by ohmic heating alone and greater ease of maintenance

  8. Nuclear fusion and fission, and related technologies department: 2007 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    ENEA continues to contribute to broadening plasma physics knowledge as well as to developing the relevant technologies in the framework of the EURATOM-ENEA Association for fusion. This report describes the 2007 research activities carried out by the ENEA Fusion Research Group of the Nuclear Fusion and Fission, and Related Technologies Department (FPN). Other ENEA research groups also contributed to the activities. The following fields were addressed: magnetically confined nuclear fusion (physics and technology), superconductivity and inertial fusion. Planning of the 2007 fusion activities took into account the different scenarios determined by the new organisation of the European programme based on the start of ITER construction. The establishment of the ITER International Organisation and the European Domestic Agency (Fusion for Energy) required a new organisational scheme. This has implied not only the implementation of a more project oriented structure but also the need to launch the constitution of a consortium agreement between the Associations in order to cope with the needs for the design and construction of the components of ITER that require specific know-how, e.g., diagnostics and test blanket module

  9. Conceptual design studies of experimental and demonstration fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Since 1973 the FINTOR Group has been involved in conceptual design studies of TOKAMAK-type fusion reactors to precede the construction of a prototype power reactor plant. FINTOR-1 was the first conceptual design aimed at investigating the main physics and engineering constraints on a minimum-size (both dimensions and thermal power) tokamak experimental reactor. The required plasma energy confinement time as evaluated by various power balance models was compared with the values resulting from different transport models. For the reference design, an energy confinement time ten times smaller than neoclassical was assumed. This also implied a rather high (thermally stable) working temperature (above 20 keV) for the reactor. Other relevant points of the design were: circular plasma cross section, single-null axisymmetric divertor; lithium breeder, stainless steel structures, helium coolant; modular blanket and shield structure; copper-stabilized, superconducting Nb-Ti toroidal field and divertor coils; vertical field and transformer coils inside the toroidal coils; vacuum-tight containment vessel. Solutions involving air and iron transformer cores were compared. These assumptions led to a minimum size reactor with a thermal power of about 100MW and rather large dimensions (major radius of about 9m) similar to those of full-scale power reactors considered in other conceptual studies. The FINTOR-1 analysis was completed by the end of 1976. In 1977 a conceptual design of a Demonstration Power Reactor Plant (FINTOR-D) was started. In this study the main working assumptions differing from those of FINTOR-1 are: non-circular plasma cross section; plasma confinement compatible with trapped ion instabilities; cold (gas) blanket sufficient for wall protection (no divertor); wall loading between 1-3MW/m 2 and thermal power of a few GW. (author)

  10. Aluminium vacuum vessel/first surface conceptual design for a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR) vacuum vessel/first surface system which satisfies the engineering requirements for a commercial environment. An important distinction between the design constraints associated with 'pure' fusion and fusion-fission hybrid power reactors is that energy extraction from the first wall is not critical from the point of view of hybrid system economics. This allows the consideration of low temperature structural material for first wall application. The mechanical arrangement consists of a series of internally finned aluminium tube banks running poloidally around the torus. The coolant manifolds are at the top and bottom of the torus. The vessel is divided into sectors, the length of which depends on the spacing between TF coils. The tubes in each sector are welded to tube sheets which are in turn welded to semi-cylindrical manifolds which distribute the coolant uniformly to the tubes. The tubes, which are approx. equal to 2.5 cm in diameter at the manifold location, traverse the torus poloidal periphery and change from a circular cross section to a 2:1 elliptical cross section at the horizontal midplane. The arched tube is designed to be self-supporting between the manifold locations. The vacuum vessel's first surface will be plasma flamed sprayed aluminum applied to the tubular wall. (orig./GG)

  11. Block-free optical quantum Banyan network based on quantum state fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chang-Hua; Meng Yan-Hong; Quan Dong-Xiao; Zhao Nan; Pei Chang-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Optical switch fabric plays an important role in building multiple-user optical quantum communication networks. Owing to its self-routing property and low complexity, a banyan network is widely used for building switch fabric. While, there is no efficient way to remove internal blocking in a banyan network in a classical way, quantum state fusion, by which the two-dimensional internal quantum states of two photons could be combined into a four-dimensional internal state of a single photon, makes it possible to solve this problem. In this paper, we convert the output mode of quantum state fusion from spatial-polarization mode into time-polarization mode. By combining modified quantum state fusion and quantum state fission with quantum Fredkin gate, we propose a practical scheme to build an optical quantum switch unit which is block free. The scheme can be extended to building more complex units, four of which are shown in this paper. (general)

  12. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryusei; Kashihara, Shin-ichiro; Itoh, Shin-ichi

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the results of conceptual design study on plant systems for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY86 FER). Design studies for FER plant systems have been continued from FY85, especially for design modifications made in accordance with revisions of plasma scaling parameters and system improvements. This report describes 1) system construction, 2) site and reactor building plan, 3) repaire and maintenance system, 4) tritium circulation system, 5) heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, 6) tritium clean-up system, 7) cooling and baking system, 8) waste treatment and storage system, 9) control system, 10) electric power system, 11) site factory plan, all of which are a part of FY86 design work. The plant systems described in this report generally have been based on the FY86 FER (ACS Reactor) which is an one of the six candidates for FER. (author)

  13. A conceptual design of LIB fusion reactor: UTLIF(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Kondo, Shunsuke; Iwata, Shuichi; Oka, Yoshiaki; Miya, Kenzo.

    1984-01-01

    UTLIF(2) is a conceptual design study on a light ion beam driven fusion reactor based on a concept of rod-bundle blanket. Survivability and maintainability of the first wall and the blanket are regarded as of major importance in the design. The blanket rod is composed of a thick tube which has enough stiffness, a thin wrapping wall which receives high heat flux, and liquid lithium which breeds tritium and removes generated heat. The rod can be pulled out from the outside of the reactor vessel, hence the replacement is very easy. Nuclear and thermal analysis have been made and the performance of the reactor has been shown to be satisfactory. (author)

  14. Study of transfer induced fission and fusion-fission reactions for 28 Si + 232 Th system at 340 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Fioretto, E.; Cinausero, M.; Shetty, D.V.; Pesente, S.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Vardaci, E.; Boiano, A.; Ordine, A.; Gelli, N.; Lucarelli, F.; Bortignon, P.F.; Saxena, A.; Nayak, B.K.; Biswas, D.C.; Choudhury, R.K.; Kapoor, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    and fusion-fission reactions. We have extracted the ratio of yield of transfer induced fission events to the singles yield of transfer products observed at grazing angle for different Z of ejectiles (PLF). It is seen that transfer induced fission yield increases with increasing Z transfer up to DZ = 4 and then becomes flat and starts to decrease for higher Z-transfers. This may indicate the onset of other processes which inhibit the fission; projectile break-up may be responsible for lowering the transfer of excitation energy and angular momentum to the fissioning system or the evaporation of charged particles may promptly reduce the excitation energy of the compound system which survive fission. This has been investigated looking at PLF in coincidence with protons, a particles, fission and target-like fragments. We have also analyzed the neutron energy spectra for the fusion-fission reaction obtained after correcting for the neutron detector efficiency. Fourteen laboratory neutron energy spectra for various fission-neutron correlation angles were simultaneously fitted with three moving sources. The results show a post- and pre-scission temperature of about 1.0 MeV and 2.24 MeV respectively, comparable to that observed in others low energy measurements and consistent with the compound nuclear excitation energy of 218 MeV, assuming a level density parameter a =A/8 MeV-1. (Author)

  15. LIBRA - a light ion beam fusion conceptual reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, B.; Moses, G.A.; Engelstad, R.L.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Peterson, R.R.; Sawan, M.E.; Sviatovslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Cook, D.L.; Olson, R.E.; Stinnett, R.W.; Ehrhardt, J.; Kessler, G.; Stein, E.

    1990-08-01

    The LIBRA light ion beam fusion commercial reactor study is a self-consistent conceptual design of a 330 MWe power plant with an accompanying economic analysis. Fusion targets are imploded by 4 MJ shaped pulses of 30 MeV Li ions at a rate of 3 Hz. The target gain is 80, leading to a yield of 320 MJ. The high intensity part of the ion pulse is delivered by 16 diodes through 16 separate z-pinch plasma channels formed in 100 torr of helium with trace amounts of lithium. The blanket is an array of porous flexible silicon carbind tubes with Li 17 Pb 83 flowing downward through them. These tubes (INPORT units) shield the target chamber wall from both neutron damage and the shock overpressure of the target explosion. The target chamber is 'self-pumped' by the target explosion generated overpressure into a surge tank partially filled with Li 17 Pb 83 that surrounds the target chamber. This scheme refreshes the chamber at the desired 3 Hz frequently without excessive pumping demands. The blanket multiplication is 1.2 and the tritium breeding ratio is 1.4. The direct capital cost of a 331 MWe LIBRA design is estimated to be 2843 Dollar/kWe while a 1200 MWe LIBRA design will cost approximately 1300 Dollar/kWe. (orig.) [de

  16. Disentangling association patterns in fission-fusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Getz, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare the conclusions resulting from traditional methods with those of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach suggested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four different ‘herds’ with adult males only peripherally associated with mixed herds. Our FDI method indicated that association decisions of adult males appeared random, but those of other sex and age categories were nonrandom, particularly when we included the fission events associated with adult males. Furthermore, the amount of time that individuals spent together was only weakly correlated with their propensity to remain together during fission events. We conclude with a discussion of the applicability of the FDI to other studies.

  17. Calculation of high-dimensional fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces in the SHE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira

    2004-01-01

    We calculate in a macroscopic-microscopic model fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces relevant to the analysis of heavy-ion reactions employed to form heavy-element evaporation residues. We study these multidimensional potential-energy surfaces both inside and outside the touching point.Inside the point of contact we define the potential on a multi-million-point grid in 5D deformation space where elongation, merging projectile and target spheroidal shapes, neck radius and projectile/target mass asymmetry are independent shape variables. The same deformation space and the corresponding potential-energy surface also describe the shape evolution from the nuclear ground-state to separating fragments in fission, and the fast-fission trajectories in incomplete fusion.For separated nuclei we study the macroscopic-microscopic potential energy, that is the ''collision surface'' between a spheroidally deformed target and a spheroidally deformed projectile as a function of three coordinates which are: the relative location of the projectile center-of-mass with respect to the target center-of-mass and the spheroidal deformations of the target and the projectile. We limit our study to the most favorable relative positions of target and projectile, namely that the symmetry axes of the target and projectile are collinear

  18. Materials degradation in fission reactors: Lessons learned of relevance to fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Gary S.

    2007-01-01

    The management of materials in power reactor systems has become a critically important activity in assuring the safe, reliable and economical operation of these facilities. Over the years, the commercial nuclear power reactor industry has faced numerous 'surprises' and unexpected occurrences in materials. Mitigation strategies have sometimes solved one problem at the expense of creating another. Other problems have been solved successfully and have motivated the development of techniques to foresee problems before they occur. This paper focuses on three aspects of fission reactor experience that may benefit future fusion systems. The first is identification of parameters and processes that have had a large impact on the behavior of materials in fission systems such as temperature, dose rate, surface condition, gradients, metallurgical variability and effects of the environment. The second is the development of materials performance and failure models to provide a basis for assuring component integrity. Last is the development of proactive materials management programs that identify and pre-empt degradation processes before they can become problems. These aspects of LWR experience along with the growing experience with materials in the more demanding advanced fission reactor systems form the basis for a set of 'lessons learned' to aid in the successful management of materials in fusion reactor systems

  19. Dynamical fission life-times deduced from gamma-ray emission observed in the fusion-fission reaction : Ne-20 on Bi-209.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderPloeg, H; Bacelar, JCS; Buda, A; Dioszegi, [No Value; vantHof, G; vanderWoude, A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission spectra between 4 and 20 MeV have been measured for the fusion-fission reactions Ne-20 on Bi-209 --> Np-229* at beam energies 150, 186 and 220 MeV. In addition for the latter experiment the angular dependence of the gamma-ray emission with respect to the spin axis has been

  20. Cluster expression in fission and fusion in high-dimensional macroscopic-microscopic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Moller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces of very heavy nuclei and the formation process of these nuclei in cold-fusion reactions. In the potential-energy surfaces, we find a pronounced valley structure, with one valley corresponding to the cold-fusion reaction, the other to fission. As the touching point is approached in the cold-fusion entrance channel, an instability towards dynamical deformation of the projectile occurs, which enhances the fusion cross section. These two 'cluster effects' enhance the production of superheavy nuclei in cold-fusion reactions, in addition to the effect of the low compound-system excitation energy in these reactions. Heavy-ion fusion reactions have been used extensively to synthesize heavy elements beyond actinide nuclei. In order to proceed further in this direction, we need to understand the formation process more precisely, not just the decay process. The dynamics of the formation process are considerably more complex than the dynamics necessary to interpret the spontaneous-fission decay of heavy elements. However, before implementing a full dynamical description it is useful to understand the basic properties of the potential-energy landscape encountered in the initial stages of the collision. The collision process and entrance-channel landscape can conveniently be separated into two parts, namely the early-stage separated system before touching and the late-stage composite system after touching. The transition between these two stages is particularly important, but not very well understood until now. To understand better the transition between the two stages we analyze here in detail the potential energy landscape or 'collision surface' of the system both outside and inside the touching configuration of the target and projectile. In Sec. 2, we discuss calculated five-dimensional potential-energy landscapes inside touching and identify major features. In Sec. 3, we present calculated

  1. HYPERFUSE: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.) that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  2. Hyper fuse: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with a target in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14 MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions [e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.] that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  3. Conceptual design of a mirror reactor for a fusion engineering research facility (FERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Burleigh, R.C.; Carlson, G.A.; Dexter, W.L.; Hamilton, G.W.; Harvey, A.R.; Hickman, R.G.; Hoffman, M.A.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.; Moir, R.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Pittenger, L.C.; Smith, B.H.; Taylor, C.E.; Werner, R.W.; Wilcox, T.P.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a small mirror fusion reactor for a Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF). The reactor produces 3.4 MW of fusion power and a useful neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Superconducting ''yin-yang'' coils are used, and the plasma is sustained by injection of energetic neutral D 0 and T 0 . Conceptual layouts are given for the reactor, its major components, and supporting facilities. (author)

  4. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  5. Advanced Computational Materials Science: Application to Fusion and Generation IV Fission Reactors (Workshop Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, RE

    2004-07-15

    The ''Workshop on Advanced Computational Materials Science: Application to Fusion and Generation IV Fission Reactors'' was convened to determine the degree to which an increased effort in modeling and simulation could help bridge the gap between the data that is needed to support the implementation of these advanced nuclear technologies and the data that can be obtained in available experimental facilities. The need to develop materials capable of performing in the severe operating environments expected in fusion and fission (Generation IV) reactors represents a significant challenge in materials science. There is a range of potential Gen-IV fission reactor design concepts and each concept has its own unique demands. Improved economic performance is a major goal of the Gen-IV designs. As a result, most designs call for significantly higher operating temperatures than the current generation of LWRs to obtain higher thermal efficiency. In many cases, the desired operating temperatures rule out the use of the structural alloys employed today. The very high operating temperature (up to 1000 C) associated with the NGNP is a prime example of an attractive new system that will require the development of new structural materials. Fusion power plants represent an even greater challenge to structural materials development and application. The operating temperatures, neutron exposure levels and thermo-mechanical stresses are comparable to or greater than those for proposed Gen-IV fission reactors. In addition, the transmutation products created in the structural materials by the high energy neutrons produced in the DT plasma can profoundly influence the microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of these materials. Although the workshop addressed issues relevant to both Gen-IV and fusion reactor materials, much of the discussion focused on fusion; the same focus is reflected in this report. Most of the physical models and computational methods

  6. Activation and Radiation Damage Behaviour of Russian Structural Materials for Fusion Reactors in the Fission and Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.; Demin, N.; Chernov, V.; Leonteva-Smirnova, M.; Potapenko, M.

    2006-01-01

    Various structural low (reduced) activated materials have been proposed as a candidate for the first walls-blankets of fusion reactors. One of the main problems connected with using these materials - to minimise the production of long-lived radionuclides from nuclear transmutations and to provide with good technological and functional properties. The selection of materials and their metallurgical and fabrication technologies for fusion reactor components is influenced by this factor. Accurate prediction of induced radioactivity is necessary for the development of the fusion reactor materials. Low activated V-Ti-Cr alloys and reduced activated ferritic-martensitic steels are a leading candidate material for fusion first wall and blanket applications. At the present time a range of compositions and an impurity level are still being investigated to better understand the sensitive of various functional and activation properties to small compositional variations and impurity level. For the two types of materials mentioned above (V-Ti-Cr alloys and 9-12 % Cr f/m steels) and manufactured in Russia (Russia technologies) the analysis of induced activity, hydrogen and helium-production as well as the accumulation of such elements as C, N, O, P, S, Zn and Sn as a function of irradiation time was performed. Materials '' were irradiated '' by fission (BN-600, BOR-60) and fusion (Russian DEMO-C Reactor Project) typical neutron spectra with neutron fluency up to 10 22 n/cm 2 and the cooling time up to 1000 years. The calculations of the transmutation of elements and the induced radioactivity were carried out using the FISPACT inventory code, and the different activation cross-section libraries like the ACDAM, FENDL-2/A and the decay data library FENDL-2/D. It was shown that the level of impurities controls a long-term behaviour of induced activity and contact dose rate for materials. From this analysis the concentration limits of impurities were obtained. The generation of gas

  7. Fusion reactor design and technology program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor program was launched in 1987. The purpose of development of the hybrid reactor is twofold: to solve the problem of nuclear fuel supply for an expected large-scale development of fission reactor plants, and to maintain the momentum of fusion research. The program is described and the activities and progress of the program are presented. Two conceptual designs of an engineering test reactor with tokamak configuration were developed at the Southwestern Institute of Physics and the Institute of Plasma Physics. The results are a tokamak engineering test breeder (TETB) series design and a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design (SSEHR), characterized by a liquid-Li self-cooled blanket and an He-cooled solid tritium breeder blanket respectively. In parallel with the design studies, relevant technological experiments on a small or medium scale have been supported by this program. These include LHCD, ICRH and pellet injection in the area of plasma engineering; neutronics integral experiments with U, Pu, Fe and Be; various irradiation tests of austenitic and ferritic steels, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop experiments using a liquid metal loop; research into permeation barriers for tritium and hydrogen isotopes; solid tritium breeder tests using an in-situ loop in a fission reactor. All these experiments have proceeded successfully. The second step of this program is now starting. It seems reasonable that most of the research carried out in the first step will continue. ((orig.))

  8. Conceptual design Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER/ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Kazuya; Nagashima, Takashi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a conceptual design of Lower Hybrid Wave (LH) system for FER and ITER. In JAERI, the conceptual design of LH system for FER has been performed in these 3 years in parallel to that of ITER. There must be a common design part with ITER and FER. The physical requirement of LH system is the saving of volt · sec in the current start-up phase, and the current drive at the boundary region. The frequency of 5GHz is mainly chosen for avoidance of the α particle absorption and for the availability of electron tube development. Seventy-two klystrons (FER) and one hundred klystrons (ITER) are necessary to inject the 30 MW (FER) and 45-50 MW (ITER) rf power into plasma using 0.7 - 0.8 MW klystron per one tube. The launching system is the multi-junction type and the rf spectrum must be as sharp as possible with high directivity to improve the current drive efficiency. One port (FER) and two ports (ITER) are used and the injection direction is in horizontal, in which the analysis of the ray-tracing code and the better coupling of LH wave is considered. The transmission line is over-sized waveguide with low rf loss. (author)

  9. Divertor conceptual designs for a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Ihli, T.; Janeschitz, G.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Mazul, I.; Malang, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a divertor concept for post-ITER fusion power plants is deemed to be an urgent task to meet the EU Fast Track scenario. Developing a divertor is particularly challenging due to the wide range of requirements to be met including the high incident peak heat flux, the blanket design with which the divertor has to be integrated, sputtering erosion of the plasma-facing material caused by the incident a particles, radiation effects on the properties of structural materials, and efficient recovery and conversion of the divertor thermal power (∝15% of the total fusion thermal power) by maximizing the coolant operating temperature while minimizing the pumping power. In the course of the EU PPCS, three near-term (A, B and AB) and two advanced power plant models (C, D) were investigated. Model A utilizes a water-cooled lead-lithium (WCLL) blanket and a water-cooled divertor with a peak heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 . Model B uses a He-cooled ceramics/beryllium pebble bed (HCPB) blanket and a He-cooled divertor concept (10 MW/m 2 ). Model AB uses a He-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) blanket and a He-cooled divertor concept (10 MW/m 2 ). Model C is based on a dual-coolant (DC) blanket (lead/lithium self-cooled bulk and He-cooled structures) and a He-cooled divertor (10 MW/m 2 ). Model D employs a self-cooled lead/lithium (SCLL) blanket and lead-lithiumcooled divertor (5 MW/m 2 ). The values in parenthesis correspond to the maximum peak heat fluxes required. It can be noted that the helium-cooled divertor is used in most of the EU plant models; it has also been proposed for the US ARIES-CS reactor study. Since 2002, it has been investigated extensively in Europe under the PPCS with the goal of reaching a maximum heat flux of at least 10 MW/m2. Work has covered many areas including conceptual design, analysis, material and fabrication issues, and experiments. Generally, the helium-cooled divertor is considered to be a suitable solution for fusion power plants, as it

  10. A preliminary conceptual design study for Korean fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keeman, E-mail: kkeeman@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan; Oh, Sangjun; Lee, Young Seok; Yeom, Jun Ho; Im, Kihak; Lee, Gyung-Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neilson, George; Kessel, Charles; Brown, Thomas; Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Perform a preliminary conceptual study for a steady-state Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present design guidelines and requirements of Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present a preliminary design of TF (toroidal field) and CS (central solenoid) magnet. ► Present a preliminary result of the radial build scheme of Korean DEMO reactor. -- Abstract: As the ITER is being constructed, there is a growing anticipation for an earlier realization of fusion energy, so called fast-track approach. Korean strategy for fusion energy can be regarded as a fast-track approach and one special concept discussed in this paper is a two-stage development plan. At first, a steady-state Korean DEMO Reactor (K-DEMO) is designed not only to demonstrate a net electricity generation and a self-sustained tritium cycle, but also to be used as a component test facility. Then, at its second stage, a major upgrade is carried out by replacing in-vessel components in order to show a net electric generation on the order of 300 MWe and the competitiveness in cost of electricity (COE). The major radius is designed to be just below 6.5 m, considering practical engineering feasibilities. By using high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn-based superconducting cable currently available, high magnetic field at the plasma center above 8 T can be achieved. A design concept for TF magnets and radial builds for the K-DEMO considering a vertical maintenance scheme, are presented together with preliminary design parameters.

  11. Construction of hybrid peptide synthetases by module and domain fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, H D; Schwarzer, D; Marahiel, M A

    2000-05-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are modular enzymes that assemble peptides of diverse structures and important biological activities. Their modular organization provides a great potential for the rational design of novel compounds by recombination of the biosynthetic genes. Here we describe the extension of a dimodular system to trimodular ones based on whole-module fusion. The recombinant hybrid enzymes were purified to monitor product assembly in vitro. We started from the first two modules of tyrocidine synthetase, which catalyze the formation of the dipeptide dPhe-Pro, to construct such hybrid systems. Fusion of the second, proline-specific module with the ninth and tenth modules of the tyrocidine synthetases, specific for ornithine and leucine, respectively, resulted in dimodular hybrid enzymes exhibiting the combined substrate specificities. The thioesterase domain was fused to the terminal module. Upon incubation of these dimodular enzymes with the first tyrocidine module, TycA, incorporating dPhe, the predicted tripeptides dPhe-Pro-Orn and dPhe-Pro-Leu were obtained at rates of 0.15 min(-1) and 2.1 min(-1). The internal thioesterase domain was necessary and sufficient to release the products from the hybrid enzymes and thereby facilitate a catalytic turnover. Our approach of whole-module fusion is based on an improved definition of the fusion sites and overcomes the recently discovered editing function of the intrinsic condensation domains. The stepwise construction of hybrid peptide synthetases from catalytic subunits reinforces the inherent potential for the synthesis of novel, designed peptides.

  12. Fusion-fission probabilities, cross sections, and structure notes of superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowal, Michał; Cap, Tomasz; Jachimowicz, Piotr; Skalski, Janusz; Siwek-Wilczyńska, Krystyna; Wilczyński, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Fusionfission probabilities in the synthesis of heaviest elements are discussed in the context of the latest experimental reports. Cross sections for superheavy nuclei are evaluated using the “Fusion by Diffusion” (FBD) model. Predictive power of this approach is shown for experimentally known Lv and Og isotopes and predictions given for Z = 119, 120. Ground state and saddle point properties as masses, shell corrections, pairing energies, and deformations necessary for cross-section estimations are calculated systematically within the multidimensional microscopic-macroscopic method based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential. In the frame of the FBD approach predictions for production of elements heavier than Z = 118 are not too optimistic. For this reason, and because of high instability of superheavy nuclei, we comment on some structure effects, connected with the K-isomerism phenomenon which could lead to a significant increase in the stability of these systems.

  13. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  14. Interactive Digital Storytelling: Towards a Hybrid Conceptual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spierling, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction In this contribution, Interactive Digital Storytelling is viewed as a hybrid form of game design and cinematic storytelling for the understanding and making of future learning and entertainment applications. The paper shall present formal design models that provide a conceptual bridge between both traditional linear narrative techniques as well as agent-based emergent conversations with virtual characters. In summary, a theoretical classification of thinking models for authors ...

  15. Hybrid testing of lumbar CHARITE discs versus fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, Manohar; Malcolmson, George; Teng, Edward; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Henderson, Gweneth; Serhan, Hassan

    2007-04-20

    An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. To quantify effects on operated and other levels, including adjacent levels, due to CHARITE disc implantations versus simulated fusions, using follower load and the new hybrid test method in flexion-extension and bilateral torsion. Spinal fusion has been associated with long-term accelerated degeneration at adjacent levels. As opposed to the fusion, artificial discs are designed to preserve motion and diminish the adjacent-level effects. Five fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (T12-S1) underwent multidirectional testing in flexion-extension and bilateral torsion with 400 N follower load. Intact specimen total ranges of motion were determined with +/-10 Nm unconstrained pure moments. The intact range of motion was used as input for the hybrid tests of 5 constructs: 1) CHARITE disc at L5-S1; 2) fusion at L5-S1; 3) CHARITE discs at L4-L5 and L5-S1; 4) CHARITE disc at L4-L5 and fusion at L5-S1; and 5) 2-level fusion at L4-L5-S1. Using repeated-measures single factor analysis of variance and Bonferroni statistical tests (P < 0.05), intervertebral motion redistribution of each construct was compared with the intact. In flexion-extension, 1-level CHARITE disc preserved motion at the operated and other levels, while 2-level CHARITE showed some amount of other-level effects. In contrast, 1- and 2-level fusions increased other-level motions (average, 21.0% and 61.9%, respectively). In torsion, both 1- and 2-level discs preserved motions at all levels. The 2-level simulated fusion increased motions at proximal levels (22.9%), while the 1-level fusion produced no significant changes. In general, CHARITE discs preserved operated- and other-level motions. Fusion simulations affected motion redistribution at other levels, including adjacent levels.

  16. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kunihiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Mizuno, Makoto; Araki, Masanori; Uede, Taisei; Okano, Kunihiko.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of applicability studies for the negative ion-based neutral beam injector to the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The operation scenario of FER has been proposed to adopt the neutral injection method as one of candidates, which has three functions of heating, current drive and profile control. One of the fundamental requirements is the tangential injection of the neutral beam. For neutral beam injectors, three port sections are available. Supposing to adopt the beam line with the straight long neutralizer which has been designed in JAERI, the geometrical arrangement was determined so as to avoid any trouble to the reactor structure. The conceptual study for major components which compose the beam line system was carried out including the estimation of the neutron streaming. The power supply system was studied also and the work was concentrated on the acceleration power supply which requires the output voltage of 500 kV and fast cut-off time. A basic concept, in which a inverter with a AC switch is used and the frequency of the supplied AC line is increased was proposed. In these works, the configuration of the neutral beam injection system was detailed and it was shown that the beam line seems to be well implemented with the geometrical constraints related to the reactor configuration. (author)

  17. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kunihiko; Okano, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Kazuhiro.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of a conceptual study on the RF system in the typical candidates for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), which were picked out through the '86FER scoping studies. According to the FER operation scenario, three RF systems, that is, ICRF (heating), LHRF (current drive and heating), ECRF (auxiliary heating) were studied. Main concern in these RF systems is the launcher, which may be so designed that required power match the geometrical constraints of the reactor. Then studies were concentrated on the launcher configuration. A prug-in concept of the launcher was adopted in each system and vacancies except transmission space were filled with water. The ICRF launcher had the 2 x 2 loop arrays antenna and the faraday shield area of 1.5 m x 1 m to provide a power of 20 MW. The LHRF launcher had the grillantenna with 28 x 8 open waveguides, and included multi junction-type power splitters which were connected to 56 transmission wave guides. The grild was designed to have two functions of current drive and heating, and provide a power of 20 MW each. The ECRF launcher had a boundle of open wave guides which a reflection mirror each, and three plain mirrors. Assuming a oscillator unit size of 200 kW, it had 40 oversized wave guides to provide a power of 3 MW. (author)

  18. Influence of transmutation and high neutron exposure on materials used in fission-fusion correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.

    1990-07-01

    This paper explores the response of three different materials to high fluence irradiation as observed in recent fusion-related experiments. While helium at fusion-relevant levels influences the details of the microstructure of Fe--Cr--Ni alloys somewhat, the resultant changes in swelling and tensile behavior are relatively small. Under conditions where substantially greater-than-fusion levels of helium are generated, however, an extensive refinement of microstructure can occur, leading to depression of swelling at lower temperatures and increased strengthening at all temperatures studied. The behavior of these alloys is dominated by their tendency to converge to saturation microstructures which encourage swelling. Irradiations of nickel are dominated by its tendency to develop a different type of saturation microstructure that discourages further void growth. Swelling approaches saturation levels that are remarkably insensitive to starting microstructure and irradiation temperature. The rate of approach to saturation is very sensitive to variables such as helium, impurities, dislocation density and displacement rate, however. Copper exhibits a rather divergent response depending on the property measured. Transmutation of copper to nickel and zinc plays a large role in determining electrical conductivity but almost no role in void swelling. Each of these three materials offers different challenges in the interpretation of fission-fusion correlation experiments

  19. Activation analysis and waste management for blanket materials of multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FDS-MFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jieqiong; Yuan, Baoxin; Zou, Jun; Wu, Yican

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary studies of the activation analysis and waste management for blanket materials of the multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor, i.e. Multi-Functional eXperimental Fusion Driven Subcritical system named FDS-MFX, were performed. The neutron flux of the FDS-MFX blanket was calculated using VisualBUS code and Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (HENDL) developed by FDS Team. Based on these calculated neutron fluxes, the activation properties of blanket materials were analyzed by the induced radioactivity, the decay heat and the contact dose rate for different regions of the FDS-MFX blanket. The safety and environment assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) strategy, which was developed in Europe, was applied to FDS-MFX blanket for the management of activated materials. Accordingly, the classification and management strategy of activated materials after different cooling time were proposed for FDS-MFX blanket

  20. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  1. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  2. Conceptual design of China fusion power plant FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    As one of the series of fusion system design concepts developed by the FDS Team of China, FDS-II is designated to exploit and evaluate potential attractiveness of fusion energy application for the generation of electricity on the basis of conservatively advanced plasma parameters, which can be limitedly extrapolated from the successful operation of ITER. The principle of the blanket design is established in both the feasibility and potential attractiveness of technology to meet the requirement for tritium self-sufficiency, safety margin, operation economy and environment protection etc. The plasma physics and engineering parameters of FDS-II are selected on the basis of the progress in recent experiments and associated theoretical studies of magnetic confinement fusion plasma with a fusion power of 2∝3 GW. The neutron wall load of 2∝3 MW/m 2 and the surface heat flux of 0.5∝1 MW/m 2 are considered for high effective power conversion. The ''multi-modules'' scenario is adopted in the FDS-II blanket design to reduce thermal stress and electromagnetic forces under plasma disruption, with liquid metal lithium lead (LiPb) as tritium breeder, the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material. Two options of specific liquid LiPb blanket concepts have been proposed, named the Dual-cooled Lithium Lead (DLL) breeder blanket and the Quasi-Static Lithium Lead (SLL) breeder blanket. The DLL blanket is a dual-cooled LiPb breeder system with helium gas to cool the first wall and main structure and LiPb eutectic to be self-cooled. The flow channel inserts (FCIs), e.g. SiCf/SiC composites, are designed as the thermal and electrical insulators inside the LiPb flow channels to reduce the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop and to allow the coolant LiPb outlet temperature up to 700 C for high thermal efficiency. The SLL blanket is another option of the FDS-II blanket with the technology developed relatively easily. To avoid or mitigate the

  3. Conceptual design of the Purdue compact torus/passive liner fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    This proposal describes a program for the conceptual development of a novel fusion reactor design, the Purdue Compact Torus/Passive Liner Reactor. The key features of the concept are described and a comparison is made with a conventional tokamak

  4. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  5. Laser fusion hybrid reactor systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The work was performed in three phases. The first phase included a review of the many possible laser-reactor-blanket combinations and resulted in the selection of a ''demonstration size'' 500 MWe plant for further study. A number of fast fission blankets using uranium metal, uranium-molybdenum alloy, and uranium carbide as fuel were investigated. The second phase included design of the reactor vessel and internals, heat transfer system, tritium processing system, and the balance of plant, excluding the laser building and equipment. A fuel management scheme was developed, safety considerations were reviewed, and capital and operating costs were estimated. Costs developed during the second phase were unexpectedly high, and a thorough review indicated considerable unit cost savings could be obtained by scaling the plant to a larger size. Accordingly, a third phase was added to the original scope, encompassing the redesign and scaling of the plant from 500 MWe to 1200 MWe

  6. Conceptual design report for a Fusion Engineering Device sector-handling machine and movable manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Masson, L.S.; McPherson, R.S.

    1982-10-01

    Design requirements, trade studies, design descriptions, conceptual designs, and cost estimates have been completed for the Fusion Engineering Device sector handling machine, movable manipulator system, subcomponent handling machine, and limiter blade handling machine. This information will be used by the Fusion Engineering Design Center to begin to determine the cost and magnitude of the effort required to perform remote maintenance on the Fusion Engineering Device. The designs presented are by no means optimum, and the costs estimates are rough-order-of-magnitude

  7. JEFF 3.1.2 - Joint evaluated nuclear data library for fission and fusion applications - February 2012 (DVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File (JEFF) project is a collaboration between NEA Data Bank member countries. The JEFF library combines the efforts of the JEFF and EFF/EAF Working Groups to produce a common sets of evaluated nuclear data, mainly for fission and fusion applications. The JEFF-3.1.2 version, released in February 2012, contains a number of different data types, including neutron and proton interaction data, radioactive decay data, fission yields, and thermal scattering law data. Currently, JEFF-3.1.2 data are available in ENDF-6 format (neutron library) from the Web. This new release is an update from JEFF-3.1.1 which concerns 115 material files from the general purpose incident neutron library which have been modified since JEFF-3.1.1. Modifications include: Hf isotopes: 6 new Hf evaluations have replaced previous ones; Gamma production data from neutron capture (MF=6 MT=102) has been added to 89 fission products (FP) evaluations; 47 of these FP have been replaced by ENDF-B/VII.0 evaluations, with gamma data added in this release. Corrections from JEFF-Beta feedback have been incorporated for 15 materials. Corrections that solve NJOY covariance processing problems and JANIS warnings have been made to 6 files. This DVD contains: - General purpose incident neutron data in ENDF-6 and ACE formats; - Activation data; - Thermal scattering data; - Incident proton data; - Radioactive decay data; - Neutron-induced fission yields data; - Spontaneous fission yields data

  8. Influence of differences in the proton and neutron distributions on nuclear fusion and fission; Infuence de la difference entre les distributions de protons et de neutrons dans le noyau sur les processus de fusion et de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolski, A

    2006-04-15

    This thesis work is centred on some essential ingredients of a theoretical description of the reaction dynamics of the nuclear fusion and fission process, such as the interaction potential between projectile and target nuclei for fusion and the deformation energy landscape in a multidimensional space for the fission process. We have in particular evaluated the importance of the difference between the neutron and proton density distributions on these 2 processes. The fusion potential between the two interacting nuclei is obtained through the nucleon densities, determined in a self-consistent way through semiclassical density variational calculations for a given effective nucleon-nucleon effective interaction of the Skyrme type. These fusion barriers can then be used in a Langevin formalism to evaluation fusion cross sections. For the fission process it turns out to be essential to allow for the large variety of shapes which appear between the nuclear ground state and the the scission configuration. We show that a shape parametrisation taking into account elongation, as well as possible neck formation, left-right asymmetry and non-axiality allows a precise description of this phenomena in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic approach. We are thus able to enrich the expression of the liquid-drop type energy through a term which describes the variation of the nuclear energy due to a deformation difference between the proton and neutron distribution. The resulting reduction of the fission barriers is only of the order of one MeV but this can easily cause a change in the fission cross-section by an order of magnitude and thus plays a capital role for the stability of super-heavy of exotic nuclei. (author)

  9. An analysis of the estimated capital cost of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, A.A.

    1981-06-01

    The cost of building a fusion reactor similar to the Culham Conceptual Tokamak reactor Mark IIB is assessed and compared with other published capital costs of fusion and fission reactors. It is concluded that capital-investment and structure-renewal costs for a typical fusion reactor as presently conceived are likely to be higher than for thermal-fission reactors. (author)

  10. An analysis of the estimated capital cost of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, A.A.; Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The cost of building a fusion reactor similar to the Culham Conceptual Tokamak reactor Mark IIB is assessed and compared with other published capital costs of fusion and fission reactors. It is concluded that capital-investment and structure-renewal costs for a typical fusion reactor as presently conceived are likely to be higher than for thermal-fission reactors. (author)

  11. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Ann; Tan, Teck Liang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Wu-Lung; Liu, Zheng; Chew, Lock Yue; Sloot, Peter M. A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow. PMID:24406467

  12. Generalized liquid drop model and fission, fusion, alpha and cluster radioactivity and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.

    2012-01-01

    A particular version of the liquid drop model taking into account both the mass and charge asymmetries, the proximity energy, the rotational energy, the shell and pairing energies and the temperature has been developed to describe smoothly the transition between one and two-body shapes in entrance and exit channels of nuclear reactions. In the quasi-molecular shape valley where the proximity energy is optimized, the calculated l-dependent fusion and fission barriers, alpha and cluster radioactivity half-lives as well as actinide half-lives are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In this particular deformation path, double-humped potential barriers begin to appear even macroscopically for heavy nuclear systems due to the influence of the proximity forces and, consequently, quasi-molecular isomeric states can survive in the second minimum of the potential barriers in a large angular momentum range

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Antipsychotics: The Role of Mitochondrial Fission/Fusion Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea del Campo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs are known to increase cardiovascular risk through several physiological mechanisms, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, hyperphagia, and accelerated weight gain. There are limited prophylactic interventions to prevent these side effects of SGAs, in part because the molecular mechanisms underlying SGAs toxicity are not yet completely elucidated. In this perspective article, we introduce an innovative approach to study the metabolic side effects of antipsychotics through the alterations of the mitochondrial dynamics, which leads to an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission ratio and to an inefficient mitochondrial phenotype of muscle cells. We believe that this approach may offer a valuable path to explain SGAs-induced alterations in metabolic homeostasis.

  14. Singlet-Fission-Sensitized Hybrid Thin-Films For Next-Generation Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This grant enabled the acquisition of equipment for the fabrication of organic and nanocrystal based photovoltaic (PV... Photovoltaics . The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 singlet fission, nanocrystal, triplet, hybrid, photovoltaic REPORT

  15. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  16. Integral tests of coupled multigroup neutron and gamma cross sections with fission and fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriewer, J.; Hehn, G.; Mattes, M.; Pfister, G.; Keinert, J.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations were made for different benchmark experiments in order to test the coupled multigroup neutron and gamma library EURLIB-3 with 100 neutron groups and 20 gamma groups. In cooperation with EURATOM, Ispra, we produced this shielding library recently from ENDF/B-IV data for application in fission and fusion technology. Integral checks were performed for natural lithium, carbon, oxygen, and iron. Since iron is the most important structural material in nuclear technology, we started with calculations of iron benchmark experiments. Most of them are integral experiments of INR, Karlsruhe, but comparisons were also done with benchmark experiments from USA and Japan. For the experiments with fission sources we got satisfying results. All details of the resonances cannot be checked with flux measurements and multigroup cross sections used. But some averaged resonance behaviour of the measured and calculated fluxes can be compared and checked within the error limits given. We get greater differences in the calculations of benchmark experiments with 14 MeV neutron sources. For iron the group cross sections of EURLIB-3 produce an underestimation of the neutron flux in a broad energy region below the source energy. The conclusion is that the energy degradation by inelastic scattering is too strong. For fusion application the anisotropy of the inelastic scatter process must be taken into account, which isn't done by the processing codes at present. If this effect isn't enough, additional corrections have to be applied to the inelastic cross sections of iron in ENDF/B-IV. (author)

  17. Technology requirements for fusion--fission reactors based on magnetic-mirror confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Technology requirements for mirror hybrid reactors are discussed. The required 120-keV neutral beams can use positive ions. The magnetic fields are 8 T or under and can use NbTi superconductors. The value of Q (where Q is the ratio of fusion power to injection power) should be in the range of 1 to 2 for economic reasons relating to the cost of recirculating power. The wall loading of 14-MeV neutrons should be in the range of 1 to 2 MW/m 2 for economic reasons. Five-times higher wall loading will likely be needed if fusion reactors are to be economical. The magnetic mirror experiments 2XIIB, TMX, and MFTF are described

  18. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility /factor-ization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 × 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 × 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 × 4 = 2 × 2 × 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 × 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16,... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Applications to: quantum-information/computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory ``short-cut'' method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-``Anderson'' (1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics;... abound!!!

  19. Near-barrier Fusion Evaporation and Fission of 28Si+174Yb and 32S+170Er

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxi; Lin, Chengjian; Jia, Huiming; Ma, Nanru; Sun, Lijie; Xu, Xinxing; Yang, Lei; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Huanqiao; Bao, Pengfei

    2017-11-01

    Fusion evaporation residues and fission fragments have been measured, respectively, at energies around the Coulomb barrier for the 28Si+174Yb and 32S+170Er systems forming the same compound nucleus 202Po. The excitation function of fusion evaporation, fission as well as capture reactions were deduced. Coupled-channels analyses reveal that couplings to the deformations of targets and the two-phonon states of projectiles contribute much to the enhancement of capture cross sections at sub-barrier energies. The mass and total kinetic energy of fission fragments were deduced by the time-difference method assuming full momentum transfer in a two-body kinematics. The mass-energy and mass-angle distributions were obtained and no obvious quasi-fission components were observed in this bombarding energy range. Further, mass distributions of fission fragments were fitted to extract their widths. Results show that the mass widths decrease monotonically with decreasing energy, but might start to increase when Ec.m./VB < 0.95 for both systems.

  20. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system

  1. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron temperature is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system

  2. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  3. The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2006-03-07

    Many social animals live in stable groups. In contrast, African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) live in unusually fluid, fission-fusion societies. That is, 'core' social groups are composed of predictable sets of individuals; however, over the course of hours or days, these groups may temporarily divide and reunite, or they may fuse with other social groups to form much larger social units. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic relatedness predicts patterns of group fission and fusion among wild, female African elephants. Our study of a single Kenyan population spans 236 individuals in 45 core social groups, genotyped at 11 microsatellite and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus. We found that genetic relatedness predicted group fission; adult females remained with their first order maternal relatives when core groups fissioned temporarily. Relatedness also predicted temporary fusion between social groups; core groups were more likely to fuse with each other when the oldest females in each group were genetic relatives. Groups that shared mtDNA haplotypes were also significantly more likely to fuse than groups that did not share mtDNA. Our results suggest that associations between core social groups persist for decades after the original maternal kin have died. We discuss these results in the context of kin selection and its possible role in the evolution of elephant sociality.

  4. Preliminary assessment of a symbiotic fusion--fission power system using the TH/U refresh fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the mirror hybrid reactor by LLL/GA have concluded that the most promising role for this reactor concept is that of a producer of fissile fuel for fission reactors. Studies to date have examined primarily the U/Pu fuel cycle with light-water reactors serving as the consumers of the hybrid-bred fissile fuel; the specific scenarios examined required reprocessing and refabrication of the bred fuel before introduction into the fission reactor. This combination of technologies was chosen to illustrate the manner in which the hybrid reactor concept could serve the needs of, and use the technology of, the fission reactor industry as it now exists (and as it was thought it would evolve). However, the current U.S. Administration has expressed strong concerns about proliferation of nuclear weapons capability and terrorist diversion of weapons-grade nuclear materials. These concerns are based on the projected technology for the light-water reactor/fast breeder reactor using the U/Pu fuel cycle and extensive reprocessing/refabrication. A symbiotic nuclear power generation concept (hybrid fissile producer plus fission burner reactors) is described which eliminates those aspects of the present nuclear fuel cycle that (may) represent significant proliferation/diversion risks. Specifically, the proposed concept incorporates the following features: (1)Th/U 233 fuel cycle, (2) no reprocessing or fabrication of fissile material, and (3) no fissile material in a weapons-grade state

  5. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions

  6. Review of mirror fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Three magnetic confinement concepts, based on the mirror principle, are described. These mirror concepts are summarized as follows: (1) fusion-fission hybrid reactor, (2) tandem mirror reactor, and (3) reversed field mirror reactor

  7. Energetics of semi-catalyzed-deuterium, light-water-moderated, fusion-fission toroidal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Towner, H.H.; Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misolovin, A.; Gilai, D.

    1978-07-01

    The semi-catalyzed-deuterium Light-Water Hybrid Reactor (LWHR) comprises a lithium-free light-water-moderated blanket with U 3 Si fuel driven by a deuterium-based fusion-neutron source, with complete burn-up of the tritium but almost no burn-up of the helium-3 reaction product. A one-dimensional model for a neutral-beam-driven tokamak plasma is used to determine the operating modes under which the fusion energy multiplication Q/sub p/ can be equal to or greater than 0.5. Thermonuclear, beam-target, and energetic-ion reactions are taken into account. The most feasible operating conditions for Q/sub p/ approximately 0.5 are tau/sub E/ = 2 to 4 x 10 14 cm -3 s, = 10 to 20 keV, and E/sub beam/ = 500 to 1000 keV, with approximately 40% of the fusion energy produced by beam-target reactions. Illustrative parameters of LWHRs are compared with those of an ignited D-T reactor

  8. AUS, Neutron Transport and Gamma Transport System for Fission Reactors and Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energy deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous release, AUS87, are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM mainframe computers to UNIX workstations. 2 - Method of solution: AUS98 is a modular system in which the modules are complete programs linked by a path given in the input stream. A simple path is simply a sequence of modules, but the path is actually pre-processed and compiled using the Fortran 77 compiler. This provides for complex module linking if required. Some of the modules included in AUS98 are: MIRANDA Cross-section generation in a multi-region resonance subgroup calculation and preliminary group condensation. ANAUSN One-dimensional discrete ordinates calculation. ICPP Isotropic collision probability calculation in one dimension and for rod clusters. POW3D Multi-dimensional neutron diffusion calculation including feedback-free kinetics. AUSIDD One-dimensional diffusion calculation. EDITAR Reaction-rate editing and group collapsing following a transport calculation. CHAR Lattice and global burnup calculation. MICBURN Control of global burnup

  9. Conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY87FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor(FER) which has been proposed to be the next step fusion device has been conducted by JAERI Reactor System Laboratory since 1982 and by FER design team since 1984. This is the final report of the FER design team program and describes the results obtained in FY1987 (partially in FY1986) activities. The contents of this report consist of the reference design which is based on the guideline in FY1986 by the Subcomitees set up in Nuclear Fusion Council of Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the Low-Physics-Risk reactor design for achieving physics mission more reliably and the system study of FER design candidates including above two designs. (author)

  10. Conceptual design and neutronics analyses of a fusion reactor blanket simulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.E.; Ott, K.O.; Terry, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    A new conceptual design of a fusion reactor blanket simulation facility has been developed. This design follows the principles that have been successfully employed in the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF), where experiments have resulted in the discovery of substantial deficiencies in neutronics predictions. With this design, discrepancies between calculation and experimental data can be nearly fully attributed to calculation methods because design deficiencies that could affect results are insignificant. The conceptual design of this FBBF analog, the Fusion Reactor Blanket Facility, is presented

  11. A conceptual fusion reactor based on the high-plasma-density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Carlson, G.; Hoffman, M.; Werner, R.

    1977-01-01

    Conceptual DT and DD fusion reactors are discussed based on magnetic confinement with the high-plasma-density Z-pinch. The reactor concepts have no ''first wall'', the fusion neutrons and plasma energy being absorbed directly into a surrounding lithium vortex blanket. Efficient systems with low re-circulated power are projected, based on a flow-through pinch cycle for which overall Q values can approach 10. The conceptual reactors are characterized by simplicity, small minimum size (100MW(e)) and by the potential for minimal radioactivity hazards. (author)

  12. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Shaw, H.F.; Caro, A.; Kaufman, L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Powers, J.; Turchi, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of 238 U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF 4 , whose melting point is 490 C. The use of 232 Th as a fuel is also being studied. ( 232 Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be ∼550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and ∼650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount (∼1 mol%) of UF 3 . The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu 3+ in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus 233 U production rate is ∼0.6 atoms per 14.1 MeV neutron

  13. Effects of rotation on the stability of nuclei under fission and the possibility of fusion in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Kumar, K.

    1975-06-01

    The two-center shell model for fission is extended to include the effects of nuclear rotation or angular momentum J. The principle of minimization of total nuclear energy with respect to a constraint on J leads to an effective potential energy which depends on J as well as moment of inertia. This effective potential energy is minimized with respect to nuclear shape variables, neutron pairing energy gap, and proton pairing energy gap for each J value. The resulting potential minima, fission barriers, and moments of inertia are quite sensitive to J. Results are given for 208 82 Pb, 240 94 Pu, and for a super-heavy nucleus, 298 114 X. Microscopic calculations of the critical angular momentum (at which the fission barrier vanishes) are compared with the rotating liquid drop calculations of Cohen, Plasil, and Swiatecki. The influence of these results on the possibility of fusion in heavy-ion reactions is discussed. (5 figures, 6 tables) (U.S.)

  14. Estimates of fission barrier heights for neutron-deficient Po to Ra nuclei produced in fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagaidak Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section data for fission and evaporation residue production in fusion reactions leading to nuclei from Po to Ra have been considered in a systematic way in the framework of the conventional barrier-passing (fusion model coupled with the statistical model. The cross section data obtained in very asymmetric projectile-target combinations can be described within these models rather well with the adjusted model parameters. In particular, one can scale and fix the macroscopic (liquid-drop fission barrier heights (FBHs for nuclei involved in the de-excitation of compound nuclei produced in the reactions. The macroscopic FBHs for nuclei from Po to Ra have been derived in the framework of such analysis and compared with the predictions of various theoretical models.

  15. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Final conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The TFTR is the first U.S. magnetic confinement device planned to demonstrate the fusion of D-T at reactor power levels. This report addresses the physics objectives and the engineering goals of the TFTR project. Technical, cost, and schedule aspects of the project are included

  16. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harca, I. M. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna, Russia and Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest - P.O. Box MG 11, RO 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna (Russian Federation); Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Chubarian, G. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Hanappe, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Bruxelles (Belgium); Piot, J.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Trzaska, W. H. [Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), Jyväskylä (Finland); Vardaci, E. [Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche and INFN (INFN-Na), Napoli (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  17. Fission-fusion and lineal effect: aspects of the population structure of the Semai Senoi of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1975-09-01

    Analysis of histories and genealogies from seven relatively unacculturated, swidden-farming Semai settlements shows that the composition of local groups fluctuates through time. This instability is similar to a pattern which Neel and his colleagues have suggested is typical of primitive society, the fission-fusion model. In addition, the individuals comprising Semai fission groups are kinsmen which implies that the number of independent genomes represented is markedly less than the number of individual migrants (the lineal effect). Fission groups may form new villages or fuse with an established settlement. In either case, the genetic effects of such migration are more pronounced than would be expected on the basis of founder effect or random migration. Despite several conspicuous differences in social organization between the Semai and the South American Indians (e.g., bilateral vs. unilineal descent) whose population structure provided the empirical basis for the fission-fusion, lineal effect model, the basic similarities are striking. The Semai case thus lends support to the proposition that this pattern may be of some generality in technologically primitive populations.

  18. FORIG: a computer code for calculating radionuclide generation and depletion in fusion and fission reactors. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this manual we describe the use of the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG runs on a Cray-1 computer and accepts more extensive activation cross sections than ORIGEN2 from which it was adapted. This report is an updated and a combined version of the previous ORIGEN2 and FORIG manuals. 7 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs

  19. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  20. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  1. The reversed-field-pinch (RFP) fusion neutron source: A conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of an ohmically heated, reversed-field pinch (RFP) operating at ∼5-MW/m 2 steady-state DT fusion neutron wall loading and ∼124-MW total fusion power is presented. These results are useful in projecting the development of a cost effective, low input power (∼206 MW) source of DT neutrons for large-volume (∼10 m 3 ), high-fluence (3.4 MW yr/m 2 ) fusion nuclear materials and technology testing. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  2. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  3. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  4. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of vanadium alloy and F82H irradiated with fission and fusion neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Inoue, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q.; Wakai, E.; Kutsukake, C.; Ochiai, K.

    2009-01-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti, F82H, Ni and Cu were irradiated with fission and fusion neutrons at room temperature and 473 K. Defect structures were analyzed and compared using positron annihilation lifetime measurement, and microstructural evolution was discussed. The mean lifetime of positrons (the total amount of residual defects) increased with the irradiation dose. The effect of cascade impact was detected in Ni at room temperature. The size and the number of vacancy clusters were not affected by the displacement rate in the fission neutron irradiation at 473 K for the metals studied. The vacancy clusters were not formed in V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated at 473 K in the range of 10 -6 -10 -3 dpa. In F82H irradiated at 473 K, the defect evolution was prevented by pre-existing defects. The mean lifetime of positrons in fission neutron irradiation was longer than that in fusion neutron irradiation in V-4Cr-4Ti at 473 K. It was interpreted that more closely situated subcascades were formed in the fusion neutron irradiation and subcascades interacted with each other, and consequently the vacancy clusters did not grow larger.

  5. To follow or not? How animals in fusion-fission societies handle conflicting information during group decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A; Sigaud, Marie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    When group members possess differing information about the environment, they may disagree on the best movement decision. Such conflicts result in group break-ups, and are therefore a fundamental driver of fusion-fission group dynamics. Yet, a paucity of empirical work hampers our understanding of how adaptive evolution has shaped plasticity in collective behaviours that promote and maintain fusion-fission dynamics. Using movement data from GPS-collared bison, we found that individuals constantly associated with other animals possessing different spatial knowledge, and both personal and conspecific information influenced an individual's patch choice decisions. During conflict situations, bison used group familiarity coupled with their knowledge of local foraging options and recently sampled resource quality when deciding to follow or leave a group - a tactic that led to energy-rewarding movements. Natural selection has shaped collective behaviours for coping with social conflicts and resource heterogeneity, which maintain fusion-fission dynamics and play an essential role in animal distribution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. The Asian Correction Can Be Quantitatively Forecasted Using a Statistical Model of Fusion-Fission Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 wiped out US$37 trillions across global financial markets, this value is equivalent to the combined GDPs of the United States and the European Union in 2014. The defining moment of this crisis was the failure of Lehman Brothers, which precipitated the October 2008 crash and the Asian Correction (March 2009). Had the Federal Reserve seen these crashes coming, they might have bailed out Lehman Brothers, and prevented the crashes altogether. In this paper, we show that some of these market crashes (like the Asian Correction) can be predicted, if we assume that a large number of adaptive traders employing competing trading strategies. As the number of adherents for some strategies grow, others decline in the constantly changing strategy space. When a strategy group grows into a giant component, trader actions become increasingly correlated and this is reflected in the stock price. The fragmentation of this giant component will leads to a market crash. In this paper, we also derived the mean-field market crash forecast equation based on a model of fusions and fissions in the trading strategy space. By fitting the continuous returns of 20 stocks traded in Singapore Exchange to the market crash forecast equation, we obtain crash predictions ranging from end October 2008 to mid-February 2009, with early warning four to six months prior to the crashes.

  7. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2008-09-23

    The Machiavellian Intelligence or Social Brain Hypothesis explains the evolution of increased brain size as mainly driven by living in complex organized social systems in which individuals represent "moving targets" who can adopt multiple strategies to respond to one another. Frequently splitting and merging in subgroups of variable composition (fission-fusion or FF dynamics) has been proposed as one aspect of social complexity ( compare with) that may be associated with an enhancement of cognitive skills like inhibition, which allows the suppression of prepotent but ineffective responses in a changing social environment. We compared the performance of primates experiencing high levels of FF dynamics (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and spider monkeys) to that of species living in more cohesive groups (gorillas, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques) on five inhibition tasks. Testing species differing in diet, phylogenetic relatedness, and levels of FF dynamics allowed us to contrast ecological, phylogenetic, and socioecological explanations for interspecific differences. Spider monkeys performed at levels comparable to chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans, and better than gorillas. A two-cluster analysis grouped all species with higher levels of FF dynamics together. These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology.

  8. New ceramics for nuclear industry. Case of fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvars, M.

    1979-10-01

    The ceramics used in the nuclear field are described as is their behaviour under radiation. 1) Power reactors - nuclear fission. Ceramics enter into the fabrication of nuclear fuels: oxides, carbides, uranium or plutonium nitrides or oxy-nitrides. Silicon carbide SiC is used for preparing the fuels of helium cooled high temperature reactors. Its use is foreseen in the design of gas high temperature gas thermal exchangers, as is silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). In the materials for safety or control rods, the intense neutron flows induce nuclear reactions which increase the temperature of the neutron absorbing material. Boron carbide B 4 C, rare earth oxides Ln 2 O 3 , or B 4 C-Cu or B 4 C-Al cermets are employed. Burnable poison materials are formed of Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C or Al 2 O 3 -Ln 2 O 3 cermets. The moderators of thermal neutron reactors are in high purety polycrystalline graphite. For the thermal insulation of reactor vessels and jackets, honeycomb ceramics are used as well as ceramic fibres on an increasing scale (kaolin, alumina and other fibres). 2) fusion reactors (Tokomak). These require refractory materials with a low atomic number. Carbon fibres, boron carbide, some borons (Al B 12 ), silicon nitrides and oxy-nitrides and high density alumina are the substances considered [fr

  9. The Asian Correction Can Be Quantitatively Forecasted Using a Statistical Model of Fusion-Fission Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Kin Teh

    Full Text Available The Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 wiped out US$37 trillions across global financial markets, this value is equivalent to the combined GDPs of the United States and the European Union in 2014. The defining moment of this crisis was the failure of Lehman Brothers, which precipitated the October 2008 crash and the Asian Correction (March 2009. Had the Federal Reserve seen these crashes coming, they might have bailed out Lehman Brothers, and prevented the crashes altogether. In this paper, we show that some of these market crashes (like the Asian Correction can be predicted, if we assume that a large number of adaptive traders employing competing trading strategies. As the number of adherents for some strategies grow, others decline in the constantly changing strategy space. When a strategy group grows into a giant component, trader actions become increasingly correlated and this is reflected in the stock price. The fragmentation of this giant component will leads to a market crash. In this paper, we also derived the mean-field market crash forecast equation based on a model of fusions and fissions in the trading strategy space. By fitting the continuous returns of 20 stocks traded in Singapore Exchange to the market crash forecast equation, we obtain crash predictions ranging from end October 2008 to mid-February 2009, with early warning four to six months prior to the crashes.

  10. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC

  11. Performance of the Cascade inertial-confinement-fusion conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A 4.5-m-radius rotating fusion reactor made of silicon carbide and containing a moving 1-m-thick lithium-ceramic granular blanket can produce 3000 MW/sub t/. The blanket operates at high temperature (>1200 K) leading to gross plant efficiencies of up to 60% using a combined helium-gas turbine (Brayton cycle) with a vapor bottoming cycle

  12. Economic analysis of fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included

  13. Consultancy on the potential of fusion/fission sub-critical neutron systems for energy production and transmutation. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Workshop on Sub-critical Neutron Production held at the University of Maryland and the Eisenhower Institute on 11-13 October 2004 brought together members of fusion, fission and accelerator technical communities to discuss issues of spent fuel, nonproliferation, reactor safety and the use of neutrons for sub-critical operation of nuclear reactors. The Workshop strongly recommended that the fusion community work closely with other technical communities to ensure that a wider range of technical solutions is available to solve the spent fuel problem and to utilize the current actinide inventories. Participants of the Workshop recommended that a follow-on Workshop, possibly under the aegis of the IAEA, should be held in the first half of the year 2005. The Consultancy Meeting is the response to this recommendation. The objectives of the Consultancy meeting were to hold discussions on the role of fusion/fission systems in sub-critical operations of nuclear reactors. The participants agreed that development of innovative (fourth generation) fission reactors, advanced fuel cycle options, and disposition of existing spent nuclear fuel inventories in various Member Sates can significantly benefit from including sub-critical systems, which are driven by external neutron sources. Spallation neutrons produced by accelerators have been accepted in the past as the means of driving sub-critical reactors. The accelerator community deserves credit in pioneering this novel approach to reactor design. Progress in the design and operation of fusion devices now offers additional innovative means, broadening the range of sub-critical operations of fission reactors. Participants felt that fusion should participate with accelerators in providing a range of technical options in reactor design. Participants discussed concrete steps to set up a small fusion/fission system to demonstrate actinide burning in the laboratory and what advice should be given to the Agency on its role in

  14. Tokamak hybrid thermonuclear reactor for the production of fissionable fuel and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Gur'ev, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results of feasibility studies of a tokamak- based hybrid reactor concept are presented. The system selected has a D-T plasma volume of 575 m 3 with additional plasma heating by injection of fast neutral particles. The method of heating makes it possible to achieve an economical two-component tokamak regime at ntau=(4-6)x10 13 sxcm -3 , i e. far below the Lawson criterion. Plasma and vacuum chamber are surrounded by a blanket where fissionable plutonium is produced and heat transformed into electric power is generated. Major plasma-neutron-physical characteristics of the 6905 MWth (2500 MWe) reactor and its electromagnetic system are presented. Evaluations show that the hybrid reactor can produce about 800 kg of Pu per 1GWth/yr as compared to 70-150 kg of Pu for fast breeder reactors. The increased Pu production rate is the major merit of the concept promising for both power generation and fuelling thermal fission reactions

  15. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be required for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost

  16. Conceptual design of tritium production fusion reactor based on spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual design of an advanced tritium production fusion reactor based on spherical torus, which is intermediate application of fusion energy, was presented in this paper. Differing from the traditional tokamak tritium production reactor design, advanced plasma physics performance and compact structural characteristics of ST were used to minimize tritium leakage and maximize tritium breeding ratio with arrangement of tritium production blankets within vacuum vessel as possible in order to produce 1 kg excess tritium except need of self-sufficient plasma core with 40% or more corresponding plant availability. Based on 2D neutronics calculation, preliminary conceptual design of ST-TPR was presented, providing the backgrounds and reference for next detailed conceptual design

  17. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  18. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. During two years from 1984 to 1985 FER concept was reviewed and redesigned. This report is the summary of the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in 1984 and 85. In the first year FER concept was discussed again and its frame work was reestablished. According to the new frame work the major reactor components of FER were designed. In the second year the whole plant system design including plant layout plan was conducted as well as the more detailed design analysis of the reactor conponents. The newly established frame for FER design is as follows: 1) Plasma : Self-ignition. 2) Operation scenario : Quasi-steady state operation with long burn pulse. 3) Neutron fluence on the first wall : 0.3 MWY/M 2 . 4) Blanket : Non-tritium breeding blanket with test modules for breeding blanket development. 5) Magnets : Superconducting Magnets. (author)

  19. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Masao; Mizoguchi, Tadanori

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of the reactor configuration/structure design for the fusion experimental reactor (FER) performed in FY 1986. The design was intended to meet the physical and engineering mission of the next step device which was decided by the subcommittee on the next step device of the nuclear fusion council. The objectives of the design study in FY 1986 are to advance and optimize the design concept of the last year because the recommendation of the subcommittee was basically the same as the design philosophy of the last year. Six candidate reactor configurations which correspond to options C ∼ D presented by the subcommittee were extensively examined. Consequently, ACS reactor (Advanced Option-C with Single Null Divertor) was selected as the reference configuration from viewpoints of technical risks and cost performance. Regarding the reactor structure, the following items were investigated intensively: minimization of reactor size, protection of first wall against plasma disruption, simplification of shield structure, reactor configuration which enables optimum arrangement of poloidal field coils. (author)

  20. Conceptual design of blanket structures for fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    Conceptual design study for in-vessel components including tritium breeding blanket of FER has been carried out. The objective of this study is to obtain the engineering and technological data for selecting the reactor concept and for its construction by investigating fully and broadly. The design work covers in-vessel components (such as tritium breeding blanket, first wall, shield, divertor and blanket test module), remote handling system and tritium system. The designs of those components and systems are accomplished in consideration of their accomodation to whole reactor system and problems for furthur study are clarified. (author)

  1. Isotopic resolution of fission fragments from 238U + 12C transfer and fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, M.; Rejmund, F.; Derkx, X.; Schmidt, K. H.; Andouin, L.; Bacri, C. O.; Barreau, G.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Gaudefroy, L.; Golabek, C.; Jurado, B.; Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Shrivastava, A.; Schmitt, C.; Taieb, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results from an experiment at GANIL, performed to investigate the main properties of fission-fragment yields and energy distributions in different fissioning nuclei as a function of the excitation energy, in a neutron-rich region of actinides, are presented. Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics between a 238 U beam and a 12 C target produced different actinides, within a range of excitation energy below 30 MeV. These fissioning nuclei are identified by detecting the target-like recoil, and their kinetic and excitation energy are determined from the reconstruction of the transfer reaction. The large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS was used to identify the mass, atomic number and charge state of the fission fragments in flight. As a result, the characteristics of the fission-fragment isotopic distributions of a variety of neutron-rich actinides are observed for the first time over the complete range of fission fragments. (authors)

  2. Conceptual Design of a Small Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Papa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System technologies are today extremely required in various fields of interest, from military to civil (search and rescue, environmental surveillance and monitoring, and entertainment. Besides safety and legislative issues, the main obstacle to civilian applications of UAS systems is the short time of flight (endurance, which depends on the equipped power system (battery pack and the flight mission (low/high speed or altitude. Long flight duration is fundamental, especially with tasks that require hovering capability (e.g., river flow monitoring, earthquakes, devastated areas, city traffic monitoring, and archeological sites inspection. This work presents the conceptual design of a Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System (HUAS, merging a commercial off-the-shelf quadrotor and a balloon in order to obtain a good compromise between endurance and weight. The mathematical models for weights estimation and balloon static performance analysis are presented, together with experimental results in different testing scenarios and complex environments, which show 50% improvement of the flight duration.

  3. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the study on safety for FER(Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. This report consists of two chapters. The first chapter of this report summaries the FER system and describes FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including the purification, isotope separation system and storage system. Here, probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA. (author)

  4. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Intense Neutron Source Lab.; Jameson, R.A.; Blind, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Teplyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fur Angewandte Phys.; Ferdinand, R.; Lagniel, J.-M. [CEA Saclay LNS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miyahara, A. [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Olivier, M. [CEA DSM, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piechowiak, E. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States); Tanabe, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.) 8 refs.

  5. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M.; Teplyakov, V.; Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J.; Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K.; Miyahara, A.; Olivier, M.; Piechowiak, E.; Tanabe, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Origin of amphibian and avian chromosomes by fission, fusion, and retention of ancestral chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Stephen R.; Kump, D. Kevin; Putta, Srikrishna; Pauly, Nathan; Reynolds, Anna; Henry, Rema J.; Basa, Saritha; Walker, John A.; Smith, Jeramiah J.

    2011-01-01

    Amphibian genomes differ greatly in DNA content and chromosome size, morphology, and number. Investigations of this diversity are needed to identify mechanisms that have shaped the evolution of vertebrate genomes. We used comparative mapping to investigate the organization of genes in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a species that presents relatively few chromosomes (n = 14) and a gigantic genome (>20 pg/N). We show extensive conservation of synteny between Ambystoma, chicken, and human, and a positive correlation between the length of conserved segments and genome size. Ambystoma segments are estimated to be four to 51 times longer than homologous human and chicken segments. Strikingly, genes demarking the structures of 28 chicken chromosomes are ordered among linkage groups defining the Ambystoma genome, and we show that these same chromosomal segments are also conserved in a distantly related anuran amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis). Using linkage relationships from the amphibian maps, we predict that three chicken chromosomes originated by fusion, nine to 14 originated by fission, and 12–17 evolved directly from ancestral tetrapod chromosomes. We further show that some ancestral segments were fused prior to the divergence of salamanders and anurans, while others fused independently and randomly as chromosome numbers were reduced in lineages leading to Ambystoma and Xenopus. The maintenance of gene order relationships between chromosomal segments that have greatly expanded and contracted in salamander and chicken genomes, respectively, suggests selection to maintain synteny relationships and/or extremely low rates of chromosomal rearrangement. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of data from diverse, amphibian genomes in studies of vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:21482624

  7. Comparison of nuclear irradiation parameters of fusion breeder materials in high flux fission test reactors and a fusion power demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Herring, S.; Hogenbirk, A.; Leichtle, D.; Nagao, Y.; Pijlgroms, B.J.; Ying, A.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear irradiation parameters relevant to displacement damage and burn-up of the breeder materials Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 have been evaluated and compared for a fusion power demonstration reactor and the high flux fission test reactor (HFR), Petten, the advanced test reactor (ATR, INEL) and the Japanese material test reactor (JMTR, JAERI). Based on detailed nuclear reactor calculations with the MCNP Monte Carlo code and binary collision approximation (BCA) computer simulations of the displacement damage in the polyatomic lattices with MARLOWE, it has been investigated how well the considered HFRs can meet the requirements for a fusion power reactor relevant irradiation. It is shown that a breeder material irradiation in these fission test reactors is well suited in this regard when the neutron spectrum is well tailored and the 6 Li-enrichment is properly chosen. Requirements for the relevant nuclear irradiation parameters such as the displacement damage accumulation, the lithium burn-up and the damage production function W(T) can be met when taking into account these prerequisites. Irradiation times in the order of 2-3 full power years are necessary for the HFR to achieve the peak values of the considered fusion power Demo reactor blanket with regard to the burn-up and, at the same time, the dpa accumulation

  8. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER/ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Haruyuki; Saigusa, Mikio; Saitoh, Yasushi

    1991-06-01

    Conceptual design of the Ion Cyclotron Wave (ICW) system for FER and Japanese contribution to the conceptual design of the ITER ICW system are presented. A frequency range of the FER ICW system is 50-85 MHz, which covers 2ω cT heating, current drive by transit time magnetic pumping (TTMP) and 2ω cD heating. Physics analyses show that the FER and the ITER ICW systems are suitable for the central ion heating and the burn control. The launching systems of the FER ICW system and the ITER high frequency ICW system are characterized by in-port plug and ridged-waveguide-fed 5x4 phased loop array. Merits of those systems are (1) a ceramic support is not necessary inside the cryostat and (2) remote maintenance of the front end part of the launcher is relatively easy. Overall structure of the launching system is consistent with radiation shielding, cooling, pumping, tritium safety and remote maintenance. The launcher has injection capability of 20 MW in the frequency range of 50-85 MHz with the separatrix-antenna distance of 15 cm and steep scrape-off density profile of H-mode. The shape of the ridged waveguide is optimized to provide desired frequency range and power handling capability with a finite element method. Matching between the current strap and the ridged waveguide is satisfactorily good. Thermal analysis of the Faraday shield shows that high electric conductivity low Z material such as beryllium should be chosen for a protection tile of the Faraday shield. Thick Faraday shield is necessary to tolerate electromagnetic force during disruptions. R and D needs for the ITER/FER ICW systems are identified and gain from JT-60/60U ICRF experiments and operations are indicated in connection with them. (author)

  9. Fission-fusion correlations for swelling and microstructure in stainless steels: effect of the helium-to-displacement-per-atom ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Maziaz, P.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The initial irradiated structural materials data base for fusion applications will be developed in fission reactors. Hence, this data may need to be adjusted using physically-based procedures to represent behavior in fusion environments, viz. - fission-fusion correlations. Such correlation should reflect a sound mechanistic understanding, and be verified in facilities which most closely simulate fusion conditions. In this paper we review the effects of only one of a number of potentially significant damage variables, the helium to displacement per atom ratio, on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels. Dual-ion and helium preinjection data are analyzed to provide mechanistic guidance; these results appear to be qualitatively consistent with a more detailed comparison made between fast (EBR-II) and mixed (HFIR) spectrum neutron data for a single heat of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. These two fission environments bound fusion (He/dpa ratios. A model calibrated to the fission reactor data is used to extrapolate to fusion conditions. Both the theory and broad empirical observation suggest that helium to dpa ratios have both a qualitative and quantitative influence on microstructural evolution; and that the very high and low ratios found in HFIR and EBR-II may not result in behavior which brackets intermediate fusion conditions

  10. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T → n(14.1 MeV) + α(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device

  11. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kunihiko; Ishigaki, Yukio; Ozaki, Akira; Yamane, Minoru.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of the capacity estimation for the electrical power system on the typical two candidates for the FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) which were picked out through the process of '86 FER scoping studies. Main concern in the electrical systems is coil power supplies which have a capacity of about 1 GW, and this is dominated by poloidal coil power supplies. Then, studies to reduce the converter capacity are concentrated on the poloidal coil power system in relation to the sypplying poloidal flux at the initial phase of plasma ramp-up. A quench protection circuit was proposed on the toroidal coil power supply. On the position control power supply, a circuit with reasonable functions was proposed. Under these system studies, general specifications were determined and the capacity of each power supply unit was estimated. On the poloidal coil power supply system, the accumulated capacity of converters amounted to 885 MW for the one candidate and 782 MW for another. (author)

  12. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Nobuharu; Iida, Fumio; Suzuki, Shohei; Wachi, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Katsuyoshi; Hashizume, Takashi; Konno, Masayuki.

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the FER magnet design which was conducted last year (1986). Main objective of the new FER design is to have better cost performance of the machine. The physics assumptions are reviewed to reduce risks. Optimization of the physics design and improvements of the engineering design have been done without changing missions of the device. After a preliminary investigation for the optimization and improvements, six FER concepts have been developed to establish the improved design point, and have been studied in more detail. In the magnet design, the improvements of superconducting magnet design were mainly investigated to reduce the reactor size. A normal conductor was studied as an alternative option for appling to the special poloidal field coils that were located on the interior to the toroidal field coils. Some improvements were made on the superconducting magnet design. Based on the preliminary investigation, the magnet design specifications have been modified somewhat. The conceptual design of the magnet system components have been done for the candidate FER concepts. (author)

  13. Interrupter and hybrid-switch testing for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Warren, R.W.; Honig, E.M.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Bellamo, P.; Cassel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses recent and ongoing switch testing for fusion devices. The first part describes testing for the TFTR ohmic-heating circuit. In this set of tests, which simulated the stresses produced during a plasma initiation pulse, circuit breakers were required to interrupt a current of 24 kA with an associated recovery voltage of 25 kV. Two interrupter systems were tested for over 1000 operations each, and both appear to satisfy TFTR requirements. The second part discusses hybrid-switch development for superconducting coil protection. These switching systems must be capable of carrying large currents on a continuous basis as well as performing interruption duties. The third part presents preliminary results on an early-counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters. Implementation of this technique has resulted in large increases in interruptible current as well as a marked reduction in contact erosion

  14. Present status of inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Ido, Shunji; Nakai, Sadao.

    1986-01-01

    Since inertial nuclear fusion reactors do not require high vacuum and high magnetic field, the structure of the reactor cavity becomes markedly simple as compared with tokamak type fusion reactors. In particular, since high vacuum is not necessary, liquid metals such as lithium and lead can be used for the first wall, and the damage of reactor structures by neutrons can be prevented. As for the core, the energy efficiency of lasers is not very high, accordingly it must be designed so that the pellet gain due to nuclear fusion becomes sufficiently high, and typically, the gain coefficient from 100 to 200 is necessary. In this paper, the perspective of pellet gain, the plan from the present status to the practical reactors, and the conceptual design of the practical reactors are discussed. The plan of fuel ignition, energy break-even and high gain by the implosion mode, of which the uncertain factor due to uneven irradiation and instability was limited to the minimum, was clarified. The scenario of the development of laser nuclear fusion reactors is presented, and the concept of the reactor system is shown. The various types of nuclear fusion-fission hybrid reactors are explained. As for the design of inertial fusion power reactors, the engineering characteristics of the core, the conceptual design, water fall type reactors and DD fuel reactors are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  15. Hybrid Histogram Descriptor: A Fusion Feature Representation for Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qinghe; Hao, Qiaohong; Chen, Yuqi; Yi, Yugen; Wei, Ying; Dai, Jiangyan

    2018-06-15

    Currently, visual sensors are becoming increasingly affordable and fashionable, acceleratingly the increasing number of image data. Image retrieval has attracted increasing interest due to space exploration, industrial, and biomedical applications. Nevertheless, designing effective feature representation is acknowledged as a hard yet fundamental issue. This paper presents a fusion feature representation called a hybrid histogram descriptor (HHD) for image retrieval. The proposed descriptor comprises two histograms jointly: a perceptually uniform histogram which is extracted by exploiting the color and edge orientation information in perceptually uniform regions; and a motif co-occurrence histogram which is acquired by calculating the probability of a pair of motif patterns. To evaluate the performance, we benchmarked the proposed descriptor on RSSCN7, AID, Outex-00013, Outex-00014 and ETHZ-53 datasets. Experimental results suggest that the proposed descriptor is more effective and robust than ten recent fusion-based descriptors under the content-based image retrieval framework. The computational complexity was also analyzed to give an in-depth evaluation. Furthermore, compared with the state-of-the-art convolutional neural network (CNN)-based descriptors, the proposed descriptor also achieves comparable performance, but does not require any training process.

  16. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  17. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability

  18. Conceptual design considerations and neutronics of lithium fall laser fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Thomson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Atomics International and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are involved in the conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant incorporating the lithium fall target chamber. In this paper we discuss some of the more important design considerations for the target chamber and evaluate its nuclear performance. Sizing and configuration of the fall, hydraulic effects, and mechanical design considerations are addressed. The nuclear aspects examined include tritium breeding, energy deposition, and radiation damage

  19. Fusion-fission of heavy systems: influence of the entrance channel mass assymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Alami, R.; Borderie, B.; Fuchs, H.; Gardes, D.; Gauvin, H.

    1988-02-01

    The influence of the entrance channel on fission processes was studied by forming the same composite system by two different target-projectile combinations ( 40 Ar + 209 Bi and 56 Fe + 187 Re, respectively). Compound nucleus fission and quasi fission were observed and the analysis was performed in the framework of the extra-extra-push model, which provides a qualitative interpretation of the results; limits for the extra-extra-push threshold are given, but problems with quantitative predictions for the extra-push are noted

  20. Fusion reactors as a future energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    A detailed update of fusion research concepts is given. Discussions are given for the following areas: (1) the magnetic confinement principle, (2) UWMAK I: conceptual design for a fusion reactor, (3) the inertial confinement principle, (4) the laser fusion power plant, (5) electron-induced fusion, (6) the long-term development potential of fusion reactors, (7) the symbiosis between fusion and fission reactors, (8) fuel supply for fusion reactors, (9) safety and environmental impact, and (10) accidents, and (11) waste removal and storage

  1. Tritium control and capture in salt-cooled fission and fusion reactors: Status, challenges, and path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Lam, Stephen; Carpenter, David M.; Whyte, Dennis G.; Scarlat, Raluca

    2017-01-01

    Three advanced nuclear power systems use liquid salt coolants that generate tritium and thus face the common challenges of containing and capturing tritium to prevent its release to the environment. The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) uses clean fluoride salt coolants and the same graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel as high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Molten salt reactors (MSRs) dissolve the fuel in a fluoride or chloride salt with release of fission product tritium into the salt. In most FHR and MSR systems, the base-line salts contain lithium where isotopically separated "7Li is proposed to minimize tritium production from neutron interactions with the salt. The Chinese Academy of Science plans to start operation of a 2-MWt molten salt test reactor by 2020. For high-magnetic-field fusion machines, the use of lithium enriched in "6Li is proposed to maximize tritium generation the fuel for a fusion machine. Advances in superconductors that enable higher power densities may require the use of molten lithium salts for fusion blankets and as coolants. Recent technical advances in these three reactor classes have resulted in increased government and private interest and the beginning of a coordinated effort to address the tritium control challenges in 700 °C liquid salt systems. We describe characteristics of salt-cooled fission and fusion machines, the basis for growing interest in these technologies, tritium generation in molten salts, the environment for tritium capture, models for high-temperature tritium transport in salt systems, alternative strategies for tritium control, and ongoing experimental work. Several methods to control tritium appear viable. Finally, limited experimental data is the primary constraint for designing efficient cost-effective methods of tritium control.

  2. Exploitation of a Breakthrough in Magnetic Confinement Fusion to Improve Transuranic Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal non-fissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The centerpiece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS, 100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is about an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast spectrum reactors (FR) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades. The generic Hybrid, combining neutron-rich fusion with energy-rich fission, was first conceptualized several decades ago. However, it is only now that accumulated advances in fusion science and technology allow designing a neutron source like CFNS that is simultaneously compact and high power density, offering a neutron source an order of magnitude stronger than that obtained from accelerator driven systems. The former is essential for efficient coupling to the fission blanket, and the latter is key to efficient neutron production necessary to yield high neutron fluxes needed for effective transmutation. The recent invention of the SuperX-Divertor (SXD)1, a new magnetic configuration that allows the system to safely exhaust large heat and particle fluxes peculiar to CFNS-like devices, is a crucial addition to the underlying knowledge base. The subcritical FFTS acquires a definite advantage over the critical FR approach because of its ability to support an innovative fuel cycle that makes the cheaper LWR do the bulk (75%) of the transuranic transmutation via deep burn in an inert matrix fuel

  3. A study on conceptual design of tritium production fusion reactor based on spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual design of an advanced tritium production reactor based on spherical torus (ST), which is an intermediate application of fusion energy, is presented. Different from traditional Tokamak tritium production reactor design, advanced plasma physics performance and compact structural characteristics of ST are used to minimize tritium leakage and to maximize tritium breeding ratio with arrangement of tritium production blankets as possible as it can do within vacuum vessel in order to produce certain amount of excess tritium except self-sufficient plasma core, corresponding plant availability 40% or more. Based on 2D neutronics calculation, preliminary conceptual design of ST-TPR is presented. Based on systematical analysis, design risk, uncertainty and backup are introduced generally for the backgrounds of next detailed conceptual design. (authors)

  4. Fusion-Fission process and gamma spectroscopy of binary products in light heavy ion collisions (40 {<=} A{sub CN} {<=} 60); Processus de fusion-fission et spectroscopie gamma des produits binaires dans les collisions entre ions lourds legers (40 {<=} A{sub NC} {<=} 60)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouicer, Rachid [Institut de Recherche Subatomique, CNRS-IN2P3 - Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-11-21

    During the work on which this Thesis is based, the significant role of the Fusion-Fission Asymmetric mechanism in light heavy ion collisions (A{sub NC} {<=} 60) has been emphasized. The Spin Dis-alignment in the oblate-oblate system has supplied evidence for the first time for the Butterfly mode in a resonant-like reaction. These two aspects, one macroscopic and the other more closely related to microscopic effects are certainly different from a conceptual point of view but are quite complementary for a global understanding of dinuclear systems. In the first part, inclusive and exclusive measurements of the {sup 35}Cl + {sup 12}C and {sup 35}Cl + {sup 24}Mg reaction have been performed at 8 MeV/nucleon in the Saclay experiment. These measurements have permitted us to verify the origin of products which have given rise of the asymmetric fusion-fission mechanism and which have demonstrated that the three-body process in this energy range is very weak. In the second part the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si reaction has been performed at the resonance energy E{sub lab}> = 111.6 MeV at Strasbourg with the Eurogam phase II multi-detector array and VIVITRON accelerator. An angular momentum J{sup {pi}} 38{sup +} for inelastic and mutual channels of the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si exit channel has been measured and has supplied evidence for a spin dis-alignment which has been interpreted in the framework of a molecular model by Butterfly motion. The spectroscopic study of {sup 32}S nucleus, has revealed the occurrence of a new {gamma}-ray transition 0{sup +}(8507.8 keV) {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}(2230.2 keV). (author) 105 refs., 116 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Fission and fusion interaction phenomena of mixed lump kink solutions for a generalized (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; Wen, Xiaoyong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a generalized (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (gBKP) equation is investigated by using the Hirota’s bilinear method. With the aid of symbolic computation, some new lump, mixed lump kink and periodic lump solutions are derived. Based on the derived solutions, some novel interaction phenomena like the fission and fusion interactions between one lump soliton and one kink soliton, the fission and fusion interactions between one lump soliton and a pair of kink solitons and the interactions between two periodic lump solitons are discussed graphically. Results might be helpful for understanding the propagation of the shallow water wave.

  6. Safety methodology implementation in the conceptual design phase of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Elbez-Uzan, J.

    2007-01-01

    The licensing of ITER in France represents the first process for licensing a fusion facility in the framework of an experimental device with a total Tritium inventory of 3 kg. The main ITER parameters are far from those expected in the future demonstration reactors where the fusion power will be at least 5 times higher and the additional heating power could also reach up to 5 times the one foreseen in ITER. Main safety requirements for these reactors are based, among other conditions, on their inherent features as low amount of fuel, very low impurity content of structural materials, minimum waste repository, no active systems for safe shut-down, and no need for evacuation of population after the most severe accident. The design of such reactors is at the stage of conceptual studies and is mainly dealing with plasma performances, tritium breeding, blanket/divertor designs and solution of engineering issues, as well as bounding accidents or classification of waste. The methodological approach for integrating safety analysis as a tool for optimizing the design of the overall fusion installation for future reactors in the conceptual design phase is sketched, including the machine itself and the different auxiliary nuclear buildings. (author)

  7. Overview of nonelectrical applications of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for, and importance of, nonelectrical applications of fusion energy is discussed. Three possibilities are reviewed in some detail: fusion-fission hybrids for fissile fuel production; high-temperature electrolysis and thermochemical processes for hydrogen production; and high-temperature steam for coal gasification. The hybrid could be an early application of fusion if this route is identified as a desirable goal. Hydrogen production and coal gasification processes appear feasible and could be developed as a part of the conventional fusion blanket research and development. The question of economics, particularly in view of the high capital cost of fusion plants, remains an open issue requiring more study

  8. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops' as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems

  9. Fusion-Fission like studies from medium heavy to light compound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, B.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that for systems as light as A CN = 47 up to systems just above the Businaro Gallone point in the mass region of 100 to 110 the probability for a system to deexcite by the fission channel, is not negligible. As predicted, the asymmetrical separation becomes dominant when the A CN mass is decreasing but the symmetrical mode remains measurable. The ambiguities in the measured outgoing fragment distributions arise from the competition with IMF emissions as well as dynamical fission processes which depend strongly on the studied system. Fully relaxed DIC has also be used to interpret the results. I tried to show that precise checks on the behavior of two neighbouring systems as well as search for entrance channel effect and/or energy dependence bring evidence enough that the deexcitation of the compound nucleus can account for the symmetric and asymmetric fission channels as well as IMF emissions. This is strongly supported by different recent calculations all done in this frame. These all conclusions indicate also that the RLDM fails in the data interpretation. The strength of the fission channel depends strongly on the possibilities a system has to deexcite. For very light systems especially the number of open channels available determines directly the flux repartition between direct or compound processes and therefore very large differences in the general behaviour of two neighbouring systems can be observed. 15 figs

  10. Conceptual design of a fast-ignition laser fusion reactor FALCON-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Hiwatari, R.; Asaoka, Y.; Someya, Y.; Sunahara, A.; Johzaki, T.

    2008-10-01

    A new conceptual design of the laser fusion power plant FALCON-D (Fast ignition Advanced Laser fusion reactor CONcept with a Dry wall chamber) has been proposed. The fast ignition method can achieve the sufficient fusion gain for a commercial operation (∼100) with about 10 times smaller fusion yield than the conventional central ignition method. FALCON-D makes full use of this property and aims at designing with a compact dry wall chamber (5 - 6 m radius). 1-D/2-D hydrodynamic simulations showed the possibility of the sufficient gain achievement with a 40 MJ target yield. The design feasibility of the compact dry wall chamber and solid breeder blanket system was shown through the thermomechanical analysis of the dry wall and neutronics analysis of the blanket system. A moderate electric output (∼400 MWe) can be achieved with a high repetition (30 Hz) laser. This dry wall concept not only reduces some difficulties accompanied with a liquid wall but also enables a simple cask maintenance method for the replacement of the blanket system, which can shorten the maintenance time. The basic idea of the maintenance method for the final optics system has also been proposed. Some critical R and D issues required for this design are also discussed. (author)

  11. A conceptual design study of a reversed field pinch fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Tanaka, S.; Terai, T.; Hashizume, H.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor with a solid breeder blanket REPUTER-1 has been studied through parametric system studies and detailed design and analysis in order to clarify the technical feasibility of a compact fusion reactor. F-θ pumping is used for driving the plasma current necessary for steady state operation. A maintenance policy of replacing a whole fusion power core including TF coils is proposed to cope with the requirements of high wall loading and high mass power density. For the same reason a normal conductor is selected for most of the coils. The first wall is structurally independent of the blanket. The blanket module is composed of SiC reinforced blocks which form a stable arch so as to keep the stresses in SiC basically compressive. The coolant for the first wall and the limiter is pressurized water, while the coolant for the blanket is helium gas. A number of thin Li 2 O and thick beryllium tiles are packed into the blanket block so as to obtain a proper tritium breeding ratio. A pumped limiter is chosen for the plasma exhaust system. The study has shown the technical feasibility of a high power density fusion power reactor (330 kWe/tonne) with solid breeder blanket and many key physics and engineering issues are also clarified. (orig.)

  12. Measurement and analysis of 14 MeV neutron-induced double-differential neutron emission cross sections needed for fission and fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahai.

    1990-10-01

    The main objectives of this IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme are to improve the data on 14 MeV neutron-induced double-differential neutron emission cross sections for materials needed for fission and fusion reactor technology. This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations which were agreed by all participants during the Second Research Co-ordination Meeting

  13. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate.

  14. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate

  15. Conceptual design study of closed Brayton cycle gas turbines for fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design study is presented of closed Brayton cycle gas turbine power conversion systems suitable for integration with advanced-concept Tokamak fusion reactors (such as UWMAK-III) for efficient power generation without requiring cooling water supply for waste heat rejection. A baseline cycle configuration was selected and parametric performance analyses were made. Based on the results of the parametric analysis and trade-off and interface considerations, the reference design conditions for the baseline cycle were selected. Conceptual designs were made of the major helium gas turbine power system components including a 585-MWe single-shaft turbomachine, (three needed), regenerator, precooler, intercooler, and the piping system connecting them. Structural configuration and significant physical dimensions for major components are illustrated, and a brief discussion on major advantages, power control and crucial technologies for the helium gas turbine power system are presented

  16. FIREBIRD - a conceptual design of a field reversed configuration compact torus fusion reactor (CTFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the work carried out by the Nuclear Engineering 512 design team at the University of Washington on a conceptual design study of a Compact-Torus (Field-Reversed) Fusion Reactor Configuration (CTFR). The primary objective of the study was to develop a reactor design that strived for high engineering power density, modest recirculating power and competitive cost of electrical power. A Conceptual design was developed for a translating field-reversed configuration reactor; based on the Physics developed by Tuszewski and Lindford at LANL and by Hoffman and Milroy at MSNW. Furthermore, it also appears possible to operate a simplified form of this reactor using a pure D-D fuel cycle after an initial D-T ignition ramp to reach the advanced fuel operating regime. One optimistic reactor so designed has a length of about 35 meters, producing a net electrical power of about 375 MWe

  17. Fission-like decay of 20Ne: eccentric behavior in the B+B fusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Coimbra, M.M.; Added, N.; Anjos, R.M.; Carlin Filho, N.; Fante Junior, L.; Figueira, M.C.S.; Guimaraes, V.; Szanto, E.M.

    1988-08-01

    Cross sections for the fusion of 10,11 B+ 10,11 B have been measured in the energy range from 1.5 MeV/A to 5 MeV/A. The 10 B+ 10 B system unexpectedly presents a hindered fusion cross section when compared to the 10 B+ 11 B and 11 B+ 11 B reactions and to standard model predictions. The missing fusion cross section was diverted the 10 B exit channel with a total kinetic energy characteristic of strongly damped collisions. Q-values and kinematical analysis together with angular distributions suggest a binary symmetric decay of the composite 20 Ne system. (author) [pt

  18. Potential role of fission--fusion systems in the electric economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to meet the following objectives: (1) define the target costs the hybrid must meet, (2) define the optimum fissile/electrical production ratio for hybrid blankets, (3) discover synergistic configurations, and (4) define the windows of economic hybrid design having desirable cost/benefit ratios. The techniques for conducting the study and some data are given. (U.S.)

  19. Preliminary study of the economics of enriching PWR fuel with a fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.

    1978-09-01

    This study is a comparison of the economics of enriching uranium oxide for pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant fuel using a fusion hybrid reactor versus the present isotopic enrichment process. The conclusion is that privately owned hybrid fusion reactors, which simultaneously produce electrical power and enrich fuel, are competitive with the gaseous diffusion enrichment process if spent PWR fuel rods are reenriched without refabrication. Analysis of irradiation damage effects should be performed to determine if the fuel rod cladding can withstand the additional irradiation in the hybrid and second PWR power cycle. The cost competitiveness shown by this initial study clearly justifies further investigations

  20. Future developments of power supply from nuclear fission and fusion until the middle of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study made by General Technology Systems (Netherlands) is to provide information about nuclear fission and fusion as methods for power generation, with which, in the framework of a study into the possibilities of durable energy sources, choices may be made from the various possibilities for future energy supply. The physical processes upon which the power generation relies are treated briefly. The technologies employed are discussed together with their changes and improvements, now and in the future, and the economic factors by which they are accompanied. How much of this energy will be used in the Netherlands, is discussed. In order to know the opinion of others about these subjects the dealers of the current nuclear power stations were asked to give their opinions which are collected in a supplement. 166 refs.; 18 figs.; 19 tabs

  1. Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Scott W.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of electrical energy produced over the lifetime of coal, LWR fission, UP fusion, and wind power plants is compared to the total amount of energy required to procure the fuel, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The energy payback ratio varies from a low of 11 for coal plants to a high of 27 for DT-fusion plants. The magnitude of the energy investment and the source of the various energy inputs determine the CO 2 emission factor. This number varies from a low of 9 to a high of 974 tonnes of CO 2 per GW e h for DT-fusion and coal plants, respectively

  2. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  3. Genetic engineering with tobacco protoplasts. [Hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H H

    1976-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts of Nicotiana glauca (GG) and N. langsdorffii (LL) was confirmed and extended. Enzymatic digestion of leaf tissues to obtain protoplats was followed by fusion with the aid of polyethylene glycol. The hybrid calli were selected by their better growth on defined culture media. Mature hybrid plants were identified by their morphology and tumor formation. Cytological examination revealed a range in chromosome numbers from 56 to 64 rather than the amphiploid GGLL number of 42. About 75 percent of the hybrids were fertile. The potential range in combining widely disparate genotypes by somatic cell fusion was demonstrated by fusing tobacco GGLL protoplasts with human HeLa cells. The HeLa nucleus was observed inside the plant protoplasts, thus forming an interkingdom heterokaryon.

  4. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. © 2013 The Author. Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Doubling and half-life times for a combined fission-fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantis, G

    1982-01-01

    The long term fuel dynamics for a fission symbiotic system is examined under the assumption of discontinuous loading and offloading conditions. It is found that the breeding capacities of the core and the blankets identify several distinct fuel cycles. By numerical test and a specific comparison it is shown that doubling times and half-lives can differ by as much as 10% from those predicted by conventional methods.

  6. Status report on the fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are unusually rapid

  7. Nuclear energy: fusion and fission - From the atomic nucleus to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Matter is made up of atoms. In 1912, the English physicist Ernest Rutherford (who had shown that the atom had a nucleus), and the Danish physicist Niels Bohr developed a model in which the atom was made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. In 1913, Rutherford discovered the proton, and in 1932, the English physicist Chadwick discovered the neutron. In 1938, Hahn and Strassmann discovered spontaneous fission and the French physicist Frederic Joliot-Curie, assisted by Lew Kowarski and Hans Von Halban, showed in 1939 that splitting uranium nuclei caused an intense release of heat. The discovery of the chain reaction would enable the exploitation of nuclear energy. 'It was the Second World War leaders who, by encouraging research for military purposes, contributed to the development of nuclear energy'. During the Second World War, from 1939 to 1945, studies of fission continued in the United States, with the participation of emigre physicists. The Manhattan project was launched, the aim of which was to provide the country with a nuclear weapon (used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945). After the war ended, research into energy production by the nuclear fission reaction continued for civil purposes. CEA (the French Atomic Energy Commission) was set up in France in 1945 under the impetus of General de Gaulle. This public research body is responsible for giving France mastery of the atom in the research, health, energy, industrial, safety and defense sectors. (authors)

  8. Thorium--uranium cycle ICF hybrid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of preliminary studies of a laser-driven fusion-fission hybrid concept utilizing the 232 Th- 233 U breeding cycle are reported. Neutron multiplication in the breeding blanket is provided by a region containing 238 UO 2 and the equilibrium concentration of 239 PuO 2 . Established fission reactor technology is utilized to determine limits on operating conditions for high-temperature fuels and structures. The implications of nonproliferation policies for the operation of fusion-fission hybrid reactors are discussed

  9. Conceptual design and neutronics analyses of a fusion reactor blanket simulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    A new conceptual design of a fusion reactor blanket simulation facility was developed. This design follows the principles that have been successfully employed in the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBR), because experiments conducted in it have resulted in the discovery of deficiencies in neutronics prediction methods. With this design, discrepancies between calculation and experimental data can be fully attributed to calculation methods because design deficiencies that could affect results are insignificant. Inelastic scattering cross sections are identified as a major source of these discrepancies. The conceptual design of this FBBR analog, the fusion reactor blanket facility (FRBF), is presented. Essential features are a cylindrical geometry and a distributed, cosine-shaped line source of 14-MeV neutrons. This source can be created by sweeping a deuteron beam over an elongated titanium-tritide target. To demonstrate that the design of the FRBF will not contribute significant deviations in experimental results, neutronics analyses were performed: results of comparisons of 2-dimensional to 1-dimensional predictions are reported for two blanket compositions. Expected deviations from 1-D predictions which are due to source anisotropy and blanket asymmetry are minimal. Thus, design of the FRBF allows simple and straightforward interpretation of the experimental results, without a need for coarse 3-D calculations

  10. A comparison of the radiological impact of energy production by fission and fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancillac, F.; Despres, A.

    1990-04-01

    The impacts of respectively a light water reactor and a planned fusion reactor, for which tritium-deuterium fusion reactions will act as energy source have been compared. The comparison is made on the basis of a generated capacity of 1 GWe.year, using the following criteria: fuel inventories, radioactive releases, collective effective dose equivalent commitments to the public and the volume of wastes. The accidental risk is not introduced. Fusion reactor parameters are still subject to uncertainties, which prevent accurate quantification of radionuclide releases (tritium apart) from the nuclear plant. Only orders of magnitude extrapolated from values for the NET tokamak are given. Despite these uncertainties, it would seem more interesting, from the dosimetric point of view, to use fusion reactors to produce electricity, although problems of radioactive releases, handling and long-term storage of radioactive waste would remain. Fusion reactors also generate generate high-level wastes with long-term exposure rates that are lower than those of light water reactors [fr

  11. Competition between fusion and quasi-fission in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Quantitative analyses of angular distributions and angle-mass correlations have been applied to the U + Ca reaction to obtain upper limit estimates for the cross sections for complete fusion near or below the interaction barrier. Extrapolating to the systems Ca + Cm and Ca + Es using the well established scaling properties of the extra push model, an estimate of the cross sections relevant to the efforts of synthesizing super-heavy elements in the region Z = 116 and N = 184 via heavy-ion fusion reactions are obtained. A simple evaporation calculation using properties of the super heavy elements shows that the failure to observe super-heavy elements with the Ca + Cm reaction is consistent with estimates of the complete fusion process. 33 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Agarwal, K.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.; Peck, S.D.; Burgeson, J.; Dalder, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  13. Examining the Etiology of Reading Disability as Conceptualized by the Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A.; Wagner, Richard K.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2018-01-01

    A fairly recent definition of reading disability (RD) is that in the form of a hybrid model. The model views RD as a latent construct that is manifested through various observable unexpected impairments in reading-related skills and through inadequate response to intervention. The current report evaluated this new conceptualization of RD from an…

  14. Concept and nuclear performance of direct-enrichment fusion breeder blanket using UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Kasahara, Takayasu; An, Shigehiro

    1985-01-01

    A new concept is presented for direct enrichment of fissile fuel in the blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The enriched fuel produced by this means can be used in fission reactors without reprocessing. The outstanding feature of the concept is the powdered form in which UO 2 fuel is placed in the reactor blanket, where it is irradiated to the requisite enrichment for use as fuel in burner reactor, e.g. 3%. After removal from blanket, the powder is mixed to homogenize the enrichment. Fuel pellets and assemblies are then fabricated from the powder without reprocessing. The concept of irradiating UO 2 in powder eliminates the problems of spatial nonuniformity in fissile enrichment, and of radiation damage to fuel clad, encountered in attempting to enrich prefabricated fuel. Powder mixing for homogenization brings the additional benefit of removing volatile fission products. Also burnable poison can be added, as necessary, after irradiation. An extensive neutronic parameter survey showed that the optimum blanket arrangement for this enrichment concept is one presenting a fission suppressing configuration and with beryllium adopted as moderator. By this arrangement, the average 239 Pu enrichment obtained on the natural UO 2 fuel in the blanket reaches 3% after only 0.56 MW.yr/m"2 exposure. A conceptual design is presented of the blanket, together with associated fusion breeder, from which, practical application of the concept is shown to be promising. (author)

  15. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  16. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  17. Experimental fusion power reactor conceptual design study. Final report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-12-01

    This document is the final report which describes the work carried out by General Atomic Company for the Electric Power Research Institute on a conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) and an overall EPR facility. The primary objective of the two-year program was to develop a conceptual design of an EPR that operates at ignition and produces continuous net power. A conceptual design was developed for a Doublet configuration based on indications that a noncircular tokamak offers the best potential of achieving a sufficiently high effective fuel containment to provide a viable reactor concept at reasonable cost. Other objectives included the development of a planning cost estimate and schedule for the plant and the identification of critical R and D programs required to support the physics development and engineering and construction of the EPR. This volume contains the following sections: (1) reactor components, (2) auxiliary systems, (3) operations, (4) facility design, (5) program considerations, and (6) conclusions and recommendations

  18. Experimental fusion power reactor conceptual design study. Final report. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-12-01

    This document is the final report which describes the work carried out by General Atomic Company for the Electric Power Research Institute on a conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) and an overall EPR facility. The primary objective of the two-year program was to develop a conceptual design of an EPR that operates at ignition and produces continuous net power. A conceptual design was developed for a Doublet configuration based on indications that a noncircular tokamak offers the best potential of achieving a sufficiently high effective fuel containment to provide a viable reactor concept at reasonable cost. Other objectives included the development of a planning cost estimate and schedule for the plant and the identification of critical R and D programs required to support the physics development and engineering and construction of the EPR. This volume contains the following appendices: (1) tradeoff code analysis, (2) residual mode transport, (3) blanket/first wall design evaluations, (4) shielding design evaluation, (5) toroidal coil design evaluation, (6) E-coil design evaluation, (7) F-coil design evaluation, (8) plasma recycle system design evaluation, (9) primary coolant purification design evaluation, (10) power supply system design evaluation, (11) number of coolant loops, (12) power conversion system design evaluation, and (13) maintenance methods evaluation

  19. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  20. Conceptual design and issues of the laser inertial fusion test (LIFT) reactor—targets and chamber systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, T.; Kozaki, Y.; Shiraga, H.; Fujita, H.; Okano, K.; Members of LIFT Design Team

    2017-11-01

    We present the conceptual design of an experimental laser fusion plant known as the laser inertial fusion test (LIFT) reactor. The conceptual design aims at technically connecting a single-shot experiment and a commercial power plant. The LIFT reactor is designed on a three-phase scheme, where each phase has specific goals and the dedicated chambers of each phase are driven by the same laser. Technical issues related to the chamber technology including radiation safety to repeat burst mode operation are discussed in this paper.

  1. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  2. Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang; Nie, Xingchen; Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).

  3. Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia, E-mail: lijia@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Nie, Xingchen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).

  4. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  5. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections

  6. Spectral effects in low-dose fission and fusion neutron irradiated metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Atkin, S.D.; Martinez, C.

    1986-04-01

    Flat miniature tensile specimens were irradiated to neutron fluences up to 9 x 10 22 n/m 2 in the RTNS-II and in the Omega West Reactor. Specimen temperatures were the same in both environments, with runs being made at both 90 0 C and 290 0 C. The results of tensile tests on AISI 316 stainless steel, A302B pressure vessel steel and pure copper are reported here. The radiation-induced changes in yield strength as a function of neutron dose in each spectrum are compared. The data for 316 stainless steel correlate well on the basis of displacements per atom (dpa), while those for copper and A302B do not. In copper the ratio of fission dpa to 14 MeV neutron dpa for a given yield stress change is about three to one. In A302B pressure vessel steel this ratio is more than three at lower fluences, but the yield stress data for fission and 14 MeV neutron-irradiated A302B steel appears to coalesce or intersect at the higher fluences

  7. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study

  8. Excitation energy dependence of fragment-mass distributions from fission of 180,190Hg formed in fusion reactions of 36Ar + 144,154Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass distributions of fission fragments from the compound nuclei 180Hg and 190Hg formed in fusion reactions 36Ar + 144Sm and 36Ar + 154Sm, respectively, were measured at initial excitation energies of E⁎(Hg180=33–66 MeV and E⁎(Hg190=48–71 MeV. In the fission of 180Hg, the mass spectra were well reproduced by assuming only an asymmetric-mass division, with most probable light and heavy fragment masses A¯L/A¯H=79/101. The mass asymmetry for 180Hg agrees well with that obtained in the low-energy β+/EC-delayed fission of 180Tl, from our earlier ISOLDE(CERN experiment. Fission of 190Hg is found to proceed in a similar way, delivering the mass asymmetry of A¯L/A¯H=83/107, throughout the measured excitation energy range. The persistence as a function of excitation energy of the mass-asymmetric fission for both proton-rich Hg isotopes gives strong evidence for the survival of microscopic effects up to effective excitation energies of compound nuclei as high as 40 MeV. This behavior is different from fission of actinide nuclei and heavier mercury isotope 198Hg.

  9. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak (fusion) experimental power reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the results of ''Conceptual Studies of Toroidal Field Magnets for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor'' performed for the Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge Operations. Two conceptual coil designs are developed. One design approach to produce a specified 8 Tesla maximum field uses a novel NbTi superconductor design cooled by pool-boiling liquid helium. For a highest practicable field design, a unique NbSn 3 conductor is used with forced-flow, single-phase liquid helium cooling to achieve a 12 Tesla peak field. Fabrication requirements are also developed for these approximately 7 meter horizontal bore by 11 meter vertical bore coils. Cryostat design approaches are analyzed and a hybrid cryostat approach selected. Structural analyses are performed for approaches to support in-plane and out-of-plane loads and a structural approach selected. In addition to the conceptual design studies, cost estimates and schedules are prepared for each of the design approaches, major uncertainties and recommendations for research and development identified, and test coil size for demonstration recommended

  10. Radiationless decay, fission and fusion of excitons in irradiated molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Gerard.

    1977-01-01

    The creation and evolution of excited states in ionizing particle tracks were investigated. The passage of high energy ionizing particles in molecular crystals results in the formation of highly excited states which energy is generally above the molecular ionization potential. The theory of non radiative transitions, which describes the transitions from the highly excited states to the lowest singlet and triplet excitons S 1 and T 1 is developed. Among these non radiative transitions, the fission of singlet excitons into two singlet or triplet excitons of lower energies is studied experimentally. These results and a kinematics study of the S 1 and T 1 excitons in ionizing particle tracks were used to get a complete description of the scintillation. These results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements on the scintillation [fr

  11. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  12. A review of the prospects for fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Blow, S.; Clarke, R.H.; Tozer, B.A.; Whittingham, A.C.; Bending, R.C.

    1975-07-01

    The physics and engineering problems of both magnetically and inertially (laser) confined fusion systems are reviewed. The materials problems of the two systems are discussed, and their safety implications analysed. A short discussion is given of the possibilities and problems of a hybrid fission/fusion system. (U.K.)

  13. Divertor modelling for conceptual studies of tokamak fusion reactor FDS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiping; Liu Songlin

    2010-01-01

    Divertor modelling for the conceptual studies of tokamak fusion reactor FDS-III was carried out by using the edge plasma code package B2.5-Eirene (SOLPS5.0). The modelling was performed by taking real MHD equilibrium and divertor geometry of the reactor into account. The profiles of plasma temperature, density and heat fluxes in the computational region and at the target plates have been obtained. The modelling results show that, with the fusion power P fu =2.6 GW and the edge density N edge =6.0x10 19 l/m 3 , the peak values of electron and ion heat fluxes at the outer target plate of divertor are respectively 93.92 MW/m 2 and 58.50 MW/m 2 . According to the modelling results it is suggested that some methods for reducing the heat fluxes at the target plates should be used in order to get acceptable level of power flux at the target plates for the divertor design of the reactor.

  14. LIBRA - a light ion beam inertial confinement fusion reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Bruggink, D.

    1989-01-01

    The LIBRA light ion beam fusion commercial reactor study is a self-consistent conceptual design of a 330 MWe power plant with an accompanying economic analysis. Fusion targets are imploded by 4 MJ shaped pulses of 30 MeV Li ions at a rate of 3 Hz. The target gain is 80, leading to a yield of 320 MJ. The high intensity part of the ion pulse is delivered by 16 diodes through 16 separate z-pinch plasma channels formed in 100 torr of helium with trace amounts of lithium. The blanket is an array of porous flexible silicon carbide tubes with Li 17 Pb 83 flowing downward through them. These tubes (INPORT units) shield the target chamber wall from both neutron damage and the shock overpressure of the target explosion. The target chamber is a right circular cylinder, 8.7 meters in diameter. The target chamber is 'self-pumped' by the target explosion generated overpressure into a surge tank partially filled with liquid that surrounds the target chamber. This scheme refreshes the chamber at the desired 3 Hz frequency without excessive pumping demands. The blanket multiplication is 1.2 and the tritium breeding ratio is 1.4. The direct capital cost of LIBRA is estimated to be $2200/kWe. (author)

  15. Maintainability considerations for the central cell in WITAMIR-I, a conceptual design of a tandem mirror fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1980-10-01

    The concepts for maintaining the central cell reactor components for WITAMIR-I are described. WITAMIR-I is a conceptual tandem mirror fusion power reactor utilizing thermal barriers designed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Unique solutions to the difficult problems of routine blanket replacement and maintenance are proposed. Solutions are also proposed for maintaining the central cell coils and the shield

  16. Microstructural origins of yield-strength changes in AISI 316 during fission or fusion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Panayotou, N.F.; Johnson, G.D.

    1981-08-01

    The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at a level dependent on the irradiation temperature. Extrapolation to anticipated fusion behavior based on microstructural comparisons leads to the conclusion that the primary influence of transmutational differences is only to alter the transient behavior and not the saturation level of yield strength

  17. A conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade are reviewed from the perspective of formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. The basis for the design strategy is set by enumerating both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber. Past concepts are then reviewed to identify conceptual design approaches and physical configurations that enhance the positive aspects and minimize the negative aspects. A detailed description of the engineering considerations is given, including such topics as the selection of a liquid metal, control of radiation damage, selection of structural material, control of tritium breeding and extraction, control of wall stress, and designing for a given rep-rate. Finally, a design strategy is formulated which accomodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate. (orig.)

  18. Conceptual design of the superconducting magnet system for the helical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Nagato; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Takahata, Kazuya; Natsume, Kyohei

    2013-01-01

    Current status of conceptual design of superconducting magnet system and low temperature system for the helical fusion reactor are introduced. There are three kinds of candidates of superconducting magnets such as Cable-in-conduit (CIC), Low-Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Their characteristic properties, coil designs and cooling systems are stated. The freezer and low temperature distribution system, bus line and current lead, and excitation power source for superconducting coil are reported. The various elements of superconducting magnet system of FFHR-d1, partial cross section of FFHR helical coil using CIC, conceptual diagram of helical coil winding method of FFHR using CIC, relation among mass flow of supercritical helium supplied into CIC conductor and temperature increasing and pressure loss, cross section structure of LTS indirect-cooling conductor at 100 kA, cross section of 100-kA HTS conductor, connection method of helical coil segment and YBCO conductor are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  19. Conceptual study of lower hybrid frequency heating of the J.E.T. plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, G.; Bernard, M.; Brambilla, M.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of this report is to bring up the conclusions of the conceptual study of the J.E.T. plasma heating by lower hybrid waves. While giving an overall view of potential use for lower hybrid heating (LHH) in the J.E.T. plasma, this study deals more specificaly with the following concerns: up-to-date status of LHH theory and experiment; the physics of LHH on J.E.T.: RF requirements and expected results from numerical computations; the J.E.T. LHH coupling structure; the 10 MW RF generator; the associated RF diagnostics; the time schedule and the cost estimates

  20. Preliminary conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design of a commercial Mirror Hybrid Reactor, optimized for 239 Pu production, has been completed. This design is the product of a joint effort by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Company, and follows directly from earlier work on the Mirror Hybrid. This paper describes the blanket and power conversion system of the reactor design. Included are descriptions of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel that supports the magnets and contains the blanket and power conversion system components, the blanket module design, the blanket fuel design, and the power conversion system

  1. Inner-membrane proteins PMI/TMEM11 regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis independently of the DRP1/MFN fission/fusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Thomas; Macchi, Marc; Arnauné-Pelloquin, Laetitia; Poidevin, Mickael; Maillet, Frédéric; Richard, Fabrice; Fatmi, Ahmed; Belenguer, Pascale; Royet, Julien

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that can change in number and morphology during cell cycle, development or in response to extracellular stimuli. These morphological dynamics are controlled by a tight balance between two antagonistic pathways that promote fusion and fission. Genetic approaches have identified a cohort of conserved proteins that form the core of mitochondrial remodelling machineries. Mitofusins (MFNs) and OPA1 proteins are dynamin-related GTPases that are required for outer- and inner-mitochondrial membrane fusion respectively whereas dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is the master regulator of mitochondrial fission. We demonstrate here that the Drosophila PMI gene and its human orthologue TMEM11 encode mitochondrial inner-membrane proteins that regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis. PMI-mutant cells contain a highly condensed mitochondrial network, suggesting that PMI has either a pro-fission or an anti-fusion function. Surprisingly, however, epistatic experiments indicate that PMI shapes the mitochondria through a mechanism that is independent of drp1 and mfn. This shows that mitochondrial networks can be shaped in higher eukaryotes by at least two separate pathways: one PMI-dependent and one DRP1/MFN-dependent.

  2. Network metrics reveal differences in social organization between two fission-fusion species, Grevy's zebra and onager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Siva R; Fischhoff, Ilya R; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2007-02-01

    For species in which group membership frequently changes, it has been a challenge to characterize variation in individual interactions and social structure. Quantifying this variation is necessary to test hypotheses about ecological determinants of social patterns and to make predictions about how group dynamics affect the development of cooperative relationships and transmission processes. Network models have recently become popular for analyzing individual contacts within a population context. We use network metrics to compare populations of Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) and onagers (Equus hemionus khur). These closely related equids, previously described as having the same social system, inhabit environments differing in the distribution of food, water, and predators. Grevy's zebra and onagers are one example of many sets of coarsely similar fission-fusion species and populations, observed elsewhere in other ungulates, primates, and cetaceans. Our analysis of the population association networks reveals contrasts consistent with their distinctive environments. Grevy's zebra individuals are more selective in their association choices. Grevy's zebra form stable cliques, while onager associations are more fluid. We find evidence that females associate assortatively by reproductive state in Grevy's zebra but not in onagers. The current approach demonstrates the utility of network metrics for identifying fine-grained variation among individuals and populations in association patterns. From our analysis, we can make testable predictions about behavioral mechanisms underlying social structure and its effects on transmission processes.

  3. Fission, fusion and annihilation in the interaction of localized structures for the (2 + 1)-dimensional generalized Broer-Kaup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel; Peng, Yan-ze

    2006-01-01

    Based on the WTC truncation method and the general variable separation approach (GVSA), we have first found a general solution including three arbitrary functions for the (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup (GBK) system (B = 0). A class of double periodic wave solutions is obtained by selecting these arbitrary functions appropriately. The interaction properties of the periodic waves are numerically studied and found to be non-elastic. Limit cases are considered and some new localized coherent structures are obtained, the interaction properties of these solutions reveal that some of them are completely elastic and some are non-completely elastic. After that, starting from the (2 + 1)-dimensional GBK system (B ≠ 0) and using the variable separation approach (VSA) including two arbitrary functions in the general solution, we have constructed by selecting the two arbitrary functions appropriately a rich variety of new coherent structures. The interaction properties of these structures reveal new physical properties like fusion, fission, or both and present mutual annihilation of these solutions as time increasing. The annihilation in this model has found to be rule by the parameter K 1 , when this parameter is taken to be zero, the annihilation disappears in this model and the above mentioned structures recover the solitonic structure properties

  4. Comparison between two gas-cooled TRU burner subcritical reactors: fusion-fission and ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carluccio, T.; Rossi, P.C.R.; Angelo, G.; Maiorino, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work shows a preliminary comparative study between two gas cooled subcritical fast reactor as dedicated transuranics (TRU) transmuters: using a spallation neutron source or a D-T fusion neutron source based on ITER. The two concepts are compared in terms of a minor actinides burning performance. Further investigations are required to choose the best partition and transmutation strategy. Mainly due to geometric factors, the ADS shows better neutron multiplication. Other designs, like SABR and lead cooled ADS may show better performances than a Gas Coolead Subcritical Fast Reactors and should be investigated. We noticed that both designs can be utilized to transmutation. Besides the diverse source neutron spectra, we may notice that the geometric design and cycle parameters play a more important role. (author)

  5. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, K.; Fusco, Y.; Kadi, Y.; Luis, R.; Romanets, Y.; Behzad, M.; Aleksan, R.; Bousson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The EU's FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the proposed DEMO fusion reactor, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550 deg. C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum over a volume occupying one litre. The entire 'TMIF' facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility. (authors)

  6. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  7. Unified Treatise of Phenomena of Seismic Fusion-Fission Under Seismonomy in the Light of Monistic Weltanschauung: the Doctrine of Dynamics Monism With Implication to the Earthquake Source Physics}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaurov, D.

    2006-12-01

    Established profoundly new conceptual framework by the five postulates of seismonomy, enables unified treatise of processes such as dynamic structural devastation, seismic blowing up of mount ridges, collision physics, meteorite impact cratering, and seismic global faulting with insight into the earthquake source physics. Hence, by establishing the parametric method of identification of natural modes and then Parametric Scan- Window Observation of Dynamic Responses (PSW-method), it becomes possible to obtain crucial field data. Thus, earth-dam dynamics data revealed an essential non-stationarity of dam's dynamic characteristics throughout earthquakes, the effect of stochastic alternation of the locally-stationary modal states with the discrete characteristics of their spectral distribution. At this point, in the course of other, separate line of far beyond lasting quest concerning metaphysical constituents of matter, and then constitutive relation between excited modal oscillation of structures and causal pattern of their fracture, the results of such analysis, resuming obscurity of the well known jaggedness of observing earthquake spectra, were illuminated and perceived. It was succeeded, on the one hand, to establish unitary conceptualized framework of seismic records analysis consisting both the PSW- and spectral- analysis, which reformulated to be a statistical representation complementary to PSW-method, and, on the other hand, to realize genesis of the doctrine of dynamics monism consisting concepts of both: fission-fusion dynamics and dynamics coherentism as an inspiration of the paradigm of seismic fusion-fission phenomena. Global faulting originating straight plane faults, which often stretch through large scale substantially inhomogeneous volumes, are, uncontestably, the result of dynamics fission, the first step of dynamics binary division of an emerged geoseismoid onto two secondary seismoids with a potential, occasionally stretched rupture plane. That

  8. Preliminary design and neutronic analysis of a laser fusion driven actinide waste burning hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Duderstadt, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The laser fusion driven actinide waste burner (LDAB) system investigated uses partitioned fission power reactor generated actinide wastes dissolved in a molten tin alloy as feed material (or fuel). A novel fuel processing concept based on the high-temperature precipitation of ''actinide--nitrides'' from a liquid tin solution is proposed. This concept will allow for fission product removal to be performed entirely within the device at high burnup. No attempt has been made to optimize this system, but potential performance is impressive. The equilibrium LDAB design consumes 7.6 MT/y of actinide waste. This corresponds to the waste output from 136 light water reactors [1000 MW (electric)]. The mean life of an actinide atom in the LDAB is only 4.5 y; and actinides, once charged to the LDAB, might be reprocessed fewer times during irradiation than in previously proposed systems

  9. Hybrid indirect-drive/direct-drive target for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Lindsay John

    2018-02-27

    A hybrid indirect-drive/direct drive for inertial confinement fusion utilizing laser beams from a first direction and laser beams from a second direction including a central fusion fuel component; a first portion of a shell surrounding said central fusion fuel component, said first portion of a shell having a first thickness; a second portion of a shell surrounding said fusion fuel component, said second portion of a shell having a second thickness that is greater than said thickness of said first portion of a shell; and a hohlraum containing at least a portion of said fusion fuel component and at least a portion of said first portion of a shell; wherein said hohlraum is in a position relative to said first laser beam and to receive said first laser beam and produce X-rays that are directed to said first portion of a shell and said fusion fuel component; and wherein said fusion fuel component and said second portion of a shell are in a position relative to said second laser beam such that said second portion of a shell and said fusion fuel component receive said second laser beam.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Francesco; Aulicino, Francesco; Theka, Ilda; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-11-09

    Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce degradation of the target cell, fusion-derived hybrids can convert into synkaryons. Importantly we show that hetero-to-synkaryon transition occurs through cell division and not by nuclear membrane fusion. Additionally, we also observe that the ROCK-actin/myosin pathway is required for both fusion and entosis in ESCs but only for entosis in MSCs. Overall, we show that MSCs can undergo fusion or entosis in culture by generating distinct functional cellular entities. These two processes are profoundly different and their outcomes should be considered given the beneficial or possible detrimental effects of MSC-based therapeutic applications.

  11. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  12. Qualification of SiC materials for fusion and fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC/SiC composites are both considered, due to their high-temperature strength, pseudo-ductile fracture behavior and low-induced radioactivity, as candidate materials for fusion reactor (test blanket module for ITER) and high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). The radiation swelling and creep of SiC are very important physical phenomena that determine the radiation resistance of them in these reactors. Other important problem which exists especially in fusion reactor is an effect of accumulation of high concentrations of helium atoms in SiC (up to 15000-20000 at.ppm) due to (n,α) nuclear reaction on physical mechanical properties. An understanding of the physical mechanism of this phenomenon is very important for the investigations of helium atom effect on radiation swelling in SiC. In this report a compilation of non-irradiated and irradiated properties of SiC are provided and analyzed in terms of their application to fusion and high temperature gas cooled reactors. Special topic of this report is oriented on the micro structural changes in chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) high-purity beta-SiC during neutron and ion irradiations at elevated temperatures. The evolutions of various radiation induced defects including dislocation loops, network dislocations and cavities are presented here as a function of irradiation temperature and fluencies. These observations are discussed in relation with such irradiation phenomena in SiC as low temperature swelling and cavity swelling. One of the main difficulties in the radiation damage studies of SiC materials lies in the absence of theoretical models and interpretation of many physical mechanisms of radiation phenomena including the radiation swelling and creep. The point defects in ceramic materials are characterized by the charge states and they can have an effective charge. The internal effective electrical field is formed due to the accumulation of charged point

  13. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  15. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  16. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle; 1: l'atome. 2: la radioactivite. 3: l'homme et les rayonnements. 4: l'energie. 5: l'energie nucleaire: fusion et fission. 6: le fonctionnement d'un reacteur nucleaire. 7: le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  17. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals.

  18. Conceptual design of a generic pulse schedule and event handling editor for improved fusion device operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, Oliviero; Nouailletas, Rémy; Brémond, Sylvain; Moreau, Philippe; Allegretti, Ludovic; Balme, Stéphane; Ravenel, Nathalie; Mannori, Simone; Guillerminet, Bernard; Leroux, Fabrice; Douai, David; Nardon, Eric; Hertout, Patrick; Saint-Laurent, François

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Real-time event handling requires extended functionalities of pulse schedule editors and plasma control systems ► A new pulse schedule editor, conceived for parameterization of systematic off-normal event handling, is described ► A global, generic approach on off-normal event handling is highlighted ► The functional architecture of an off-normal event handling oriented plasma control system is discussed ► The main objects of the pulse schedule editor are the segment-descriptor object and the scenario-descriptor object. -- Abstract: Coping with unexpected events is an important issue of nuclear fusion experiments. The future machines, characterized by very long plasma discharges and actively cooled metallic plasma-facing components, will require a systematic intervention in real time, in order to maximize the performance and protect the investment. The real-time management of events will require extending the functionalities of the current pulse schedule editors with the possibility of using reference waveforms provided with acceptability margins and setting up advanced mitigation strategies and event countermeasures. With this purpose, a new pulse schedule editor, based on a time-segment approach for the preparation of experimental scenarios, is being conceived on Tore Supra, together with a new plasma control system. This paper will report on their conceptual design and give account of the preliminary results of a feasibility study currently under way in order to prepare a possible implementation on Tore Supra

  19. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities

  20. Review of the conceptual design of a Doublet fusion experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a two-year, conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) are presented. For this study, the primary objectives of the EPR are to obtain plasma ignition conditions and produce net electrical power. The design features a Doublet plasma configuration with a major radius of 4.5 m. The average plasma beta is 10 percent which yields a thermonuclear power level of 410 MW during a 105-sec burn period. With a duty factor of 0.84, the gross electrical output is 124 MW(e) while the net output is 37 MW(e). The design features a 25-cm-thick, helium-cooled, modular, stainless-steel blanket with a 1-cm-thick, silicon carbide first wall. Sufficient shielding is provided to permit contact maintenance outside the shield envelope within 24 hr after shutdown. An overall plant concept has been developed including a superheated steam cycle power conversion system. Preliminary cost estimates and construction schedules have also been developed. 3 refs

  1. Conceptual design of a generic pulse schedule and event handling editor for improved fusion device operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barana, Oliviero, E-mail: oliviero.barana@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez Durance (France); Nouailletas, Rémy; Brémond, Sylvain; Moreau, Philippe; Allegretti, Ludovic; Balme, Stéphane; Ravenel, Nathalie [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez Durance (France); Mannori, Simone [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Guillerminet, Bernard; Leroux, Fabrice; Douai, David; Nardon, Eric; Hertout, Patrick; Saint-Laurent, François [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Real-time event handling requires extended functionalities of pulse schedule editors and plasma control systems ► A new pulse schedule editor, conceived for parameterization of systematic off-normal event handling, is described ► A global, generic approach on off-normal event handling is highlighted ► The functional architecture of an off-normal event handling oriented plasma control system is discussed ► The main objects of the pulse schedule editor are the segment-descriptor object and the scenario-descriptor object. -- Abstract: Coping with unexpected events is an important issue of nuclear fusion experiments. The future machines, characterized by very long plasma discharges and actively cooled metallic plasma-facing components, will require a systematic intervention in real time, in order to maximize the performance and protect the investment. The real-time management of events will require extending the functionalities of the current pulse schedule editors with the possibility of using reference waveforms provided with acceptability margins and setting up advanced mitigation strategies and event countermeasures. With this purpose, a new pulse schedule editor, based on a time-segment approach for the preparation of experimental scenarios, is being conceived on Tore Supra, together with a new plasma control system. This paper will report on their conceptual design and give account of the preliminary results of a feasibility study currently under way in order to prepare a possible implementation on Tore Supra.

  2. Conceptual design of the Fast-Liner Reactor (FLR) for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    The generation of fusion power from the Fast-Liner Reactor (FLR) concept envisages the implosion of a thin (3-mm) metallic cylinder (0.2-m radius by 0.2-m length) onto a preinjected plasma. This plasma would be heated to thermonuclear temperatures by adiabatic compression, pressure confinement would be provided by the liner inertia, and thermal insulation of the wall-confined plasma would be established by an embedded azimuthal magnetic field. A 2- to 3-mu s burn would follow the approx. 10 4 m/s radial implosion and would result in a thermonuclear yield equal to 10 to 15 times the energy initially invested into the liner kinetic energy. For implosions occurring once every 10 s a gross thermal power of 430 MWt would be generated. The results of a comprehensive systems study of both physics and technology (economics) optima are presented. Despite unresolved problems associated with both the physics and technology of the FLR, a conceptual power plant design is presented

  3. Conceptual design of an electrical power module for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bullis, R.; Sedgeley, D.; Caldwell, C.S.; Pettus, W.G.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    The TFTR Engineering Test Station (ETS) can support blanket modules with a fusion-neutron view area of 0.5 m/sup 2/. If the TFTR magnetic systems and beam injectors can operate with pulse lengths of 5 s, once every 300 s, the time-averaged neutron power incident on a module will be 1.5 kW, which can be enhanced by a suitable blanket energy multiplier. A preliminary conceptual design of a dual-loop steam-generating power system that can be housed in the ETS has been carried out. The optimal heat transfer fluid in the primary loop is an organic liquid, which allows an operating temperature of 700/degree/F at low pressure. The primary coolant must be preheated electrically to operating temperature. A ballast tank levels the temperature at the steam generator, so that the secondary loop is in steady-state operation. With a natural-uranium blanket multiplier, the time-averaged net electrical power is 1.2 kW(e). 8 refs

  4. First wall studies of a laser-fusion hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1976-09-01

    The design of a first wall for a 20 MW thermonuclear power laser fusion hybrid reactor is presented. The 20 mm thick graphite first wall is located 3.5 m from the DT microexplosion with a thermonuclear yield of 10 MJ. Estimates of the energy deposition, temperature, stresses, and material vaporized from the first wall due to the interaction of the x-rays, charged particle debris, and reflected laser light with the graphite are presented, along with a brief description of the analytical methods used for these estimations. Graphite is a viable first wall material for inertially-confined fusion reactors, with lifetimes of a year possible

  5. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  6. Fusion reactor design and technology 1986. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of the Proceedings of the Fourth Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Fusion Reactor Design and Technology organized by the IAEA (Yalta, 26 May - 6 June 1986) includes 36 papers devoted to the following topics: fusion programmes (3 papers), tokamaks (15 papers), non-tokamak reactors and open systems (9 papers), inertial confinement concepts (5 papers), fission-fusion hybrids (4 papers). Each of these papers has a separate abstract. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Statistical comparison of a hybrid approach with approximate and exact inference models for Fusion 2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. David; Wiesenfeld, Eric; Gelfand, Andrew

    2007-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in modern combat is maintaining a high level of timely Situational Awareness (SA). In many situations, computational complexity and accuracy considerations make the development and deployment of real-time, high-level inference tools very difficult. An innovative hybrid framework that combines Bayesian inference, in the form of Bayesian Networks, and Possibility Theory, in the form of Fuzzy Logic systems, has recently been introduced to provide a rigorous framework for high-level inference. In previous research, the theoretical basis and benefits of the hybrid approach have been developed. However, lacking is a concrete experimental comparison of the hybrid framework with traditional fusion methods, to demonstrate and quantify this benefit. The goal of this research, therefore, is to provide a statistical analysis on the comparison of the accuracy and performance of hybrid network theory, with pure Bayesian and Fuzzy systems and an inexact Bayesian system approximated using Particle Filtering. To accomplish this task, domain specific models will be developed under these different theoretical approaches and then evaluated, via Monte Carlo Simulation, in comparison to situational ground truth to measure accuracy and fidelity. Following this, a rigorous statistical analysis of the performance results will be performed, to quantify the benefit of hybrid inference to other fusion tools.

  8. Potential for fissile breeding with the fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The general features of the mirror reactor design are discussed. Details of the blanket-coil geometry are shown. The inside face of the blanket segments are divided into individual pressure vessels. These submodules contain fissile breeding material located directly behind the first wall, a fusile breeding material behind the fertile breeder, and then coolant inlet and outlet plena. Two blankets are examined and compared in this study. One contains natural uranium plus 7 wt. percent Mo, the second contains thorium metal. The performance of these blankets is discussed

  9. Preliminary analyses of neutronics schemes for three kinds waste transmutation blankets of fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchun; Feng Kaiming; Li Zaixin; Zhao Fengchao

    2012-01-01

    The neutronics schemes of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket, sodium-cooled waste transmutation blanket and FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket were preliminarily calculated and analysed by using the spheroidal tokamak (ST) plasma configuration. The neutronics properties of these blankets' were compared and analyzed. The results show that for the transmutation of "2"3"7Np, FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket has the most superior transmutation performance. The calculation results of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket show that this transmutation blanket can run on a steady effective multiplication factor (k_e_f_f), steady power (P), and steady tritium production rate (TBR) state for a long operating time (9.62 years) by change "2"3"7Np's initial loading rate of the minor actinides (MA). (authors)

  10. Nanofluid Applied Numerical Analysis of Subchannel in Square Rod Bundle for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Jubair Ahmed; Bhowmik, Palash Kumar; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the traditional ways available in the literature to enhance heat transfer are mainly based on variation of structures like addition of heat surface area such as fins, vibration of heated surface, injection or suction of fluids, applying electrical or magnetic fields, and so forth. Application of these mechanical techniques to a fuel rod bundle will involve not only designing complex geometries but also using many additional mechanisms inside a nuclear reactor core which in turn will certainly increase the manufacturing cost as well as may hamper various safety features essential for sound and uninterrupted operation of a nuclear power reactor. On the other hand, traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol and oils have inherently low thermal conductivity relative to metals and even metal oxides. In this study the coolant with suspended nano-sized particles in the base fluid is proposed as an alternative to increase heat transfer but minimize flow resistance inside a nuclear reactor core. Due to technical complexities most of the previous studies carried out on heat transfer of suspension of metal oxides in fluids were limited to suspensions with millimeter or micron-sized particles. Such outsized particles may lead to severe problems in heat transfer equipment including increased pressure drop and corrosion and erosion of components and pipe lines. Dramatic advancement in modern science has made it possible to produce ultrafine metallic or nonmetallic particles of nanometer dimension, which has brought a revolutionary change in the research of heat transfer enhancement methods. Due to very tiny particle size and their small volume fraction, problems such as clogging and increased pressure drop are insignificant for nanofluids. Moreover, the relatively large surface area of nanoparticles augments the stability of nanofluid solution and prevents the sedimentation of nanoparticles. Xuan and Roetzel considered two approaches to illustrate the heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids. One is that the suspended particles increase the thermal conductivity of the two-phase mixture. Another is that chaotic movement of ultrafine particles accelerates the energy exchange process in the fluid. The average Nusselt number Νu, convective heat transfer coefficient h and axial pressure drop Δp are assessed along the centerline of the subchannel for the Reynolds number Re ranging from 20000 to 80000. The hydrophilic rod-like Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles (AF-alumina type with mean particle diameter ∼7 nm) are dispersed in the base fluid of pure water with particle volume concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5% for comparison. The standard k-ε. two-equation model is employed to simulate turbulence in ANSYS FLUENT 12.1

  11. Nanofluid Applied Numerical Analysis of Subchannel in Square Rod Bundle for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Jubair Ahmed; Bhowmik, Palash Kumar; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Most of the traditional ways available in the literature to enhance heat transfer are mainly based on variation of structures like addition of heat surface area such as fins, vibration of heated surface, injection or suction of fluids, applying electrical or magnetic fields, and so forth. Application of these mechanical techniques to a fuel rod bundle will involve not only designing complex geometries but also using many additional mechanisms inside a nuclear reactor core which in turn will certainly increase the manufacturing cost as well as may hamper various safety features essential for sound and uninterrupted operation of a nuclear power reactor. On the other hand, traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol and oils have inherently low thermal conductivity relative to metals and even metal oxides. In this study the coolant with suspended nano-sized particles in the base fluid is proposed as an alternative to increase heat transfer but minimize flow resistance inside a nuclear reactor core. Due to technical complexities most of the previous studies carried out on heat transfer of suspension of metal oxides in fluids were limited to suspensions with millimeter or micron-sized particles. Such outsized particles may lead to severe problems in heat transfer equipment including increased pressure drop and corrosion and erosion of components and pipe lines. Dramatic advancement in modern science has made it possible to produce ultrafine metallic or nonmetallic particles of nanometer dimension, which has brought a revolutionary change in the research of heat transfer enhancement methods. Due to very tiny particle size and their small volume fraction, problems such as clogging and increased pressure drop are insignificant for nanofluids. Moreover, the relatively large surface area of nanoparticles augments the stability of nanofluid solution and prevents the sedimentation of nanoparticles. Xuan and Roetzel considered two approaches to illustrate the heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids. One is that the suspended particles increase the thermal conductivity of the two-phase mixture. Another is that chaotic movement of ultrafine particles accelerates the energy exchange process in the fluid. The average Nusselt number Νu, convective heat transfer coefficient h and axial pressure drop Δp are assessed along the centerline of the subchannel for the Reynolds number Re ranging from 20000 to 80000. The hydrophilic rod-like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (AF-alumina type with mean particle diameter ∼7 nm) are dispersed in the base fluid of pure water with particle volume concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5% for comparison. The standard k-ε. two-equation model is employed to simulate turbulence in ANSYS FLUENT 12.1.

  12. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment. Progress report No. 10, March 1-July 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was performed at EPFL in which neutron spectra from the Haefely neutron source were measured with a high resolution neutron telescope. Measurements were performed at distances of 86, 106, and 126 cm from the Haefely source. The spectra include a dominant D-T peak at about 14 MeV and a smaller and broader peak at about 12.3 MeV. Monte Carlo calculations were performed with the MCNP code in which the experimental configuration was modelled. The detailed model of the Haefely source was used for these calculations

  13. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  14. Natural uranium fueled light water moderated breeding hybrid power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misolovin, A.; Gilai, D.; Levin, P.

    The feasibility of fission-fusion hybrid reactors based on breeding light water thermal fission systems is investigated. The emphasis is on fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) hybrid power reactors that are fueled with natural uranium. Other LWHRs considered include FSS-LWHRs that are fueled with spent fuel from LWRs, and LWHRs which are to supplement LWRs to provide a tandem LWR-LWHR power economy that is fuel-self-sufficient

  15. Preliminary conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR). Status report, January 1978--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.

    1978-03-01

    The DTHR preliminary conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined fusion reactor fitted with a fertile thorium blanket. The fusion driver concept is based on a beam driven plasma, but at sufficiently high plasma densities that neutrons originating from the interactions of bulk plasma ions contribute significantly to the wall loading. The tokamak has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.2 m, and the elongation is 1.6. All of the magnetic coil systems are superconducting Nb 3 Sn based on the Large Coil Project (LCP) technology. The toroidal field (TF) coils employ an innovative concept, the ''compact D'' configuration. An engineered bundle divertor concept has been developed based on the bundle divertor design techniques developed for TNS and ISX-B. A thermal power of 150MW of 200 keV deuterium is injected into the plasma through six ducts of a positive ion, neutral beam injection system (NBIS). A water cooled, 316 stainless steel vacuum vessel concept was developed and initial scoping analyses look encouraging. The fusile fuel handling system was evaluated and defined. Details of the tritium injection system remain to be developed. Tritium breeding will be assessed in subsequent phases of the DTHR operation. The fusion driver provides a neutron first wall loading of 2MW/m 2 for fissile production in the blanket

  16. Preliminary conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR). Status report, January 1978--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    The DTHR preliminary conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined fusion reactor fitted with a fertile thorium blanket. The fusion driver concept is based on a beam driven plasma, but at sufficiently high plasma densities that neutrons originating from the interactions of bulk plasma ions contribute significantly to the wall loading. The tokamak has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.2 m, and the elongation is 1.6. All of the magnetic coil systems are superconducting Nb/sub 3/Sn based on the Large Coil Project (LCP) technology. The toroidal field (TF) coils employ an innovative concept, the ''compact D'' configuration. An engineered bundle divertor concept has been developed based on the bundle divertor design techniques developed for TNS and ISX-B. A thermal power of 150MW of 200 keV deuterium is injected into the plasma through six ducts of a positive ion, neutral beam injection system (NBIS). A water cooled, 316 stainless steel vacuum vessel concept was developed and initial scoping analyses look encouraging. The fusile fuel handling system was evaluated and defined. Details of the tritium injection system remain to be developed. Tritium breeding will be assessed in subsequent phases of the DTHR operation. The fusion driver provides a neutron first wall loading of 2MW/m/sup 2/ for fissile production in the blanket.

  17. A hybrid model for coupling kinetic corrections of fusion reactivity to hydrodynamic implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires an imploded target in which a central hot spot is surrounded by a cold and dense pusher. The hot spot/pusher interface can take complicated shape in three dimensions due to hydrodynamic mix. It is also a transition region where the Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect can significantly modify the fusion reactivity in comparison with the commonly used value evaluated with background Maxwellians. Here, we describe a hybrid model that couples the kinetic correction of fusion reactivity to global hydrodynamic implosion simulations. The key ingredient is a non-perturbative treatment of the tail ions in the interface region where the Gamow ion Knudsen number approaches or surpasses order unity. The accuracy of the coupling scheme is controlled by the precise criteria for matching the non-perturbative kinetic model to perturbative solutions in both configuration space and velocity space.

  18. Novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique for shutdown dose rate analyses of fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Develop the novel Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic method for multi-step shielding analyses. •Accurately calculate shutdown dose rates using full-scale Monte Carlo models of fusion energy systems. •Demonstrate the dramatic efficiency improvement of the MS-CADIS method for the rigorous two step calculations of the shutdown dose rate in fusion reactors. -- Abstract: The rigorous 2-step (R2S) computational system uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the R2S neutron transport calculation. However, the prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their ability to accurately predict the SDDR in fusion energy systems using full-scale modeling of an entire fusion plant. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic methodology that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) methodology speeds up the R2S neutron Monte Carlo calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminary results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the efficiency enhancement compared to analog Monte Carlo is higher than a factor of 10,000

  19. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  20. Hybrid intelligent control concepts for optimal data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, James

    1994-02-01

    In the post-Cold War era, Naval surface ship operations will be largely conducted in littoral waters to support regional military missions of all types, including humanitarian and evacuation activities, and amphibious mission execution. Under these conditions, surface ships will be much more isolated and vulnerable to a variety of threats, including maneuvering antiship missiles. To deal with these threats, the optimal employment of multiple shipborne sensors for maximum vigilance is paramount. This paper characterizes the sensor management problem as one of intelligent control, identifies some of the key issues in controller design, and presents one approach to controller design which is soon to be implemented and evaluated. It is argued that the complexity and hierarchical nature of problem formulation demands a hybrid combination of knowledge-based methods and scheduling techniques from 'hard' real-time systems theory for its solution.