WorldWideScience

Sample records for concentric mixing systems

  1. Rapid quantification of vesicle concentration for DOPG/DOPC and Cardiolipin/DOPC mixed lipid systems of variable composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer-Dixon, Margaret M; Bowler, Bruce E

    2018-05-19

    A novel approach to quantify mixed lipid systems is described. Traditional approaches to lipid vesicle quantification are time consuming, require large amounts of material and are destructive. We extend our recently described method for quantification of pure lipid systems to mixed lipid systems. The method only requires a UV-Vis spectrometer and does not destroy sample. Mie scattering data from absorbance measurements are used as input into a Matlab program to calculate the total vesicle concentration and the concentrations of each lipid in the mixed lipid system. The technique is fast and accurate, which is essential for analytical lipid binding experiments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Concentration Distribution in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D.N.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2001-01-01

    Today there is an increasing focus on the importance of a proper ventilation system to obtain good working conditions in the term of air and thermal quality to ensure high productivity. Different ventilation principles are used, e.g., mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation. In order...... that the air is fully mixed. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the location of a pollutant, temperature differences and whether the room is furnished or not. It is also investigated if it is sufficient to determine the mean concentration in the room to determine the personal exposure....... Full scale experiments along with a breathing thermal manikin (BTM) have been used. The results show that the location of the sources is of great importance, just as well as temperature differences. Furthermore, the concentration in the breathing zone showed large differences throughout the room....

  3. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  4. MIXED AND MIXING SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE: A PREFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Patrick Donlan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (South Africa sees thepublication of a selection of articles derived from the Third International Congress ofthe World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists (WSMJJ. That Congress was held atthe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel in the summer of 2011. It reflected athriving Society consolidating its core scholarship on classical mixed jurisdictions(Israel, Louisiana, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Quebec, Scotland, and South Africawhile reaching to new horizons (including Cyprus, Hong Kong and Macau, Malta,Nepal, etc. This publication reflects in microcosm the complexity of contemporaryscholarship on mixed and plural legal systems. This complexity is, of course, wellunderstoodby South African jurists whose system is derived both from the dominantEuropean traditions as well as from African customary systems, including both thosethat make up part of the official law of the state as well as those non-state norms thatcontinue to be important in the daily lives of many South Africans.

  5. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  6. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  7. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  8. Mixing properties of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1988-01-01

    We generalize the classical notion of topological mixing for automorphisms of C * -algebras in two ways. We show that for Galilean invariant Fermi systems the weaker form of mixing is satisfied. With some additional requirement on the range of the interaction we can also demonstrate the stronger mixing property. (Author)

  9. Mixed-Media File Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of implementing mixed-media storage systems. In this work a mixed-media file system is defined to be a system that stores both conventional (best-effort) file data and real-time continuous-media data. Continuous-media data is usually bulky, and servers storing and

  10. Mixed Reality Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Müller

    2009-01-01

    Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pur...

  11. IMPACT OF INCREASED ALUMINATE CONCENTRATIONS ON PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE MIXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. The protocols developed in this variability study are ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations (LWO). One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentrations as well as the free hydroxide ion concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF). Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. The projected compositions and ranges of the aluminate rich salt stream (which includes the blending strategy) are not yet available and consequently, in this initial report, two separate salt stream compositions were investigated. The first stream starts with the previously projected baseline composition of the salt solution that will be fed to SPF from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The second stream is the solution that results from washing of the current Tank 51 sludge and subsequent transfer of the salt solution to Tank 11. The SWPF simulant has higher nitrate and lower free hydroxide than the Tank 11 simulant. In both of these cases, the aluminate was varied up to a maximum of 0.40 to 0.45M aluminate in order to evaluate the impact of increasing aluminate ion concentration on the grout properties. In general, the fresh grout properties of mixes made with SWPF and Tank 11 simulants were relatively insensitive to an increase in aluminate concentration in the salt solutions. However, the overall

  12. Mixed Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Müller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pure’ virtual reality techniques to support seamless collaborative work between remote and hands-on laboratories.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  14. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  15. Concentration variance decay during magma mixing: a volcanic chronometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Cristina P; Petrelli, Maurizio; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-09-21

    The mixing of magmas is a common phenomenon in explosive eruptions. Concentration variance is a useful metric of this process and its decay (CVD) with time is an inevitable consequence during the progress of magma mixing. In order to calibrate this petrological/volcanological clock we have performed a time-series of high temperature experiments of magma mixing. The results of these experiments demonstrate that compositional variance decays exponentially with time. With this calibration the CVD rate (CVD-R) becomes a new geochronometer for the time lapse from initiation of mixing to eruption. The resultant novel technique is fully independent of the typically unknown advective history of mixing - a notorious uncertainty which plagues the application of many diffusional analyses of magmatic history. Using the calibrated CVD-R technique we have obtained mingling-to-eruption times for three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) in the range of tens of minutes. These in turn imply ascent velocities of 5-8 meters per second. We anticipate the routine application of the CVD-R geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes in future in order to constrain typical "mixing to eruption" time lapses such that monitoring activities can be targeted at relevant timescales and signals during volcanic unrest.

  16. Hybrid electrokinetics for separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Shimabukuro, Yusuke; Wong, Pak Kin

    2009-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the preparation of colloidal particles with adjustable sizes and the control of their size-dependent properties. Physical manipulation, such as separation, mixing, and concentration, of these colloidal particles represents an essential step for fully utilizing their potential in a wide spectrum of nanotechnology applications. In this study, we investigate hybrid electrokinetics, the combination of dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamics, for active manipulation of colloidal particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers in size. A concentric electrode configuration, which is optimized for generating electrohydrodynamic flow, has been designed to elucidate the effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics and define the operating regimes for different microfluidic operations. The results indicate that the relative importance of electrohydrodynamics increases with decreasing particle size as predicted by a scaling analysis and that electrohydrodynamics is pivotal for manipulating nanoscale particles. Using the concentric electrodes, we demonstrate separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles by adjusting the relative strengths of different electrokinetic phenomena. The effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics indicates its potential to serve as a generic technique for active manipulation of colloidal particles in various nanotechnology applications.

  17. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  18. An Integrating Framework for Mixed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrix, Céline; Nigay, Laurence

    Technological advances in hardware manufacturing led to an extended range of possibilities for designing physical-digital objects involved in a mixed system. Mixed systems can take various forms and include augmented reality, augmented virtuality, and tangible systems. In this very dynamic context, it is difficult to compare existing mixed systems and to systematically explore the design space. Addressing this design problem, this chapter presents a unified point of view on mixed systems by focusing on mixed objects involved in interaction, i.e., hybrid physical-digital objects straddling physical and digital worlds. Our integrating framework is made of two complementary facets of a mixed object: we define intrinsic as well as extrinsic characteristics of an object by considering its role in the interaction. Such characteristics of an object are useful for comparing existing mixed systems at a fine-grain level. The taxonomic power of these characteristics is discussed in the context of existing mixed systems from the literature. Their generative power is illustrated by considering a system, Roam, which we designed and developed.

  19. Transportable Vitrification System Demonstration on Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from the first demonstration of the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) on actual mixed waste. The TVS is a fully integrated, transportable system for the treatment of mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. The demonstration was conducted at Oak Ridge's East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly known as the K-25 site. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixed wastes could be vitrified safely on a 'field' scale using joule-heated melter technology and obtain information on system performance, waste form durability, air emissions, and costs

  20. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  1. Clockwise: A Mixed-Media File System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Jansen, P.G.; Mullender, Sape J.

    This (short) paper presents the Clockwise, a mixed-media file system. The primary goal of the Clockwise is to provide a storage architecture that supports the storage and retrieval of best-effort and real-time file system data. Clockwise provides an abstraction called a dynamic partition that groups

  2. Photoemission studies of mixed valent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, R.D.; Raaen, S.; denBoer, M.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study a number of aspects of the mixed valent state (corresponding to non-integral 4f occupation) in rare earth systems. Deep core photoemission (e.g., from 3d or 4d levels) allows the measurement of the 4f occupancy and surface valence shifts, and, as well, the indirect measurement of the effect of solid state environment on the energy of hybridization between 4f electrons and conduction electrons. 4f-Derived photoemission has been used to study surface valance and chemical shifts and to infer the nature of the mixed valent ground state. A combination of 4f-derived photoemission and add-electron spectroscopy provides a measurement of the rf Coulomb correlation energy, an important parameter in the mixed valent problem. A review of these approaches will be presented, with emphasis on Ce-based systems, whose behavior falls outside the usual description of 4f-unstable systems

  3. The effect of the sulfur concentration on the phase transformation from the mixed CuO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} system to Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} during the sulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lijian; Jin, Xin; Yuan, Chenchen; Jiang, Guoshun; Liu, Weifeng, E-mail: liuwf@ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, Changfei, E-mail: cfzhu@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films were creatively fabricated by sulfurizing metal oxide precursor. • The phase transformation mechanism during the sulfurization process was studied. • The reason why the excess S restrained the formation of Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} was discussed. • The effect of temperature on film morphology and bandgap was studied. - Abstract: The ternary semiconductor Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}, as a promising light-absorber material for thin film solar cells, was creatively synthesized by sulfurizing the mixed metal oxides precursor film deposited by spin-coating chemical solution method. Two kinds of sulfurization techniques were introduced to study the effect of the sulfur concentration on the phase formation for the pure Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}. It was found that Cu-poor S-rich phases such as Cu{sub 3}Bi{sub 3}S{sub 7} and Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} were easily generated at high S concentration and then can transform to Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} phase by a simple desulphurization process, which means the sulfur concentration had a significant influence on the formation of Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} during the sulfurization process. The probable transformation mechanism from the mixed metal oxides to the pure Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} phase during the sulfurization process was studied in detail through the XRD analysis and thermodynamic calculation. In addition, the electrical properties were characterized by Hall measurement and the effects of sulfurization temperature on the phase transformation, morphology and optical band gap of the absorber layer were also studied in detail.

  4. Ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems. Equation of state, thermodynamic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Korynevskii

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of equation of state for ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems in the whole region of a concentration change (0≤n≤1 is discussed. The main peculiarity of the presented model turns out to be the possibility for the site dipole momentum to be oriented ferroelectrically in z-direction and antiferroelectrically in x-direction. Such a situation takes place in mixed compounds of KDP type. The different phases (ferro-, antiferro-, paraelectric, dipole glass and some combinations of them have been found and analyzed.

  5. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites' typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass

  6. The Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Emmanuel; Gray, Philip; Nigay, Laurence

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is no longer restricted to interaction between users and computers via keyboard and screen: Currently one of the most challenging aspects of interactive systems is the integration of the physical and digital aspects of interaction in a smooth and usable way. The design challenge of such mixed reality (MR) systems lies in the fluid and harmonious fusion of the physical and digital worlds. Examples of MR systems include tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, augmented virtuality and embodied interfaces. The diversity of terms highlights the ever growing interest in MR systems and the very dynamic and challenging domain they define.

  7. Dry and mixed air cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutner, Gidali.

    1975-01-01

    The various dry air cooling systems now in use or being developed are classified. The main dimensioning parameters are specified and the main systems already built are given with their characteristics. The available data allow dry air cooling to be situated against the other cooling modes and so specify the aim of the research or currently developed works. Some systems at development stages are briefly described. The interest in mixed cooling (assisted draft) and the principal available systems is analyzed. A program of research is outlined [fr

  8. System architecture of a mixed reality framework

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert, Helmut; Dähne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the software architecture of a framework which simplifies the development of applications in the area of Virtual and Augmented Reality is presented. It is based on VRML/X3D to enable rendering of audio-visual information. We extended our VRML rendering system by a device management system that is based on the concept of a data-flow graph. The aim of the system is to create Mixed Reality (MR) applications simply by plugging together small prefabricated software components, instea...

  9. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico). Dept. de Genetica

    1996-03-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author).

  10. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

  11. Superconductivity in mixed boson-fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, L.; Larkin, A.I.; Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.; Yu, L.

    1989-12-01

    The superconductivity of mixed boson-fermion systems is studied using a simple boson-fermion transformation model. The critical temperature of the superconducting transition is calculated over a wide range of the narrow boson band position relative to the Fermi level. The BCS scenario and boson condensation picture are recovered in two limiting cases of high and low positions of boson band, respectively, with modifications due to boson-fermion interaction. (author). 11 refs

  12. Gas-mixing system for drift chambers using solenoid valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.E.; Sugano, K.; Trentlage, D.B.

    1983-04-01

    We describe an inexpensive system for mixing argon and ethane drift chamber gas which is used for the E-605 experiment at Fermilab. This system is based on the idea of intermittent mixing of gases with fixed mixing flow rates. A dual-action pressure switch senses the pressure in a mixed gas reservoir tank and operates solenoid valves to control mixing action and regulate reservoir pressure. This system has the advantages that simple controls accurately regulate the mixing ratio and that the mixing ratio is nearly flow rate independent. We also report the results of the gas analysis of various samplings, and the reliability of the system in long-term running

  13. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  14. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  15. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  16. Extreme concentration fluctuations due to local reversibility of mixing in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Szewc, Kamil; Shats, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Mixing of a passive scalar in a fluid (e.g. a radioactive spill in the ocean) is the irreversible process towards homogeneous distribution of a substance. In a moving fluid, due to the chaotic advection [H. Aref, J. Fluid Mech. 143 (1984) 1; J. M. Ottino, The Kinematics of Mixing: Stretching,Chaos and Transport (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989)] mixing is much faster than if driven by molecular diffusion only. Turbulence is known as the most efficient mixing flow [B. I. Shraiman and E. D. Siggia, Nature 405 (2000) 639]. We show that in contrast to spatially periodic flows, two-dimensional turbulence exhibits local reversibility in mixing, which leads to the generation of unpredictable strong fluctuations in the scalar concentration. These fluctuations can also be detected from the analysis of the fluid particle trajectories of the underlying flow.

  17. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  18. Strong influence of deposition and vertical mixing on secondary organic aerosol concentrations in CMAQ and CAMx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qian; Koo, Bonyoung; Yarwood, Greg; Henderson, Barron H.

    2017-12-01

    Differences between two air quality modeling systems reveal important uncertainties in model representations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) fate. Two commonly applied models (CMAQ: Community Multiscale Air Quality; CAMx: Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions) predict very different OA concentrations over the eastern U.S., even when using the same source data for emissions and meteorology and the same SOA modeling approach. Both models include an option to output a detailed accounting of how each model process (e.g., chemistry, deposition, etc.) alters the mass of each modeled species, referred to as process analysis. We therefore perform a detailed diagnostic evaluation to quantify simulated tendencies (Gg/hr) of each modeled process affecting both the total model burden (Gg) of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas (g) and aerosol (a) phases and the vertical structures to identify causes of concentration differences between the two models. Large differences in deposition (CMAQ: 69.2 Gg/d; CAMx: 46.5 Gg/d) contribute to significant OA bias in CMAQ relative to daily averaged ambient concentration measurements. CMAQ's larger deposition results from faster daily average deposition velocities (VD) for both SVOC (g) (VD,cmaq = 2.15 × VD,camx) and aerosols (VD,cmaq = 4.43 × Vd,camx). Higher aerosol deposition velocity would be expected to cause similar biases for inert compounds like elemental carbon (EC), but this was not seen. Daytime low-biases in EC were also simulated in CMAQ as expected but were offset by nighttime high-biases. Nighttime high-biases were a result of overly shallow mixing in CMAQ leading to a higher fraction of EC total atmospheric mass in the first layer (CAMx: 5.1-6.4%; CMAQ: 5.6-6.9%). Because of the opposing daytime and nighttime biases, the apparent daily average bias for EC is reduced. For OA, there are two effects of reduced vertical mixing: SOA and SVOC are concentrated near the surface, but SOA yields are reduced

  19. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  20. Planar measurements of velocity and concentration of turbulent mixing in a T-junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, N. F.

    Turbulent mixing of two isothermal air streams in a T-junction of square ducts are investigated. Three dimensional velocity fields and turbulent kinetic energy are measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The concentration field is obtained with a planar Mie scattering technique...

  1. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  2. Wolframite Conversion in Treating a Mixed Wolframite-Scheelite Concentrate by Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Complete wolframite conversion in sulfuric acid is significant for expanding the applicability of the sulfuric acid method for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this paper, the conversion of wolframite in treating a mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied systematically. The results show that the conversion of wolframite in sulfuric acid is more difficult than that of scheelite, requiring rigorous reaction conditions. A solid H2WO4 layer forms on the surfaces of the wolframite particles and becomes denser with increasing H2SO4 concentration, thus hindering the conversion. Furthermore, the difficulty in wolframite conversion can be mainly attributed to the accumulation of Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) in the H2SO4 solution, which can be solved by reducing Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) concentration through oxidization and/or a two-stage process. Additionally, the solid converted product of the mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate has an excellent leachability of tungsten in an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution at ambient temperature, with approximately 99% WO3 recovery. This work presents a route for manufacturing ammonium paratungstate by treating the mixed concentrate in sulfuric acid followed by leaching in ammonium carbonate solution.

  3. A new method research of monitoring low concentration NO and SO2 mixed gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Peng; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai; Chen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce the pollution of the environment, China has implemented a new ultra-low emission control regulations for polluting gas, requiring new coal-fired power plant emissions SO2 less than 30ppm, NO less than 75ppm, NO2 less than 50ppm, Monitoring low concentration of NO and SO2 mixed gases , DOAS technology facing new challenges, SO2 absorb significantly weaken at the original absorption peak, what more the SNR is very low, it is difficult to extract the characteristic signal, and thus cannot obtain its concentration. So it cannot separate the signal of NO from the mixed gas at the wavelength of 200 230nm through the law of spectral superposition, it cannot calculate the concentration of NO. The classical DOAS technology cannot meet the needs of monitoring. In this paper, we found another absorption spectrum segment of SO2, the SNR is 10 times higher than before, Will not be affected by NO, can calculate the concentration of SO2 accurately, A new method of segmentation and demagnetization separation technology of spectral signals is proposed, which achieves the monitoring the low concentration mixed gas accurately. This function cannot be achieved by the classical DOAS. Detection limit of this method is 0.1ppm per meter which is higher than before, The relative error below 5% when the concentration between 0 5ppm, the concentration of NO between 6 75ppm and SO2 between 6 30ppm the relative error below 1.5%, it has made a great breakthrough In the low concentration of NO and SO2 monitoring. It has great scientific significance and reference value for the development of coal-fired power plant emission control, atmospheric environmental monitoring and high-precision on-line instrumentation.

  4. Dilational viscoelastic properties of fluid interfaces - III mixed surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djabbarah, N.F.; Wasan, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The surface viscosity and elasticity of solutions of mixed surfactants were determined using the longitudinal wave technique combined with tracer particle measurements. The recent analysis of Maru et al., which was restricted to insoluble monolayers and to monolayers adsorbed from a single surfactant solution, has now been extended to multicomponent solutions. This analysis can be used not only to estimate the ''net'' viscoelastic properties at gas-liquid interfaces but also to estimate the composition as well as the intrinsic viscoelastic properties. Furthermore, when accompanied by separate measurements of shear viscoelastic properties, the above analysis can be used for the determination of dilational viscosity and elasticity. Surface viscoelasticity measurements were conducted on aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium lauryl sulfate-lauryl alcohol. Net surface viscosity and elasticity of sodium lauryl sulfate solutions increased with bulk concentration and reached a maximum at a concentration in the neighborhood of the critical micelle concentration. The presence of small amount of lauryl alcohol caused almost an order of magnitude increase in intrinsic surface viscosity and a similar increase in compositional surface elasticity. A comparison between the values of intrinsic surface viscosity and those of surface shear viscosity indicated that surface dilational viscosity exceeds surface shear viscosity by at least two orders of magnitude. These appear to be the first set of data presented hitherto for the surface dilational properties in addition to surface shear properties for the same mixed surfactant systems.

  5. Mixed basin boundary structures of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E. Jr.; Ott, E.

    1999-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical observations on a four-dimensional continuous-time dynamical system, we consider different types of basin boundary structures for chaotic systems. These general structures are essentially mixtures of the previously known types of basin boundaries where the character of the boundary assumes features of the previously known boundary types at different points arbitrarily finely interspersed in the boundary. For example, we discuss situations where an everywhere continuous boundary that is otherwise smooth and differentiable at almost every point has an embedded uncountable, zero Lebesgue measure set of points at which the boundary curve is nondifferentiable. Although the nondifferentiable set is only of zero Lebesgue measure, the curve close-quote s fractal dimension may (depending on parameters) still be greater than one. In addition, we discuss bifurcations from such a mixed boundary to a 'pure' boundary that is a fractal nowhere differentiable curve or surface and to a pure nonfractal boundary that is everywhere smooth. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Influence of mixing and solid concentration on sodium bicarbonate secondary nucleation rate in stirred tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylock, C.; Debaste, F.; Haut, B. [Transfers, Interfaces and Processes - Chemical Engineering Unit, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Gutierrez, V.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M.P. [Chemicals and Materials Department, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Cartage, T. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    This work aims to investigate the influence of the solid concentration in suspension on the contact secondary nucleation rate of sodium bicarbonate crystallization in a stirred tank crystallizer and to show the necessity of a local description of the mixing for a nucleation rate influence study. Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are realized. Crystallization kinetic parameters are extracted from experimental data using a mass distribution fitting approach. CFD and the experimental results allow identifying that a mixing property correlated with the measurements of the secondary nucleation rate in the stirred tank crystallizer appears to be the turbulent dissipation rate on the edge of the impeller. Its influence and the influence of the solid concentration in the suspension on the secondary nucleation rate are estimated by the evaluation of their exponents in a kinetic law. The obtained exponent values are then discussed qualitatively. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Uranium concentration monitor manual: 2300 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.

    1985-04-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and procedures for measurement control for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the 2300 solvent extraction system at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration at two locations simultaneously in the solvent extraction system for process monitoring and control. Detectors installed at the top of the extraction column and at the bottom of the backwash column acquire spectra of gamma rays from the solvent extraction solutions in the columns. Pulse-height analysis of these spectra gives the concentration of uranium in the organic product of the extraction column and in the aqueous product of the solvent extraction system. The visual readouts of concentrations for process monitoring are updated every 2 min for both detection systems. Simultaneously, the concentration results are shipped to a remote computer that has been installed by Y-12 to demonstrate automatic control of the solvent extraction system based on input of near-real time process operation information. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Nuclear waste treatment - Studying the mixed ion type effects and concentration on the behaviour of oxide dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Biggs, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain good control over a particulate dispersion it is necessary to accurately characterise the strength of inter-particle forces that may be operating. Such control is not routinely used, as yet, in the nuclear industry despite the possible benefits. We are investigating the impact of mixed electrolyte systems, for example NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 , on the stability of oxide simulant particle dispersions. The electro-acoustic zeta potentials and shear yield stresses for concentrated dispersions have been measured across a range of pH conditions and electrolyte concentrations (0.001 M - 1.0 M). This paper summarizes initial data from these studies showing how the shear yield stress of concentrated aqueous oxide particle dispersions, can be adjusted through regulation of pH and the addition of background electrolytes (salt). The yield stress as a function of pH for these dispersions in mixed electrolytes showed a direct correlation with corresponding measurements of the zeta potential. Changes in the background electrolyte concentration or type were seen to cause a shift in the position of the isoelectric point (iep). Measurements of the shear yield stress showed a maximum at the iep corresponding to the position of maximum instability in the suspension. The consequences of these data for the efficient treatment of solid-liquid systems will be discussed. (authors)

  9. Research on ration selection of mixed absorbent solution for membrane air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiao; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We derive models of the membrane air-conditioning system with mixed absorbents. • We make analysis on system COP, cost-effectiveness and economy. • The paper provides a new method for ideal absorbent selection. • The solutes concentration of 50% achieves the best cost-effectiveness and the economy. - Abstract: Absorption air-conditioning system is a good alternative to vapor compression system for developing low carbon society. To improve the performance of the traditional absorption system, the membrane air-conditioning system is configured and its COP can reach as high as 6. Mixed absorbents are potential for cost reduction of the membrane system while maintaining a high COP. On the purpose of finding ideal mixed absorbent groups, this paper makes analysis on COP, cost-effectiveness and economy of the membrane system with mixed LiBr–CaCl 2 absorbent solution. The models of the system have been developed for the analysis. The results show the COP is higher for the absorbent groups with lower concentration of the total solute and higher concentration ratio of LiBr. It also reveals when the total solutes concentration is about 50%, it achieves the best cost-effectiveness and the economy. The process of the analysis provides a useful method for mixed absorbents selection

  10. Increasing tetracycline concentrations on the performance and communities of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui

    2017-12-11

    This study investigated the impact of varying concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors. Photo-bioreactors were assessed for their ability to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the biogas of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (anMBR), and nutrients from the anaerobic effluent. The varying concentrations of tetracycline had no impact on the removal of CO2 from biogas. 29% v/v of CO2 was completely removed to generate >20% v/v of oxygen (O2) in all reactors. Removal of nutrients and biomass was not affected at low concentrations of tetracycline (≤150μg/L), but 20mg/L of tetracycline lowered the biomass generation and removal efficiencies of phosphate. Conversely, high chlorophyll a and b content was observed at 20mg/L of tetracycline. High tetracycline level had no impact on the diversity of 18S rRNA gene-based microalgal communities but adversely affected the 16S rRNA gene-based microbial communities. Specifically, both Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla decreased in relative abundance but not phylum Chloroplast. Additionally, both nitrogen-fixing (e.g. Flavobacterium, unclassified Burkholderiales and unclassified Rhizobiaceae) and denitrifying groups (e.g. Hydrogenophaga spp.) were significantly reduced in relative abundance at high tetracycline concentration. Phosphate-accumulating microorganisms, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were similarly reduced upon exposure to high tetracycline concentration. Unclassified Comamonadaceae, however, increased in relative abundance, which correlated with an increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with efflux pump mechanism. Overall, the findings demonstrate that antibiotic concentrations in municipal wastewaters will not significantly affect the removal of nutrients by the mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors. However, utilizing such photo-bioreactors as a polishing step for anMBRs that treat wastewaters with high tetracycline

  11. Control of mixed seismic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorescu, Catalin-Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Vibration attenuation control designs are proposed for reduced plant models consisting of n-degree-of-freedom base seismically-isolated structures (i.e., a specific type of earthquake-resistant design), modeled by uncertain nonlinear systems and subjected to one-dimensional horizontal ground acceleration (i.e. the earthquake signal), treated as unknown disturbance but assumed to be bounded. In control systems literature, this is a perturbation attenuation problem. The main result of this PhD is the development of a modified version of Leitmann and co-authors' classical result on the stabilization of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed theorem consists of a bounded nonlinear feedback control law that is capable of ensuring uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness in closed-loop. In particular, it can be applied to solving semi-active control design problems, which are currently dealt with in earthquake engineering. The control objective is to improve the behavior (i.e. response) of mixed base-isolated structures to external disturbance, namely earthquakes. What differentiates our problem from the majority to be found in the literature is that: (i) attention is being paid to the protection of equipment placed inside the structure an not only to the structure itself; (ii) instead of using regular performance indicators expressed in terms of relative base displacement versus floors accelerations, we use solely the pseudo-acceleration floor response spectra, as it was proposed in previous recent works by Politopoulos and Pham. Actually, this work is an attempt to explicitly use floor response spectra as performance criterion. Concerning the application procedure, some of the topics that were detailed are: (i) modeling of earthquake signals; (ii) tuning of control law parameters based on vibration theory; (iii) validation and testing of the closed-loop behavior using numerical simulations: for simplicity reasons, we take n=2. This procedure can be

  12. Chemodynamics of EDTA in a simulated mixed waste: the Hanford Site's complex concentrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Enormous stockpiles of mixed wastes at the USDOE's Hanford Site, the original US plutonium production facility, await permanent disposal. One mixed waste derived from reprocessing spent fuel was found to contain numerous nuclear related organics including chelating agents like EDTA and complexing agents, which have been used as decontamination agents, etc. Their presence in actual mixed wastes indicates that the organic content of nuclear wastes is dynamic and complicate waste management efforts. The subjects of this report is the chemo-degradation of EDTA degradation in a simulant Hanford's complex concentrate waste. The simulant was prepared by adding EDTA to an inorganic matrix, which was formulated based on past analyses of the actual waste. Aliquots of the EDTA simulant were withdrawn at different time points, derivatized via methylation and analyzed by gas chromatography and Gc/MS to monitor the disappearance of EDTA and the appearance of its' degradation products. This report also compares the results of EDTA's chemo-degradation to the g-radiolysis of EDTA in the simulant, the subject of a recently published article. Finally based on the results of these two studies, an assesment of the potential impact of EDTA degradation on the management of mixed wastes is offered. (J.P.N.)

  13. A miniature concentrating photovoltaic and thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Kaftori, Daniel; Mittelman, Gur; Hirshfeld, Amir; Flitsanov, Yuri; Dayan, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    A novel miniature concentrating PV (MCPV) system is presented and analyzed. The system is producing both electrical and thermal energy, which is supplied to a nearby consumer. In contrast to PV/thermal (PV/T) flat collectors, the heat from an MCPV collector is not limited to low-temperature applications. The work reported here refers to the evaluation and preliminary design of the MCPV approach. The heat transport system, the electric and thermal performance, the manufacturing cost, and the resulting cost of energy in case of domestic water heating have been analyzed. The results show that the new approach has promising prospects

  14. Modulating fracture properties of mixed protein systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.E.; Laak, I. ter; Linden, E. van der; Venema, P.; Martin, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    To design foods with desired textures it is important to understand structure build-up and breakdown. One can obtain a wide range of structures using mixtures of different structuring ingredients such as for example protein mixtures. Mixed soy protein isolate (SPI)/gelatine gels were analyzed for

  15. Experimental study of mixed ferromagnetic spin glass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirebeau, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mixed ferromagnetic spin glass systems are characterized by a distribution of positive and negative exchange interactions whose maximum occurs at a positive value. We have undertaken an experimental study of amorphous (Fe 1-x Mn x ) .75 PBA1, polycrystalline and monocrystalline Ni 1-x Mn x and Au 1-x Fe x alloys. By Moessbauer effect, magnetization and neutron scattering, we show that below a ''canting'' temperature T K , spin components transverse to the mean magnetization become frozen. Small angle neutron scattering studies with an applied field show a magnetic ''structure'' i.e. the intensity exhibits a maximum at a finite q value for temperatures below T K . This structure has been studied as a function of temperature, applied field and concentration using both small angle neutron scattering and 3 axis spectrometry where we separate the elastic from the inelastic components. Possible interpretations of this new structure will be given [fr

  16. Monitoring Stream Nutrient Concentration Trends in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-land use watersheds are often a complex patchwork of forested, agricultural, and urban land-uses where differential land-use mediated non-point source pollution can significantly impact water quality. Stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations serve as important variables for quantifying land use effects on non-point source pollution in receiving waters and relative impacts on aquatic biota. The Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW) is a representative mixed land use urbanizing catchment (231 km2) located in central Missouri, USA. A nested-scale experimental watershed study including five permanent hydroclimate stations was established in 2009 to provide quantitative understanding of multiple land use impacts on nutrient loading. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to quantify total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and total phosphorus (TP as PO4) regimes. Results (2010 - 2013) indicate average nitrate (NO3-) concentration (mg/l) range of 0.28 to 0.46 mg/l, nitrite (NO2-) range of 0.02 to 0.03 mg/l, ammonia (NH3) ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/l, and TP range of 0.26 to 0.39 mg/l. With n=858, NO3-, NO2-, NH3, and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative agricultural land use (57%). NH3 and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher (with the exception of the agricultural subbasin) in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative urban land use (26%). Results from multiple regression analyses showed percent cumulative agricultural and urban land uses accounted for 85% and 96% of the explained variance in TIN loading (CI=95%, p=0.08) and TP loading (CI=95%, p=0.02), respectively, between gauging sites. These results improve understanding of agricultural and urban land use impacts on nutrient concentrations in mixed use watersheds of the Midwest and have implications for nutrient reduction programs in the Mississippi River Basin and hypoxia reductions in the Gulf of Mexico, USA.

  17. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  18. Linear concentration system; Sistema de concentracion lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lugo, J.I; Leon Rovira, N; Aguayo Tellez, H [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: a00812662@itesm.mx; noel.leon@itesm.mx; haguayo@itesm.mx

    2013-03-15

    Solar linear concentration technologies to generate high temperatures are limited to the ranges of 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. While its performance has been tested through prototypes and pilot plants around the world, there are still areas of opportunity that can be exploited to obtain a linear concentration that achieves temperatures above this range in order to have a better use of the available solar energy. Because of this: It is possible to develop a linear concentration system that can track the sun with minimal movement of the absorber-receiver while maintaining temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius sufficient for industrial processes that require that temperature. The methodology consists of a series of stages (conceptual design, simulation, evaluation, development concept, results and validation) through which concepts are generated that allow design and evaluation of solar concentrator configurations with the help of simulation software. We have designed a linear parabolic concentrating system which comprises a set of mirrors segments with different focal lengths that works within the range of 600 degrees Celsius; however, it is advancing in the development of a double concentration to reach 850 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] Las tecnologias de concentracion lineal solar para generar altas temperaturas se ven limitadas a los rangos de 200 a 500 grados centigrados. Si bien su funcionamiento ha sido probado a traves de prototipos y plantas piloto alrededor del mundo, aun existen areas de oportunidad que pueden ser aprovechadas para obtener un sistema de concentracion lineal que permita alcanzar temperaturas mayores a este rango para asi tener un mejor aprovechamiento de la energia solar disponible. Debido a esto: Es posible desarrollar un sistema de concentracion lineal capaz de seguir la trayectoria del Sol con minimo movimiento del absorbedor-recibidor al mismo tiempo que mantiene temperaturas superiores a los 850 grados centigrados suficientes para

  19. Practical system for generating digital mixed reality video holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joongseok; Kim, Changseob; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-07-10

    We propose a practical system that can effectively mix the depth data of real and virtual objects by using a Z buffer and can quickly generate digital mixed reality video holograms by using multiple graphic processing units (GPUs). In an experiment, we verify that real objects and virtual objects can be merged naturally in free viewing angles, and the occlusion problem is well handled. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can generate mixed reality video holograms at 7.6 frames per second. Finally, the system performance is objectively verified by users' subjective evaluations.

  20. Intersite interactions and susceptibility in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoqian Wang; Gao Lin; Bingjian Ni; Fusui Liu.

    1985-10-01

    This paper considers the effect of intersite processes on the susceptibility in mixed valence system. The method of thermodynamical perturbation used in this paper can also be generalized to study other properties of mixed valence system. The general formula of partition function of two-site interactions for the mixed valence system is given. The numerical calculations show that the intersite interaction is large enough to explain the minimum of susceptibility discovered in experiments. The different types of our theoretical curves predict that the susceptibility should exhibit a rich variety of behaviour at low temperature for various materials. (author)

  1. Development of mixed microbial granular biofilms for denitrification of concentrated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, T.V.; Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Satyasai, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate containing wastes are generated at various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle; fuel fabrication and reprocessing. A treatment process for removing nitrate from such concentrated nitrate bearing effluents is needed. Among other available options, biological denitrification is an economical and technically feasible method for nitrate removal. Granular biofilm based sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) may allow designing a compact and high rate processes suitable for the treatment of concentrated effluents. Hence, experiments were carried out in laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to develop granular biofilms (composed of mixed microbes) for removing nitrate from the concentrated nitrate containing-media. Microbial granular biofilms, capable of consuming nitrate up to 2710 mg/l nitrate-N, were developed under anaerobic conditions in a 6-litre volume sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR was inoculated with activated sludge flocs and operated with 24-h cycle and 50% volumetric exchange ratio. Synthetic media containing acetate as the energy source and electron donor, at carbon to nitrogen molar ratio of 2:1 and 3:1 was fed into the SBRs. Nitrate-N concentration in the SBR was increased in a step-wise manner starting from 677 to 2710 mg/l (1355 to 5420 mg/l in the feed). Complete removal of influent nitrate occurred within the first few hours of SBR cycle period. Effluent nitrate and nitrite levels (∼3 mg/l nitrate-N or nitrite-N) at the end of SBR cycle period (24 h) were found to be below the discharge limits. Under these conditions biomass predominantly consisted of granular biofilms. Results show the potential of granular biofilm based SBR for converting nitrate to nitrogen gas from concentrated nitrate bearing industrial effluents. (author)

  2. Probability density function modeling of scalar mixing from concentrated sources in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2007-11-01

    Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth and Pope [Phys. Fluids 29, 387 (1986)] with Durbin's [J. Fluid Mech. 249, 465 (1993)] method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous transport with a nonlocal representation of the near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy. The presence of walls is incorporated through the imposition of no-slip and impermeability conditions on particles without the use of damping or wall-functions. Information on the turbulent time scale is supplied by the gamma-distribution model of van Slooten et al. [Phys. Fluids 10, 246 (1998)]. Two different micromixing models are compared that incorporate the effect of small scale mixing on the transported scalar: the widely used interaction by exchange with the mean and the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean model. Single-point velocity and concentration statistics are compared to direct numerical simulation and experimental data at Reτ=1080 based on the friction velocity and the channel half width. The joint model accurately reproduces a wide variety of conditional and unconditional statistics in both physical and composition space.

  3. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  4. Mixing and entropy increase in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Pflug, A.; Thirring, W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain the key feature of deterministic chaotic classical systems and how they can be translated to quantum systems. To do so we develop the appropriate algebraic language for the non-specialist. 22 refs. (Author)

  5. Cognitive Performance Assessment in Mixed and Virtual Environment Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pair, Jarrell; Rizzo, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently interested in developing state-of-the-art training methods that leverage technology based on established and emerging immersive mixed and virtual environment systems employing...

  6. Conundrums in mixed woody-herbaceous plant systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    House, JI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available -form communities, the novel, complex, nonlinear behaviour of mixed tree-grass systems cannot be accounted for by simply studying or modelling woody and herbaceous components independently. A more robust understanding requires addressing three fundamental conundrums...

  7. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z Q; Heron, J T; Clarkson, J D; Hong, J; Ko, C; Biegalski, M D; Aschauer, U; Hsu, S L; Nowakowski, M E; Wu, J; Christen, H M; Salahuddin, S; Bokor, J B; Spaldin, N A; Schlom, D G; Ramesh, R

    2015-01-07

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  8. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  9. Mixing phases of unstable two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Brentano, P. von.

    1993-01-01

    An unstable two-level system decaying into an arbitrary number of channels is considered. It is shown that the mixing phases of the two overlapping resonances can be expressed in the terms of their partial widths and one additional universal mixing parameter. Some applications to a doublet of 2 + resonances in 8 Be and to the ρ-ω systems are considered. 18 refs

  10. Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.

  11. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  12. Enhancing Health-Care Services with Mixed Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantchev, Vladimir

    This work presents a development approach for mixed reality systems in health care. Although health-care service costs account for 5-15% of GDP in developed countries the sector has been remarkably resistant to the introduction of technology-supported optimizations. Digitalization of data storing and processing in the form of electronic patient records (EPR) and hospital information systems (HIS) is a first necessary step. Contrary to typical business functions (e.g., accounting or CRM) a health-care service is characterized by a knowledge intensive decision process and usage of specialized devices ranging from stethoscopes to complex surgical systems. Mixed reality systems can help fill the gap between highly patient-specific health-care services that need a variety of technical resources on the one side and the streamlined process flow that typical process supporting information systems expect on the other side. To achieve this task, we present a development approach that includes an evaluation of existing tasks and processes within the health-care service and the information systems that currently support the service, as well as identification of decision paths and actions that can benefit from mixed reality systems. The result is a mixed reality system that allows a clinician to monitor the elements of the physical world and to blend them with virtual information provided by the systems. He or she can also plan and schedule treatments and operations in the digital world depending on status information from this mixed reality.

  13. Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems : mixed interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, Viswanath; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling

  14. Revealing Transient Concentration of CO2 in a Mixed Matrix Membrane by IR Microimaging and Molecular Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Seungtaik

    2018-02-21

    Through IR microimaging the spatially and temporally resolved development of the CO2 concentration in a ZIF-8@6FDA-DAM mixed matrix membrane was visualized during transient adsorption. By recording the evolution of the CO2 concentration, it is observed that the CO2 molecules propagate from the ZIF-8 filler, which acts as a transport

  15. Revealing Transient Concentration of CO2 in a Mixed Matrix Membrane by IR Microimaging and Molecular Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Seungtaik; Semino, Rocio; Seoane, Beatriz; Zahan, Marufa; Chmelik, Christian; Valiullin, Rustem; Bertmer, Marko; Haase, Jü rgen; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge; Maurin, Guillaume; Kä rger, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    Through IR microimaging the spatially and temporally resolved development of the CO2 concentration in a ZIF-8@6FDA-DAM mixed matrix membrane was visualized during transient adsorption. By recording the evolution of the CO2 concentration, it is observed that the CO2 molecules propagate from the ZIF-8 filler, which acts as a transport

  16. Effect of pH and sulfate concentration on hydrogen production using anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jeong-A.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Kumar, Eva; Jeon, Byong-Hun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710 (Korea); Abou-Shanab, R.A.I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710 (Korea); Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Alexandria (Egypt); Min, Booki [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea); Song, Hocheol; Kim, Yong Je [Geologic Environment Division, KIGAM, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea); Choi, Jaeyoung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea); Lee, Eung Seok [Geological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701-2979 (United States); Um, Sukkee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Dae Sung [Petroleum and Marine Research Department, KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    The effects of varying sulfate concentrations with pH on continuous fermentative hydrogen production were studied using anaerobic mixed cultures growing on a glucose substrate in a chemostat reactor. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 2.8 L/day at pH 5.5 and sulfate concentration of 3000 mg/L. Hydrogen production and residual sulfate level decreased with increasing the pH from 5.5 to 6.2. The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol fractions in the effluent were in the order of butyric acid (HBu) > acetic acid (HAc) > ethanol > propionic acid (HPr). Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the presence of hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) under all pH ranges while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were present at pH 5.8 and 6.2. The inhibition in hydrogen production by SRB at pH 6.2 diminished entirely by lowering to pH 5.5, at which activity of SRB is substantially suppressed. (author)

  17. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  18. Effect of the mixing fields on the stability and structure of turbulent partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.

    2016-10-22

    The mixing field is known to be one of the key parameters that affect the stability and structure of partially premixed flames. Data in these flames are now available covering the effects of turbulence, combustion system geometry, level of partially premixing and fuel type. However, quantitative analyses of the flame structure based on the mixing field are not yet available. The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive study of the effects of the mixing fields on the structure and stability of partially premixed methane flames. The mixing field in a concentric flow conical nozzle (CFCN) burner with well-controlled mechanism of the mixing is investigated using Rayleigh scattering technique. The flame stability, structure and flow field of some selected cases are presented using LIF of OH and PIV. The experimental data of the mixing field cover wide ranges of Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and mixing length. The data show that the mixing field is significantly affected by the mixing length and the ratio of the air-to-fuel velocities. The Reynolds number has a minimum effect on the mixing field in high turbulent flow regime and the stability is significantly affected by the turbulence level. The temporal fluctuations of the range of mixture fraction within the mixing field correlate with the flame stability. The highest point of stability occurs at recess distances where fluid mixtures near the jet exit plane are mostly within the flammability limits. This paper provides some correlations between the stability range in mixture fraction space and the turbulence level for different equivalence ratios.

  19. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of the multistage mixed refrigerant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is performed for mixed refrigerant systems. • Cost of investment is divided into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous. • Results show that interactions between the components is not considerable. - Abstract: Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied on three multi stage mixed refrigerant liquefaction processes. They are propane precooled mixed refrigerant, dual mixed refrigerant and mixed fluid cascade. Cost of investment and exergy destruction for the components with high inefficiencies are divided into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. According to the avoidable exergy destruction cost in propane precooled mixed refrigerant process, C-2 compressor with 455.5 ($/h), in dual mixed refrigerant process, C-1 compressor with 510.8 ($/h) and in mixed fluid cascade process, C-2/1 compressor with 338.8 ($/h) should be considered first. A comparison between the conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analysis is done by three important parameters: Exergy efficiency, exergoeconomic factor and total costs. Results show that interactions between the process components are not considerable because cost of investment and exergy destruction in most of them are endogenous. Exergy destruction cost of the compressors is avoidable while heat exchangers and air coolers destruction cost are unavoidable. Investment cost of heat exchangers and air coolers are avoidable while compressor’s are unavoidable

  20. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsa Imade Y

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

  1. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  2. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  3. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  4. Estimation of Uncertainty in Aerosol Concentration Measured by Aerosol Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Song, Yong Jae; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    FNC Technology Co., Ltd has been developed test facilities for the aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The aerosol generation system is connected to the aerosol mixing system which injects SiO{sub 2}/ethanol mixture. In the sampling system, glass fiber membrane filter has been used to measure average mass concentration. Based on the experimental results using main carrier gas of steam and air mixture, the uncertainty estimation of the sampled aerosol concentration was performed by applying Gaussian error propagation law. FNC Technology Co., Ltd. has been developed the experimental facilities for the aerosol measurement under high pressure and high temperature. The purpose of the tests is to develop commercial test module for aerosol generation, mixing and sampling system applicable to environmental industry and safety related system in nuclear power plant. For the uncertainty calculation of aerosol concentration, the value of the sampled aerosol concentration is not measured directly, but must be calculated from other quantities. The uncertainty of the sampled aerosol concentration is a function of flow rates of air and steam, sampled mass, sampling time, condensed steam mass and its absolute errors. These variables propagate to the combination of variables in the function. Using operating parameters and its single errors from the aerosol test cases performed at FNC, the uncertainty of aerosol concentration evaluated by Gaussian error propagation law is less than 1%. The results of uncertainty estimation in the aerosol sampling system will be utilized for the system performance data.

  5. The effect of high intensity mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of concentrated cellulose fiber suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Samaniuk; C. Tim Scott; Thatcher W. Root; Daniel J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a high shear environment was examined. The conversion of cellulose to glucose in samples mixed in a torque rheometer producing shear flows similar to those found in twin screw extruders was greater than that of unmixed samples. In addition, there is a synergistic effect of mixing and enzymatic hydrolysis; mixing...

  6. [Mixed valent and heavy ferimons and related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to gain a better understanding of highly correlated fermion systems. High correlations appear in a variety of solid state phenomena: mixed-valence and heavy-fermions or Kondo systems, superfluid and normal He 3 , high-temperature superconductors, magnetism in low dimensions, quantum Hall effect, spin-fluctuations in transition metals, giant magnetic moments, tunneling of an atom interacting with a degenerate electron gas, quantum dissipative systems, organic superconductors, etc. The primary focus of the work is on valence mixing and heavy fermions, but elated highly correlated systems are also studied. In this paper a brief summary of the achievements grouped under four headings, namely (1) heavy fermions-mixed valence-Kondo, (2) magnetism in low dimensions, (3) narrow band phenomena/Hubbard model and (4) collaborations with experimentalists

  7. Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic pesticides and biocides that are found in surface waters, can originate from agricultural and urban sources. For a long time, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use like material protection or in-can preservatives (cosmetics etc.). Recent studies however revealed that the amounts of urban biocides used may exceed those of agricultural pesticides. This study aims at comparing the input of several important pesticides and biocides into a small Swiss stream with a special focus on loss events triggered by rainfall. A set of 16 substances was selected to represent urban and agricultural sources. The selected substances are either only used as biocides (irgarol, isothiazolinones, IPBC), as pesticides (atrazine, sulcotrione, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid) or have a mixed use (isoproturon, terbutryn, terbutylazine, mecoprop, diazinon, carbendazim) The study catchment has an area of 25 km2 and is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a wastewater treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. The results, based on more than 500 analyzed samples, revealed distinct concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Agricultural pesticides exhibited a strong seasonality as expected based on the application periods. During the first one or two rain events after application the concentrations reached up to several thousand ng/l during peak flow (atrazine, isoproturon). The temporal patterns of urban biocides were more diverse. Some compounds obviously stem from permanent sources independent of rainfall because they were found mostly in the outlet of the wastewater

  8. Thermodynamic and Interfacial Properties of DTABr/CTABr Mixed Surfactant Systems in Ethanolamine/Water Mixtures: A Conductometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Esan, Olaseni Segun; Osundiya, Medinat Olubunmi; Aboluwoye, Christopher Olumuyiwa; Olanrewaju, Owoyomi; Ige, Jide

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-micelle formation in the binary mixtures of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTABr) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) surfactants in water-ethanolamine mixed solvent systems has been studied by conductometric method in the temperature range of 298.1 to 313.1 K at 5 K intervals. It was observed that the presence of ethanolamine forced the formation of mixed micelle to lower total surfactant concentration than in water only. The synergistic interaction was quantitatively investi...

  9. In-core LOCA-s: analytical solution for the delayed mixing model for moderator poison concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firla, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to dynamic moderator poison concentration model with delayed mixing under single pressure tube / calandria tube rupture scenario are discussed. Such a model is described by a delay differential equation, and for such equations the standard ways of solution are not directly applicable. In the paper an exact, direct time-domain analytical solution to the delayed mixing model is presented and discussed. The obtained solution has a 'marching' form and is easy to calculate numerically. Results of the numerical calculations based on the analytical solution indicate that for the expected range of mixing times the existing uniform mixing model is a good representation of the moderator poison mixing process for single PT/CT breaks. However, for postulated multi-pipe breaks ( which is very unlikely to occur ) the uniform mixing model is not adequate any more; at the same time an 'approximate' solution based on Laplace transform significantly overpredicts the rate of poison concentration decrease, resulting in excessive increase in the moderator dilution factor. In this situation the true, analytical solution must be used. The analytical solution presented in the paper may also serve as a bench-mark test for the accuracy of the existing poison mixing models. Moreover, because of the existing oscillatory tendency of the solution, special care must be taken in using delay differential models in other applications. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  11. Semipermeable membrane devices concentrate mixed function oxygenase inducers from oil sands and refinery wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.; Hewitt, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The health of fish in the Athabasca River was examined to determine the effects of both natural and anthropogenic oil sands exposure on liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were used to concentrate bioavailable compounds that may result in MFO induction. The SPMDs were used for a period of 2 weeks in the Steepbank River as well as in oil refinery wastewater and intake ponds. They were then tested to see if they induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatoma cells, a cell line derived from a liver cancer of a small fish. SPMDs from the wastewater pond contained potent EROD inducers in fish liver cells. SPMDs from the Athabasca River exhibited some EROD inducers, but they were 1/100 as potent as those of the refinery wastewater. The characteristics of MFO inducers from refinery wastewater were different from natural inducers from the oil sands in the Athabasca and Steepbank Rivers. For instance, log Kow was less than 5 for refinery wastewater, but it was greater than 5 for Athabasca River wastewater and from natural oil sands exposure. In the case of the Steepbank River, the pattern of MFO induction was similar to the MFO induction seen in wild fish.The highest MFO inducers were found to be in the area of the mine, suggesting and anthropogenic pollution source. The less potent inducers were in the area of the natural and undisturbed oil sands. Very few inducers were found outside of the oil sands formation

  12. Numerical Study of Mixed Convection of Nanofluid in a Concentric Annulus with Rotating Inner Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sheikhzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the steady and laminar mixed convection of nanofluid in horizontal concentric annulus withrotating inner cylinder is investigated numerically. The inner and outer cylinders are kept at constanttemperature Ti and To respectively, where Ti>To. The annular space is filled with Alumina-water nanofluid.The governing equations with the corresponded boundary conditions in the polar coordinate are discretizedusing the finite volume method where pressure-velocity coupling is done by the SIMPLER algorithm.Numerical results have been obtained for Rayleigh number ranging from 102 to 105, Reynolds number from 1 to 300 and nanoparticles volume fraction from 0.01 to 0.06. The effects of the Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, average diameter of nanoparticles and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the annuli are investigated. According to the results, the average Nusselt number decreases with increasing the Reynolds number. However, the average Nusselt number increases by increasing the Rayleigh number. Moreover, the maximum average Nusselt number occurs for an optimal nanoparticle volume fraction except situations that heat conduction predominates over the heat convection. In these conditions the average Nusselt number is close to unity.

  13. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  14. Mixing in the $D^0$ system Results from collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Grothe, Monika

    2003-01-01

    Mixing in the $D^0$ system may provide a sensitive probe for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) but has so far eluded experimental observation. The SM predictions are typically small ($< 10^{-3}$) for the mixing parameters $x$, $y$ which, in the absence of charge-parity ($CP$) symmetry violation, measure the mass ($x= Delta m/ Gamma$) and lifetime ($y= Delta Gamma / 2 Gamma$) difference of the $CP$ eigenstates in the $D^0$ system. The asymmetric $B$-factory experiments BABAR and Belle open up the opportunity of measuring $x$, $y$ with unprecedented statistical precision and sample purities. Results from BABAR and Belle, and from CLEO are reviewed.

  15. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  16. A system dynamics model to determine products mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Hajghasem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of system dynamics model to determine appropriate product mix by considering various factors such as labor, materials, overhead, etc. for an Iranian producer of cosmetic and sanitary products. The proposed model of this paper considers three hypotheses including the relationship between product mix and profitability, optimum production capacity and having minimum amount of storage to take advantage of low cost production. The implementation of system dynamics on VENSIM software package has confirmed all three hypotheses of the survey and suggested that in order to reach better mix product, it is necessary to reach optimum production planning, take advantage of all available production capacities and use inventory management techniques.

  17. RKKY interaction in mixed valence system and heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusui Liu; Gao Lin; Lin Zonghan

    1985-11-01

    The 1-D RKKY interaction of mixed valence system is given by using the thermodynamic perturbation theory. The numerical comparisons of 1-D and 3-D RKKY interaction between systems with localized magnetic moments of mixed valence and non-mixed valence show that the former is much stronger than the latter. From some analyses we propose that the heavy Fermion superconductivity comes from the RKKY interaction between two local f electrons which hop off the impurity site to become two continuum electrons. The source of the two impurity electrons hopping is the Coulomb interaction. It is also emphasized that the RKKY interaction does not disappear for the Kondo lattice, when the temperature is less than the Kondo temperature. (author)

  18. Demonstration and Optimization of BNFL's Pulsed Jet Mixing and RFD Sampling Systems Using NCAW Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontha, J.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Hannigan, N.

    2000-01-01

    The BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment and vitrification of the Hanford High Level Tank waste includes the use of several hundred Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs) for sampling and transferring the radioactive slurries and Pulsed Jet mixers to homogenize or suspend the tank contents. The Pulsed Jet mixing and the RFD sampling devices represent very simple and efficient methods to mix and sample slurries, respectively, using compressed air to achieve the desired operation. The equipment has no moving parts, which makes them very suitable for mixing and sampling highly radioactive wastes. However, the effectiveness of the mixing and sampling systems are yet to be demonstrated when dealing with Hanford slurries, which exhibit a wide range of physical and theological properties. This report describes the results of the testing of BNFL's Pulsed Jet mixing and RFD sampling systems in a 13-ft ID and 15-ft height dish-bottomed tank at Battelle's 336 building high-bay facility using AZ-101/102 simulants containing up to 36-wt% insoluble solids. The specific objectives of the work were to: Demonstrate the effectiveness of the Pulsed Jet mixing system to thoroughly homogenize Hanford-type slurries over a range of solids loading; Minimize/optimize air usage by changing sequencing of the Pulsed Jet mixers or by altering cycle times; and Demonstrate that the RFD sampler can obtain representative samples of the slurry up to the maximum RPP-WTP baseline concentration of 25-wt%

  19. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  20. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  1. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  2. Collection and evaluation of salt mixing data with the real time data acquisition system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, S.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-09-01

    A minicomputer based real time data acquisition system was designed and built to facilitate data collection during salt mixing tests in mock ups of LMFBR rod bundles. The system represents an expansion of data collection capabilities over previous equipment. It performs steady state and transient monitoring and recording of up to 512 individual electrical resistance probes. Extensive real time software was written to govern all phases of the data collection procedure, including probe definition, probe calibration, salt mixing test data acquisition and storage, and data editing. Offline software was also written to permit data examination and reduction to dimensionless salt concentration maps. Finally, the computer program SUPERENERGY was modified to permit rapid extraction of parameters from dimensionless salt concentration maps. The document describes the computer system, and includes circuit diagrams of all custom built components. It also includes descriptions and listings of all software written, as well as extensive user instructions.

  3. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  4. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-09-11

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  5. Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system varying the light concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.; Petito, F.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Analysis of the point-focus concentrating system performances. • Photovoltaic system parameters as function of the concentration factor. - Abstract: The concentrating photovoltaic system represents one of the most promising solar technologies because it allows a more efficient energy conversion. When a CPV system is designed, the main parameter which has to be considered is the concentration factor that affects both the system energy performances and its configuration. An experimental characterization of a CPV system previously realized at the University of Salerno, is presented in this paper considering several aspects related to the optical configuration, the concentration factor and the solar cell used. In particular, the parameters of an Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium triple-junction solar cell are investigated as function of the concentration factor determined by means of an experimental procedure that uses different optical configurations. The maximum concentration factor reached by the CPV system is 310 suns. The cell parameters dependence on the concentration is reported together with an electroluminescence analysis of the Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium cell. A monitoring of the electrical power provided by the system during its working is also presented corresponding to different direct irradiance values. A mean power of 2.95 W with an average efficiency of 32.8% is obtained referring to a mean irradiance of 930 W/m"2; lower values are obtained when the irradiance is highly fluctuating. The concentrating photovoltaic system electric energy output is estimated considering different concentration levels; the maximal obtained value is 23.5 W h on a sunny day at 310×. Finally, the temperature of the triple-junction solar cell is evaluated for different months in order to evaluate the potential annual thermal energy production

  6. Battery-Aware Scheduling of Mixed Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    . Mixed criticality and soft real-time systems may accept deadline violations and therefore enable trade-offs and evaluation of performance by criteria such as the number of tasks that can be completed with a given battery. We model a task set in combination with the kinetic battery model as a stochastic...

  7. Cover and liner system designs for mixed-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, A.

    1994-01-01

    Land disposal of mixed waste is subject to a variety of regulations and requirements. Landfills will continue to be a part of waste management plans at virtually all facilities. New landfills are planned to serve the ongoing needs of the national laboratories and US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and environmental restoration wastes will ultimately need to be disposed in these landfills. This paper reviews the basic objectives of mixed-waste disposal and summarizes key constraints facing planners and designers of these facilities. Possible objectives of cover systems include infiltration reduction; maximization of evapotranspiration; use of capillary barriers or low-permeability layers (or combinations of all these); lateral drainage transmission; plant, animal, and/or human intrusion control; vapor/gas control; and wind and water erosion control. Liner system objectives will be presented, and will be compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency-US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance for mixed-waste landfills. The measures to accomplish each objective will be reviewed. Then, the design of several existing or planned mixed-waste facilities (DOE and commercial) will be reviewed to illustrate the application of the various functional objectives. Key issues will include design life and performance period as compared/contrasted to postclosure care periods, the use (or avoidance) of geosynthetics or clays, intermediate or interim cover systems, and soil erosion protection in contrast to vegetative enhancement. Possible monitoring approaches to cover systems and landfill installations will be summarized as well

  8. Photon nonlinear mixing in subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José

    2009-04-13

    We provide, for the first time to our knowledge, an analysis of the influence of nonlinear photon mixing on the end to end quantum bit error rate (QBER) performance of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems. The results show that negligible impact is to be expected for modulation indexes in the range of 2%.

  9. Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems. ... method has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 ... is of no consequential effect because in its normal state, the [OH-] of the lake water is ...

  10. Effect of the mixing fields on the stability and structure of turbulent partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.; Senosy, Mohamed S.; Zayed, Mohamed F.; Juddoo, Mrinal; Masri, Assaad R.

    2016-01-01

    of partially premixed methane flames. The mixing field in a concentric flow conical nozzle (CFCN) burner with well-controlled mechanism of the mixing is investigated using Rayleigh scattering technique. The flame stability, structure and flow field of some

  11. On mixing property in set-valued discrete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao; Guo Wenjing

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a compact metric space and f:X->X be a continuous map. Let (K(X),H) be the space of all non-empty compact subsets of X endowed with the Hausdorff metric induced by d and f-bar :K(X)->K(X) be the map defined by f-bar (A):{f(a):a-bar A}. In this paper we investigate the relationships between the mixing property of (K(X),f-bar ) and the mixing property of (X,f). In addition, we discuss specification for the set-valued discrete dynamical system (K(X),f-bar )

  12. Presence of mixed modes in red giants in binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themeßl Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequencies of oscillation modes in stars contain valueable information about the stellar properties. In red giants the frequency spectrum also contains mixed modes, with both pressure (p and gravity (g as restoring force, which are key to understanding the physical conditions in the stellar core. We observe a high fraction of red giants in binary systems, for which g-dominated mixed modes are not pronounced. This trend leads us to investigate whether this is specific for binary systems or a more general feature. We do so by comparing the fraction of stars with only p-dominated mixed modes in binaries and in a larger set of stars from the APOKASC sample. We find only p-dominated mixed modes in about 50% of red giants in detached eclipsing binaries compared to about 4% in the large sample. This could indicate that this phenomenon is tightly related to binarity and that the binary fraction in the APOKASC sample is about 8%.

  13. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  14. The seasonal cycle of the mixing layer height and its impact on black carbon concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley (Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Andrea; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Münkel, Christoph; Lauer, Axel; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The properties and the vertical structure of the mixing layer as part of the planetary boundary layer are of key importance for local air quality. They have a substantial impact on the vertical dispersion of pollutants in the lower atmosphere and thus on their concentrations near the surface. In this study, ceilometer measurements taken within the framework of the SusKat project (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley) are used to investigate the mixing layer height in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The applied method is based on the assumption that the aerosol concentration is nearly constant in the vertical and distinctly higher within the mixing layer than in the air above. Thus, the height with the steepest gradient within the ceilometer backscatter profile marks the top of the mixing layer. Ceilometer and black carbon (BC) measurements conducted from March 2013 through February 2014 provide a unique and important dataset for the analysis of the meteorological and air quality conditions in the Kathmandu Valley. In this study the mean diurnal cycle of the mixing layer height in the Kathmandu Valley for each season (pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter season) and its dependency on the meteorological situation is investigated. In addition, the impact of the mixing layer height on the BC concentration is analyzed and compared to the relevance of other important processes such as emissions, horizontal advection and deposition. In all seasons the diurnal cycle is typically characterized by low mixing heights during the night, gradually increasing after sun rise reaching to maximum values in the afternoon before decreasing again. Seasonal differences can be seen particularly in the height of the mixing layer, e.g. from on average 153/1200 m (pre-monsoon) to 241/755 m (monsoon season) during the night/day, and the duration of enhanced mixing layer heights during daytime (around 12 hours (pre-monsoon season) to 8 hours (winter)). During the monsoon

  15. Study on system dynamics of evolutionary mix-game models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling; Guo, Xiaoqian; Chen, Fang

    2008-11-01

    Mix-game model is ameliorated from an agent-based MG model, which is used to simulate the real financial market. Different from MG, there are two groups of agents in Mix-game: Group 1 plays a majority game and Group 2 plays a minority game. These two groups of agents have different bounded abilities to deal with historical information and to count their own performance. In this paper, we modify Mix-game model by assigning the evolution abilities to agents: if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold, they will copy the best strategies the other agent has; and agents will repeat such evolution at certain time intervals. Through simulations this paper finds: (1) the average winning rates of agents in Group 1 and the mean volatilities increase with the increases of the thresholds of Group 1; (2) the average winning rates of both groups decrease but the mean volatilities of system increase with the increase of the thresholds of Group 2; (3) the thresholds of Group 2 have greater impact on system dynamics than the thresholds of Group 1; (4) the characteristics of system dynamics under different time intervals of strategy change are similar to each other qualitatively, but they are different quantitatively; (5) As the time interval of strategy change increases from 1 to 20, the system behaves more and more stable and the performances of agents in both groups become better also.

  16. Mixing at double-Tee junctions with unequal pipe sizes in water distribution systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pipe flow mixing with various solute concentrations and flow rates at pipe junctions is investigated. The degree of mixing affects the spread of contaminants in a...

  17. The paramagnetic properties of ferromagnetic mixed-spin chain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Wu, Zhi-Min; Cui, Yu-Ting; Qin, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The double-time Green's function method is used to investigate the paramagnetic properties of ferromagnetic mixed-spin chain system within the random-phase approximation and Anderson–Callen's decoupling approximation. The analytic expressions of the transverse susceptibility, longitudinal susceptibility and correlation length are obtained under transverse and longitudinal magnetic field. Using the analytic expressions of the transverse and longitudinal susceptibility to fit the experimental results, our results well agree with experimental data and the results from the high temperature series expansion within a simple Padé approximation. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic mixed-spin chain system. • We use the double-time temperature-dependent Green's function technique. • Different single-ion anisotropy values for different spin values are considered. • Our results agree with experimental data and the results from the other theoretical methods

  18. Computer simulation of mixed classical-quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.

    1988-11-01

    We briefly review three important methods that are currently used in the simulation of mixed systems. Two of these techniques, path integral Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics and dynamical simulated annealing, have the limitation that they can only describe the structural properties in the ground state. The third so-called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) method can provide not only the static properties but also the real-time dynamics of a quantum particle at finite temperatures. 10 refs

  19. Stability of neutral type descriptor system with mixed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Li Houbiao; Zhong Shouming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stability problems of general neutral type descriptor system with mixed delays are considered. Some new delay-independent stability and robust stability criteria, which are simpler and less conservative than existing results, are derived in terms of the stability of a new operator I and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Therefore, criteria can be easily checked by utilizing the Matlab LMI toolbox

  20. On a mixed problem for a coupled nonlinear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes R. Clark

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the mixed problem associated with the nonlinear system $$ u_{tt}-M(int_Omega |abla u|^2dxDelta u+|u|^ ho u+heta =f $$ $$ heta _t -Delta heta +u_{t}=g $$ where $M$ is a positive real function, and $f$ and $g$ are known real functions.

  1. Preparation and characterization of polysulfone/zeolite mixed matrix membranes for removal of low-concentration ammonia from aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradihamedani, Pourya; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2018-01-01

    Removal of low-concentration ammonia (1-10 ppm) from aquaculture wastewater was investigated via polysulfone (PSf)/zeolite mixed matrix membrane. PSf/zeolite mixed matrix membranes with different weight ratios (90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40 wt.%) were prepared and characterized. Results indicate that PSf/zeolite (80/20) was the most efficient membrane for removal of low-concentration ammonia. The ammonia elimination by PSf/zeolite (80/20) from aqueous solution for 10, 7, 5, 3 and 1 ppm of ammonia was 100%, 99%, 98.8%, 96% and 95% respectively. The recorded results revealed that pure water flux declined in higher loading of zeolite in the membrane matrix due to surface pore blockage caused by zeolite particles. On the other hand, ammonia elimination from water was decreased in higher contents of zeolite because of formation of cavities and macrovoids in the membrane substructure.

  2. Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rica, R.A.; Ziano, R.; Salerno, D.; Mantegazza, F.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984; Brogioli, D.

    2013-01-01

    An enormous dissipation of the order of 2 kJ/L takes place during the natural mixing process of fresh river water entering the salty sea. “Capacitive mixing” is a promising technique to efficiently harvest this energy in an environmentally clean and sustainable fashion. This method has its roots in

  3. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persisten...

  4. Solution of non-steady-state substrate concentration in the action of biosensor response at mixed enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai, R.; Jana Ranjani, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics and diffusion limitation in the case of substrate inhibition has been developed. The model is based on time dependent reaction diffusion equation containing a non -linear term related to non -Michaelis - Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. Solution for the concentration of the substrate has been derived for all values of parameters using the homotopy perturbation method. All the approximate analytic expressions of substrate concentration are compared with simulation results using Scilab/Matlab program. Finally, we have given a satisfactory agreement between them.

  5. Transportable vitrification system demonstration on mixed waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits

  6. Transportable vitrification system demonstration on mixed waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilson, C.N. [Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Van Ryn, F.R. [Bechtel Jacobs Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-04-22

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits.

  7. Rheological evaluation of the irradiated pectin/gelatin mixed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    The main biopolymers used in the edible films production are polysaccharides and proteins. Pectin is a heterosaccharidic polymer derived from the vegetal cell wall. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on either the biopolymers alone or on the mixed systems prepared with high-and low-methoxyl pectin and gelatin in solution and mixed gel. The results showed that gelatin viscosity remained almost unaffected by the irradiation with doses from 1 to 15 kGy, with a slight increase at 3 kGy. On the other hand, there was a sharp decrease of viscosity values of all pectin solutions upon irradiation, being this behavior predominant when both polysaccharides and proteins were present in a mixed system. The gel hardness and gel brittleness of the gelatin were affected by the increase of radiation dose. (author)

  8. Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selecký, Martin; Faigl, Jan; Rollo, Milan

    2018-03-14

    Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture's viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture.

  9. Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Selecký

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture’s viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture.

  10. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  11. Nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos; Szadkowska, Halina; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the mixing properties of membranes to which detergents are added is mandatory for improving the application and interpretation of detergent based protein or lipid extraction assays. For Triton X-100 (TX-100), a nonionic detergent frequently used in the process of solubilizing and purifying membrane proteins and lipids, we present here a detailed study of the mixing properties of binary and ternary lipid mixtures by means of high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). To this end the partitioning thermodynamics of TX-100 molecules from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of various mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), egg-sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (cho) are characterized. Composition-dependent partition coefficients K are analysed within the frame of a thermodynamic model developed to describe nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems. The results imply that POPC, fluid SM, and TX-100 mix almost ideally (nonideality parameters ρ α/β SM/cho ≤-6RT) and unfavourable PC/cho interactions (ρ PC/cho = 2RT) may under certain conditions cause POPC/TX-100-enriched domains to segregate from SM/cho-enriched ones. TX-100/cho contacts are unfavourable (ρ cho/TX = 4RT), so the system tends to avoid them. That means, addition of TX-100 promotes the separation of SM/cho-rich from PC/TX-100-rich domains. It appears that cho/detergent interactions are crucial governing the abundance and composition of detergent-resistant membrane patches

  12. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system: Technology potential and energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, W. J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Hamelers, H. V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable energy storage system which operates by performing cycles during which energy generated from renewable resource is first used to produce highly concentrated brine and diluate, followed up mixing these two solutions in order to generate power. In this work, we present theoretical results of the attainable energy density as function of salt type and concentration. A linearized Nernst-Planck model is used to describe water, salt and charge transport. We validate our model with experiments over wide range of sodium chloride concentrations (0.025-3 m) and current densities (-49 to +33 A m-2). We find that depending on current density, charge and discharge steps have significantly different thermodynamic efficiency. In addition, we show that at optimal current densities, mechanisms of energy dissipation change with salt concentration. We find the highest thermodynamic efficiency at low concentrate concentrations. When using salt concentrations above 1 m, water and co-ion transport contribute to high energy dissipation due to irreversible mixing.

  13. Increasing tetracycline concentrations on the performance and communities of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui; Hozic, Dzenan; Goncalves, Ana L.; Simõ es, Manuel; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    , however, increased in relative abundance, which correlated with an increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with efflux pump mechanism. Overall, the findings demonstrate that antibiotic concentrations in municipal wastewaters

  14. Probability density function modeling of scalar mixing from concentrated sources in turbulent channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth & Pope with Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous ...

  15. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  16. Mixing height determination using remote sensing systems. General remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyrich, F. [BTU Cottbus, LS Umweltmeteorologie, Cottbus (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Remote sensing systems can be considered today as a real alternative to classical soundings with respect to the MH (mixing height) determination. They have the basic advantage to allow continuous monitoring of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer). Some technical issues which limit their operational use at present should be solved in the near future (frequency allocation, eye safety, costs). Taking into account specific operating conditions and the formulated-above requirements of a sounding system to be used for MH determination it becomes obvious that none of the available systems meets all of them, i.e., the `Mixing height-meter` does not exist. Therefore, reliable MH determination under a wide variety of conditions can be achieved only by integrating different instruments into a complex sounding system. The S-profiles provide a suitable data base for MH estimation from all types of remote sensing instruments. The criteria to deduce MH-values from these profiles should consider the structure type and the evolution stage of the ABL as well as the shape of the profiles. A certain kind of harmonization concerning these criteria should be achieved. MH values derived automatically from remote sensing data appear to be not yet reliable enough for direct operational use, they should be in any case critically examined by a trained analyst. Contemporary mathematical methods (wavelet transforms, fuzzy logics) are supposed to allow considerable progress in this field in the near future. (au) 19 refs.

  17. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  18. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  19. Concentrate composition for automatic milking systems - effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... supplied in the amounts of 5 kg/cow/day. Fifteen cows were fed the experimental concentrate and another 15 cows the Standard concentrate for 14 days and then for the next 14 days the cows were fed the opposite diets to be their own control. The change from one mixture to the next was done over only one day...

  20. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  1. Development of system on predicting uranium concentration from pregnant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weiping

    2004-01-01

    Uranium concentration from pregnant solution is primary index of process for in-situ leaching of uranium, and the suitable method with which to predicate this index and effective means to solve it with were continuously studied hard. SPUC-system on predicting uranium concentration based on GM model of gray system theory is developed, and the mathematical model, constitution, function and theory foundation of this system are introduced. (authors)

  2. Solubility of Meloxicam in Mixed Solvent Systems | Babu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility of meloxicam is higher in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) compared to water, probably due to ionization of the drug. The solubility of meloxicam is marginally enhanced in surfactant systems (Tween 80 and Brij 35) at concentrations higher than cmc, proving the micellar solubilization. Meloxicam solubility studies in ...

  3. Performance investigation of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A common design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator was presented. • The gallium arsenide high concentrated solar was used as the receiver. • High efficiency of electric generating could be achieved at noon. • Fresnel solar concentrator was studied and compared in hazy weather and clear weather. - Abstract: A design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator which can provide a certain width focal line was presented in this study. Based on the optical principle of refraction, the dimensions of each wedge-shaped element of Fresnel lens are calculated. An optical simulation has been done to obtain the optical efficiency of the concentrator for different tracking error and axial incidence angle. It has been found that about 80% of the incident sunlight can still be gathered by the absorber when the tracking error is within 0.7°. When the axial angle of incidence is within 10°, it almost has no influence to the receiving rate. The concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator has been designed in this paper. Take the gallium arsenide high concentrated battery as the receiver, experimental research about cylindrical Fresnel concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is undertaken in the real sky. Main parameters are tested such as the temperature distribution on receiver, electric energy and thermal energy outputs of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system, the efficiency of multipurpose utilization of electric and heat, and so on. The test results in clear weather show that maximum electric generating efficiency is about 18% at noon, the maximum heat receiving rate of cooling water is about 45%. At noon time (11:00–13:00), the total efficiency of thermal and electricity can reach more than 55%. Performance of this concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator is studied and compared in two types typical weather, hazy

  4. Ranking system for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is a simplified management decision tool that provides a common basis for evaluating a multitude of hazardous waste sites. A deficiency in the HRS for application to Department of Energy mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites is its inability to explicitly handle radioactive material. A modification to the basic HRS to add the capability to consider radioactivity is described. The HRS considers the exposure routes of direct contact, fire/explosion, atmospheric release, surface-water release, and ground-water release. Each exposure route is further divided into release, route, containment, waste, and target characteristics. To maintain the basic HRS structure, only the waste characteristics section of each exposure route was modified. A ranking system was developed, using radiation dose pathway analysis, to group radionuclides by dose factors. For mixed waste sites, the ranking factor derived for radionuclides is compared with the ranking factor obtained for hazardous chemicals and the most restrictive is used in the overall ranking. The modified HRS has the advantages of being compatible with the original HRS, has reasonable information requirements, and provides scientifically defensible conclusions. 17 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  5. Numerical Study of Concentration Characteristics of Linear Fresnel Reflector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we numerically investigated the concentration characteristics of a linear Fresnel reflector system that can drive a solar thermal absorption refrigeration system to be installed in Saudi Arabia. Using an optical modeling program based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, we simulated the concentrated solar flux, concentration efficiency, and concentrated solar energy on four representative days of the year - the vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox, and winter solstice. Except the winter solstice, the concentrations were approximately steady from 9 AM to 15 PM, and the concentration efficiencies exceed 70%. Moreover, the maximum solar flux around the solar receiver center changes only within the range of 13.0 - 14.6 kW/m 2 . When we investigated the effects of the receiver installation height, reflector width, and reflector gap, the optimal receiver installation height was found to be 5 m. A smaller reflector width had a greater concentration efficiency. However, the design of the reflector width should be based on the capacity of the refrigeration system because it dominantly affects the concentrated solar energy. The present study was an essential prerequisite for thermal analyses of the solar receiver. Thus, an optical-thermal integration study in the future will assist with the performance prediction and design of the entire system

  6. Numerical Study of Concentration Characteristics of Linear Fresnel Reflector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jin [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Nam [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we numerically investigated the concentration characteristics of a linear Fresnel reflector system that can drive a solar thermal absorption refrigeration system to be installed in Saudi Arabia. Using an optical modeling program based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, we simulated the concentrated solar flux, concentration efficiency, and concentrated solar energy on four representative days of the year - the vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox, and winter solstice. Except the winter solstice, the concentrations were approximately steady from 9 AM to 15 PM, and the concentration efficiencies exceed 70%. Moreover, the maximum solar flux around the solar receiver center changes only within the range of 13.0 - 14.6 kW/m{sup 2}. When we investigated the effects of the receiver installation height, reflector width, and reflector gap, the optimal receiver installation height was found to be 5 m. A smaller reflector width had a greater concentration efficiency. However, the design of the reflector width should be based on the capacity of the refrigeration system because it dominantly affects the concentrated solar energy. The present study was an essential prerequisite for thermal analyses of the solar receiver. Thus, an optical-thermal integration study in the future will assist with the performance prediction and design of the entire system.

  7. Dynamic thermal analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, John T., II; Cain, Stephen C.; Pochet, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (PV) technology represents a growing market in the field of terrestrial solar energy production. As the demand for renewable energy technologies increases, further importance is placed upon the modeling, design, and simulation of these systems. Given the U.S. Air Force cultural shift towards energy awareness and conservation, several concentrated PV systems have been installed on Air Force installations across the country. However, there has been a dearth of research within the Air Force devoted to understanding these systems in order to possibly improve the existing technologies. This research presents a new model for a simple concentrated PV system. This model accurately determines the steady state operating temperature as a function of the concentration factor for the optical part of the concentrated PV system, in order to calculate the optimum concentration that maximizes power output and efficiency. The dynamic thermal model derived is validated experimentally using a commercial polysilicon solar cell, and is shown to accurately predict the steady state temperature and ideal concentration factor.

  8. Optical characterization of nonimaging dish concentrator for the application of dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-Hui; Chong, Kok-Keong; Wong, Chee-Woon

    2014-01-20

    Optimization of the design of a nonimaging dish concentrator (NIDC) for a dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system is presented. A new algorithm has been developed to determine configuration of facet mirrors in a NIDC. Analytical formulas were derived to analyze the optical performance of a NIDC and then compared with a simulated result obtained from a numerical method. Comprehensive analysis of optical performance via analytical method has been carried out based on facet dimension and focal distance of the concentrator with a total reflective area of 120 m2. The result shows that a facet dimension of 49.8 cm, focal distance of 8 m, and solar concentration ratio of 411.8 suns is the most optimized design for the lowest cost-per-output power, which is US$1.93 per watt.

  9. Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, K.K.; Siaw, F.L.; Wong, C.W.; Wong, G.S. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia)

    2009-05-15

    A novel configuration of solar concentrator, which is the non-imaging planar concentrator, capable of producing much more uniform sunlight and reasonably high concentration ratio, is designed and constructed. This design is envisioned to be incorporated in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The work presented here reports on the design, optical alignment and application of the prototype, which is installed at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Malaysia. In the architecture of the prototype, 360 flat mirrors, each with a dimension of 4.0 cm x 4.0 cm, are arranged into 24 rows and 15 columns with a total reflection area of about 5760 cm{sup 2}. In addition to that, illumination distribution for the prototype is simulated and its results are then compared with the experiment result. (author)

  10. Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeck, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)

  11. Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeck, Steffen

    2010-04-22

    Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)

  12. Tele-auscultation support system with mixed reality navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kenta; Uchida, Yusuke; Kan, Tsukasa; Minami, Maya; Naito, Chisako; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Hideya; Ando, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Kume, Naoto; Okamoto, Kazuya; Takemura, Tadamasa; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop an information support system for tele-auscultation. In auscultation, a doctor requires to understand condition of applying a stethoscope, in addition to auscultatory sounds. The proposed system includes intuitive navigation system of stethoscope operation, in addition to conventional audio streaming system of auscultatory sounds and conventional video conferencing system for telecommunication. Mixed reality technology is applied for intuitive navigation of the stethoscope. Information, such as position, contact condition and breath, is overlaid on a view of the patient's chest. The contact condition of the stethoscope is measured by e-textile contact sensors. The breath is measured by a band type breath sensor. In a simulated tele-auscultation experiment, the stethoscope with the contact sensors and the breath sensor were evaluated. The results show that the presentation of the contact condition was not understandable enough for navigating the stethoscope handling. The time series of the breath phases was usable for the remote doctor to understand the breath condition of the patient.

  13. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Velocity and concentration fields in turbulent buoyant mixing in tilted tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaien, J.; Moisy, F.; Hulin, J. P.; Salin, D.; Hinch, E. J.

    2008-11-01

    2D PIV and LIF measurements have been performed on buoyancy driven flows of two miscible fluids of the same viscosity in a tube tilted at different angles θ from vertical and at different density contrasts (characterized by the Atwood number At). As θ increases and At decreases, the flow regime evolves, behind the front, from a turbulent shear flow towards a laminar counter flow with 3 layers of different concentrations. Time variations of the structure function show that both intermittent and developed turbulence occur in intermediate conditions. In the turbulent regime (Reλ˜60) the magnitudes of the longitudinal u'^2 and transverse v'^2 velocity fluctuations and of the component u'v' of the Reynolds stress tensor are shown to be largest on the tube axis while viscous stresses is only important close to the walls. The analyzis of the momentum transfer in the flow with buoyancy forces estimated from the concentration gradients demonstrates that 3D effects are required to achieve the momentum balance. These results are discussed in the framework of classical turbulence models.

  15. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper

  16. Density meter algorithm and system for estimating sampling/mixing uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Laboratories Department at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has installed a six-place density meter with an automatic sampling device. This paper describes the statistical software developed to analyze the density of uranyl nitrate solutions using this automated system. The purpose of this software is twofold: to estimate the sampling/mixing and measurement uncertainties in the process and to provide a measurement control program for the density meter. Non-uniformities in density are analyzed both analytically and graphically. The mean density and its limit of error are estimated. Quality control standards are analyzed concurrently with process samples and used to control the density meter measurement error. The analyses are corrected for concentration due to evaporation of samples waiting to be analyzed. The results of this program have been successful in identifying sampling/mixing problems and controlling the quality of analyses

  17. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  18. Density meter algorithm and system for estimating sampling/mixing uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Laboratories Department at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has installed a six-place density meter with an automatic sampling device. This paper describes the statisical software developed to analyze the density of uranyl nitrate solutions using this automated system. The purpose of this software is twofold: to estimate the sampling/mixing and measurement uncertainties in the process and to provide a measurement control program for the density meter. Non-uniformities in density are analyzed both analytically and graphically. The mean density and its limit of error are estimated. Quality control standards are analyzed concurrently with process samples and used to control the density meter measurement error. The analyses are corrected for concentration due to evaporation of samples waiting to be analyzed. The results of this program have been successful in identifying sampling/mixing problems and controlling the quality of analyses

  19. Mixing during draw-off in small SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to determine a maximum acceptable mixing rate during hot water tappings, so called draw-offs. Based on a pervious proposal for a maximum acceptable decrease of thermal performance due to mixing during draw-off, investigations are carried out in order to determine the mix...

  20. In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate proportion: relative effects of inocula and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, Amélie; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Schmidely, Philippe; Dhumez, Ophélie; Broudiscou, Laurent P; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterise rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate [low (L): 350 g kg(-1) vs. high (H): 700 g kg(-1)] incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4 ) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble carbohydrates (SCs) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SCs and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate-to-propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. On Secrecy Performance of Mixed RF-FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhijun; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Park, Kihong; pan, Gaofeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the secrecy performance of a mixed radio frequency-free space optical (RF-FSO) transmission systems. All RF links experience Nakagami-m fading and the FSO link experiences the Gamma-Gamma fading. The effect of pointing error and two types of detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection) are considered. We derive closed-form expressions for lower bound of the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and exact average secrecy capacity (ASC). Furthermore, by utilizing the expansion of Meijer's G-function, asymptotic results for SOP and ASC are derived when the electrical signal-to-noise ratio of the FSO link tends to infinity. Numerical and Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our proposed results.

  2. On Secrecy Performance of Mixed RF-FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-07-05

    In this work, we study the secrecy performance of a mixed radio frequency-free space optical (RF-FSO) transmission systems. All RF links experience Nakagami-m fading and the FSO link experiences the Gamma-Gamma fading. The effect of pointing error and two types of detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection) are considered. We derive closed-form expressions for lower bound of the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and exact average secrecy capacity (ASC). Furthermore, by utilizing the expansion of Meijer\\'s G-function, asymptotic results for SOP and ASC are derived when the electrical signal-to-noise ratio of the FSO link tends to infinity. Numerical and Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our proposed results.

  3. Case Mix Management Systems: An Opportunity to Integrate Medical Records and Financial Management System Data Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Rusnak, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Due to previous systems selections, many hospitals (health care facilities) are faced with the problem of fragmented data bases containing clinical, demographic and financial information. Projects to select and implement a Case Mix Management System (CMMS) provide an opportunity to reduce the number of separate physical files and to migrate towards systems with an integrated data base. The number of CMMS candidate systems is often restricted due to data base and system interface issues. The h...

  4. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  5. Development of a 10 Hz measurement system for atmospheric aerosol concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouarouri, Assia

    2014-01-01

    The goal is to develop an aerosol charger based on a corona discharge for atmospheric concentration measurements (10 3 -10 5 cm -3 ) within a response time of 100 ms. Two ion sources, point-to-hole and wire-to-slit have been characterized. The increase of the ion flow in the post-discharge by EHD ion confinement in both the discharge gap and the hole has been shown. At first, using an experimental survey driven in two mixing configurations, concentric and face-to-face, we have confirmed the aerosol diffusion charging law which depends on aerosol diameter and N i .t product, with N i , the ions concentration and t, the charging time. Thus, the originality of this charger relies on the very high heterogeneity of unipolar ion densities (N i 0 ≥10 9 cm -3 ) required to compensate the charging time of 50 ms. In these conditions, we have shown that aerosol diameter and the charging dynamic (which depends also on the diameter) control the aerosol trajectory. The chargers have, next, been compared in different operating conditions, mainly in terms of the maximal charging and the minimal losses. In the chosen charger (point-to-hole ion source and concentric mixing), the relations charge/mobility and losses according to diameter have been characterized. We have also shown the linearity of the charged particles current with the aerosol concentration which allows the current-concentration data inversion. The preliminary measurement system composed by the charger, the separator and the particle current measurements, satisfies the objectives of the study in terms of the concentration detection limit (10 3 cm -3 ) and the response time (100 ms). We have thus shown the feasibility of an atmospheric aerosol concentration measurement system at 10 Hz using a corona discharge charger provided that the separation power is improved. Furthermore, knowing that aerosol losses are negligible and the lower limit of the partial charging, the developed charger is adaptable with other

  6. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  7. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  8. CORMIX2: An expert system for hydrodynamic mixing zone analysis of conventional and toxic multiport diffuser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, P.J.; Jirka, G.H.

    1991-12-01

    One of the most important tasks in the management of water quality is the ability to achieve pollutant concentrations within regulated standards. The Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX) is a series of software systems for the analysis, prediction, and design of aqueous toxic or conventional pollutant discharges into watercourses, with emphasis on the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone. The present development, subsystem CORMIX2 is concerned with submerged multiport discharges into flowing water environments, such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. It includes effects of ambient stratification, dynamic attachment of the plume to the bottom of the receiving water, and the limiting case of stagnant conditions

  9. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO 2 -rich and CeO 2 -lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO 2 content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl 3 , LaCl 3 , NdCl 3 , and PrCl 3 are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 μm

  10. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  11. Ion-beam-mixing in metal-metal systems and metal-silicon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of energetic ion bombardment on the composition and structure of thin film materials and utilization of ion-beam-mixing techniques to modify interfacial reactions are reported in this thesis. The phase formation in metals by using ion mixing techniques has been studied. Upon ion irradiation of Al/Pt, Al/Pd and Al/Ni thin films, only the simplest intermetallic compounds of PdAl and NiAl were formed in crystalline structure, while the amorphous phase has been observed over a large range of composition. Ion mixing of Au/Cu bilayers resulted in the formation of substitutional solid solutions with no trace of ordered compounds. The formation of the ordered compound CuAu was achieved either by irradiation of bilayers with Ar ions at elevated substrate temperature or by irradiation of the mixed layers with He ions at relatively low temperature. In the Au/Al system several crystal compounds existed in the as-deposited samples. These phases remained crystalline or transformed into other equilibrium compounds upon ion irradiation. The results suggest that the phase formation by ion mixing is dependent on the high quench rate in the collision cascade region and the atomic mobility at the irradiation temperature. The argument can be applied to silicide forming systems. With near-noble metals, the mixed atoms are mobile and form metallurgically distinct phases. With refractory metals, amorphous phases are formed due to lack of atomic mobility

  12. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  13. Are mixed electoral systems the best choice for central and Eastern Europe or the reason for defective party systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    incentives of mixed electoral systems might hamper the stabilization and institutionalization of party systems in young democracies. Empirical results from 19 democracies in Central and Eastern Europe suggest that the learning and stabilization effect that is exerted through simple electoral systems fails...... under mixed systems. Using a variance model analysis, this study rejects the common belief that mixed systems lead to more moderate party systems with regards to party system fractionalization. Rather, outcomes under mixed systems vary much more widely than under proportional representation...

  14. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  15. Lattice Based Mix Network for Location Privacy in Mobile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, David Chaum proposed a cryptographic primitive for privacy called mix network (Mixnet. A mixnet is cryptographic construction that establishes anonymous communication channel through a set of servers. In 2004, Golle et al. proposed a new cryptographic primitive called universal reencryption which takes the input as encrypted messages under the public key of the recipients not the public key of the universal mixnet. In Eurocrypt 2010, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikunthanathan presented a cryptosystem which is an additive homomorphic and a multiplicative homomorphic for only one multiplication. In MIST 2013, Singh et al. presented a lattice based universal reencryption scheme under learning with error (LWE assumption. In this paper, we have improved Singh et al.’s scheme using Fairbrother’s idea. LWE is a lattice hard problem for which till now there is no polynomial time quantum algorithm. Wiangsripanawan et al. proposed a protocol for location privacy in mobile system using universal reencryption whose security is reducible to Decision Diffie-Hellman assumption. Once quantum computer becomes a reality, universal reencryption can be broken in polynomial time by Shor’s algorithm. In postquantum cryptography, our scheme can replace universal reencryption scheme used in Wiangsripanawan et al. scheme for location privacy in mobile system.

  16. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system

  17. Case Mix Management Systems: An Opportunity to Integrate Medical Records and Financial Management System Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Due to previous systems selections, many hospitals (health care facilities) are faced with the problem of fragmented data bases containing clinical, demographic and financial information. Projects to select and implement a Case Mix Management System (CMMS) provide an opportunity to reduce the number of separate physical files and to migrate towards systems with an integrated data base. The number of CMMS candidate systems is often restricted due to data base and system interface issues. The hospital must insure the CMMS project provides a means to implement an integrated on-line hospital information data base for use by departments in operating under a DRG-based Prospective Payment System. This paper presents guidelines for use in selecting a Case Mix Mangement System to meet the hospital's financial and operations planning, budgeting, marketing, and other management needs, while considering the data base implications of the implementation.

  18. Evaluation of anionic surfactant concentrations in US effluents and probabilistic determination of their combined ecological risk in mixing zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Casteel, Kenneth; Itrich, Nina; Menzies, Jennifer; Belanger, Scott; Wehmeyer, Kenneth; Federle, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol sulfates (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES), linear alkyl benzenesulfonates (LAS) and methyl ester sulfonates (MES) are anionic surfactants that are widely used in household detergents and consumer products resulting in over 1 million tons being disposed of down the drain annually in the US. A monitoring campaign was conducted which collected grab effluent samples from 44 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the US to generate statistical distributions of effluent concentrations for anionic surfactants. The mean concentrations for AS, AES, LAS and MES were 5.03±4.5, 1.95±0.7, 15.3±19, and 0.35±0.13μg/L respectively. Since each of these surfactants consist of multiple homologues that differ in their toxicity, the concentration of each homologue measured in an effluent sample was converted into a toxic unit (TU) by normalizing to the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) derived from high tier effects data (mesocosm studies). The statistical distributions of the combined TUs in the effluents were used in combination with distributions of dilution factors for WWTP mixing zones to conduct a US-wide probabilistic risk assessment for the aquatic environment for each of the surfactants. The 90th percentile level of TUs for AS, AES, LAS and MES in mixing zones were 1.89×10 -2 , 2.73×10 -3 , 2.72×10 -2 , and 3.65×10 -5 under 7Q10 (lowest river flow occurring over a 7day period every 10years) low flow conditions. Because these surfactants have the same toxicological mode of action, the TUs were summed and the aquatic safety for anionic surfactants as a whole was assessed. At the 90th percentile level under the conservative 7Q10 low flow conditions the forecasted TUs were 4.21×10 -2 which indicates that there is a significant margin of safety for the class of anionic surfactants in US aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  20. Calculation of mixed depth for some metal-Si systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The linearity of mixing during ion beam mixing of metals on Si has been found to depend critically upon the method by which the mixed depth is determined. For nonstoichiometric, diffuse mixing, several methods of calculating the mixed depth may be used, namely: integrated area, moment, error function, and 10%-90%. For stoichiometric mixing, the determination of the mixed depth is somewhat more straightforward, and several of the same methods may be used. Some of these methods suffer from the exhibition of an initial offset due to the finite detector resolution. An empirical method of removing the offset using a cubic correction is an improvement, but adds a nonlinear perturbation to the power law dependence on dose, approaching 2/3 for small depths. The effect of detector resolution on the measured depth of mixing is given for several methods, using simulated data with a linear increase in depth as a function of dose. The results effect on the exponent of a power law fit to the dose dependence is given. Only the moment method is immune to the resolution effects

  1. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  2. Numerical prediction of flow and mixing characteristics in CVCS chemical addition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical result of the flow and mixing characteristics is presented for the flow field created by water injected into a cylindrical tank with an initially stationary fluid. The flow is relevant to the operation of the chemical addition system in the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) of nuclear power plants. This study was undertaken to provide a basis for modification of the previous design which gave a number of difficulties in installation and operation of the chemical addition system because it needs a special reciprocating pump with a high actual head. For the tank of length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of 1, 2 and 3, each with and without a baffle inside, calculation results were obtained by solving the unsteady laminar two-dimensional elliptic forms of governing equations for the mass, momentum and species concentration. Finite-difference method was used to obtain discretization equations, and the SIMPLER solution algorithm was employed for the calculation procedure. Results showed that the baffle was very effective in enhancing the mixing in the tank, and that a baffle should be installed near the tank entrance in order to inject chemicals into the reactor coolant system (RCS) within the operating time required. (orig.)

  3. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  4. Development of a fully automated online mixing system for SAXS protein structure analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Skou; Arleth, Lise

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of an automated high-throughput mixing and exposure system for Small-Angle Scattering analysis on a synchrotron using polymer microfluidics. Software and hardware for both automated mixing, exposure control on a beamline and automated data reduction...... and preliminary analysis is presented. Three mixing systems that have been the corner stones of the development process are presented including a fully functioning high-throughput microfluidic system that is able to produce and expose 36 mixed samples per hour using 30 μL of sample volume. The system is tested...

  5. Brown pigment formation in heated sugar-protein mixed suspensions containing unmodified and peptically modified whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2016-01-01

    Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P < 0.05). It was demonstrated that the modification investigated in this study selectively hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.

  6. Physicochemical study of mixed systems composed by bovine caseinate and the galactomannan from Gleditsia amorphoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Débora N; Galante, Micaela; Alvarez, Estela M; Risso, Patricia H; Boeris, Valeria

    2017-10-01

    Model systems formed by sodium caseinate (NaCAS) and espina corona gum (ECG) were studied. There was no evidence of attractive interactions between NaCAS and ECG macromolecules. Aqueous mixtures of NaCAS and ECG phase-separate segregatively over a wide range of concentrations. According to the images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, NaCAS particles form larger protein aggregates when ECG is present in the system. An increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NaCAS particles, as a result of ECG addition, was also observed by light scattering in diluted systems. A depletion-flocculation phenomenon, in which ECG is excluded from NaCAS surface, is proposed to occur in the concentrated mixed systems, resulting in NaCAS aggregation. ECG raises the viscosity of NaCAS dispersions without affecting the Newtonian flow behaviour of NaCAS. These results contribute to improve the knowledge of a barely-studied hydrocolloid which may be useful in the development of innovative food systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    expressed in terms of average percentage deviation. The performance ... of these mixing rules is their inability to account for changes in volume and refractivity ..... symmetrical shape and it proposes volume additivity which is the reason for the.

  8. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production......, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical...... stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality...

  10. β Absorption dust concentration monitor system based on the PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Dexing; Zhou Xiuliang; Liu Liyan; Li Zonglun; Cao Guanghui; Mao Wanchong

    2011-01-01

    To provide an on-line automatic system for dust concentration monitor is the purpose of this design.The system based on β-ray-absorption-method,employing PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technology, is presented. The user input parameter setup,the data acquisition and processing, and the communication with computer can be effectively regulated using the advanced PLC control technology. It has the features of high reliability, easy operation and easy maintenance, and the ability to monitor remotely. Measurement range: 0.1-1500 mg/m 3 , Accuracy: ±9%. The structure,working principle, electric circuit and software development of the system are introduced in detail. (authors)

  11. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-03-09

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Speciation of organotin compounds by capillary electrophoresis: comparison of aqueous and mixed organic-aqueous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei; Matysik, Frank-Michael; Glaeser, Petra [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Analytische Chemie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method with direct ultraviolet detection was developed for the analysis of organotin species. Despite the fact that direct detection of organotin compounds by ultraviolet absorption is difficult because most organotins possess poor chromophoric properties, the application of low wavelength ({lambda}=200 nm) and mixed organic-aqueous media enabled a significant enhancement in sensitivity. A mixed organic-aqueous system (10% methanol/40% acetonitrile/50% H{sub 2}O) containing acetic acid and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate formed the basis for rapid, efficient and sensitive determinations of organotin cations such as tripropyltin, tributyltin, triphenyltin and diphenyltin. The concentration limits of detection (LOD) for the four organotin compounds were in the range of 0.4-14 {mu}M, comparable to that obtained with the most sensitive indirect UV method reported until now, and took advantage of a stable baseline, a symmetric peak shape and an absence of disturbing system peaks. The relative standard deviations (n=7) for the relative peak time and peak area were 0.44-0.77 and 4.8-5.8%, respectively. In addition to sensitivity enhancements, the use of organic-aqueous systems instead of pure aqueous media resulted in improved selectivity and efficiency of separations. (orig.)

  14. Individual chaos implies collective chaos for weakly mixing discrete dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Gongfu; Ma Xianfeng; Wang Lidong

    2007-01-01

    Let X be a metric space (X,f) a discrete dynamical system, where f:X->X is a continuous function. Let f-bar denote the natural extension of f to the space of all non-empty compact subsets of X endowed with Hausdorff metric induced by d. In this paper we investigate some dynamical properties of f and f-bar . It is proved that f is weakly mixing (mixing) if and only if f-bar is weakly mixing (mixing, respectively). From this, we deduce that weak-mixing of f implies transitivity of f-bar , further, if f is mixing or weakly mixing, then chaoticity of f (individual chaos) implies chaoticity of f-bar (collective chaos) and if X is a closed interval then f-bar is chaotic (in the sense of Devaney) if and only if f is weakly mixing

  15. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly is developed for CPV system. • Single set of concentrator, concentrates sunlight on 4 MJCs with 1° acceptance angle. • The system performance is analyzed through experiment and ray tracing simulation. • Mini two axis solar tracker, with high tracking accuracy, is developed and tested. • Electrical rating analysis accurately estimates CPV system performance in any region. - Abstract: Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region.

  16. Data concentrator requirements for a safety parameter display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    To comply with NUREG 0696 several nuclear plants are being fitted with new facilities and data systems; specifically a Technical Support Center (TSC), Operational Support Center (OSC), Emergency Operational Facility (EOF), and Backup Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS), Emergency Response Computer System (ERCS) and Nuclear Data Link (NDL). The TSC, OSC, and EOF are physical locations while the SPDS, ERCS, and NDL are Systems. The SPDS and ERCS are usually separate and independent systems, however, they may share a common front end data acquisition system that acquires and sends SPDS related data to both the SPDS and to the ERCS. In the situation just described an SPDS system must depend upon input data from a source that is SPDS host computer independent. To achieve this independence the front end data acquisition system may employ a concept of intelligent distributed processing. This concept essentially takes functional capabilities that were once found only in realtime host computers and distributes it to front end data acquisition systems. Thus by expanding the functionality of the data acquisition system in a manner that provides more capability, independence from the computer vendor, links to multiple computer systems, processing power and redundancy, the concept of a data concentrator evolved. This paper will define this new distributed functionality, and its related requirements. It will also examine different system configuration approaches

  17. Development of drying and pelletizing system for concentrated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Susumu; Saito, Toru; Hirano, Mikio; Kikuchi, Makoto; Takamura, Yoshiyuki.

    1980-01-01

    Volume reduction is strongly required for the radioactive liquid waste generated in nuclear power plants because its storing space has increased with the operating years of the plants, though it has temporarily been stored in drum cans within the plant sites after concentrated by evaporation. The drying and pelletizing system developed by Hitachi, Ltd. in cooperation with Tokyo Electric Power Co. aims at the final disposal by solidifying stored waste after drying, pulverizing, and pelletizing concentrated liquid waste, and storing it in tanks to reduce its radioactivity for the predetermined period. The outstanding features of the system are to be capable of realizing drastic volume reduction and of storing waste as the stable solid in the form flexibly adaptable to any disposing method. The system, to which the new concepts of pulverizing by drying and pelletizing concentrated liquid waste were applied, has been subjected to various fundamental tests and the demonstration tests in a pilot plant during the research and development for 7-years, consequently it was confirmed that the system can be used practically, and the data for designing the equipment for practical use were collected. The items to be considered in designing the equipment for practical use are also mentioned. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Modeling concentration patterns of agricultural and urban micropollutants in surface waters in catchment of mixed land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, C.; Scheidegger, R.; Bader, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    Organic micropollutants detected in surface waters can originate from agricultural and urban sources. Depending on the use of the compounds, the temporal loss patterns vary substantially. Therefore models that simulate water quality in watersheds of mixed land use have to account for all relevant sources. We present here simulation results of a transport model that describes the dynamic of several biocidal compounds as well as the behaviour of human pharmaceuticals. The model consists of the sub-model Rexpo simulating the transfer of the compounds from the point of application to the stream in semi-lumped manner. The river sub-model, which is programmed in the Aquasim software, describes the fate of the compounds in the stream. Both sub-models are process-based. The Rexpo sub-model was calibrated at the scale of a small catchment of 25 km2, which is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Based on the resulting model parameters the loss dynamics of two herbicides (atrazine, isoproturon) and a compound of mixed urban and agricultural use (diuron) were predicted for two nested catchment of 212 and 1696 km2, respectively. The model output was compared to observed time-series of concentrations and loads obtained for the entire year 2009. Additionally, the fate of two pharmaceuticals with constant input (carbamazepine, diclofenac) was simulated for improving the understanding of possible degradation processes. The simulated loads and concentrations of the biocidal compounds differed by a factor of 2 to 3 from the observations. In general, the seasonal patterns were well captured by the model. However, a detailed analysis of the seasonality revealed substantial input uncertainty for the application of the compounds. The model results also demonstrated that for the dynamics of rain-driven losses of biocidal compounds the semi-lumped approach of the Rexpo sub-model was sufficient. Only for simulating the photolytic degradation of diclofenac in the stream the detailed

  19. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC

  20. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  1. A Real-Time Semiautonomous Audio Panning System for Music Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez_Gonzalez Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time semiautonomous stereo panning system for music mixing has been implemented. The system uses spectral decomposition, constraint rules, and cross-adaptive algorithms to perform real-time placement of sources in a stereo mix. A subjective evaluation test was devised to evaluate its quality against human panning. It was shown that the automatic panning technique performed better than a nonexpert and showed no significant statistical difference to the performance of a professional mixing engineer.

  2. Effects of turbulence on mixed-phase deep convective clouds under different basic-state winds and aerosol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunho; Baik, Jong-Jin; Han, Ji-Young

    2014-12-01

    The effects of turbulence-induced collision enhancement (TICE) on mixed-phase deep convective clouds are numerically investigated using a 2-D cloud model with bin microphysics for uniform and sheared basic-state wind profiles and different aerosol concentrations. Graupel particles account for the most of the cloud mass in all simulation cases. In the uniform basic-state wind cases, graupel particles with moderate sizes account for some of the total graupel mass in the cases with TICE, whereas graupel particles with large sizes account for almost all the total graupel mass in the cases without TICE. This is because the growth of ice crystals into small graupel particles is enhanced due to TICE. The changes in the size distributions of graupel particles due to TICE result in a decrease in the mass-averaged mean terminal velocity of graupel particles. Therefore, the downward flux of graupel mass, and thus the melting of graupel particles, is reduced due to TICE, leading to a decrease in the amount of surface precipitation. Moreover, under the low aerosol concentration, TICE increases the sublimation of ice particles, consequently playing a partial role in reducing the amount of surface precipitation. The effects of TICE are less pronounced in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases because the number of ice crystals is much smaller in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases. Thus, the size distributions of graupel particles in the cases with and without TICE show little difference.

  3. Studies on as separation behaviour of polymer blending PI/PES hybrid mixed membrane: Effect of polymer concentration and zeolite loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of polymer concentration of polyimide/polyethersulfone (PI/PES blending on the gas separation performance of hybrid mixed matrix membrane. In this study, PI/ (PES–zeolite 4A mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The efefct of PI/PES concentrations and zeolite loading on the dope solution were investigated for gas separation performance. The results from the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM analysis confirmed that polymer concentration and zeolite loading was affected the morphology of membrane and gas separation performance. ‘Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed the poor adhesion between polymer and zeolite at higher zeolite loading. The gas separation performance of the mixed matrix membranes were relatively higher compared to that of the neat polymeric membrane.

  4. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  5. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  6. The mixing enthalpy of the Pb-Te system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Gather, B.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of molten Pb-Te alloys were measured at 1210 K in a Setaram-Calvet-type calorimeter. It was found that the enthalpy of mixing has a pronounced minimum of -26250 +- 950 J mol - 1 at 52 mol.%Te. The results obtained are discussed in terms of an ionic model. (Auth.)

  7. Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... entire mole fraction range of hexadecane and heptadecane at the three temperatures. Comparison of various mixing rules has been expressed in terms of average percentage deviation. The performance of the Lorentz- Lorenz and Heller relations is relatively better than that of the Weiner and Gladstone-Dale relations.

  8. Influence of mixed culture system on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a novel strategy to improve the α-galactosidase and invertase production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by co-cultivating it with Aspergillus oryzae. In the mixed culture, the growth of the both strains was repressed, and the protein synthesis for the yeast cell wall was promoted significantly. As a result ...

  9. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    . It is also proven possible to create an acceptable draught level in the cabin. Experiments with tracer gas indicated that the contaminant from exhalation of one manikin is fully mixed in the cabin, and the experiment with personalised ventilation did not show much improvement in this situation....

  10. Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS are characterized by a high productivity of plankton associated with large commercial fisheries, thus playing key biological and socio-economical roles. Since they are populated by several physical oceanic structures such as filaments and eddies, which interact with the biological processes, it is a major challenge to study this sub- and mesoscale activity in connection with the chlorophyll distribution. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study of these four upwelling systems focussing on their surface stirring, using the Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs, and their biological activity, based on satellite data. First, the spatial distribution of horizontal mixing is analysed from time averages and from probability density functions of FSLEs, which allow us to divide each areas in two different subsystems. Then we studied the temporal variability of surface stirring focussing on the annual and seasonal cycle. We also proposed a ranking of the four EBUS based on the averaged mixing intensity. When investigating the links with chlorophyll concentration, the previous subsystems reveal distinct biological signatures. There is a global negative correlation between surface horizontal mixing and chlorophyll standing stocks over the four areas. To try to better understand this inverse relationship, we consider the vertical dimension by looking at the Ekman-transport and vertical velocities. We suggest the possibility of a changing response of the phytoplankton to sub/mesoscale turbulence, from a negative effect in the very productive coastal areas to a positive one in the open ocean. This study provides new insights for the understanding of the variable biological productivity in the ocean, which results from both dynamics of the marine ecosystem and of the 3-D turbulent medium.

  11. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Recently nutrients concentrations especially nitrogen in natural water is alarming in the world wide. Most of the effort is being done on the removal of high concentration of nitrogen especially from the wastewater treatment plants. The removal efficiency is targeted in all considering the effluent discharge standard set by the national environment agency. In many cases, it does not meet the required standard and receiving water is being polluted. Eutrophication in natural water bodies has been reported even if the nitrogen concentration is low and self purification of natural systems itself is not sufficient to remove the nitrogen due to complex phenomenon. In order to recover the pristine water environment, it is very essential to explore bioreactor systems for natural water systems using immobilized mix culture. Microorganism were entrapped in Polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer gel and cut into 3mm cubic immobilized pellets. Four laboratory scale micro bio-reactors having 0.1 L volumes were packed with immobilized pellets with 50% compact ratio. RUN1, RUN2, RUN3 and RUN4 were packed with immobilized pellets from reservoirs sediments, activated sludge (AS), mixed of AS, AG and biodegradable plastic and anaerobic granules (AG) respectively. Water from Shiokawa Reservoirs was feed to all reactors with supplemental ammonia and nitrite nitrogen as specified in the results and discussions. The reactors were operated dark incubated room in continuous flow mode with hydraulic retention time of 12 hours under oxygen limiting condition. Ammonium, nitrate nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were measured as described in APWA and AWWA (1998). Laboratory scale four bioreactors containing different combination of immobilized cell were monitored for 218 days. Influent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentration were 2.27±0.43 and 2.05±0.41 mg/l respectively. Average dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the reactors were 0.40-2.5 mg/l and pH 6

  12. Dynamic behavior of a multi-effect sugar concentrator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, N.H.; Marwan, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A transient mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic response of multi effect evaporator for sugar distiller concentrators at delta company, Egypt. Based on the mass and energy balance equations, a non linear mathematical model relating the system variables is obtained. This model allows to investigate the response of the unit parameters in both steady state and transient operating condition. Also, the response of the unit to perturbations in feed syrup, flow rate, concentration and heating steam temperature is studied. The predicted response based on the solution of the mathematical model is illustrated. The developed model proved to be efficient and capable to predict different operating conditions at steady state or transients variations. The study shows that an increase in heating steam temperature can be a critical factor due to caramelization of the syrup. 1 tab., 10 fig

  13. Modeling the performance of low concentration photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, F. [SESUL, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); WS Energia, Ed. Tecnologia II 47, Taguspark, Oeiras (Portugal); Brito, M.C. [SESUL, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V.; Wemans, J. [WS Energia, Ed. Tecnologia II 47, Taguspark, Oeiras (Portugal); Sorasio, G. [WS Energia, Ed. Tecnologia II 47, Taguspark, Oeiras (Portugal); Centro Richerche ISCAT, VS Pellico, 12037, Saluzzo (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the response of V-trough systems in terms of module temperature, power output and energy yield using as inputs the atmospheric conditions. The model was adjusted to DoubleSun {sup registered} concentration technology, which integrates dual-axis tracker and conventional mono-crystalline Si modules. The good agreement between model predictions and the results obtained at WS Energia laboratory, Portugal, validated the model. It is shown that DoubleSun {sup registered} technology increases up to 86% the yearly energy yield of conventional modules relative to a fixed flat-plate system. The model was also used to perform a sensitivity analysis, in order to highlight the relevance of the leading working parameters (such as irradiance) in system performance (energy yield and module temperature). Model results show that the operation module temperature is always below the maximum working temperature defined by the module manufacturers. (author)

  14. Boiling water reactors with Uranium-Plutonium mixed oxide fuel. Report 1: Accuracy of the nuclide concentrations calculated by CASMO-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the project titled 'Boiling Water Reactors With Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOx) Fuel'. The aim of this study is to model the impact of a core loading pattern containing MOx bundles upon the main characteristics of a BWR (reactivity coefficients, stability, etc.). The tools that are available to perform a modeling in the Department of Reactor Physics in Chalmers are CASMO-4/TABLES-3/SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik of America. These CMS (Core Management System) programs have been extensively compared with both measurements and reference codes. Nevertheless some data are proprietary in particular the comparison of the calculated nuclide concentrations versus experiments (because of the cost of this kind of experimental study). This is why this report describes such a comparative investigation carried out with a General Electric 7x7 BWR bundle. Unfortunately, since some core history parameters were unknown, a lot of hypotheses have been adopted. This invokes sometimes a significant discrepancy in the results without being able to determine the origin of the differences between calculations and experiments. Yet one can assess that, except for four nuclides - Plutonium-238, Curium-243, Curium-244 and Cesium-135 - for which the approximate power history (history effect) can be invoked, the accuracy of the calculated nuclide concentrations is rather good if one takes the numerous approximations into account

  15. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  16. Mixing and CP violation in the D0 and B0s systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Ligeti, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments for mixing and CP violation in the D0 and Bs systems are reviewed, including (i) the recently emerging evidence for D0-D0bar mixing and the interpretations of the measurements; (ii) the theoretical status of the calculations of Delta(Gamma D ) and Delta(m D ); and (iii) some implications of the measurement of Bs mixing for new physics

  17. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  18. Mixed moderate thermophilic bioleaching of Cu, Mo and Re from molybdenite concentrate: effects of silver ion, medium and energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Abdollahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of different additives such as silver ion, medium and energy sources on the efficiency of mixed moderate thermophilic bioleaching approach to extract Cu, Mo and Re from molybdenite concentrate containing 0.98% Cu, 1.56% Fe, 53.84% Mo, and 0.055% Re. Molybdenite was the major phase of Mo-bearing mineral and chalcopyrite, covellite and pyrite were distinguished as minor phases. The higher copper extraction was obtained in tests with silver additives in all types and quantities rather than tests without silver ion. Kinetic of copper dissolution varied in these experiments and depended on the types and amounts of silver, and other supplemented additives such as ferric ion. There was no clear difference in the copper extraction by various culture media and 100% of Cu was dissolved after 30 days of treatment, using 50 mg/L of silver nitrate as additives. In the best condition and without silver additives, maximum 60% of copper was extracted even in the presence of energy sources such as sulfur, ferrous and ferric ions. In the most effective test with initial pH 1.57, 50 mg/L silver nitrate, and 50 g/L ferric sulfate, 100% of copper was dissolved in less than a week with highest kinetics rate. Molybdenum and rhenium extraction had the same tends with redox potential graph. By increasing the redox potential to the 550-600mV, molybdenite started to dissolve and finally, molybdenum and rhenium were extracted 2% and 9.53% in the best condition; respectively.

  19. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  20. Innovative systems for mixed waste retrieval and/or treatment in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, L.J.; Ghusn, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the DOE mixed waste is stored in confined spaces of tanks that are access limited. Freeboard space above the waste usually is monitored for temperature, pressure, humidity and/or certain gas concentrations. Access to treat and/or retrieve wastes from these storage is very difficult. Equipment, practical, yet not overdesigned, are usually not available commercially. Applications invariably dictate that the equipment be especially designed to meet the specific requirements. PARSONS, under contract to the DOE and Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp. for the Environmental Remediation Action Project, Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio, recently faced two applications of this kind. One requirement was the design of an applicator system for the remote controlled placement of Bentonite slurry over the surface of mixed wastes in two enclosed silos, as a barrier to retard the emanation of radon gas into the freeboard space. Each silo has an inside diam of 24.4 m (80 ft) with accessibility limited to a 500 mm (20-in) center manhole for the application equipment

  1. Simultaneous measurement of trace metal and oxyanion concentrations in water using diffusive gradients in thin films with a chelex-metsorb mixed binding layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Bennett, William W.; Welsh, David T.

    2014-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique with a mixed binding layer (Chelex-100 and the titanium dioxide based adsorbent Metsorb) is described for the simultaneous measurement of labile trace metal (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) and oxyanion (V, As, Mo, Sb, W, and P) concentrations i...

  2. Maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with BioOss (R) mixed with a bone marrow concentrate or autogenous bone : test of principle on implant survival and clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Vissink, A.; Slot, Jan; Sauerbier, S.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    The purpose of this study was to assess implant survival and 1-year clinical performance of implants placed in the posterior maxilla that had been subjected to maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone marrow concentrate or autogenous

  3. Green Infrastructure and Watershed-Scale Hydrology in a Mixed Land Cover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoghooghi, N.; Golden, H. E.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization results in replacement of pervious areas (e.g., vegetation, topsoil) with impervious surfaces such as roads, roofs, and parking lots, which cause reductions in interception, evapotranspiration, and infiltration, and increases in surface runoff (overland flow) and pollutant loads and concentrations. Research on the effectiveness of different Green Infrastructure (GI), or Low Impact Development (LID), practices to reduce these negative impacts on stream flow and water quality has been mostly focused at the local scale (e.g., plots, small catchments). However, limited research has considered the broader-scale effects of LID, such as how LID practices influence water quantity, nutrient removal, and aquatic ecosystems at watershed scales, particularly in mixed land cover and land use systems. We use the Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) model to evaluate the effects of different LID practices on daily and long-term watershed-scale hydrology, including infiltration surface runoff. We focus on Shayler Crossing (SHC) watershed, a mixed land cover (61% urban, 24% agriculture, 15% forest) subwatershed of the East Fork Little Miami River watershed, Ohio, United States, with a drainage area of 0.94 km2. The model was calibrated to daily stream flow at the outlet of SHC watershed from 2009 to 2010 and was applied to evaluate diverse distributions (at 25% to 100% implementation levels) and types (e.g., pervious pavement and rain gardens) of LID across the watershed. Results show reduced surface water runoff and higher rates of infiltration concomitant with increasing LID implementation levels; however, this response varies between different LID practices. The highest magnitude response in streamflow at the watershed outlet is evident when a combination of LID practices is applied. The combined scenarios elucidate that the diverse watershed-scale hydrological responses of LID practices depend primarily on the type and extent of the implemented

  4. Airborne fibre and asbestos concentrations in system built schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Garry; Cottrell, Steve; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarises the airborne fibre concentration data measured in system built schools that contained asbestos insulation board (AIB) enclosed in the support columns by a protective steel casing. The particular focus of this work was the CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system buildings. A variety of air monitoring tests were carried out to assess the potential for fibres to be released into the classroom. A peak release testing protocol was adopted that involved static sampling, while simulating direct impact disturbances to selected columns. This was carried out before remediation, after sealing gaps and holes in and around the casing visible in the room (i.e. below ceiling level) and additionally round the tops of the columns, which extended into the suspended ceiling void. Simulated and actual measurements of worker exposures were also undertaken, while sealing columns, carrying out cleaning and maintenance work in the ceiling voids. Routine analysis of these air samples was carried out by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) with a limited amount of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to confirm whether the fibres visible by PCM were asbestos or non-asbestos. The PCM fibre concentrations data from the peak release tests showed that while direct releases of fibres to the room air can occur from gaps and holes in and around the column casings, sealing is an effective way of minimising releases to below the limit of quantification (0.01 f/ml) of the PCM method for some 95% of the tests carried out. Sealing with silicone filler and taping any gaps and seams visible on the column casing in the room, also gave concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the PCM method for 95% of the tests carried out. The data available did not show any significant difference between the PCM fibre concentrations in the room air for columns that had or had not been sealed in the ceiling void, as well as in the room

  5. Airborne fibre and asbestos concentrations in system built schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdett, Garry; Cottrell, Steve; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises the airborne fibre concentration data measured in system built schools that contained asbestos insulation board (AIB) enclosed in the support columns by a protective steel casing. The particular focus of this work was the CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system buildings. A variety of air monitoring tests were carried out to assess the potential for fibres to be released into the classroom. A peak release testing protocol was adopted that involved static sampling, while simulating direct impact disturbances to selected columns. This was carried out before remediation, after sealing gaps and holes in and around the casing visible in the room (i.e. below ceiling level) and additionally round the tops of the columns, which extended into the suspended ceiling void. Simulated and actual measurements of worker exposures were also undertaken, while sealing columns, carrying out cleaning and maintenance work in the ceiling voids. Routine analysis of these air samples was carried out by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) with a limited amount of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to confirm whether the fibres visible by PCM were asbestos or non-asbestos. The PCM fibre concentrations data from the peak release tests showed that while direct releases of fibres to the room air can occur from gaps and holes in and around the column casings, sealing is an effective way of minimising releases to below the limit of quantification (0.01 f/ml) of the PCM method for some 95% of the tests carried out. Sealing with silicone filler and taping any gaps and seams visible on the column casing in the room, also gave concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the PCM method for 95% of the tests carried out. The data available did not show any significant difference between the PCM fibre concentrations in the room air for columns that had or had not been sealed in the ceiling void, as well as in the room

  6. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation's (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste

  7. Optimum Design Of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Mohammed Fawzy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic PV technologies cost it doesnt make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic PV especially that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 kamp12310whmamp123112day in Cairo Egypt 30N.In this work a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic PV module characteristics and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic PV system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes the energy generated area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt 30N.Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about 6 to 9 US centskwh is attainable.

  8. A compact multiparameter acquisition system for radon concentration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese; Baiano; Boiano; D'Onofrio; Roca; Sabbarese; Vollaro

    2000-07-01

    A compact device suitable to acquire and display, at the same time, radon concentrations in a given atmosphere, and the environmental parameters characterising the atmosphere, is presented and described. It consists of two main blocks: (i) a detection section including a set of sensors for measuring pressure, humidity and temperature, and a set of silicon surface barrier detectors mounted in electrostatic cells collecting the ionised radon daughters; (ii) a single NIM module featuring an eight channel 12 bit ADC and the linear electronics to shape the signals from the silicon detectors. The system is controlled by a computer via a RS232 port. The software, implemented in Visual Basic, allows to display the energy distribution of the pulses coming from the alpha detectors and to initialise and control all phases of the acquisition. The results of preliminary tests show the high reliability of the system.

  9. A compact multiparameter acquisition system for radon concentration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, M.; Baiano, G.; Boiano, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Vollaro, P.

    2000-01-01

    A compact device suitable to acquire and display, at the same time, radon concentrations in a given atmosphere, and the environmental parameters characterising the atmosphere, is presented and described. It consists of two main blocks: (i) a detection section including a set of sensors for measuring pressure, humidity and temperature, and a set of silicon surface barrier detectors mounted in electrostatic cells collecting the ionised radon daughters; (ii) a single NIM module featuring an eight channel 12 bit ADC and the linear electronics to shape the signals from the silicon detectors. The system is controlled by a computer via a RS232 port. The software, implemented in Visual Basic, allows to display the energy distribution of the pulses coming from the alpha detectors and to initialise and control all phases of the acquisition. The results of preliminary tests show the high reliability of the system

  10. Solar water disinfecting system using compound parabolic concentrating collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghetany, H.H.; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2000-05-31

    Solar water disinfection is an alternative technology using solar radiation and thermal treatment to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in water. The Compound Parabolic Concentrating, (CPC) collector can be used as an efficient key component for solar disinfectanting system. Two types of the CPC collectors are studied, namely the transparent-tube and the Copper-tube CPC collector. It is found that after 30 minutes of exposing the water sample to solar radiation or heating it up to 65 degree C for a few minuets all the coliform bacterial present in the contaminated water sample were completely eliminated. In this article, the effect of water temperature on the disinfecting process was presented. Thermal and micro-biological measurements were also made to evaluate the system performance. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells

  12. Gentamicin concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following systemic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N; Schumacher, Ulrike; Plontke, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown in prior studies that round window membrane (RWM) application of gentamicin produced a robust basal-apical concentration gradient in the perilymph of scala tympani (ST) with peak concentrations in the basal turn of ST. These gradients potentially contribute to the clinical efficacy and safety of intratympanic gentamicin applications for the treatment of Ménière's disease. The present study aimed to establish the distribution of gentamicin along ST perilymph after systemic applications. Gentamicin sulfate was applied intravenously in the amounts of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) over a period of 3 h or as a 300 mg/kg BW subcutaneous bolus injection. At 3 and 5 h after the start of the application perilymph of ST was aspirated from the cochlea apex of the right and left cochlea, respectively, and 10 sequential 1-µl perilymph samples from the apex of each cochlea were quantitatively analyzed using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In contrast to local RWM delivery, systemic application of gentamicin resulted in the highest perilymph levels in the apex of the cochlea with decreasing concentrations towards the basal regions of ST. The absolute gentamicin concentrations increased with the amount of drug applied and time before sampling. While it is likely that the basal-apical gradient measured after local drug applications to the round window niche is the result of the direct uptake of drugs into the perilymph of the ST, distribution by diffusion and a very low perilymph flow towards the cochlear apex, computer simulations suggested that the apical-basal gradient observed with these systemic applications can be explained by higher entry rates of gentamicin in the apex compared to the basal turns of the cochlea. It is also possible that gentamicin enters perilymph indirectly from the blood via the endolymph. In this case the faster kinetics in apical turns could be due to the smaller cross-sectional area of ST relative to endolymph in

  13. Argonne National Laboratory's photo-oxidation organic mixed waste treatment system - installation and startup testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Torres, T.; Conner, C.; Wygmans, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) Photo-Oxidation Organic Mixed Waste Treatment System. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the Waste Management Facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois. 1 fig

  14. Spin Dynamics and Magnetic Ordering in Mixed Valence Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, S. M.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Axe, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    . 0 meV at the transition to the alpha phase. The temperature independence of the susceptibility within the gamma phase cannot be simply reconciled with the temperature dependence of the valence within the gamma phase. TmSe is shown to order in a type I antiferromagnetic structure below T//N similar 3....... 2 K. The magnetic phase diagram is understood as a successive domain reorientation and a metamagnetic phase transition for T less than 3 K with increasing field. The mixed valence nature manifests itself in a reduced moment and a markedly altered crystal field. Another sample of TmSe with a lattice...

  15. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB's, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives

  16. Development of a decision support system for individual dairy farms in mixed irrigated farming systems in the Nile Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabana, A.

    2000-01-01

    The principal animal production system in Egypt is the mixed crop-livestock production system with a semi-intensive/semi-commercial orientation. The development strategies emphasized in this study contribute to the development and implementation of improved

  17. Role of emerging private hospitals in a post-Soviet mixed health system: a mixed methods comparative study of private and public hospital inpatient care in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Gouda, Hebe; Baker, Peter; Hill, Peter S

    2017-05-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 severely impacted the health sector in Mongolia. Limited public funding for the post-Soviet model public system and a rapid growth of poorly regulated private providers have been pressing issues for a government seeking to re-establish universal health coverage. However, the evidence available on the role of private providers that would inform sector management is very limited. This study analyses the current contribution of private hospitals in Mongolia for the improvement of accessibility of health care and efficiency. We used mixed research methods. A descriptive analysis of nationally representative hospital admission records from 2013 was followed by semi-structured interviews that were carried out with purposively selected key informants (N = 45), representing the main actors in Mongolia's mixed health system. Private-for-profit hospitals are concentrated in urban areas, where their financial model is most viable. The result is the duplication of private and public inpatient services, both in terms of their geographical location and the range of services delivered. The combination of persistent inpatient-oriented care and perverse financial incentives that privilege admission over outpatient management, have created unnecessary health costs. The engagement of the private sector to improve population health outcomes is constrained by a series of issues of governance, regulation and financing and the failure of the state to manage the private sector as an integral part of its health system planning. For a mixed system like in Mongolia, a comprehensive policy and plan which defines the complementary role of private providers to optimize private public service mix is critical in the early stages of the private sector development. It further supports the importance of a system perspective that combines regulation and incentives in consistent policy, rather than an isolated approach to provide regulation. © The Author

  18. Thermosetting microemulsions and mixed micellar solutions as drug delivery systems for periodontal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlund, M; Malmsten, M; Holmqvist, P; Brodin, A

    2000-01-20

    In the present study, thermosetting microemulsions and mixed micellar solutions were investigated as drug delivery systems for anesthetizing the periodontal pocket. The structure of the systems, consisting of the active ingredients lidocaine and prilocaine, as well as two block copolymers (Lutrol F127 and Lutrol F68), was investigated by NMR spectroscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The results obtained for dilute (1-3% w/w) solutions show discrete micelles with a diameter of 20-30 nm and a critical micellization temperature of 25-35 degrees C. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to study the distribution of the active ingredients, and indicates a preferential solubilization of the active components in micelles over unimers. Analogous to the Lutrol F127 single component system these formulations display an abrupt gelation on increasing temperature. The gelation temperature was found to depend on both the drug ionization and concentration. These systems have several advantages over emulsion-based formulations including good stability, ease of preparation, increased drug release rate, and improved handling due to the transparency of the formulations.

  19. On-line gas mixing and multi-channel distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Joshi, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe a mass-flow controller based on-line gas mixing unit with the multi-channel distribution system. We highlight different aspects such as requirement, design, calibration, control and operation of this system. This unit has the capability to mix up to four different input gases and distribute over 16 output channels. Output in individual channels is controlled accurately by using capillary-based system. At present, we are using this gas mixing unit for prototype of iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector of India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO).

  20. Design of a mixing system for simulated high-level nuclear waste melter feed slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; McCarthy, D.; Muhlstein, K.D.

    1986-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program development program consists of coordinated nonradioactive and radioactive testing combined with numerical modeling of the process to provide a complete basis for design and operation of a vitrification facility. The radioactive demonstration tests of equipment and processes are conducted before incorporation in radioactive pilot-scale melter systems for final demonstration. The mixing system evaluation described in this report was conducted as part of the nonradioactive testing. The format of this report follows the sequence in which the design of a large-scale mixing system is determined. The initial program activity was concerned with gaining an understanding of the theoretical foundation of non-Newtonian mixing systems. Section 3 of this report describes the classical rheological models that are used to describe non-Newtonian mixing systems. Since the results obtained here are only valid for the slurries utilized, Section 4, Preparation of Simulated Hanford and West Valley Slurries, describes how the slurries were prepared. The laboratory-scale viscometric and physical property information is summarized in Section 5, Laboratory Rheological Evaluations. The bench-scale mixing evaluations conducted to define the effects of the independent variables described above on the degree of mixing achieved with each slurry are described in Section 6. Bench-scale results are scaled-up to establish engineering design requirements for the full-scale mixing system in Section 7. 24 refs., 37 figs., 44 tabs

  1. Identifying and quantifying geochemical and mixing processes in the Matanza-Riachuelo Aquifer System, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, S; Manzano, M; Bea, S A; Martínez, S

    2017-12-01

    The Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin, in the Northeast of the Buenos Aires Province, is one of the most industrialized and populated region in Argentina and it is worldwide known for its alarming environmental degradation. In order to prevent further damages, the aquifer system, which consists of two overlaid aquifers, is being monitored from 2008 by the river basin authority, Autoridad de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo. The groundwater chemical baseline has been established in a previous paper (Zabala et al., 2016), and this one is devoted to the identification of the main physical and hydrogeochemical processes that control groundwater chemistry and its areal distribution. Thirty five representative groundwater samples from the Upper Aquifer and thirty four from the deep Puelche Aquifer have been studied with a multi-tool approach to understand the origin of their chemical and isotopic values. The resulting conceptual model has been validated though hydrogeochemical modeling. Most of the aquifer system has fresh groundwater, but some areas have brackish and salt groundwater. Water recharging the Upper Aquifer is of the Ca-HCO 3 type as a result of soil CO 2 and carbonate dissolution. Evapotranspiration plays a great role concentrating recharge water. After recharge, groundwater becomes Na-HCO 3 , mostly due to cation exchange with Na release and Ca uptake, which induces calcite dissolution. Saline groundwaters exist in the lower and upper sectors of the basin as a result of Na-HCO 3 water mixing with marine water of different origins. In the upper reaches, besides mixing with connate sea water other sources of SO 4 exist, most probably gypsum and/or sulfides. This work highlights the relevance of performing detailed studies to understand the processes controlling groundwater chemistry at regional scale. Moreover, it is a step forward in the knowledge of the aquifer system, and provides a sound scientific basis to design effective management programs and recovery plans

  2. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of mixed coumarin dyes by silver and gold nanoparticles: Towards plasmonic thin-film luminescent solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bashir, S.M., E-mail: elbashireg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics Faculty of Science, Benha University (Egypt); Barakat, F.M.; AlSalhi, M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films doped with mixed coumarin dyestuffs and noble metal nanoparticles (60 nm silver and 100 nm gold) were prepared by spin coating technique. The effect of silver and gold nanoparticles on the film properties was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. DSC measurements indicated the increase of the glass transition temperature of the films by increasing nanogold concentration, recommending their promising thermal stability towards hot climates. It was found that the fluorescence signals of the mixed coumarin dyes were amplified by 5.4 and 7.15 folds as a result of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). The research outcomes offered a potential application of these films in solar energy conversion by plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrator (PTLSC). -- Graphical abstract: Plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators. Highlights: • Metal enhanced fluorescence was achieved for mixed coumarin dyes doped in PMMA nanocomposite films. • The amplification of the fluorescence signals is dependent on the concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. • These films is considered as potential candidates for plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators (PTLSCs)

  3. RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT. A STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATION OF MIXED FISSION PRODUCTS IN GREEK SEA WATERS AND OF 137CS IN FISH AND SEA PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANALI-KOTSAKI, S.; FLOROU-GAZI, H.

    1982-12-01

    Full text: The concentrations of mixed fission products in sea water and of 137 Cs in fish and sea plants are different for samples collected from different sampling areas. This difference is more remarkable the year where the level of the world wide fall-out is higher, especially with regards to M. F. P. concentrations in sea water samples. Increases or decreases to M.F.P. concentrations in sea water samples result to increases or decreases of 137 Cs in fish and sea plants. (author)

  4. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingardt, K.M.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  5. Experimental System of Solar Adsorption Refrigeration with Concentrated Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z X; Li, Y X; Du, C X

    2017-10-18

    To improve the performance of solar adsorption refrigeration, an experimental system with a solar concentration collector was set up and investigated. The main components of the system were the adsorbent bed, the condenser, the evaporator, the cooling sub-system, and the solar collector. In the first step of the experiment, the vapor-saturated bed was heated by the solar radiation under closed conditions, which caused the bed temperature and pressure to increase. When the bed pressure became high enough, the bed was switched to connect to the condenser, thus water vapor flowed continually from the bed to the condenser to be liquefied. Next, the bed needed to cool down after the desorption. In the solar-shielded condition, achieved by aluminum foil, the circulating water loop was opened to the bed. With the water continually circulating in the bed, the stored heat in the bed was took out and the bed pressure decreased accordingly. When the bed pressure dropped below the saturation pressure at the evaporation temperature, the valve to the evaporator was opened. A mass of water vapor rushed into the bed and was adsorbed by the zeolite material. With the massive vaporization of the water in the evaporator, the refrigeration effect was generated finally. The experimental result has revealed that both the COP (coefficient of the performance of the system) and the SCP (specific cooling power of the system) of the SAPO-34 zeolite was greater than that of the ZSM-5 zeolite, no matter whether the adsorption time was longer or shorter. The system of the SAPO-34 zeolite generated a maximum COP of 0.169.

  6. Insights into hydrologic and hydrochemical processes based on concentration-discharge and end-member mixing analyses in the mid-Merced River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjing; Conklin, Martha H.; Shaw, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Both concentration-discharge relation and end-member mixing analysis were explored to elucidate the connectivity of hydrologic and hydrochemical processes using chemical data collected during 2006-2008 at Happy Isles (468 km2), Pohono Bridge (833 km2), and Briceburg (1873 km2) in the snowmelt-fed mid-Merced River basin, augmented by chemical data collected by the USGS during 1990-2014 at Happy Isles. Concentration-discharge (C-Q) in streamflow was dominated by a well-defined power law relation, with the magnitude of exponent (0.02-0.6) and R2 values (p lower on rising than falling limbs. Concentrations of conservative solutes in streamflow resulted from mixing of two end-members at Happy Isles and Pohono Bridge and three at Briceburg, with relatively constant solute concentrations in end-members. The fractional contribution of groundwater was higher on rising than falling limbs at all basin scales. The relationship between the fractional contributions of subsurface flow and groundwater and streamflow (F-Q) followed the same relation as C-Q as a result of end-member mixing. The F-Q relation was used as a simple model to simulate subsurface flow and groundwater discharges to Happy Isles from 1990 to 2014 and was successfully validated by solute concentrations measured by the USGS. It was also demonstrated that the consistency of F-Q and C-Q relations is applicable to other catchments where end-members and the C-Q relationships are well defined, suggesting hydrologic and hydrochemical processes are strongly coupled and mutually predictable. Combining concentration-discharge and end-member mixing analyses could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand streamflow generation and hydrochemical controls in catchment hydrologic studies.

  7. The intake of water containing a mix of pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to defensive response deficit in male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; de Faria, Denise Braga Gomes; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Chagas, Thales Quintão; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have individually confirmed the toxic effects from different pollutants on mammals. However, effects resulting from the exposure of these animals to multi-pollutant mixes have not been studied so far. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the effect from the chronic exposure (105days) of C57Bl/6J mice to a mix of pollutants on their response to potential predators. In order to do so, the following groups were formed: "control", "Mix 1× [compounds from 15 pollutants identified in surface waters at environmentally relevant concentration (ERC)]", "Mix 10×" and "Mix 25×" (concentrations 10 and 25 times higher than the ERC). From the 100th experimental day on, the animals were subjected to tests in order to investigate whether they showed locomotor, visual, olfactory and auditory changes, since these abilities are essential to their anti-predatory behavior. Next, the animals' behavior towards potential predators (Felis catus and Pantherophis guttatus) was assessed. The herein collected data did not show defensive response from any of the experimental groups to the predatory stimulus provided by P. guttatus. However, the control animals, only, presented anti-predatory behavior when F. catus was introduced in the apparatus, fact that suggests defensive response deficit resulting from the treatments. Thus, the current study is pioneer in showing that the chronic intake of water containing a mix of pollutants (even at low concentrations) leads to behavioral disorders able to affect the survival and population dynamics of mammalian species at ecological level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impairment of Heat Transfer in the Passive Cooling System due to Mixed Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae Myeong Seon; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hwan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the passive cooling devices, the buoyant flows are induced. However the local Nusselt number of natural convective flow can be partly impaired due to the development of the mixed convective flows. This paper discusses impairment of heat transfer in the passive cooling system in relation to the development of mixed convection. The present work describes the preliminary plan to explore the phenomena experimentally. This paper is to discuss and make the plan to experiment the impairment of heat transfer in the passive cooling system due to mixed convection. In the sufficiently high passive cooling devices, the natural convection flow behavior can be mixed convection. The local Nusselt number distribution exhibits the non-monotonic behavior as axial position, since the buoyancy-aided with mixed convection was appeared. This is the part of the experimental work.

  9. Tracing the source and fate of nitrate in contemporary mixed land-use surface water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. D.; Young, M. B.; Horton, T. W.; Harding, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogenous fertilizers increase agricultural productivity, ultimately feeding the planet. Yet, it is possible to have too much of a good thing, and nitrogen is no exception. When in excess nitrogen has been shown to accelerate eutrophication of water bodies, and act as a chronic toxin (e.g. methemoglobinemia). As land-use intensity continues to rise in response to increases in agricultural productivity, the risk of adverse effects of nitrogen loading on surface water bodies will also increase. Stable isotope proxies are potential tracers of nitrate, the most common nitrogenous phase in surface waters. Applying stable isotope proxies therefore presents an opportunity to identify and manage sources of excess nitrogen before aquatic systems are severely degraded. However, the heterogeneous nature of potential pollution sources themselves, and their distribution with a modified catchment network, make understanding this issue highly complex. The Banks Peninsula, an eroded late tertiary volcanic complex located on the east coast of the South Island New Zealand, presents a unique opportunity to study and understand the sources and fates of nitrate within streams in a contemporary mixed land-use setting. Within this small geographic area there a variety of agricultural activities are practiced, including: heavily fertilized golf courses; stands of regenerating native forest; and areas of fallow gorse (Ulex europaeus; a invasive N-fixing shrub). Each of these landuse classes has its own unique nitrogen budget. Multivariate analysis was used on stream nitrate concentrations to reveal that stream reaches dominated by gorse had significantly higher nitrate concentrations than other land-use classes. Nitrate δ15N & δ18O data from these sites show strong covariance, plotting along a distinct fractionation line (r2 = 0.96). This finding facilitates interpretation of what processes are controlling nitrate concentration within these systems. Further, complementary aquatic

  10. Fuel management of mixed reactor type power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula

    1988-01-01

    Breeding gain in symbiotic nuclear power plant system consisting of both thermal and fast breeder reactors depends on the characteristics and the ratio of thermal and fast reactors. The composition of the symbiotic power plant systems was determined for equilibrium and plutonium deficient systems. According to natural uranium utilization, symbiotic power plant systems are not less efficient than the systems containing only fast breeders. Depleted uranium can be applied in both types of systems. Reprocessing demands of the symbiotic power plant sytems were determined. (V.N.) 23 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  12. Spin dynamics and magnetic ordering in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.; Moller, H.B.; Axe, J.D.; Birgeneau, R.J.; Bucher, E.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements are reported on the mixed valence compounds Ce/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/ and TmSe. The Chi''(Q,ω) as derived from the inelastic spectra of Ce 0 . 74 Th 0 . 26 shows a peak in the γ phase near 20.0 meV and shifts abruptly to greater than 70.0 meV at the transition to the α phase. The temperature independence of the susceptibility within the γ phase cannot be simply reconciled with the temperature dependence of the valence within the γ phase. TmSe is shown to order in a type I antiferromagnetic structure below T/sub N/ approx. 3.2 K. The magnetic phase diagram is understood as a successive domain reorientation and a metamagnetic phase transition for T 3+ orders in a type II structure but never achieves long range order

  13. Salivary innate defense system in type 1 diabetes mellitus in children with mixed and permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Kuźmiuk, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Niczyporuk, Marek; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    It should be expected that type 1 diabetes mellitus may disturb innate and acquired immunity. There are no data on type 1 diabetes mellitus-related changes in the salivary flow and the protein output responsible for the innate immunity of saliva depending on the quality of dentition reflecting the age of child. The aim of this work was the evaluation of parameters responsible for the innate immunity of saliva in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic children, adolescent and healthy volunteers, the salivary flow, the output and the concentration of the activity of peroxidase (colorimetry), lysozyme (radial immunodiffusion) and lactoferrin (ELISA) were determined. In children with mixed and permanent dentition, type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly decreases (as compared with the appropriate controls) the unstimulated salivary flow, the output, concentration of peroxidase and the output of the lysozyme and lactoferrin. In conclusion, it may be stated that type 1 diabetes mellitus causes functional changes in the salivary glands, resulting in a decrease of the salivary flow and weakening of the salivary innate defense system, thus creating a threat to the oral and general health of type 1 diabetes mellitus children. The results showed that the salivary glands of younger children, when compared to adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus, are more susceptible to the injurious effects of the disease.

  14. Experimental study on a parabolic concentrator assisted solar desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Denkenberger, David; Velraj, R.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vinothkumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. • Parabolic concentrator has been integrated with solar distillation systems. • We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of parabolic concentrator (PC) – solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank to enhance the productivity. Four modes of operation were studied experimentally: (i) PC-solar still without top cover cooling; (ii) PC-solar still with top cover cooling, PC-solar still integrated with phase change material (PCM) without top cover cooling and PC-solar still integrated PCM with cooling. The experiments were carried out for the cooling water flow rates of 40 ml/min; 50 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min. Diurnal variations of water temperature (T_w), ambient air temperature (T_a), top cover temperature (T_o_c) and production rate are measured with frequent time intervals. Water cooling was not cost effective, but adding PCM was.

  15. Long-term performance potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-07-17

    Owing to the diverse photovoltaic (PV) systems’ design and technology, as well as the dynamic nature of insolation data received on the aperture surfaces, the instantaneous output from a PV system fluctuates greatly. For accurate performance estimation of a large PV field, the long term performance as electrical output is a more rational approach over the conventional testing methods, such as at Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and at the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) available hitherto. In this paper, the long-term performances of concentrated PVs (Cassegrain reflectors and Fresnel lens) with 2-axes tracking and a variety of PV systems, namely the stationary flat-plate PV (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline and thin-films CIS types), is presented over a period of one year for the merit comparison of system design, under the tropical weather conditions of Singapore. From the measured field performances, the total energy output of 240.2 kW h/m/year is recorded for CPV operation in Singapore, which is nearly two folds higher than the stationary PV panels.

  16. Benchmarking transaction and analytical processing systems the creation of a mixed workload benchmark and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Bog, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a new benchmark for hybrid database systems, gauging the effect of adding OLAP to an OLTP workload and analyzing the impact of commonly used optimizations in historically separate OLTP and OLAP domains in mixed-workload scenarios.

  17. Development of an engineered safeguards system concept for a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; de Montmollin, J.M.; Deveney, J.E.; Fienning, W.C.; Hickman, J.W.; Watkins, L.D.; Winblad, A.E.

    1976-08-01

    An initial concept of an Engineered Safeguards System for a representative commercial mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility is presented. Computer simulation techniques for evaluation and further development of the concept are described. An outline of future activity is included

  18. Silicon concentrator cells in a two-stage photovoltaic system with a concentration factor of 300x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, A.

    2005-06-15

    In this work a rear contacted silicon concentrator cell was developed for an application in a two stage concentrator photovoltaic system. This system was developed at Fraunhofer ISE some years ago. The innovation of this one-axis tracked system is that it enables a high geometrical concentration of 300x in combination with a high optical efficiency (around 78%) and a large acceptance angle of {+-}23.5 all year through. For this, the system uses a parabolic mirror (40.4x) and a three dimensional second stage consisting of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, 7.7x). For the concentrator concept and particularly for an easy cell integration, the rear line contacted concentrator (RLCC) cells with a maximum efficiency of 25% were developed and a hybrid mounting concept for the RLCC cells is presented. The optical performance of different CPC materials was tested and analysed in this work. Finally, small modules consisting of six series interconnected RLCC cells and six CPCs were integrated into the concentrator system and tested outdoor. A system efficiency of 16.2% was reached at around 800 W/m2 direct irradiance under realistic outdoor conditions. (orig.)

  19. Membrane self assembly in mixed DMPC/NaC systems by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Lombardo, D.; Lesieur, P.; Kisselev, A.M.; Borbely, S.; Simonova, T.N.; Barsukov, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    Morphological transition in a mixed system of the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/sodium cholate (NaC) has been investigated by small-angle scattering of neutron (SANS) and X-ray (SAXS). Structural investigation, performed as a function of temperature and NaC concentration, show that the system containing 15 mM DMPC and 6 mM NaC reveals a strong dependence of SANS spectra on the temperature. The morphological transformations has been interpreted as a micelle-to-vesicle transition which is induced by the temperature variation (TI-MVT). The main features of the obtained results show that the temperature effect are far less profound in the system containing 2 or 12 mM NaC and can be assigned to small morfological changes within the same population of particles (vesicular or micellar, respectively). The main features of the structural analysis suggest that structural transformations at the TI-MVT proceed in the following sequence: globular micelles - rod-like micelles - polymer-like micelles - unilamellar vesicles. More specifically the globular and rod like micelles present an ellipsoidal cross-section rather than circular one, the former being geometrically more favourable for accommodation of bilayer-forming molecules like DMPC into the micellar structures

  20. Composable Virtual Platforms for Mixed-Criticality Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyranvand Nejad, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase towards concurrently executing more and more applications on a single embedded system. Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) architectures are proposed to allow complex design of embedded systems. This is achieved by integrating as many processing resources as

  1. Composable virtual platforms for mixed-criticality embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase towards concurrently executing more and more applications on a single embedded system. Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) architectures are proposed to allow complex design of embedded systems. This is achieved by integrating as many processing resources as

  2. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  3. Trends in prevalence of patient case-mix adjusters used in the Medicare dialysis payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Rubin, Robert J; Tzivelekis, Spiros; Stephens, J Mark

    2015-06-01

    The Medicare End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System (PPS) used data from 2006-08 to set weights for each case-mix adjuster that is part of the bundled payment formula. The details of the population case-mix were not made public, and little is known about consistency of case-mix over time. This study estimated the prevalence of case-mix adjusters during 2006-2008 and analyzed changes in case-mix prevalence from 2000-2008. Cross-sectional cohort study using United States Renal Data System data for Medicare dialysis patients. Three 3-year cohorts (2000-02, 2003-05, 2006-08) were analyzed for changes over time in case-mix prevalence. Double-digit trends were observed in many case-mix categories between 2000-02 and 2006-08. Large declines were observed in prevalence of patients with low BMI, pericarditis, new to dialysis, and ages 18-44. Large increases were observed in chronic co-morbidities, pneumonia and age cohort 80+. Substantial changes in case-mix adjuster prevalence suggest the PPS payment formula should be regularly updated.

  4. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  5. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Anne Th; McKnight, Ursula S; Rønde, Vinni; Bjerg, Poul L

    2017-11-15

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality of all three stream compartments - stream water, hyporheic zone, streambed sediment - made it possible to link chemical stressors to their respective sources and obtain new knowledge about source composition and origin. Moreover, toxic unit estimation and comparison to environmental standards revealed the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs of chlorinated ethenes and pharmaceutical compounds discharge into the stream every year. The strongly reduced redox conditions in the plume result in high concentrations of dissolved iron and additionally release arsenic, generating the complex contaminant mixture found in the narrow discharge zone. The fingerprint of the plume was observed in the stream several km downgradient, while nutrients, inorganics and pesticides played a minor role for the stream health. The

  6. Fuel management of mixed reactor type power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula

    1988-01-01

    In equilibrium symbiotic power plant system containing both thermal reactors and fast breeders, excess plutonium produced by the fast breeders is used to enrich the fuel of the thermal reactors. In plutonium deficient symbiotic power plant system plutonium is supplied both by thermal plants and fast breeders. Mathematical models were constructed and different equations solved to characterize the fuel utilization of both systems if they contain only a single thermal type and a single fast type reactor. The more plutonium is produced in the system, the higher output ratio of thermal to fast reactors is achieved in equilibrium symbiotic power plant system. Mathematical equations were derived to calculate the doubling time and the breeding gain of the equilibrium symbiotic system. (V.N.) 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  8. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

    1994-01-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste

  9. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  10. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost

  11. The Historical Development of the Mixed Legal System of Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius had originally inherited its laws from its two successive colonial administrators, France and Great Britain. The Mauritian legal system, however, is neither civilian nor common law, although possessing characteristics of both. By a kind of osmosis, the system has blended the elements of its inherited traditions and, ...

  12. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassir Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  13. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Garda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an I2C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  14. Using different assumptions of aerosol mixing state and chemical composition to predict CCN concentrations based on field measurements in urban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingye; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Yuying; Collins, Don; Fan, Xinxin; Jin, Xiaoai; Xu, Weiqi; Sun, Yele; Cribb, Maureen; Li, Zhanqing

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the impacts of aerosol chemical composition and mixing state on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity in polluted areas is crucial for accurately predicting CCN number concentrations (NCCN). In this study, we predict NCCN under five assumed schemes of aerosol chemical composition and mixing state based on field measurements in Beijing during the winter of 2016. Our results show that the best closure is achieved with the assumption of size dependent chemical composition for which sulfate, nitrate, secondary organic aerosols, and aged black carbon are internally mixed with each other but externally mixed with primary organic aerosol and fresh black carbon (external-internal size-resolved, abbreviated as EI-SR scheme). The resulting ratios of predicted-to-measured NCCN (RCCN_p/m) were 0.90 - 0.98 under both clean and polluted conditions. Assumption of an internal mixture and bulk chemical composition (INT-BK scheme) shows good closure with RCCN_p/m of 1.0 -1.16 under clean conditions, implying that it is adequate for CCN prediction in continental clean regions. On polluted days, assuming the aerosol is internally mixed and has a chemical composition that is size dependent (INT-SR scheme) achieves better closure than the INT-BK scheme due to the heterogeneity and variation in particle composition at different sizes. The improved closure achieved using the EI-SR and INT-SR assumptions highlight the importance of measuring size-resolved chemical composition for CCN predictions in polluted regions. NCCN is significantly underestimated (with RCCN_p/m of 0.66 - 0.75) when using the schemes of external mixtures with bulk (EXT-BK scheme) or size-resolved composition (EXT-SR scheme), implying that primary particles experience rapid aging and physical mixing processes in urban Beijing. However, our results show that the aerosol mixing state plays a minor role in CCN prediction when the κorg exceeds 0.1.

  15. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  16. Optimum Concentration Ratio Analysis Using Dynamic Thermal Model for Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Iberoamericano de Estudiantes de Ingenieria Electrica, s.l. : Cibelec, 2005. 40. Brogren, Maria. Optical Effeciency of Low-Concentrating Solar Energy...46 3.5 Particular Solution to the Transport Equation...50 3.7 Homogenous Solution the Transport Equation ..................................................... 51 3.8 Total Excess

  17. Study of the viability and adhesion of osteoblast cells to bone cements mixed with hydroxyapatite at different concentrations to use in vertebral augmentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Mínguez, J; Jorge-Mora, A; Couceiro-Otero, R; García-Santiago, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the biocompatibility and the effect in osteoblasts of polymethyl methacrylate alone, and mixed with hydroxyapatite in different concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20%, without exceeding 20%, as it can alter mechanical properties of the composite. Experimental study comparing osteoblast response to Polymethyl methacrylate alone and with hydroxyapatite in different concentrations. Composites at 15 and 20% obtained better osteoblast response, with higher osteoblastic activity markers, and lower apoptosis markers. Electron microscopy images show improved adhesion of osteoblasts. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. How does the Redi parameter for mesoscale mixing impact global climate in an Earth System Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Marie-Aude; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2014-09-01

    A coupled climate model is used to examine the impact of an increase in the mixing due to mesoscale eddies on the global climate system. A sixfold increase in the Redi mixing coefficient ARedi, which is within the admissible range of variation, has the overall effect of warming the global-mean surface air and sea surface temperatures by more than 1°C. Locally, sea surface temperatures increase by up to 7°C in the North Pacific and by up to 4°C in the Southern Ocean, with corresponding impacts on the ice concentration and ice extent in polar regions. However, it is not clear that the changes in heat transport from tropics to poles associated with changing this coefficient are primarily responsible for these changes. We found that the changes in the transport of heat are often much smaller than changes in long-wave trapping and short-wave absorption. Additionally, changes in the advective and diffusive transport of heat toward the poles often oppose each other. However, we note that the poleward transport of salt increases near the surface as ARedi increases. We suggest a causal chain in which enhanced eddy stirring leads to increased high-latitude surface salinity reducing salt stratification and water column stability and enhancing convection, triggering two feedback loops. In one, deeper convection prevents sea ice formation, which decreases albedo, which increases SW absorption, further increasing SST and decreasing sea ice formation. In the other, increased SST and reduced sea ice allow for more water vapor in the atmosphere, trapping long-wave radiation. Destratifying the polar regions is thus a potential way in which changes in ocean circulation might warm the planet.

  19. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations.

  20. Mixed system of ionic liquid and non-ionic surfactants in aqueous media: Surface and thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Darshak; Maheria, Kalpana; Parikh, Jigisha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction of ionic liquid and ethylene oxide based non-ionic surfactants in aqueous media. • Evaluation of various surface properties and thermodynamic parameters. • Micellar growth ensues from exothermic to endothermic with increase in temperature. • Micelle formation is enthalpy driven at low temperature and entropy driven at higher temperature. • The micellization power and adsorption proficiency decreased at high IL concentrations. - Abstract: The mixed system of ionic liquid (IL) tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate [TEA(BF 4 )] and numerous ethylene oxide based non-ionic surfactants in aqueous media were studied using surface tension, viscosity and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Various surface properties like critical micelle concentration (cmc), maximum surface excess concentration (Γ max ), minimum surface area per surfactant molecule (A min ), surface tension at the cmc (γ cmc ), adsorption efficiency (pC 20 ), and effectiveness of surface tension reduction (π cmc ) as well as thermodynamic parameters of micellization have been determined. DLS and viscosity measurements revealed that the micellar growth was attributed to the bridged solvophilicity of the POE chain in surfactants at elevated temperatures. In most of the cases, the progression ensues from exothermic to endothermic with increase in temperature of the mixed system. Thermodynamic parameter indicates that the micelle formation process is enthalpy driven at low temperature and entropy driven at higher temperature

  1. A Mixed-Reality Environment for Digital Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Dietrich Wuttke

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning the design of control systems requires not only deep theoretical but also practical experience that can be get in laboratory work. Goal of the projects “JGIFT” and “FIPS” - created by members of the Institute of Theoretical and Technical Computer Science of the Technical University of Ilmenau - is to examine and implement new techniques for a development and training system based on Finite State Machines (FSM. In our contribution we would like to present means and methods required for providing this tool set web wide for a large user base and independent from the operating system.

  2. Quantifying the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer height for long-lasting haze and fog-haze mixed events in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Guo, Xueliang; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhang

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and visibility are strongly influenced by aerosol loading, which is driven by meteorological conditions. The quantification of their relationships is critical to understanding the physical and chemical processes and forecasting of the polluted events. We investigated and quantified the relationship between PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter is 2.5 µm and less) mass concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height in this study based on the data obtained from four long-lasting haze events and seven fog-haze mixed events from January 2014 to March 2015 in Beijing. The statistical results show that there was a negative exponential function between the visibility and the PM2.5 mass concentration for both haze and fog-haze mixed events (with the same R2 of 0.80). However, the fog-haze events caused a more obvious decrease of visibility than that for haze events due to the formation of fog droplets that could induce higher light extinction. The PM2.5 concentration had an inversely linear correlation with PBL height for haze events and a negative exponential correlation for fog-haze mixed events, indicating that the PM2.5 concentration is more sensitive to PBL height in fog-haze mixed events. The visibility had positively linear correlation with the PBL height with an R2 of 0.35 in haze events and positive exponential correlation with an R2 of 0.56 in fog-haze mixed events. We also investigated the physical mechanism responsible for these relationships between visibility, PM2.5 concentration and PBL height through typical haze and fog-haze mixed event and found that a double inversion layer formed in both typical events and played critical roles in maintaining and enhancing the long-lasting polluted events. The variations of the double inversion layers were closely associated with the processes of long-wave radiation cooling in the nighttime and short-wave solar radiation reduction in the daytime. The upper-level stable

  3. Multiobjective Control for Multivariable Systems with Mixed-sensitivity Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of multi objective H-infinity design problems are considered in this paper. The problems are formulated as a number of coupled H-infinity design problems. These H-infinity problems can be formulated as sensitivity problems, complementary sensitivity problems, or control sensitivity...... problems for every output (or input) in the system. It turns out that these multi objective H-infinity design problems, based on a number of different types of sensitivity problems, can be exactly decoupled into k H-infinity sensitivity problems for stable systems, where k is the number of outputs (for...

  4. SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING ELECTRIC DRIVE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Surmak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to evaluate quality of asphalt concrete mixture through definition of current component variable of a drive motor and measurement of its derivative sign. In order to carry out final determination of mixture uniformity a transducer on the basis of a nuclear magnetic resonance is applied. Block diagram of the system is presented and algorithm of its operation is given in the paper. In addition to improvement of the finished product quality the application of the system makes it possible to reduce bitumen consumption used for production of asphalt concrete.

  5. Effects of solvation on partition and dimerization of benzoic acid in mixed solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Yajima, K; Wada, H; Nakagawa, G

    1995-06-01

    The partition of benzoic acid between 0.1M perchloric acid solution and two kinds of mixed solvents has been carried out at 25 degrees C. The partition and dimerization constants of benzoic acid have been determined in the 1-octanol-benzene and 2-octanone-benzene systems. In both the mixed solvent systems, with increasing content of 1-octanol and 2-octanone in each mixed solvent, the partition constant of benzoic acid has been found to increase, and the dimerization constant of benzoic acid in each organic phase to decrease. These phenomena are attributable to solvation of monomeric benzoic acid by 1-octanol and 2-octanone molecules in each mixed solvent.

  6. Safety of Mixed Model Access Control in a Multilevel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    42  H.  FIREWALL AND IPS LANGUAGES...Research Laboratory AIS automated information system ANOA advance notice of arrival APT advanced persistent threat BFM boundary flow modeling...of Investigation FW firewall GENSER general service xvi GUI graphical user interface HAG high-assurance guard HGS high-grade service H-H-H High

  7. Development of a Mixed Scanning Interactive System for Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    employment and unemployment effects on certain con- tractors, granting of subcontracts of a system for the sake of keeping a base of companies...standardization of jobs, and stratification of employment levels [16]. In this view, everything is functional and tuned such that all resource inputs are...assumed to be given for every alterna- We observe that if u, is described by linear inequaities tive nair (a’, a). We remark that if A’(a’. a) 9 A(a

  8. Stochastic Modelling and Self Tuning Control of a Continuous Cement Raw Material Mixing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu T. Toivonen

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of a continuously operating system for cement raw material mixing is studied. The purpose of the mixing system is to maintain a constant composition of the cement raw meal for the kiln despite variations of the raw material compositions. Experimental knowledge of the process dynamics and the characteristics of the various disturbances is used for deriving a stochastic model of the system. The optimal control strategy is then obtained as a minimum variance strategy. The control problem is finally solved using a self-tuning minimum variance regulator, and results from a successful implementation of the regulator are given.

  9. Illumination uniformity issue explored via two-stage solar concentrator system based on Fresnel lens and compound flat concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Naichia

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates details about the solar radiation distribution on the target of a two-stage solar concentrator that combines the Fresnel lens (FL) and the compound flat concentrator (CFC). The paper starts with a review of some FL development milestones such as the two-stage systems and the comparisons of flat vs. curved lenses in addition to the most noteworthy FL-based solar energy application, concentration photovoltaic (CPV). Through the review of the FL based CPV and two-stage concentrators, this study leads to the development of an algorithm to explore the spectrum distribution insight on the receiver of a two-stage (FL plus CFC) solar concentration system. It established the potential for using a correctly positioned 2nd stage reflector of right dimension to selectively redirect the desired spectrum on the target area so as to enhance the concentration flux intensity and uniformity at the same time. The study also helped to chart out the approximate locations of certain spectrum segments on the FL's target area, which is useful for exploring the spectrum control mechanism via the Fresnel lenses. - Highlights: • Map out the approximate locations of spectrum segments on FL's focal area. • Use the 2nd stage reflector to selectively reflect the desired spectrum on target. • Explore the spectrum distribution insight on FL solar concentrators' target area.

  10. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  11. The automated sample preparation system MixMaster for investigation of volatile organic compounds with mid-infrared evanescent wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F; Karlowatz, M; Jakusch, M; Mizaikoff, B

    2003-04-01

    For efficient development assessment, and calibration of new chemical analyzers a large number of independently prepared samples of target analytes is necessary. Whereas mixing units for gas analysis are readily available, there is a lack of instrumentation for accurate preparation of liquid samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Manual preparation of liquid samples containing VOCs at trace concentration levels is a particularly challenging and time consuming task. Furthermore, regularly scheduled calibration of sensors and analyzer systems demands for computer controlled automated sample preparation systems. In this paper we present a novel liquid mixing device enabling extensive measurement series with focus on volatile organic compounds, facilitating analysis of water polluted by traces of volatile hydrocarbons. After discussing the mixing system and control software, first results obtained by coupling with an FT-IR spectrometer are reported. Properties of the mixing system are assessed by mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy of methanol-acetone mixtures and by investigation of multicomponent samples containing volatile hydrocarbons such as 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Obtained ATR spectra are evaluated by principal component regression (PCR) algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented sample mixing device provides reliable multicomponent mixtures with sufficient accuracy and reproducibility at trace concentration levels.

  12. Coding response to a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin

    2004-08-01

    To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model. Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002. Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors. Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs. Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post.

  13. Coding Response to a Case-Mix Measurement System Based on Multiple Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model. Data Sources Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002. Study Design Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors. Principal Findings Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs. Conclusions Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post. PMID:15230940

  14. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  15. Mixing chaos modulations for secure communications in OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Chatura; Leung, Henry

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider a novel chaotic OFDM communication scheme is to improve the physical layer security. By secure communication we refer to physical layer security that provides low probability of detection (LPD)/low probability of intercept (LPI) transmission. A mixture of chaotic modulation schemes is used to generate chaotically modulated symbols for each subcarrier of the OFDM transmitter. At the receiver, different demodulators are combined together for the different modulation schemes for enhanced security. Time domain, frequency domain and statistical randomness tests show that transmit signals are indistinguishable from background noise. BER performance comparison shows that the physical layer security of the proposed scheme comes with a slight performance degradation compared to conventional OFDM communication systems.

  16. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  17. Optimization of gas mixing system of premixed burner based on CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tian-Hu; Liu, Feng-Guo; You, Xue-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-ejectors gas mixing system for premixed combustion burner is provided. • Two measures are proposed to improve the flow uniformity at the outlet of GMS. • Small improvement of uniformity induces significant decrease of pollutant emission. • Uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of ejector increases 234.2% and 2.9%. • Uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of ejectors increases 1.9% and 2.2%. - Abstract: The optimization of gas mixing system (GMS) of premixed burner is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is proved experimentally to have strong influence on pollutant emission. To improve the uniformity at the outlet of GMS, the eleven distribution orifice plates and a diversion plate are introduced. The quantified analysis shows that the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is improved significantly. With applying the distribution orifice plates, the uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of single ejector is increased by 234.2% and 2.9%, respectively. With applying the diversion plate, the uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of different ejectors is increased by 1.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The optimal measures and geometrical parameters provide an applicable guidance for the design of commercial premixed burner

  18. Vanishing viscosity limits of mixed hyperbolic–elliptic systems arising in multilayer channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, E S; Papageorgiou, D T

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the spatially periodic initial value problem of 2 × 2 quasi-linear parabolic systems in one space dimension having quadratic polynomial flux functions. These systems arise physically in the interfacial dynamics of viscous immiscible multilayer channel flows. The equations describe the spatiotemporal evolution of phase-separating interfaces with dissipation arising from surface tension (fourth-order) and/or stable stratification effects (second-order). A crucial mathematical aspect of these systems is the presence of mixed hyperbolic–elliptic flux functions that provide the only source of instability. The study concentrates on scaled spatially 2π-periodic solutions as the dissipation vanishes, and in particular the behaviour of such limits when generalized dissipation operators (spanning second to fourth-order) are considered. Extensive numerical computations and asymptotic analysis suggest that the existence (or not) of bounded vanishing viscosity solutions depends crucially on the structure of the flux function. In the absence of linear terms (i.e. homogeneous flux functions) the vanishing viscosity limit does not exist in the L ∞ -norm. On the other hand, if linear terms in the flux function are present the computations strongly suggest that the solutions exist and are bounded in the L ∞ -norm as the dissipation vanishes. It is found that the key mechanism that provides such boundedness centres on persistent spatiotemporal hyperbolic–elliptic transitions. Strikingly, as the dissipation decreases, the flux function becomes almost everywhere hyperbolic except on a fractal set of elliptic regions, whose dimension depends on the order of the regularized operator. Furthermore, the spatial structures of the emerging weak solutions are found to support an increasing number of discontinuities (measure-valued solutions) located in the vicinity of the fractally distributed elliptic regions. For the unscaled problem, such spatially

  19. Responses of Mixed-Phase Cloud Condensates and Cloud Radiative Effects to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations in NCAR CAM5 and DOE ACME Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Shi, Y.; Wu, M.; Zhang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds frequently observed in the Arctic and mid-latitude storm tracks have the substantial impacts on the surface energy budget, precipitation and climate. In this study, we first implement the two empirical parameterizations (Niemand et al. 2012 and DeMott et al. 2015) of heterogeneous ice nucleation for mixed-phase clouds in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) and DOE Accelerated Climate Model for Energy Version 1 (ACME1). Model simulated ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations based on Niemand et al. and DeMott et al. are compared with those from the default ice nucleation parameterization based on the classical nucleation theory (CNT) in CAM5 and ACME, and with in situ observations. Significantly higher INP concentrations (by up to a factor of 5) are simulated from Niemand et al. than DeMott et al. and CNT especially over the dust source regions in both CAM5 and ACME. Interestingly the ACME model simulates higher INP concentrations than CAM5, especially in the Polar regions. This is also the case when we nudge the two models' winds and temperature towards the same reanalysis, indicating more efficient transport of aerosols (dust) to the Polar regions in ACME. Next, we examine the responses of model simulated cloud liquid water and ice water contents to different INP concentrations from three ice nucleation parameterizations (Niemand et al., DeMott et al., and CNT) in CAM5 and ACME. Changes in liquid water path (LWP) reach as much as 20% in the Arctic regions in ACME between the three parameterizations while the LWP changes are smaller and limited in the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes in CAM5. Finally, the impacts on cloud radiative forcing and dust indirect effects on mixed-phase clouds are quantified with the three ice nucleation parameterizations in CAM5 and ACME.

  20. Mixed microalgae consortia growth under higher concentration of CO2 from unfiltered coal fired flue gas: Fatty acid profiling and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Manzoor, Maleeha; Jabeen, Faiza; Iqbal, Munawar; Uz Zaman, Qamar; Schenk, Peer M; Asif Tahir, M

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Biodiesel fuel properties were studied and compared with biodiesel standards. Qualitative analysis of FAME was done while cultivating mixed microalgae consortia under three concentrations of coal fired flue gas (1%, 3.0% and 5.5% CO 2 ). Under 1% CO 2 concentration (flue gas), the FAME content was 280.3 μg/mL, whereas the lipid content was 14.03 μg/mL/D (day). Both FAMEs and lipid contents were low at other CO 2 concentrations (3.0 and 5.5%). However, mixed consortia in the presence of phosphate buffer and flue gas (PB + FG) showed higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) (36.28%) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (63.72%) versus 5.5% CO 2 concentration, which might be responsible for oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, higher cetane number (52) and low iodine value (136.3 gI 2 /100 g) biodiesel produced from mixed consortia (PB + FG) under 5.5% CO 2 along with 50 mM phosphate buffer were found in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard. Results revealed that phosphate buffer significantly enhanced the biodiesel quality, but reduced the FAME yield. This study intended to develop an integrated approach for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus by utilizing waste flue gas (as CO 2 source) using microalgae. The CO 2 sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduced greenhouse gases, but may also ensure the sustainable and eco-benign production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Variation of the solvation number of Eu(III) in mixed system of methanol and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, H.; Arisaka, M.; Omori, T.; Satoh, I.; Choppin, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The stability constants (β 1 ) of the monofluoride complex of Eu(III) have been determined in mixed solvents of methanol and water at a 0.10 M ionic strength using a solvent extraction technique. The values of ln β 1 increase as the mole fraction of methanol in the mixed solvent system increases. The variation in the stability constants can be correlated with both the large effect due to the solvation of F and the small effect due to both (1) the solvation of cations in connection with complexation and (2) the electrostatic attraction between Eu 3+ and F - . Based on the variation in the sum of (1) and (2) in water and the mixed solvent solutions, it was determined that the coordination number (CN) of Eu(III) varied from a mixture of CN = 9 and 8 to CN = 8 at about a 0.03 mole fraction of methanol in the mixed solvent. (orig.)

  2. Role of mixed precipitating cloud systems on the typhoon rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-band wind profiler data are utilized to diagnose the vertical structure of the typhoon precipitating cloud systems in Taiwan. For several typhoons, a pronounced bright band (BB around 5 km is commonly observed from the observation. Since strong convection within typhoon circulation may disturb and/or disrupt the melting layer, the BB shall not appear persistently. Hence, an understanding of the vertical structure of the BB region is important because it holds extensive hydrometeors information on the type of precipitation and its variability. Wind profiler observational results suggest that the mixture of convective and stratiform (embedded type clouds are mostly associated with typhoons. In the case of one typhoon, BB is appeared around 5.5 km with embedded precipitation and also BB height of 1 km higher than ordinary showery precipitation. This is evident from the long-term observations of wind profiler and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. The Doppler velocity profiles show hydrometers (ice/snow at 6 km but liquid below 5 km for typhoons and 4 km for showery precipitation. In the BB region the melting particles accelerations of 5.8 ms−1 km−1 and 3.2 ms−1 km−1 are observed for typhoon and showery precipitation, respectively.

  3. Role of mixed precipitating cloud systems on the typhoon rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-band wind profiler data are utilized to diagnose the vertical structure of the typhoon precipitating cloud systems in Taiwan. For several typhoons, a pronounced bright band (BB around 5 km is commonly observed from the observation. Since strong convection within typhoon circulation may disturb and/or disrupt the melting layer, the BB shall not appear persistently. Hence, an understanding of the vertical structure of the BB region is important because it holds extensive hydrometeors information on the type of precipitation and its variability. Wind profiler observational results suggest that the mixture of convective and stratiform (embedded type clouds are mostly associated with typhoons. In the case of one typhoon, BB is appeared around 5.5 km with embedded precipitation and also BB height of 1 km higher than ordinary showery precipitation. This is evident from the long-term observations of wind profiler and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. The Doppler velocity profiles show hydrometers (ice/snow at 6 km but liquid below 5 km for typhoons and 4 km for showery precipitation. In the BB region the melting particles accelerations of 5.8 ms−1 km−1 and 3.2 ms−1 km−1 are observed for typhoon and showery precipitation, respectively.

  4. Mixing rates of particle systems with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigo, A; Khanin, K; Szász, D

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics is the derivation of macroscopic transport equations in the hydrodynamic limit. The rigorous study of such limits requires detailed information about rates of convergence to equilibrium for finite sized systems. In this paper, we consider the finite lattice {1, 2, …, N}, with an energy x i ∈ (0, ∞) associated with each site. The energies evolve according to a Markov jump process with nearest neighbour interaction such that the total energy is preserved. We prove that for an entire class of such models the spectral gap of the generator of the Markov process scales as O(N -2 ). Furthermore, we provide a complete classification of reversible stationary distributions of product type. We demonstrate that our results apply to models similar to the billiard lattice model considered in Gaspard and Gilbert (2009 J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. 2009 24), and hence provide a first step in the derivation of a macroscopic heat equation for a microscopic stochastic evolution of mechanical origin. (paper)

  5. Large eddy simulation on thermal fluid mixing in a T-junction piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, P. Karthick; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst fuer Kernenergie und Energiesysteme (IKE)

    2014-11-15

    High cycle thermal fatigue damage caused in piping systems is an important problem encountered in the context of nuclear safety and lifetime management of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The T-junction piping system present in the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) is more vulnerable to thermal fatigue cracking. In this numerical study, thermal mixing of fluids at temperature difference (?T) of 117 K between the mixing fluids is analyzed. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed with conjugate heat transfer between the fluid and structure. LES is performed based on the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) test facility at University of Stuttgart. The results show an intense turbulent mixing of fluids downstream of T-junction. Amplitude of temperature fluctuations near the wall region and its corresponding frequency distribution is analyzed. LES is performed using commercial CFD software ANSYS CFX 14.0.

  6. Structural and microstructural changes in the zirconium-indium mixed oxide system during the thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefanić, G.; Štefanić, I. I.; Musić, S.; Ivanda, M.

    2011-05-01

    The zirconium-indium mixed oxide systems on both the zirconium- and the indium-rich side of the concentration range were prepared by co-precipitation from aqueous solutions of the corresponding salts, followed by washing and heat-treatment. The thermal behavior (up to 1000 °C) of the dried samples was examined by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric measurements. The obtained results show that the increase in the amount of the second phase causes an increase of both the crystallization temperature of the amorphous precursors of ZrO 2, from 435 °C (0 mol.% of InO 1.5) to 476 °C (˜62 mol.% of InO 1.5), and of the topotactic transition temperature of cubic In(OH) 3 to cubic In 2O 3, from 259 °C (0 mol.% of ZrO 2) to 290 °C (˜25 mol.% of ZrO 2). The amorphous precursors of ZrO 2 phase exhibit an extended capability to incorporate In 3+ ions (more than 60 mol.%). With a rise in temperature the maximum solubility of In 3+ ions in the ZrO 2 lattice decreases from ˜55 mol.% in the crystallization products obtained after calcination at 400 °C to ˜10 mol.% after calcination at 1000 °C. The results of phase analysis indicate that the incorporation of In 3+ ions partially stabilized both the tetragonal and cubic ZrO 2 polymorphs. The maximum solubility of Zr 4+ ions in the starting In(OH) 3 lattice was estimated at ˜10 mol.%. Thermal treatment causes a small increase of Zr 4+ ion solubility limits, estimated at ˜15 mol.% in the cubic In 2O 3 lattice after calcination at 1000 °C. Precise lattice parameter measurements, by using Le Bail refinements of the powder diffraction patterns with added silicon as an internal standard, show that the incorporation of In 3+ ions caused a very small decrease of the cubic ZrO 2 lattice, while the incorporation of Zr 4+ ions had a negligible

  7. Spatiotemporal variation of radon and carbon dioxide concentrations in an underground quarry: coupled processes of natural ventilation, barometric pumping and internal mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Radon-222 and carbon dioxide concentrations have been measured during several years at several points in the atmosphere of an underground limestone quarry located at a depth of 18 m in Vincennes, near Paris, France. Both concentrations showed a seasonal cycle. Radon concentration varied from 1200 to 2000 Bq m(-3) in summer to about 800-1400 Bq m(-3) in winter, indicating winter ventilation rates varying from 0.6 to 2.5 x 10(-6) s(-1). Carbon dioxide concentration varied from 0.9 to 1.0% in summer, to about 0.1-0.3% in winter. Radon concentration can be corrected for natural ventilation using temperature measurements. The obtained model also accounts for the measured seasonal variation of carbon dioxide. After correction, radon concentrations still exhibit significant temporal variation, mostly associated with the variation of atmospheric pressure, with coupling coefficients varying from -7 to -26 Bq m(-3) hPa(-1). This variation can be accounted for using a barometric pumping model, coupled with natural ventilation in winter, and including internal mixing as well. After correction, radon concentrations exhibit residual temporal variation, poorly correlated between different points, with standard deviations varying from 3 to 6%. This study shows that temporal variation of radon concentrations in underground cavities can be understood to a satisfactory level of detail using non-linear and time-dependent modelling. It is important to understand the temporal variation of radon concentrations and the limitations in their modelling to monitor the properties of natural or artificial underground settings, and to be able to assess the existence of new processes, for example associated with the preparatory phases of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatiotemporal variation of radon and carbon dioxide concentrations in an underground quarry: coupled processes of natural ventilation, barometric pumping and internal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Frederic; Richon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Radon-222 and carbon dioxide concentrations have been measured during several years at several points in the atmosphere of an underground limestone quarry located at a depth of 18 m in Vincennes, near Paris, France. Both concentrations showed a seasonal cycle. Radon concentration varied from 1200 to 2000 Bq m -3 in summer to about 800-1400 Bq m -3 in winter, indicating winter ventilation rates varying from 0.6 to 2.5 x 10 -6 s -1 . Carbon dioxide concentration varied from 0.9 to 1.0% in summer, to about 0.1-0.3% in winter. Radon concentration can be corrected for natural ventilation using temperature measurements. The obtained model also accounts for the measured seasonal variation of carbon dioxide. After correction, radon concentrations still exhibit significant temporal variation, mostly associated with the variation of atmospheric pressure, with coupling coefficients varying from -7 to -26 Bq m -3 hPa -1 . This variation can be accounted for using a barometric pumping model, coupled with natural ventilation in winter, and including internal mixing as well. After correction, radon concentrations exhibit residual temporal variation, poorly correlated between different points, with standard deviations varying from 3 to 6%. This study shows that temporal variation of radon concentrations in underground cavities can be understood to a satisfactory level of detail using non-linear and time-dependent modelling. It is important to understand the temporal variation of radon concentrations and the limitations in their modelling to monitor the properties of natural or artificial underground settings, and to be able to assess the existence of new processes, for example associated with the preparatory phases of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

  9. Online soft sensor for hybrid systems with mixed continuous and discrete measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia; Nagy, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2012), s. 294-300 ISSN 0098-1354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA TA ČR TA01030123 Grant - others:Skoda Auto, a.s.(CZ) ENS/2009/UTIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : online state prediction * hybrid filter * state-space model * mixed data Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.091, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/suzdaleva-online soft sensor for hybrid systems with mixed continuous and discrete measurements.pdf

  10. Mixed-mode oscillations and chaos in a prey-predator system with dormancy of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Masataka; Chiba, Hayato

    2009-12-01

    It is shown that the dormancy of predators induces mixed-mode oscillations and chaos in the population dynamics of a prey-predator system under certain conditions. The mixed-mode oscillations and chaos are shown to bifurcate from a coexisting equilibrium by means of the theory of fast-slow systems. These results may help to find experimental conditions under which one can demonstrate chaotic population dynamics in a simple phytoplankton-zooplankton (-resting eggs) community in a microcosm with a short duration.

  11. Design of Mixed-Criticality Applications on Distributed Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian

    the concept of virtual links, and temporal separation, enforced through schedule tables for TT messages and bandwidth allocation for RC messages. The objective of this thesis is to develop methods and tools for distributed mixed-criticality real-time systems. At the processor level, we are interested......A mixed-criticality system implements applications of different safety-criticality levels onto the same platform. In such cases, the certification standards require that applications of different criticality levels are protected so they cannot influence each other. Otherwise, all tasks have...

  12. Real-time 3D human capture system for mixed-reality art and entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ta Huynh Duy; Qui, Tran Cong Thien; Xu, Ke; Cheok, Adrian David; Teo, Sze Lee; Zhou, ZhiYing; Mallawaarachchi, Asitha; Lee, Shang Ping; Liu, Wei; Teo, Hui Siang; Thang, Le Nam; Li, Yu; Kato, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    A real-time system for capturing humans in 3D and placing them into a mixed reality environment is presented in this paper. The subject is captured by nine cameras surrounding her. Looking through a head-mounted-display with a camera in front pointing at a marker, the user can see the 3D image of this subject overlaid onto a mixed reality scene. The 3D images of the subject viewed from this viewpoint are constructed using a robust and fast shape-from-silhouette algorithm. The paper also presents several techniques to produce good quality and speed up the whole system. The frame rate of our system is around 25 fps using only standard Intel processor-based personal computers. Besides a remote live 3D conferencing and collaborating system, we also describe an application of the system in art and entertainment, named Magic Land, which is a mixed reality environment where captured avatars of human and 3D computer generated virtual animations can form an interactive story and play with each other. This system demonstrates many technologies in human computer interaction: mixed reality, tangible interaction, and 3D communication. The result of the user study not only emphasizes the benefits, but also addresses some issues of these technologies.

  13. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.; Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J.

    2015-09-01

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  14. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  15. Water isotope composition as a tracer for study of mixing processes in rivers. Part II. Determination of mixing degrees in the tributary-main river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Zimnicki, R.; Ptaszek, S.; Palige, J.; Dobrowolski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Two river-tributary systems have been chosen for the investigation of mixing processes: the Narew River-the Bug River-Zegrzynski Reservoir and the Bugo-Narew River-the Vistula River. In both river systems, several profiles for the water sampling have been selected down to the tributary confluent line. Each sample position has been precisely determined by means of GPS. Then, the δDi have been measured in IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectroscopy). The δD distributions in selected profiles have been presented for both investigated river systems. Presented results will be applied for the verification of the mathematical model for transport and mixing in river systems

  16. A Novel Evolutionary Engineering Design Approach for Mixed-Domain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Hu, J.; Seo, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to engineering design of mixed-domain dynamic systems. The approach aims at system-level design and has two key features: first, it generates engineering designs that satisfy predefined specifications in an automatic manner; second, it can design systems belonging ...... often encountered in evolutionary computation, a HFC (Hierarchical Fair Competition) model is adopted in this work. Examples of an analog filter design and a MEM filter design illustrate the application of the approach....

  17. Synthesis of Communication Schedules for TTEthernet-Based Mixed-Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul; Steiner, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in safety-critical distributed systems, composed of heterogeneous processing elements interconnected using the TTEthernet protocol. We address hard real-time mixed-criticality applications, which may have different criticality levels, and we focus on the optimization...... be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. TTEthernet offers spatial separation for mixed-criticality messages through the concept of virtual links, and temporal separation, enforced through schedule tables for TT messages and bandwidth...... allocation for RC messages. Given the set of mixed-criticality messages in the system and the topology of the virtual links on which the messages are transmitted, we are interested to synthesize offline the static schedules for the TT messages, such that the deadlines for the TT and RC messages are satisfied...

  18. Analyzing a low NO[sub x] concentric combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Eremeev, A.V.

    1992-05-01

    Discusses concentric combustion technology developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA) to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from pulverized coal-fired boilers. The major innovation consists in arranging existing independent secondary air burners into three pairs of concentric combustion burners. Using high-deflection angle concentric combustion burners, higher oxygen concentration near the boiler walls, reduced erosion and lower probability of slag deposition on the heat shield are achieved. The technology was tested at the 165 MW Valmont power plant and 350 MW Cherokee power plant. Reduction of 55.7% (to 0.294 kg/GJ) in NO[sub x] emissions with a boiler efficiency of 86.35% was achieved. Highest NO[sub x] reduction efficiency was observed at full load (highest tertiary air supply). Burner design, performance, relations of NO[sub x] emissions and tertiary air blast as well as fuel entrainment prior to and after upgrading are given. Methods of reducing slag deposition in boilers are considered. 2 refs.

  19. Weak Thermocline Mixing in the North Pacific Low-Latitude Western Boundary Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyu; Lian, Qiang; Zhang, Fangtao; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingming; Bai, Xiaolin; Wang, Jianing; Wang, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Despite its potential importance in the global climate system, mixing properties of the North Pacific low-latitude western boundary current system (LLWBC) remained unsampled until very recently. We report here on the first measurements of turbulence microstructure associated with these currents, made in the western boundary region of the tropical North Pacific east of the Philippines. The results suggest that thermocline mixing in the North Pacific LLWBC is generally weak with the diapycnal diffusivity κρ˜O(10-6) m2 s-1. This is consistent with predictions from internal wave-wave interaction theory that mixing due to internal wave breaking is significantly reduced at low latitudes. Enhanced mixing is found to be associated with a permanent cyclonic eddy, the Mindanao Eddy, but mainly at its south and north flanks. There, κρ is elevated by an order of magnitude due to eddy-induced geostrophic shear. Mixing in the eddy core is at the background level with no indication of enhancement.

  20. A Systemic and Systematic Approach to the Development of a Policy Mix for Material Resource Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ekvall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing material use efficiency is important to mitigate future supply risks and minimize environmental impacts associated with the production of the materials. The policy mix presented in this paper aims to contribute to reducing the use of virgin metals in the EU by 80% by 2050 without significant shifting of burdens to other material resources, environmental impacts, or parts of the world. We used a heuristic framework and a systems perspective for designing the policy mix that combines primary instruments designed to increase material efficiency, recycling and substitution of materials (a materials tax, the extended producer responsibility, technical regulations, and environmental taxes and supportive instruments aimed to reduce barriers to implementing the primary instruments and to contribute towards the policy objectives (e.g., research and development support, and advanced recycling centers. Furthermore, instruments were designed so as to increase political feasibility: e.g., taxes were gradually increased as part of a green fiscal reform, and border-tax adjustments were introduced to reduce impacts on competitiveness. However, even in such a policy mix design ongoing ex-ante assessments indicate that the policy mix will be politically difficult to implement—and also fall short of achieving the 80% reduction target. Nonetheless, we suggest combining primary and supportive instruments into coherent and dynamic policy mixes as a promising step towards system reconfigurations for sustainability.

  1. Remotely controlled reagent feed system for mixed waste treatment Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Bowers, J.S.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    LLNL has developed and installed a large-scale. remotely controlled, reagent feed system for use at its existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). LLNL's Tank Farm is used to treat aqueous low-level and mixed wastes prior to vacuum filtration and to remove the hazardous and radioactive components before it is discharged to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) via the sanitary sewer in accordance with established limits. This reagent feed system was installed to improve operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need for manual handling of various reagents used in the aqueous waste treatment processes. This was done by installing a delivery system that is controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The system consists of a pumping station, four sets of piping to each of six 6,800-L (1,800-gal) treatment tanks, air-actuated discharge valves at each tank, a pH/temperature probe at each tank, and the PLC-based control and monitoring system. During operation, the reagents are slowly added to the tanks in a preprogrammed and controlled manner while the pH, temperature, and liquid level are continuously monitored by the PLC. This paper presents the purpose of this reagent feed system, provides background related to LLNL's low-level/mixed waste treatment processes, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  2. Mixed Micelle System Produced by Interaction Between Transglycosylated Stevia and an Ionic Surfactant Improves Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2017-04-01

    Transglycosylated stevia (stevia-G) can effectively improve the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Furthermore, addition of an ionic surfactant to stevia-G solution has been shown to enhance the dissolution effect of stevia-G on flurbiprofen. Herein, 4 surfactants, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate, sodium monododecyl phosphate, and lauryltrimethylammonium chloride (LTAC) were screened to investigate their synergistic effect with stevia-G in enhancing the solubility of mefenamic acid (MFA). The ternary formulation containing LTAC produced the highest increase in solubility, whereas the binary MFA/LTAC formulation did not increase the solubility of MFA. Surface tension was evaluated to analyze the interaction between stevia-G and each ionic surfactant, wherein the Rubingh model was applied to predict mixed micelle formation between stevia-G and LTAC. Interaction parameters calculated by the Rubingh model reflected mixed micelle formation between stevia-G and LTAC relative to the self-interactions of the 2 individual surfactants. All interaction parameters in this system showed negative values, indicating a favorable interaction (e.g., hydrogen bond or electrostatic and dipole) between binary components in the mixed micelles. Spray-dried particles of ternary formulations (MFA/stevia-G/LTAC) were prepared to evaluate the dissolution profile and physicochemical properties. Dissolution profiling showed that the concentration of MFA released from spray-dried particles was significantly higher than untreated MFA. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Small angle scattering from soft matter-application to complex mixed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boue, F.; Cousin, F.; Gummel, J.; Carrot, G.; El Harrak, A.; Oberdisse, J.

    2007-01-01

    The advantage of small angle neutron scattering associated with isotopic labelling through deuteration is illustrated in the case of mixed systems, created by associating already well-known systems of characteristic structures; this is also important for applications. Our first mixed system associates charged polymer chains, polyelectrolyte (here polystyrene sulfonate, PSS), with oppositely charged particles, proteins (here lysozyme). Different fractions of deuterated water (D 2 O) mixed with normal water are used to match the scattering length density of the protein or of the polymer in non-deuterated or deuterated version. First, this allows us to separate the protein and the polymer signal: we can then distinguish a case where the structures of each species alone in water are hardly modified by mixing, except for interconnections yielding a gel, and a case inducing complete change into a structure common to both species, made of aggregated globules. Secondly, using, for counter-ions of the poly-ions, deuterated Tetramethylammonium, together with matching both protein and polymer, we establish unambiguously the counter-ion release into the solvent. Thirdly, matching only a fraction of polymer chains, the other being deuterated, we extrapolate at zero deuterated fraction their form factor and describe the chain conformation inside the complexes. Fourthly, we illustrate the possibilities of modelling the signal on a second example of mixed system: a nano-composite made of silica particles surrounded by polymer dispersed into a deuterated polymer matrix. Chains are then visible in such reinforced polymer system, in particular when it is submitted to elongation: we discuss a possible model for an ideal system, introducing the scattering contribution from deformed chains. (authors)

  4. Apples to Apples: Equivalent-Reliability Power Systems Across Diverse Resource Mix Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Gordon W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigler, Devon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Wesley B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-28

    Electricity market research is highly price sensitive, and prices are strongly influenced by balance of supply and demand. This work looks at how to combine capacity expansion models and reliability assessment tools to assess equivalent-reliability power systems across diverse resource mix scenarios.

  5. Systems Engineering Plan and project record Configuration Management Plan for the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.E.; Oakley, L.B.

    1993-04-01

    This document summarizes the systems engineering assessment that was performed for the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project to determine what types of documentation are required for the success of the project. The report also identifies the documents that will make up the MWDI Project Record and describes the Configuration Management Plan describes the responsibilities and process for making changes to project documentation

  6. Embedding Mixed-Reality Laboratories into E-Learning Systems for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tikriti, Munther N.; Al-Aubidy, Kasim M.

    2013-01-01

    E-learning, virtual learning and mixed reality techniques are now a global integral part of the academic and educational systems. They provide easier access to educational opportunities to a very wide spectrum of individuals to pursue their educational and qualification objectives. These modern techniques have the potentials to improve the quality…

  7. Degree of Schedulability of Mixed-Criticality Real-time Systems with Probabilistic Sporadic Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We present the concept of degree of schedulability for mixed-criticality scheduling systems. This concept is given in terms of the two factors 1) Percentage of Missed Deadlines (PoMD), and 2) Degradation of the Quality of Service (DoQoS). The novel aspect is that we consider task arrival patterns...

  8. Design of an engineered safeguards system for a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winblad, A.E.; McKnight, R.P.; Fienning, W.C.; Fenchel, B.R.

    1977-06-01

    Several Engineered Safeguards System concepts and designs are described that provide increased protection against a wide spectrum of adversary threats. An adversary sequence diagram that outlines all possible adversary paths through the safeguards elements in a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility is shown. An example of a critical adversary path is given

  9. A balancing act? The implications of mixed strategies for performance measurement system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how firms design performance measurement systems (PMSs) to support the pursuit of mixed strategies. In particular, we examine the implications of firms' joint strategic emphasis on both low cost and differentiation for their use of performance measurement and incentive

  10. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  11. A network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jingao

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption. This protocol can provide every bank user a safe and effective way to manage his own bank account, and also can effectively prevent the hacker attacks and bank clerk crime, so that it is absolute to guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of bank users.

  12. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  13. A frequency domain subspace algorithm for mixed causal, anti-causal LTI systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraanje, Rufus; Verhaegen, Michel; Verdult, Vincent; Pintelon, Rik

    2003-01-01

    The paper extends the subspacc identification method to estimate state-space models from frequency response function (FRF) samples, proposed by McKelvey et al. (1996) for mixed causal/anti-causal systems, and shows that other frequency domain subspace algorithms can be extended similarly. The method

  14. Calculation of residual electricity mixes when accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System) - The need for a harmonised system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadal, H. L.; Nyland, C. A.; Hanssen, O. J.

    2009-01-01

    According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO 2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe. (author)

  15. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Herrero; Peter G Jones; Stanley Karanja; Ianetta Mutie; Mariana C Rufino; Philip K Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa,...

  16. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  17. Amplitude death induced by mixed attractive and repulsive coupling in the relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nannan; Sun, Zhongkui; Xu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The amplitude death (AD) phenomenon is found in the relay system in the presence of the mixed couplings composed of attractive coupling and repulsive coupling. The generation mechanism of AD is revealed and shows that the middle oscillator achieving AD is a prerequisite to further suppress oscillation of the outermost oscillators for the paradigmatic Stuart-Landau and Rössler models. Moreover, regarding the Stuart-Landau relay system as a small motif of star network, we also observe that the mixed couplings can facilitate AD state of the whole network system. Particularly, the threshold of coupling strength is invariable with the change of network size. Our findings may shed a new insight to explore the effects of hybrid coupling on complex systems, also provide a new strategy to control dynamic behaviors in engineering science and neuroscience fields.

  18. Optimal design of a system containing mixed redundancies with respect to reliability and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear system generally consists of subsystems that may employ any of the partial, standby, and active redundancies, and is, therefore, a system with mixed type of redundancies. Optimization of reliability or availability of such systems at the design stage is a difficult problem. There appears to be no published work on the optimal design of maintained systems consisting of mixed redundancies. An attempt is therefore made, to present the basis of design and the solution technique to achieve this. An algorithm is described which makes the solution of this mathematically difficult problem possible. Some examples are demonstrated. To achieve further efficiency a study was organized and the recommendations for obtaining a minimum solution time are provided. Although, in the illustration, only the linear constraints and reliability, as the only design parameter, have been considered, the algorithm works well with the nonlinear type of constraints and can be used with other design parameters also. (author)

  19. On the Use of an Algebraic Signature Analyzer for Mixed-Signal Systems Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Geurkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to design of an algebraic signature analyzer that can be used for mixed-signal systems testing. The analyzer does not contain carry propagating circuitry, which improves its performance as well as fault tolerance. The common design technique of a signature analyzer for mixed-signal systems is based on the rules of an arithmetic finite field. The application of this technique to the systems with an arbitrary radix is a challenging task and the devices designed possess high hardware complexity. The proposed technique is simple and applicable to systems of any size and radix. The hardware complexity is low. The technique can also be used in arithmetic/algebraic coding and cryptography.

  20. A system for destroying mixed and hazardous wastes with no gas or liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.W.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1992-04-01

    We developed a conceptual design for a processing system in which the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste would be destroyed, while discharging virtually no gaseous or liquid effluents. Only solid products would be produced. For mixed waste feeds these could then be transported and disposed as low level waste. This system would oxidize the organics using any one of several destruction processes adapted to replace air with a mixture of O 2 and recycled CO 2 . Net production Of CO 2 , HC1, and H 2 O in the dosed recycle system would be scrubbed or reacted to solid products such as CaCO 3 , NaCl, and concrete. This no-effluent design may improve community acceptance of a waste destruction system

  1. Environmentally safe separation and pre-concentration of rhodium and ruthenium from spent nuclear fuel using mixed-micelle cloud point extraction and determination by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjit, M.; Meeravali, N.N.; Kumar, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recently, spend nuclear fuel waste of thermal and fast reactors are emerging as an alternative valuable resource for Rh, Ru and Pd. In addition, its presence causes the difficulty in the vitrification process. Hence, its safe extraction from these wastes has to be carried out by using the environmental friendly extraction procedure. In this study, we have reported the simple mixed-micelle cloud point extraction (MM-CPE) procedure for separation as well as pre-concentration of Rh, Ru and Pd. This MM-CPE is carried out preliminarily from aqueous chloride medium with Aliquat-336/Triton X-114 mixed-micelles in the absence and presence of tin(II) chloride. In presence of chloride medium alone, only Pd get extracted quantitatively, while extraction of Rh and Ru are negligible. In presence of tin chloride, the extraction of Rh and Ru increases and becomes quantitative, without affecting the extraction of Pd. The MM-CPE conditions are optimized under influence of variables such as HCI, Aliquat-336, Triton X-114 and tin chloride concentrations and incubation time and temperature. Under the optimized conditions, the accuracy of the procedure is verified by using recovery study carried out from real water samples. This work is under progress to apply real nuclear fuel waste samples

  2. Selection of AT-Tank Analysis Equipment for Determining Completion of Mixing and Particle Concentration in Hanford Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.G.; Ozanich, R.M.; Bailey, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document will describe the functions and requirements of the at-tank analysis system concept developed by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and Berkeley Instruments. It will discuss commercially available at-tank analysis equipment, and compare those that meet the stated functions and requirements. This is followed by a discussion of the considerations used in the selection of instrumentation for the concept design, and an overall description of the proposed at-tank analysis system

  3. Conflicting demands of No Child Left Behind and state systems: Mixed messages about school performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Linn

    2005-01-01

    An ever-increasing reliance on student performance on tests holds schools and educators accountable both to state accountability systems and also to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. While each state has constructed its own definition of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) requirements within the confines of NCLB, substantial differences between the accountability requirements of many state systems and NCLB still have resulted in mixed messages regardi...

  4. Quantum properties of a parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman type atomic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharypov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the quantum properties of two light fields used to parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman type atomic system. The system realizes an effective Hamiltonian of beamsplitter type coupling between the light fields, which allows to control squeezing and amplitude distribution of the light fields, as well as realizing their entanglement. The scheme can be feasibly applied to engineer the quantum properties of two single-mode light fields in properly chosen input states.

  5. On the phenomenon of mixed dynamics in Pikovsky-Topaj system of coupled rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchenko, A. S.; Gonchenko, S. V.; Kazakov, A. O.; Turaev, D. V.

    2017-07-01

    A one-parameter family of time-reversible systems on three-dimensional torus is considered. It is shown that the dynamics is not conservative, namely the attractor and repeller intersect but not coincide. We explain this as the manifestation of the so-called mixed dynamics phenomenon which corresponds to a persistent intersection of the closure of the stable periodic orbits and the closure of the completely unstable periodic orbits. We search for the stable and unstable periodic orbits indirectly, by finding non-conservative saddle periodic orbits and heteroclinic connections between them. In this way, we are able to claim the existence of mixed dynamics for a large range of parameter values. We investigate local and global bifurcations that can be used for the detection of mixed dynamics.

  6. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  7. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from jets characteristic of pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell break through? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored.

  8. Enthalpies of mixing in the ternary system aluminium chloride - potassium chloride - aluminium chloride monoamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatem, G.; Gaune-Escard, M.; Bros, J.P. (Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Saint Jerome); Ostvold, T. (Norges Tekniske Hoegskole, Trondheim (Norway). Inst. for Uorganisk Kjemi)

    1988-06-01

    Quasi binary enthalpy of mixing experiments have been performed in the ternary liquid system AlCl{sub 3}-AlCl{sub 3}NH{sub 3}-KCl by mixing AlCl{sub 3} + KCl with AlCl{sub 3}NH{sub 3} keeping the ratio X{sub AlCl3}/X{sub KCl} = 1.125, 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. At X{sub AlCl3}NH{sub 3} = 0.5 and T = 270deg C the enthalpies of mixing were {approx equal} -430 J mol{sup -1} for all the quasi-binaries studied. The new enthalpy data are not fully consistent with published vapour pressure data and thermodynamic model calculations. (orig.).

  9. Mixed-mode distribution systems for high average power electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Kimrey, H.D.; Bigelow, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    The ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) experiment consists of 24 simple magnetic mirrors joined end-to-end to form a torus of closed magnetic field lines. In this paper, we first describe an 80% efficient mixed-mode unpolarized heating system which couples 28-GHz microwave power to the midplane of the 24 EBT-S cavities. The system consists of two radiused bends feeding a quasi-optical mixed-mode toroidal distribution manifold. Balancing power to the 24 cavities is determined by detailed computer ray tracing. A second 28-GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system using a polarized grid high field launcher is described. The launcher penetrates the fundamental ECH resonant surface without a vacuum window with no observable breakdown up to 1 kW/cm 2 (source limited) with 24 kW delivered to the plasma. This system uses the same mixed-mode output as the first system but polarizes the launched power by using a grid of WR42 apertures. The efficiency of this system is 32%, but can be improved by feeding multiple launchers from a separate distribution manifold

  10. Building integration of concentrating solar systems for heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsou, Sapfo; Infante Ferreira, Carlos; Krieg, Jan; Ezzahiri, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A new solar collection system integrated on the façade of a building is investigated for Dutch climate conditions. The solar collection system includes a solar façade, a receiver tube and 10 Fresnel lenses. The Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses considered were linear, non-imaging, line – focused with a system tracking the position of the sun that ensures vertical incidence of the direct solar radiation on the lenses. For the heating system a double-effect absorption heat pump, which requires high temperature of the heating fluid, was used, working with water and lithium-bromide as refrigerant and solution respectively. The Fresnel lens system is connected with the absorption heat pump through a thermal energy storage tank which accumulates the heat from the Fresnel lens system to provide it to the high pressure generator of the absorption heat pump. - Highlights: • The integration of Fresnel lenses in solar thermal building façades is investigated. • Using building integrated Fresnel lenses, 43% heating energy can be saved. • Energy savings in Mediterranean countries are significantly larger. • The absorption heat pump could make great contribution to energy savings for Dutch climate conditions

  11. Vision-Inspection System for Residue Monitoring of Ready-Mixed Concrete Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Seok Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to propose a vision-inspection system that improves the quality management for ready-mixed concrete (RMC. The proposed system can serve as an alternative to the current visual inspection method for the detection of residues in agitator drum of RMC truck. To propose the system, concept development and the system-level design should be executed. The design considerations of the system are derived from the hardware properties of RMC truck and the conditions of RMC factory, and then 6 major components of the system are selected in the stage of system level design. The prototype of system was applied to a real RMC plant and tested for verification of its utility and efficiency. It is expected that the proposed system can be employed as a practical means to increase the efficiency of quality management for RMC.

  12. Mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoates production from sugar molasses: the use of a 2-stage CSTR system for culture selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M G E; Concas, S; Bengtsson, S; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. The use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) and low cost feedstocks have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness of the process. It has typically been carried out in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR). In this study, a 2-stage CSTR system (under Feast and Famine conditions) was used to effectively select for PHA-storing organisms using fermented molasses as feedstock. The effect of influent substrate concentration (60-120 Cmmol VFA/L) and HRT ratio between the reactors (0.2-0.5h/h) on the system's selection efficiency was assessed. It was shown that Feast reactor residual substrate concentration impacted on the selective pressure for PHA storage (due to substrate-dependent kinetic limitation). Moreover, a residual substrate concentration coming from the Feast to the Famine reactor did not jeopardize the physiological adaptation required for enhanced PHA storage. The culture reached a maximum PHA content of 61%. This success opens new perspectives to the use of wastewater treatment infrastructure for PHA production, thus valorizing either excess sludge or wastewaters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glass forming ability of the Fe-Zr-Cu system studied by thermodynamic calculation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.L.; Liu, B.X.

    2009-01-01

    The glass forming ability/range (GFA/GFR) of the Fe-Zr-Cu system was studied by thermodynamic calculation based on Miedema's model and Alonso's method. It is found that when the atomic concentration of Zr is between 34% and 56%, no matter what the atomic concentrations of Fe and Cu are, amorphous phase could be obtained, thus the atomic mismatch playing a dominating role in influencing the GFA. While the atomic concentration of Zr is out of the above range, the GFA is highly influenced by the immiscibility between Fe and Cu. Experimentally, ion beam mixing was carried out to synthesize amorphous alloys in the Fe-Zr-Cu system. It turned out that in the samples with overall compositions of Fe 26 Zr 36 Cu 38 , Fe 52 Zr 27 Cu 21 and Fe 21 Zr 60 Cu 19 , which are located in or at the edge of the calculated GFR, amorphous phases were indeed obtained, whereas no amorphous phase was obtained if the overall compositions were located outside of the predicted region favoring for amorphous alloy formation, showing a good agreement between the experimental results and the thermodynamic calculation.

  14. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design is performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey is completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins is designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicts that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors

  15. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    The conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design has been performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey was completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins were designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicted that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing in a four-level confined atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Mei-Zhen, Shi; Dong-Ning, Liu; Jian-Ping, Song; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated coexisting four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing (SWM) in ultra-thin, micrometre and long vapour cells. There exists competition between Dicke-narrowing features and polarization interference in the micrometre cell. The oscillation behaviour of SWM signal intensities and linewidths results from destructive interference. With a larger destructive interference, the SWM signal in ultra-thin cells shows a narrow spectrum, in contrast to the long cell case. Due to the Dicke-narrowing features, a narrow spectrum can be obtained, and such spectra can be used for high precision measurements and metrological standards. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. Property-Based Monitoring of Analog and Mixed-Signal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, John; Little, Scott; Maler, Oded; Nickovic, Dejan

    In the recent past, there has been a steady growth of the market for consumer embedded devices such as cell phones, GPS and portable multimedia systems. In embedded systems, digital, analog and software components are combined on a single chip, resulting in increasingly complex designs that introduce richer functionality on smaller devices. As a consequence, the potential insertion of errors into a design becomes higher, yielding an increasing need for automated analog and mixed-signal validation tools. In the purely digital setting, formal verification based on properties expressed in industrial specification languages such as PSL and SVA is nowadays successfully integrated in the design flow. On the other hand, the validation of analog and mixed-signal systems still largely depends on simulation-based, ad-hoc methods. In this tutorial, we consider some ingredients of the standard verification methodology that can be successfully exported from digital to analog and mixed-signal setting, in particular property-based monitoring techniques. Property-based monitoring is a lighter approach to the formal verification, where the system is seen as a "black-box" that generates sets of traces, whose correctness is checked against a property, that is its high-level specification. Although incomplete, monitoring is effectively used to catch faults in systems, without guaranteeing their full correctness.

  18. Dynamics of soluble and inert pollutant concentrations in linear and deterministic systems with time varying parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltzer, M.

    1977-04-01

    The tracer theory in steady and non-steady systems is presented. The unsteady system was applied in the study of the concentration dynamics of the National Water Carrier in Israel. A method that uses Bromine 82 for the investigation of the transfer time distribution and of the dynamics of inert matter concentration in the system is desribed. (B.G.)

  19. Sustainability of a Compartmentalized Host-Parasite Replicator System under Periodic Washout-Mixing Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Furubayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and dominance of parasitic replicators are among the major hurdles for the proliferation of primitive replicators. Compartmentalization of replicators is proposed to relieve the parasite dominance; however, it remains unclear under what conditions simple compartmentalization uncoupled with internal reaction secures the long-term survival of a population of primitive replicators against incessant parasite emergence. Here, we investigate the sustainability of a compartmentalized host-parasite replicator (CHPR system undergoing periodic washout-mixing cycles, by constructing a mathematical model and performing extensive simulations. We describe sustainable landscapes of the CHPR system in the parameter space and elucidate the mechanism of phase transitions between sustainable and extinct regions. Our findings revealed that a large population size of compartments, a high mixing intensity, and a modest amount of nutrients are important factors for the robust survival of replicators. We also found two distinctive sustainable phases with different mixing intensities. These results suggest that a population of simple host–parasite replicators assumed before the origin of life can be sustained by a simple compartmentalization with periodic washout-mixing processes.

  20. US Department of Energy Mixed Waste Integrated Program performance systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to support decision making for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/EM-50 Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) and the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. A systems approach to the assessment of enhanced waste form(s) production will be employed including, coordination and configuration management of activities in specific technology development tasks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and application of a methodology for implementing a performance systems analysis on mixed waste treatment process technologies. The second section describes a conventional approach to process systems analysis followed by a methodology to estimate uncertainties when analyzing innovative technologies. Principles from these methodologies have been used to develop a performance systems analysis for MWIP. The third section describes the systems analysis tools. The fourth section explains how the performance systems analysis will be used to analyze MWIP process alternatives. The fifth and sixth sections summarize this paper and describe future work for this project. Baseline treatment process technologies (i.e., commercially available technologies) and waste management strategies are evaluated systematically using the ASPEN PLUS program applications developed by the DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP). Alternatives to the baseline (i.e., technologies developed by DOE's Office of Technology Development) are analyzed using FLOW, a user-friendly program developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Currently, this program is capable of calculating rough order-of-magnitude mass and energy balances to assess the performance of the alternative technologies as compared to the baseline process. In the future, FLOW will be capable of communicating information to the ASPEN PLUS program

  1. Effect of the mixed liquor suspended solid on permeate in a membrane bioreactor system applied for the treatment of sewage mixed with wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, José M; Molina-Muñoz, Marisa; Moreno, Begoña; González-López, Jesús; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated at different mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations (3069, 4314 and 6204 mg/L). The pilot plant was located in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Puente de los Vados, Granada, Spain), which receives the wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry of Granada. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material (COD and BOD5), suspended solids, turbidity, color and microbial indicators such as E. coli and coliphages. Therefore, the results suggest that the transmembrane pressure (TMP) was influence by the MLSS concentration assayed. However, an increase in the MLSS concentration increases the nitrification processes and consequently the amount of NO3- in permeate.

  2. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable

  3. Quantification of Melanoidin Concentration in Sugar-Casein Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.; Wedzicha, B.L.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Melanoidins are the final, brown, high molecular weight products of the Maillard reaction. The aim of the present study was to determine the average molar extinction coefficients of melanoidins formed in heated glucose-casein and fructose-casein systems. The value of the extinction coefficient can

  4. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    -PJM tests and modeling being conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and small-scale agitation tests and evaluations of effects waste and AFA ingredients have on gas retention and mass transfer being conducted at SRNL. Only work conducted at SRNL is reported here. Key results are: (1) The unexpected gas holdup behavior reported in 2006 for a small-scale agitation system is confirmed. The gas holdup data from small-scale and bench-scale impeller-type mixing systems reported herein show very different trends than the behavior exhibited by the prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system tested in the PNNL APEL facility. Results obtained from testing this 1/4-scale prototypic mixing system will be reported by PNNL. The reason for this difference in holdup behavior between the two different mixing systems is not known at this time. Consequently, data from the small mechanical agitation systems should not be extrapolated to prototypic plant conditions. (2) Bench-scale and small-scale tests conducted with Dow Corning 1520-US AFA show it to be a viable replacement to Dow Corning Q2-3183A AFA. This alternative AFA will, however, require significantly higher dosage (concentration) to perform the same antifoam function. (3) Addition of noble metals to the AZ-101 waste simulant does not produce a catalytic gas retention effect with the AFA. The Gas holdup is similar whether or not noble metals are present in the AZ-101 simulant. (4) Mass transfer tests were performed in a large (0.76 m diameter) bubble column filled to 1.3, 3.4, and 7.4 m elevations with water and the AZ-101 waste simulant. Mass transfer coefficients for air bubbles emanating from a prototypic 0.051 m diameter sparger were obtained from the transient decay of dissolved oxygen concentration in the initially saturated fluids. Adding AFA to water reduces the mass transfer coefficient slightly. AFA addition reduces the mass transfer coefficient for AZ-101 simulant more than it does for water because the

  5. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  6. Application of Cascade Refrigeration System with Mixing Refrigerant in Cold Air Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Tong, M. W.; Yang, G.; Wang, X. P.

    In the mechanical cutting process, the replacement of traditional cutting solution with cold air can avoid the pollution of environment. In order to high efficient the refrigerating device and flexible adjust the temperature of cold air, it is necessary to use cascade refrigeration system to supply cool quantity for the compressed air. The introduction of a two-component non-azeotropic mixing refrigerant into the cryogenic part of the cascade system, can effectively solve the problems of the system working at too high pressure and the volume expanding of refrigerant in case of the cascade refrigeration sets closed down. However, the filling ratio of mixing refrigerants impact on the relationships among the closing down pressure, refrigerating output and refrigerating efficiency. On the basis of computing and experiment, the optimal mixing ratio of refrigerant R22/R13 and a low temperature of -60° were obtained in this study. A cold air injecting device possessing high efficiency in energy saving has also been designed and manufactured. The cold air, generated from this cascade system and employed in a cutting process, takes good comprehensive effects on machining and cutting.

  7. A 3-D mixed-reality system for stereoscopic visualization of medical dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vincenzo; Megali, Giuseppe; Troia, Elena; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Mosca, Franco

    2009-11-01

    We developed a simple, light, and cheap 3-D visualization device based on mixed reality that can be used by physicians to see preoperative radiological exams in a natural way. The system allows the user to see stereoscopic "augmented images," which are created by mixing 3-D virtual models of anatomies obtained by processing preoperative volumetric radiological images (computed tomography or MRI) with real patient live images, grabbed by means of cameras. The interface of the system consists of a head-mounted display equipped with two high-definition cameras. Cameras are mounted in correspondence of the user's eyes and allow one to grab live images of the patient with the same point of view of the user. The system does not use any external tracker to detect movements of the user or the patient. The movements of the user's head and the alignment of virtual patient with the real one are done using machine vision methods applied on pairs of live images. Experimental results, concerning frame rate and alignment precision between virtual and real patient, demonstrate that machine vision methods used for localization are appropriate for the specific application and that systems based on stereoscopic mixed reality are feasible and can be proficiently adopted in clinical practice.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of the electrical double layer on smectite surfaces contacting concentrated mixed electrolyte (NaCl-CaCl2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-04-01

    We report new molecular dynamics results elucidating the structure of the electrical double layer (EDL) on smectite surfaces contacting mixed NaCl-CaCl{sup 2} electrolyte solutions in the range of concentrations relevant to pore waters in geologic repositories for CO{sub 2} or high-level radioactive waste (0.34-1.83 mol{sub c} dm{sup -3}). Our results confirm the existence of three distinct ion adsorption planes (0-, {beta}-, and d-planes), often assumed in EDL models, but with two important qualifications: (1) the location of the {beta}- and d-planes are independent of ionic strength or ion type and (2) 'indifferent electrolyte' ions can occupy all three planes. Charge inversion occurred in the diffuse ion swarm because of the affinity of the clay surface for CaCl{sup +} ion pairs. Therefore, at concentrations 0.34 mol{sub c} dm{sup -3}, properties arising from long-range electrostatics at interfaces (electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, co-ion exclusion, colloidal aggregation) will not be correctly predicted by most EDL models. Co-ion exclusion, typically neglected by surface speciation models, balanced a large part of the clay mineral structural charge in the more concentrated solutions. Water molecules and ions diffused relatively rapidly even in the first statistical water monolayer, contradicting reports of rigid 'ice-like' structures for water on clay mineral surfaces.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of the electrical double layer on smectite surfaces contacting concentrated mixed electrolyte (NaCl-CaCl2) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, Ian C; Sposito, Garrison

    2011-08-15

    We report new molecular dynamics results elucidating the structure of the electrical double layer (EDL) on smectite surfaces contacting mixed NaCl-CaCl(2) electrolyte solutions in the range of concentrations relevant to pore waters in geologic repositories for CO(2) or high-level radioactive waste (0.34-1.83 mol(c) dm(-3)). Our results confirm the existence of three distinct ion adsorption planes (0-, β-, and d-planes), often assumed in EDL models, but with two important qualifications: (1) the location of the β- and d-planes are independent of ionic strength or ion type and (2) "indifferent electrolyte" ions can occupy all three planes. Charge inversion occurred in the diffuse ion swarm because of the affinity of the clay surface for CaCl(+) ion pairs. Therefore, at concentrations ≥0.34 mol(c) dm(-3), properties arising from long-range electrostatics at interfaces (electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, co-ion exclusion, colloidal aggregation) will not be correctly predicted by most EDL models. Co-ion exclusion, typically neglected by surface speciation models, balanced a large part of the clay mineral structural charge in the more concentrated solutions. Water molecules and ions diffused relatively rapidly even in the first statistical water monolayer, contradicting reports of rigid "ice-like" structures for water on clay mineral surfaces. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Influence of concentration and temperature on tunneling and rotational dynamics of ammonium in Rb1-x (NH4)x I mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natkaniec, I.; Dianoux, A.J.; Martinez-Sarrion, M.L.; Mestres, L.; Herraiz, M.; Smirnov, L.S.; Shuvalov, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Rb 1x (NH 4 ) x I mixed crystals are studied by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering using time-of-flight spectrometers in the concentration region of the x-T phase diagram 0.01≤x≤0.66 at 5≤T≤150K, where dynamic and static orientational disorder phases are generally found. It is shown that at 5 K rotational tunneling levels for ammonium concentrations x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.06 are similar. Additional tunneling levels are observed for x=0.16 which can be explained as the result of T-states splitting for account of NH 4 -NH 4 interaction. Tunneling levels are not observed for x=0.40 as the result of forming of orientational glass state. The elastic incoherent structure factors for concentrations 0.01≤x≤0.16 (dynamic orientational disordered α-phase), x=0.40 (orientational glass state) and 0.50≤x≤0.66 (orientational ordered state) have different temperature dependences

  11. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in a forest-river system in the South Qinling Mts., China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A

    2016-04-15

    The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios vary significantly between different water types (p water samples including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), EC, and TDS (p water chemistry in the river water. Using the three-source mixing model, atmospheric inputs, carbonate, and silicate weathering contribute 74%, 20%, and 6% respectively to the dissolved Sr in the river water. This research has provided new insights into the contribution of sources of Sr to a river system in a mountainous catchment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isothermal phase equilibria for the (HFC-32 + HFC-134a) mixed-gas hydrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Yuuki; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Structural phase transition results in the heterogeneous azeotropic-like behaviour. ► HFC-134a molecules, in spite of an s-II former, occupy the large cages of s-I. ► Negative azeotropic-like behaviour becomes more remarkable at higher temperatures. - Abstract: Isothermal phase equilibria (pressure-composition relations in hydrate, gas, and aqueous phases) in the {difluoromethane (HFC-32) + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)} mixed-gas hydrate system were measured at the temperatures 274.15 K, 279.15 K, and 283.15 K. The heterogeneous azeotropic-like behaviour derived from the structural phase transition of (HFC-32 + HFC-134a) mixed-gas hydrates appears over the whole temperature range of the present study. In addition to the heterogeneous azeotropic-like behaviour, the isothermal phase equilibrium curves of the (HFC-32 + HFC-134a) mixed-gas hydrate system exhibit the negative homogeneous azeotropic-like behaviour at temperatures 279.15 K and 283.15 K. The negative azeotropic-like behaviour, which becomes more remarkable at higher temperatures, results in the lower equilibrium pressure of (HFC-32 + HFC-134a) mixed-gas hydrates than those of both simple HFC-32 and HFC-134a hydrates. Although the HFC-134a molecule forms the simple structure-II hydrate at the temperatures, the present findings reveal that HFC-134a molecules occupy a part of the large cages of the structure-I mixed-gas hydrate.

  14. Systems of general nonlinear set-valued mixed variational inequalities problems in Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the existing theorems and methods for finding solutions of systems of general nonlinear set-valued mixed variational inequalities problems in Hilbert spaces are studied. To overcome the difficulties, due to the presence of a proper convex lower semi-continuous function, φ and a mapping g, which appeared in the considered problem, we have used some applications of the resolvent operator technique. We would like to point out that although many authors have proved results for finding solutions of the systems of nonlinear set-valued (mixed variational inequalities problems, it is clear that it cannot be directly applied to the problems that we have considered in this paper because of φ and g. 2000 AMS Subject Classification: 47H05; 47H09; 47J25; 65J15.

  15. Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo

    activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... multiple compounds (i.e. organic and inorganic chemical stressors) and stream compartments to locate key sources and risk drivers. The approaches and findings in this thesis could truly be helpful for management and future remediation of mixed land use stream systems....... of the different stream compartments thus comprises both temporal and spatial variation. Despite the growing understanding of the complexity, approaches for a holistic risk assessment of the potential impacts in the three stream compartments of a mixed land use stream system are still missing. To investigate...

  16. Assessment of the importance of mixing in the Yucca Mountain hydrogeological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F.; Gimeno, Maria; Acero, Patricia; Peterman, Zell; Oliver, Thomas A.; Gascoyne, Mel; Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this work is to assess the importance of mixing on the hydrochemistry of waters in and around Yucca Mountain, most importantly in those waters south of Yucca Mountain. Due to the general north-south gradient of groundwater flow in the Yucca Mountain area, leakage from the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository would have the greatest consequences in the saturated zone waters south of Yucca Mountain. In this area (Amargosa River, Amargosa Flat and Ash Meadows), three main aquifers interact: the Regional Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer (RCA), the Tertiary Tuffs Aquifer (TTA) and the Quaternary Basin-fill Aquifer (QBfA). One consequence of upward leakage from the Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer would be to dilute the contaminant plume should one develop from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The reverse, downward leakage from the Tertiary Tuffs Aquifer or the Quaternary Basin-fill Aquifer into the Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer would contaminate a major aquifer system. It is clearly of the utmost importance to explore the links between theses aquifer systems and to assess the degree of mixing between the groundwaters. To attain this general objective, the following specific objectives have been either defined in advance or decided as being important during the development of the project: 1. Compile a dataset of water samples from the Yucca Mountain area. This dataset should contain samples from all the potential water types that contribute to the chemistry of the groundwaters in the aquifer systems in the area. 2. Perform a careful total-system exploratory analysis on the initial (raw) dataset in order to identify trends and outliers. 3. Perform a detailed exploratory analysis of each individual hydrofacies with the aim of identifying and eliminating from the raw dataset all the samples heavily affected by processes other than mixing (e.g. water-rock interaction, evaporation, cation exchange). PHREEQC simulations were

  17. Assessment of the importance of mixing in the Yucca Mountain hydrogeological system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F.; Gimeno, Maria; Acero, Patricia (Geochemical Modelling Group, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Peterman, Zell; Oliver, Thomas A. (U.S. Geological Survey (United States)); Gascoyne, Mel (Gascoyne Geoprojects Inc (Canada)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work is to assess the importance of mixing on the hydrochemistry of waters in and around Yucca Mountain, most importantly in those waters south of Yucca Mountain. Due to the general north-south gradient of groundwater flow in the Yucca Mountain area, leakage from the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository would have the greatest consequences in the saturated zone waters south of Yucca Mountain. In this area (Amargosa River, Amargosa Flat and Ash Meadows), three main aquifers interact: the Regional Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer (RCA), the Tertiary Tuffs Aquifer (TTA) and the Quaternary Basin-fill Aquifer (QBfA). One consequence of upward leakage from the Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer would be to dilute the contaminant plume should one develop from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The reverse, downward leakage from the Tertiary Tuffs Aquifer or the Quaternary Basin-fill Aquifer into the Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer would contaminate a major aquifer system. It is clearly of the utmost importance to explore the links between theses aquifer systems and to assess the degree of mixing between the groundwaters. To attain this general objective, the following specific objectives have been either defined in advance or decided as being important during the development of the project: 1. Compile a dataset of water samples from the Yucca Mountain area. This dataset should contain samples from all the potential water types that contribute to the chemistry of the groundwaters in the aquifer systems in the area. 2. Perform a careful total-system exploratory analysis on the initial (raw) dataset in order to identify trends and outliers. 3. Perform a detailed exploratory analysis of each individual hydrofacies with the aim of identifying and eliminating from the raw dataset all the samples heavily affected by processes other than mixing (e.g. water-rock interaction, evaporation, cation exchange). PHREEQC simulations were

  18. Balancing a Mixed-Model Assembly System in the Footwear Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi , Parisa; Rebelo , Rui ,; Soeiro Ferreira , José

    2017-01-01

    Part 7: Operations Planning, Scheduling and Control; International audience; Portuguese footwear industry has improved dramatically to become one of the main world players. This work is part of a project in cooperation with a large footwear company, operating a new automated assembly equipment, integrating various lines. Balancing such lines implies going from an almost manual preparation executed by experienced operators, to a planning supported by optimisation systems. These complex mixed-m...

  19. Mixed problems for linear symmetric hyperbolic systems with characteristic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secchi, P.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the initial-boundary value problem for symmetric hyperbolic systems with characteristic boundary of constant multiplicity. In the linear case we give some results about the existence of regular solutions in suitable functions spaces which take in account the loss of regularity in the normal direction to the characteristic boundary. We also consider the equations of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics under perfectly conducting wall boundary conditions and give some results about the solvability of such mixed problem. (author). 16 refs

  20. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm(2) ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. Objectives. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm(2) for the 12 fragrance substances......, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm(2) ) be used for aimed and screening patch testing....... that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Materials and Methods. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual...

  1. Tuning the effects of Landau level mixing on anisotropic transport in quantum Hall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Peter M; Kennett, Malcolm P

    2012-01-01

    Electron-electron interactions in half-filled high Landau levels in two-dimensional electron gases in a strong perpendicular magnetic field can lead to states with anisotropic longitudinal resistance. This longitudinal resistance is generally believed to arise from broken rotational invariance, which is indicated by charge density wave order in Hartree-Fock calculations. We use the Hartree-Fock approximation to study the influence of externally tuned Landau level mixing on the formation of interaction-induced states that break rotational invariance in two-dimensional electron and hole systems. We focus on the situation when there are two non-interacting states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and construct a Landau theory to study coupled charge density wave order that can occur as interactions are tuned and the filling or mixing are varied. We consider numerically a specific example where mixing is tuned externally through Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the phase diagram and find the possibility of ordering involving coupled striped or triangular charge density waves in the two levels. Our results may be relevant to recent transport experiments on quantum Hall nematics in which Landau level mixing plays an important role. (paper)

  2. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured supply function (CSF) model calculates an oligopolistic equilibrium among competing generating companies (GenCos), presuming that GenCos anticipate that rival firms will react to price increases by expanding their sales at an assumed rate. The CSF model is generalized here to include each generator's conjectures concerning how the price of transmission services (point-to-point service and constrained interfaces) will be affected by the amount of those services that the generator demands. This generalization reflects the market reality that large producers will anticipate that they can favorably affect transmission prices by their actions. The model simulates oligopolistic competition among generators while simultaneously representing a mixed transmission pricing system. This mixed system includes fixed transmission tariffs, congestion-based pricing of physical transmission constraints (represented as a linearized dc load flow), and auctions of interface capacity in a path-based pricing system. Pricing inefficiencies, such as export fees and no credit for counterflows, can be simulated. The model is formulated as a linear mixed complementarity problem, which enables very large market models to be solved. In the second paper of this two-paper series, the capabilities of the model are illustrated with an application to northwest Europe, where transmission pricing is based on such a mixture of approaches

  3. Mixed H∞ and passive control for linear switched systems via hybrid control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qunxian; Ling, Youzhu; Wei, Lisheng; Zhang, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the mixed H∞ and passive control problem for linear switched systems based on a hybrid control strategy. To solve this problem, first, a new performance index is proposed. This performance index can be viewed as the mixed weighted H∞ and passivity performance. Then, the hybrid controllers are used to stabilise the switched systems. The hybrid controllers consist of dynamic output-feedback controllers for every subsystem and state updating controllers at the switching instant. The design of state updating controllers not only depends on the pre-switching subsystem and the post-switching subsystem, but also depends on the measurable output signal. The hybrid controllers proposed in this paper can include some existing ones as special cases. Combine the multiple Lyapunov functions approach with the average dwell time technique, new sufficient conditions are obtained. Under the new conditions, the closed-loop linear switched systems are globally uniformly asymptotically stable with a mixed H∞ and passivity performance index. Moreover, the desired hybrid controllers can be constructed by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, a numerical example and a practical example are given.

  4. Applying rotary jet heads for mixing and mass transfer in a forced recirculation tank reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hummer, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    or an external loop.In this study, we determine mixing times in water and CMC solutions and oxygen mass transfer coefficients in water for a tank reactor system where a small fraction of the total liquid volume is rapidly circulated through an external loop and injected through the nozzles of rotary jet heads....... The system has a very simple design with no internal baffles or heat exchange area, and between batches the rotary jet heads are used for cleaning in place.Mixing time decreases and mass transfer increases with increasing circulation flow rate. For nozzle diameters between 5.5 and 10 mm and with one or two...... rotary jet heads, it is shown that a remarkable saving in power input for a fixed mixing time or mass transfer coefficient can be obtained by using a large nozzle diameter and two rather than one rotary jet heads.At the experimental conditions of the study the system is scaleable by simple formulas...

  5. Modelling the effect of environmental factors on resource allocation in mixed plants systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Priesack, Eckart

    2010-05-01

    In most cases, growth of plants is determined by competition against neighbours for the local resources light, water and nutrients and by defending against herbivores and pathogens. Consequently, it is important for a plant to grow fast without neglecting defence. However, plant internal substrates and energy required to support maintenance, growth and defence are limited and the total demand for these processes cannot be met in most cases. Therefore, allocation of carbohydrates to growth related primary metabolism or to defence related secondary metabolism can be seen as a trade-off between the demand of plants for being competitive against neighbours and for being more resistant against pathogens. A modelling approach is presented which can be used to simulate competition for light, water and nutrients between plant individuals in mixed canopies. The balance of resource allocation between growth processes and synthesis of secondary compounds is modelled by a concept originating from different plant defence hypothesis. The model is used to analyse the impact of environmental factors such as soil water and nitrogen availability, planting density and atmospheric concentration of CO2 on growth of plant individuals within mixed canopies and variations in concentration of carbon-based secondary metabolites in plant tissues.

  6. Evaluation of layered and mixed passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Mattson, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory column tests for passive treatment systems for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area were conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, effects of influent water chemistry, and required residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone (LS), in either layered or mixed configurations, were set up to simulate the treatment system. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) with a residence time of 15 h and greater. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic substrates and secondary precipitates. The results suggest that the mixed systems containing organic materials and LS perform better than the layered systems, sequentially treated by organic and LS layers, due to the enhanced pH adjustment, which is beneficial to bacterial activity and precipitation of secondary minerals. The column tests provide a basis for the design of a field-scale passive treatment system, such as a reducing and alkalinity producing system or a permeable reactive barrier.

  7. DOE mixed waste metals partition in a rotary kiln wet off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.; Looper, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. Test burns were conducted using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The partition of metals between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and stack gas was measured as a function of kiln temperature, waste chloride content, and waste form (liquid or solid). Three waste simulants were used in these tests, a high and low chloride solid waste mix (paper, plastic, latex, PVC), and a liquid waste mix (benzene and chlorobenzene). An aqueous solution containing: antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium was added to the waste to determine metals fate under various combustion conditions. Test results were used to divide the metals into three general groups, volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile metals. Mercury was the only volatile metal. No mercury remained in the kiln bottom ash under any incineration condition. Lead, cadmium, thallium, and silver exhibited semi-volatile behavior. The partition between the kiln ash, blowdown, and stack gas depended on incineration conditions. Chromium, nickel, barium, antimony, and arsenic exhibited nonvolatile behavior, with greater than 90 wt % of the metal remaining in the kiln bottom ash. Incineration temperature had a significant effect on the partition of volatile and semi-volatile metals, and no effect on nonvolatile metal partition. As incineration temperatures were increased, the fraction of metal leaving the kiln increased. Three metals, lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a relationship between chloride concentration in the waste and metals partition. Increasing the concentration of chlorides in the waste or burning liquid waste versus solid waste resulted in a larger fraction of metal exiting the kiln

  8. Feasibility and parametric evaluation of hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system integrated with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is a novel technology that has potential to offer high efficient system. In this study, a thermally coupled model of concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelctric (CPV/TEG) system is established to investigate...... feasibility of the hybrid system over wide range of solar concentrations and different types of heat sinks. The model takes into account critical design parameters in the CPV and the TEG module. The results of this study show that for thermoelectric materials with ZT ≈ 1, the CPV/TEG system is more efficient...

  9. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  10. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed in some detail, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell breakthrough? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored. The central upwell must satisfy several criteria to be considered a free jet. First, it must travel for several diameters in a nearly constant direction. Second, its velocity must decay with the inverse of elevation. Third, it should have an approximately Gaussian profile. Fourth, the influence of surface or body forces must be negligible. A combination of historical data in a 12.75 ft test vessel, newly analyzed data from the 8 ft test vessel, and conservation of momentum arguments derived specifically for PJM operating conditions demonstrate that the central upwell satisfies these criteria where vigorous breakthrough is achieved. An essential feature of scaling from one vessel to the next is the requirement that the underlying physics does not change adversely. One may have confidence in scaling if (1) correlations and formulas capture the relevant physics; (2) the underlying physics does not change from the conditions under which it was developed to the conditions of interest; (3) all factors relevant to scaling have been incorporated, including flow, material, and geometric considerations; and (4) the uncertainty in the relationships is sufficiently narrow to meet required specifications. Although the central upwell

  11. Mixing of fluids in hydrothermal ore-forming (Sn,W) systems: stable isotope and rare earth elements data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, T. M.; Popova, J. A.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Ignatiev, A. V.; Matveeva, S. S.; Limantseva, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    values of quartz from productive association remained rather high). The intense mixing of magmatic and meteoric waters was sponsored by the location of the hydrothermal systems in a permeable zone at the contact of the leucogranite cupolas with hornfels and sandstones, cut by dykes and subsequently developing ore-hosting fissures. REEs data, which also may describe the process of fluid mixing, have been obtained for the minerals and rocks with the help of ICP MS analysis. The REEs concentrations in mineral- forming fluids have been obtained: a) from total analysis of fluid inclusion solutions and b) from calculations of REEs values for such minerals, as fluorite, wolframite, sheelite with mineral-fluid partitioning coefficients (Raimbault et al., 1985). REEs distribution in host rocks was studied for the cross sections, previously analysed for oxygen isotopic zonality (Sushchevskaya et al., 2008). Interpretation of these results favours the view, that ore-forming fluids are of mixing genesis.

  12. Stability Criterion of Linear Stochastic Systems Subject to Mixed H2/Passivity Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung-Chieh Ku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The H2 control scheme and passivity theory are applied to investigate the stability criterion of continuous-time linear stochastic system subject to mixed performance. Based on the stochastic differential equation, the stochastic behaviors can be described as multiplicative noise terms. For the considered system, the H2 control scheme is applied to deal with the problem on minimizing output energy. And the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed under desired initial conditions. Besides, the passivity theory is employed to constrain the effect of external disturbance on the system. Moreover, the Itô formula and Lyapunov function are used to derive the sufficient conditions which are converted into linear matrix inequality (LMI form for applying convex optimization algorithm. Via solving the sufficient conditions, the state feedback controller can be established such that the asymptotical stability and mixed performance of the system are achieved in the mean square. Finally, the synchronous generator system is used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method.

  13. A robust mixed H2/H∞ based LFC of a deregulated power system including SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Jalili, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust decentralized controller based on mixed H 2 /H ∞ control technique for the solution of load frequency control (LFC) problem including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in a deregulated electricity environment. To achieve decentralization, in each control area, the connections between this area and the rest of the system and the effects of possible contracts are treated as a set of new disturbance signals. In order to minimize effects of load disturbances and to achieve desired level of robust performance in the presence of modeling uncertainties and practical constraints on control action the idea of mixed H 2 /H ∞ control technique is being used for the solution of LFC problem. This newly developed design strategy combines advantage of H 2 and H ∞ control syntheses and gives a powerful multi-objectives design addressed by the linear matrix inequalities (LMI) technique. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method a four-area restructured power system is considered as a test system under different operating conditions. The simulation results with the proposed controller are shown to maintain robust performance in the presence of SMES unit in two areas at power system and without SMES unit in any of the areas. Analysis reveals that the proposed control strategy with considering SMES unit improves significantly the dynamical performances of system such as settling time and overshoot against parametric uncertainties for a wide range of area load demands and disturbances in either of the areas even in the presence of system nonlinearities

  14. Laboratory scale characterizations of the mixing zone for reactive transport in a carbonate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed laboratory-scale percolation experiments combining hydrodynamic and geochemical reaction processes in a unique setup to study the evolution of permeability induced by dissolution reactions in a natural Carbonate system. First, the key parameters controlling Calcite dissolution due to mixing of two end member solutions representing fresh and sea waters are assessed through typical geochemical modeling. Both solutions are at equilibrium with Calcite and are associated with different values of partial pressure of CO 2 and salinity. Mixing of the two selected end members provides a sub saturated solution with low and moderate ionic strength, high pCO 2 , and high salinity. Modeling results reveal that the maximum sub saturation is expected to occur for mixing ratios of about 15%. The expected dissolved Calcite until equilibrium attains its maximum at a mixing ratio of about 45%. Experimental results indicate that the calcite dissolution rate at a 15% mixing ratio is higher than that observed at 45% mixing ratio. The outlet solution from the sample reactor is always under saturated with respect to Calcite. Permeability of the tested sample displays a rapid decrease during the beginning of injection. It then shows a stable behavior until the end of percolation when the porosity of the sample increases due to dissolution. To understand permeability and porosity evolution obtained from the mixing experiments we perform dissolution experiments under different dissolution regimes by injection of deionized water (DW) and/or DW enriched with CO 2 . It is observed that permeability decreases when DW is injected whereas it increases following injection of DW enriched with CO 2 . The observed global dissolution rate of Calcite is larger for the experiments with DW enriched with CO 2 than for those performed with DW. The observed permeability reduction is due to the clogging of connected pore caused by migration of micro particles detaching from the host porous

  15. Scheduling of head-dependent cascaded hydro systems: Mixed-integer quadratic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, particularly concerning head-dependent cascaded hydro systems. We propose a novel mixed-integer quadratic programming approach, considering not only head-dependency, but also discontinuous operating regions and discharge ramping constraints. Thus, an enhanced short-term hydro scheduling is provided due to the more realistic modeling presented in this paper. Numerical results from two case studies, based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, illustrate the proficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Scheduling of head-dependent cascaded hydro systems: Mixed-integer quadratic programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, particularly concerning head-dependent cascaded hydro systems. We propose a novel mixed-integer quadratic programming approach, considering not only head-dependency, but also discontinuous operating regions and discharge ramping constraints. Thus, an enhanced short-term hydro scheduling is provided due to the more realistic modeling presented in this paper. Numerical results from two case studies, based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, illustrate the proficiency of the proposed approach. (author)

  17. Sensorimotor enhancement with a mixed reality system for balance and mobility rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joyce; Perez, Claire F

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a mixed reality system incorporating virtual reality (VR), surface perturbations and light touch for gait rehabilitation. Haptic touch has emerged as a novel and efficient technique to improve postural control and dynamic stability. Our system combines visual display with the manipulation of physical environments and addition of haptic feedback to enhance balance and mobility post stroke. A research study involving 9 participants with stroke and 9 age-matched healthy individuals show that the haptic cue provided while walking is an effective means of improving gait stability in people post stroke, especially during challenging environmental conditions such as downslope walking.

  18. Optimization of light quality from color mixing light-emitting diode systems for general lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    2012-01-01

    are simulated using radiometrically measured single LED spectra. The method uses electrical input powers as input parameters and optimizes the resulting spectral power distribution with regard to color rendering index, correlated color temperature and chromaticity distance. The results indicate Pareto optimal......To address the problem of spectral light quality from color mixing light-emitting diode systems, a method for optimizing the spectral output of multicolor LED system with regards to standardized quality parameters has been developed. The composite spectral power distribution from the LEDs...

  19. Type VI secretion system MIX-effectors carry both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Schwartz, Nika; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Zhang, Junmei; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2017-11-01

    Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class. Remarkably, in addition to six predicted bactericidal effectors, the T6SS1 secretome includes three putative anti-eukaryotic effectors. One of these is a MIX-effector containing a cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 domain. We demonstrate that T6SS1 can use this MIX-effector to target phagocytic cells, resulting in morphological changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. In conclusion, the V. proteolyticus T6SS1, a system homologous to one found in pathogenic vibrios, uses a suite of polymorphic effectors that target both bacteria and eukaryotic neighbors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Job-mix modeling and system analysis of an aerospace multiprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallach, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An aerospace guidance computer organization, consisting of multiple processors and memory units attached to a central time-multiplexed data bus, is described. A job mix for this type of computer is obtained by analysis of Apollo mission programs. Multiprocessor performance is then analyzed using: 1) queuing theory, under certain 'limiting case' assumptions; 2) Markov process methods; and 3) system simulation. Results of the analyses indicate: 1) Markov process analysis is a useful and efficient predictor of simulation results; 2) efficient job execution is not seriously impaired even when the system is so overloaded that new jobs are inordinately delayed in starting; 3) job scheduling is significant in determining system performance; and 4) a system having many slow processors may or may not perform better than a system of equal power having few fast processors, but will not perform significantly worse.

  1. Mixed-space formalism for the dielectric response in periodic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blase, X.; Rubio, A.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    We present a useful formalism for the calculation of the polarizability and dielectric response of periodic systems. Our approach is to introduce intermediate ''mixed-space'' functions with the full translational periodicity of the lattice. This is a considerable advantage over existing real-space methods since the decay length of a response function [such as ε(r,r'|ω)] can be significantly larger than the Wigner-Seitz cell radius. Further, we show that, in supercell calculations, these mixed-space functions decay as fast as the corresponding real-space quantities within one supercell, so that the present scheme can be combined with usual real-space cutoff techniques. The advantage of the present method compared to a standard reciprocal space approach is exemplified for the case of bulk silicon and for the case of a Si surface in a slab geometry

  2. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; /SLAC; Little, William A.; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

    2014-05-28

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  3. Optimization research on the concentration field of NO in selective catalytic reduction flue gas denitration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qingyu; Zhang, Guoqiang; Che, Kai; Shao, Shikuan; Li, Yanfei

    2017-08-01

    Taking 660 MW generator unit denitration system as a study object, an optimization and adjustment method shall be designed to control ammonia slip, i.e. adjust ammonia injection system based on NO concentration distribution at inlet/outlet of the denitration system to make the injected ammonia distribute evenly. The results shows that, this method can effectively improve NO concentration distribution at outlet of the denitration system and decrease ammonia injection amount and ammonia slip concentration. Reduce adverse impact of SCR denitration process on the air preheater to realize safe production by guaranteeing that NO discharge shall reach the standard.

  4. Mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 Ising system on the Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayrak, Erhan; Yigit, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the critical behaviors of the half-integer mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 Blume-Capel Ising ferrimagnetic system, we have used the exact recursion relations on the Bethe lattice. The system was studied for the coordination numbers with q=3, 4, 5 and 6, and the obtained phase diagrams are illustrated on the (kT c /|J|,D A /|J|) plane for constant values of D B /|J|, the reduced crystal field of the sublattice with spin-5/2, and on the (kT c /|J|,D B /|J|) plane for constant values of D A /|J|, the reduced crystal field of the sublattice with spin-3/2, for q=3 only, since the cases corresponding to q=4, 5 and 6 reproduce results similar to the case for q=3. In addition we have also presented the phase diagram with equal strengths of the crystal fields for q=3, 4, 5 and 6. Besides the second- and first-order phase transitions, the system also exhibits compensation temperatures for appropriate values of the crystal fields. In this mixed spin system while the second-order phase transition lines never cut the reduced crystal field axes as in the single spin type spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 Ising models separately, the first-order phase transition lines never connect to the second-order phase transition lines and they end at the critical points, therefore the system does not give any tricritical points. In addition to this, this mixed-spin model exhibits one or two compensation temperatures depending on the values of the crystal fields, as a result the compensation temperature lines show reentrant behavior

  5. Feasibility and parametric evaluation of hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system integrated with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is a novel technology that has potential to offer high efficient system. In this study, a thermally coupled model of concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelctric (CPV/TEG) system is established to investigate...... than CPV-only system. The results indicate that contribution of the TEG in power generation enhances at high sun concentrations. Depending to critical design parameters of the CPV and the TEG, there are optimal values for heat transfer coefficient in the heat sink that offer minimum energy cost....... feasibility of the hybrid system over wide range of solar concentrations and different types of heat sinks. The model takes into account critical design parameters in the CPV and the TEG module. The results of this study show that for thermoelectric materials with ZT ≈ 1, the CPV/TEG system is more efficient...

  6. A Compound Detection System Based on Ultrasonic Flow Rate and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hui WANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new detection system for monitoring gas concentration and flow rate. Velocity difference of ultrasonic wave in bi-directional propagation in measured gas is recorded and utilized for computing the online gas concentration and flow rate. Meanwhile, the temperature compensation, return signal processing and error analysis algorithms are applied to improve the accuracy. The experimental results show that, compared with the single sensor measurement of gas flow rate or concentration, the proposed detection system with lower cost and higher accuracy can be applied in the occasion which needs simultaneous monitoring of gas concentration and flow rate.

  7. Leaching of a copper flotation concentrate with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Turan, M.; Soner Altundoğan, H.

    2014-09-01

    The leaching behavior of a copper flotation concentrate was investigated using ammonium persulfate (APS) in an autoclave system. The decomposition products of APS, active oxygen, and acidic medium were used to extract metals from the concentrate. Leaching experiments were performed to compare the availability of APS as an oxidizing agent for leaching of the concentrate under atmospheric conditions and in an autoclave system. Leaching temperature and APS concentration were found to be important parameters in both leaching systems. Atmospheric leaching studies showed that the metal extractions increased with the increase in APS concentration and temperature (up to 333 K). A similar tendency was determined in the autoclave studies up to 423 K. It was also determined that the metal extractions decreased at temperatures above 423 K due to the passivation of the particle surface by molten elemental sulfur. The results showed that higher copper extractions could be achieved using an autoclave system.

  8. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraira, S.P.; Madruga, A.; Pérez-Juan, M.; Ruíz-de-la-Torre, J.; Rodríguez-Prado, M.; Calsamiglia, S.; Manteca, X.; Ferret, A.

    2015-07-01

    Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR) or separately as a free choice (FCH) to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001). Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001), whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01) in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence. (Author)

  9. Hospital accreditation, reimbursement and case mix: links and insights for contractual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Khalife, Jade; El-Jardali, Fadi; Romanos, Jenny; Harb, Hilda; Hamadeh, Ghassan; Dimassi, Hani

    2013-12-05

    Resource consumption is a widely used proxy for severity of illness, and is often measured through a case-mix index (CMI) based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs), which is commonly linked to payment. For countries that do not have DRGs it has been suggested to use CMIs derived from International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Our research objective was to use ICD-derived case-mix to evaluate whether or not the current accreditation-based hospital reimbursement system in Lebanon is appropriate. Our study population included medical admissions to 122 hospitals contracted with the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) between June 2011 and May 2012. Applying ICD-derived CMI on principal diagnosis cost (CMI-ICDC) using weighing similar to that used in Medicare DRG CMI, analyses were made by hospital accreditation, ownership and size. We examined two measures of 30-day re-admission rate. Further analysis was done to examine correlation between principal diagnosis CMI and surgical procedure cost CMI (CMI-CPTC), and three proxy measures on surgical complexity, case complexity and surgical proportion. Hospitals belonging to the highest accreditation category had a higher CMI than others, but no difference was found in CMI among the three other categories. Private hospitals had a higher CMI than public hospitals, and those more than 100 beds had a higher CMI than smaller hospitals. Re-admissions rates were higher in accreditation category C hospitals than category D hospitals. CMI-ICDC was fairly correlated with CMI-CPTC, and somehow correlated with the proposed proxies. Our results indicate that the current link between accreditation and reimbursement rate is not appropriate, and leads to unfairness and inefficiency in the system. Some proxy measures are correlated with case-mix but are not good substitutes for it. Policy implications of our findings propose the necessity for changing the current reimbursement system by including case mix and outcome indicators in

  10. Research on Bifurcation and Chaos in a Dynamic Mixed Game System with Oligopolies Under Carbon Emission Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Yang, Wenhui; Lou, Wandong

    This paper establishes an oligopolistic game model under the carbon emission reduction constraint and investigates its complex characteristics like bifurcation and chaos. Two oligopolistic manufacturers comprise three mixed game models, aiming to explore the variation in the status of operating system as per the upgrading of benchmark reward-penalty mechanism. Firstly, we set up these basic models that are respectively distinguished with carbon emission quantity and study these models using different game methods. Then, we concentrate on one typical game model to further study the dynamic complexity of variations in the system status, through 2D bifurcation diagrams and 4D parameter adjustment features based on the bounded rationality scheme for price, and the adaptive scheme for carbon emission. The results show that the carbon emission constraint has significant influence on the status variation of two-oligopolistic game operating systems no matter whether it is stable or chaotic. Besides, the new carbon emission regulation meets government supervision target and achieves the goal of being environment friendly by motivating the system to operate with lower carbon emission.

  11. Production, Competition Indices, and Nutritive Values of Setaria splendida, Centrosema pubescens, and Clitoria ternatea in Mixed Cropping Systems in Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate production, different competition indices and nutritive value of Setaria splendida, Centrosema pubescens, and Clitoria ternatea in monoculture and mix cropping system on peat soil land. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. The five treatments were: S. splendida sole cropping (SS, C. pubescens sole cropping (CP, C. ternatea sole cropping (CT, S. splendida and C. pubescens mix cropping (SS/CP and S. splendida/C. ternatea mix cropping (SS/CT. The DM yield of S. splendida in mixed cropping with C. pubescens increased 43.4% and in mix cropping with C. ternatea increased 15.7% compared to sole S. splendida. The value of land equivalent ratio of SS/CP (LERSS/CP was >1. The LERSS/CT value was 1. The competition ratio (CR values of S. splendida in both mix cropping were >1. The agressivity (A values of S. splendida in both mix cropping were positive. The crude protein, NDF and ADF content of forage were not affected by mix cropping system. In conclusion, mix cropping in peatland do not affect productivity and nutritive value of S. splendida, C. pubescens, and C. ternatea. S. splendida is more effective in exploiting environmental resources when intercropped with C. pubescens compared to C. ternatea on peatland.

  12. Optimization of light quality from color mixing light-emitting diode systems for general lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorseth, Anders

    2012-03-01

    Given the problem of metamerisms inherent in color mixing in light-emitting diode (LED) systems with more than three distinct colors, a method for optimizing the spectral output of multicolor LED system with regards to standardized light quality parameters has been developed. The composite spectral power distribution from the LEDs are simulated using spectral radiometric measurements of single commercially available LEDs for varying input power, to account for the efficiency droop and other non-linear effects in electrical power vs. light output. The method uses electrical input powers as input parameters in a randomized steepest decent optimization. The resulting spectral power distributions are evaluated with regard to the light quality using the standard characteristics: CIE color rendering index, correlated color temperature and chromaticity distance. The results indicate Pareto optimal boundaries for each system, mapping the capabilities of the simulated lighting systems with regard to the light quality characteristics.

  13. Continuous Flow Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pulsed Mixing Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs with uniform sizes, fine morphology, and good monodispersity, a pulsed mixing microfluidic system based on PZT actuation was presented. The system includes PZT micropump and Y type micromixer. By adjusting voltage (entrance flow rate, pulsed frequency, phase, and other parameters, a variety of mixing modes can be achieved, so as to realize the controllable synthesis of nanoparticles in a certain range. By numerical simulation and analysis, the channel section size, entrance angle, and pulse frequency were optimized. Based on the optimized structure and working parameters, the test prototype has been manufactured in lab, and the related synthesis tests of AuNPs were carried out. The test results indicate that AuNPs with uniform morphology and good monodispersity can be synthesized using the system with the section size (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm, the entrance channel angle (60° under condition of the pulsed frequency (300 Hz, and the entrance flow rate (4 mL/min. The average diameter and its standard deviation of AuNPs synthesized were 21.6 nm, 4.83 nm, respectively. The research work above can be applied to the fields such as the controlled synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles, biomedicine, and microchemical system.

  14. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber-attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offline. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber-attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-09-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill- Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data generated by multiple sensors of different types, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for a specific decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offliine. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  16. Parametric performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation system equipped with a thermal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz Hussain, M.; Lee, Gwi Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both thermal and electrical powers varied by changing surface area of collector. • Thermal stratification and total system power were increased at critical flow rate. • Parametric analysis of the CPVC system offers to determine the desired outcome. • Thermal and electrical outputs varied by changing the focal length of Fresnel lens. - Abstract: This article presents a parametric study of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation (CPVC) system with an attached thermal storage tank. The CPVC system utilized dual-axis tracker and multiple solar energy collector (SEC) modules and forced cooling system. Each SEC module comprised 16 triple-junction solar cells, copper tube absorbers, and 16 Fresnel lenses were aligned against each solar cell. This study investigated all possible parameters that can affect the CPVC system performance, including the collector area, solar irradiation, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate. The surface area of the collector and the thermal power were increased by increasing the number of SEC modules connected in series; however, the electrical power output decreased from the first to the fourth SEC module consecutively. At the measured optimal flow rate, mixing and thermal diffusion in the storage tank were decreased, and the total power generation from the CPVC system was increased. Variations in the thermal and electrical power outputs were also observed when the focal length of the Fresnel lens was changed. This parametric analysis enables the CPVC system to obtain the desired output by varying the combination of operational and geometrical parameters

  17. The coordination number of Lu(III) in a mixed system of methanol and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisaka, M.; Takuwa, N.; Suganuma, H.

    2000-01-01

    The stability constants (β 1(F) ) of the monofluoro complex of Lu(III) and those (β 1(Cl) ) of the monochloride solvent-shared ion-pair of Lu(III) have been determined in mixed solvents of methanol and water at 0.10 and 1.00 mol x dm -3 ionic strengths, respectively. The variation in lnβ 1(F) with an increase in the mole fraction of methanol (X s ) in the mixed solvent system showed an acute-angled convex inflection point at X s ∼ 0.12, an acute-angled concave inflection point at X s ∼ 0.22, and another acute-angled convex inflection point at X s ∼ 0.27. It was concluded that the first and the second convex inflection points denoted the CN of Lu 3+ from CN = 8 to a mixture of CN = 8 and 7 and from CN = 8 and 7 to a mixture containing CN = 6, respectively. The concave point is the starting point of a change in the CN of Lu(III) in LuF 2+ from CN = 8 to a mixture of CN = 8 and 7. The values at two inflection points of the CN around Lu 3+ are consistent with the inflection points of the variation in the values of lnβ 1(Cl ) versus the dielectric constant of the mixed solvent. (author)

  18. Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sebastien [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN), Paris (France); Madec, Gurvan [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The sensitivity of the tropical climate to tidal mixing in the Indonesian Archipelago (IA) is investigated using a coupled general circulation model. It is shown that the introduction of tidal mixing considerably improves water masses properties in the IA, generating fresh and cold anomalies in the thermocline and salty and cold anomalies at the surface. The subsurface fresh anomalies are advected in the Indian Ocean thermocline and ultimately surface to freshen the western part of the basin whereas surface salty anomalies are advected in the Leuwin current to salt waters along the Australian coast. The {proportional_to}0.5 C surface cooling in the IA reduces by 20% the overlying deep convection. This improves both the amount and structure of the rainfall and weakens the wind convergence over the IA, relaxes the equatorial Pacific trade winds and strengthens the winds along Java coast. These wind changes causes the thermocline to be deeper in the eastern equatorial Pacific and shallower in the eastern Indian Ocean. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude is therefore slightly reduced while the Indian Ocean Dipole/Zonal Mode (IODZM) variability increases. IODZM precursors, related to ENSO events the preceding winter in this model, are also shown to be more efficient in promoting an IODZM thanks to an enhanced wind/thermocline coupling. Changes in the coupled system in response tidal mixing are as large as those found when closing the Indonesian Throughflow, emphasizing the key role of IA on the Indo-Pacific climate. (orig.)

  19. System for measuring of air concentration in air-steam mixture during the transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, Gennady A.; Gakal, Pavlo G.; Epifanov, Konstantin S.; Osokin, Gennady V.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    Description of system for air concentration measuring in air-steam mixture during the transients is represented. Air concentration measuring is based on discrete sampling method. The measuring system consists of sampler, transport pipeline, distributor and six measuring vessels. From the sampler air-steam mixture comes to distributor through transport pipeline and fills consecutively the measuring vessels. The true air concentration in place of measurement was defined based on measured air concentration in samples taken from measuring vessels. For this purpose, the mathematical model of transients in measuring system was developed. Air concentration transient in air-steam mixture in place of measurement was described in mathematical model by air concentration time-dependent function. The function parameters were defined based on air concentration measured in samples taken from measuring vessels. Estimated error of air concentration identification was about 10%. Measuring system was used in experiments on EREC BKV-213 test facility intended for testing of VVER-440/V-213 reactor barbotage-vacuum system

  20. Design and simulation of a low concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, J.I.; Vallverdu, X.; Lechon, M.A.; Ibanez, M.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and low solar concentration technologies are combined into a photovoltaic/thermal system to increase the solar energy conversion efficiency. This paper presents a prototype 11X concentration rate and two axis tracking system. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel concentrator with a channel photovoltaic/thermal collector. An analytical model to simulate the thermal behaviour of the prototype is proposed and validated. Measured thermal performance of the solar system gives values above 60%. Theoretical analysis confirms that thermal conduction between the PV cells and the absorber plate is a critical parameter

  1. Bacterial concentration detection using a portable embedded sensor system for environmental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi , Marco; Riccò , Bruno; Parolin , Carola; Vitali , Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The detection of bacterial concentration is important in different fields since high microbial contamination or the presence of particular pathogens can seriously endanger human health. The reference technique to measure bacterial concentration is Standard Plate Count (SPC) that, however, has long response times (24 to 72 hours) and is not suitable for automatic implementation. This paper presents a portable embedded system for bacterial concentration measurement based...

  2. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  3. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE's mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements

  4. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  5. Memory controllers for mixed-time-criticality systems architectures, methodologies and trade-offs

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, Sven; Akesson, Benny; Goossens, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design and performance analysis of SDRAM controllers that cater to both real-time and best-effort applications, i.e. mixed-time-criticality memory controllers. The authors describe the state of the art, and then focus on an architecture template for reconfigurable memory controllers that addresses effectively the quickly evolving set of SDRAM standards, in terms of worst-case timing and power analysis, as well as implementation. A prototype implementation of the controller in SystemC and synthesizable VHDL for an FPGA development board are used as a proof of concept of the architecture template.

  6. Chemical effects in ion mixing of a ternary system (metal-SiO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, T.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Sands, T.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing of Ti, Cr, and Ni thin films with SiO2 by low-temperature (- 196-25 C) irradiation with 290 keV Xe has been investigated. Comparison of the morphology of the intermixed region and the dose dependences of net metal transport into SiO2 reveals that long range motion and phase formation probably occur as separate and sequential processes. Kinetic limitations suppress chemical effects in these systems during the initial transport process. Chemical interactions influence the subsequent phase formation.

  7. Risk-based decision-making regarding mixed waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an efficient approach that has been developed for making rational and defensible decisions among a variety of options (e.g., remedial actions, engineered barriers designs/operational controls, inventory limitations, site investigations and research) for mixed-waste disposal systems, which consist of multiple interacting sites (active, inactive and/or future) with multiple pathways. Such decisions are based on maximizing the satisfaction of identified objectives (including the reliability vis a vis specified criteria), explicitly considering tradeoffs among objectives as well as uncertainties in the consequences of any option

  8. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed states: A description based on system-ancilla coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    We propose a general description for the unambiguous discrimination of mixed states according to the system-environment coupling, and present a procedure to reduce this to a standard semidefinite programming problem. In the two-state case, we introduce the canonical vectors and partly simplify the problem to the case of discrimination between pairs of canonical vectors. By considering the positivity of the 2x2 matrices, we obtain a series of new upper bounds for the total success probability, which depends on both the prior probabilities and specific state structures

  9. Multimode seeded Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing in a convergent, compressible, miscible plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanier, N.E.; Barnes, Cris W.; Batha, S.H.; Day, R.D.; Magelssen, G.R.; Scott, J.M.; Dunne, A.M.; Parker, K.W.; Rothman, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) mixing seeded by multimode initial surface perturbations in a convergent, compressible, miscible plasma system is measured on the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] laser system. A strong shock (Mach 12-20), created by 50 laser beams, is used to accelerate impulsively a thin aluminum shell into a lower density foam. As the system converges, both interfaces of the aluminum are RM unstable and undergo mixing. Standard x-ray radiographic techniques are employed to survey accurately the zero-order hydrodynamics, the average radius and overall width, of the marker. LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman et al., Comments on Plasma Physics 2, 51 (1975)] simulations are consistent with the zero-order behavior of initially smooth markers. In experiments with smooth aluminum markers, the measured marker width shortly after shock passage behaves incompressibly and thickens due to Bell-Plesset effects. At high convergence (>4), the marker begins to compress as the rebounding shock passes back through the marker. When an initial multimode perturbation is introduced to the outer surface of the marker, the measured marker width is observed to increase by 10-15 μm, and is substantially smaller than as-shot simulations using RAGE [R. M. Baltrusaitis et al., Phys. Fluids 8, 2471 (1996)] would predict

  10. The best-mix of power demand and supply. Energy system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    In September 2012 after nationwide discussions, Energy and Environmental Council decided 'Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment': (1) Realization of a society not dependent on nuclear power, (2) Realization of green energy revolution, (3) For ensuring stable supply of energy, (4) Bold implementation of reform of electricity power systems and (5) Steady implementation of global warming countermeasures. Energy problem should be considered as supply and demand of whole energy. However, long-term energy problem such as in 2050 should assume global limits of fossil fuel supply and carbon dioxide emission and then in order to realize sustainable demand and supply of energy, maximum deployment of renewable energy power in primary energy and most practicable electrification of final demand for energy conservation should be implemented. Best mix of power and energy demand and supply would be significant to some extent. This article outlined analysis of power demand and supply in a long term, future power technologies and demand side management, and problems of power system operation and their solution, and then described energy system integration to realize power and energy/society best mix. (T. Tanaka)

  11. The generation mix in the Spanish electric system: factors affecting its evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarri, A.

    2009-01-01

    Currently while dealing with the electricity generation mix issue, the three pillars it is based on must be considered: sustain ability, security of supply and economic competitiveness. The two main sustain ability challenges that directly affect the future generation mix for the next decade is the development of the renewable sources and the reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions. This will cause an important increase of renewable and that the electricity system should be prepared for other low-carbon technologies such as nuclear and carbon capture and storage applied to fossil fuel plants. Regarding the security of supply, there is an increasing need to improve it. This can be achieved mainly through two actions: increase the self-sufficiency in primary energy and/or improve the diversification of the primary energy sources and of the origin such sources. finally it is also important to achieve and efficient investment system. In order to attain this goal, there is a need for a stable regulatory framework that should be the base for a real price for electricity. In order to fulfill all these requirements there is a need to keep all the options open, and also, to prepare the system to face the changes that are on sight. (Author) 8 refs

  12. High-concentration mirror-based Kohler integrating system for tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Benitez, P.; Cvetkovic, A.

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-mirror high concentration nonimaging optic has been designed that shares the advantages of present two mirror aplanatic imaging concentrators but also overcomes their main limitation of trade-off between acceptance angle and irradiance uniformity. A system concept has been defined, and a first prototype in under development.

  13. Influence of zirconium ion concentration in model extraction systems TBP - diluents - Zr+4 - nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoz, F.; Tlalka, M.

    1987-07-01

    In systems containing TBP, MBP, DBP and 1-butanol stable emulsions and precipitates are formed which separation is difficult in certain domain of concentration in zirconium ions. MPB and DBP increase stability of primary emulsion in kerosen and carbon tetrachloride but for different concentrations of nitric acid. Addition of 1-butanol decreases slightly the stability of primary emulsion [fr

  14. Mixing and CP-violation in the Bd and Bs systems at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wharton, Andrew Mark; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Search for deviations from the standard model is performed in the systems of the neutral B mesons. The Bs system is studied in the decay into J/psi phi. The mixing phase phi_s and the width difference DeltaGamma_s are determined through the simultaneous study of angular distributions in the final state and of the decay time, performed together with flavour tagging at production. The measurement performed by ATLAS with the full LHC Run-1 sample is discussed and compared to the previous world average. The width difference DeltaGamma_d in the Bd system is obtained from the comparison of the decay time distributions in the flavour specific state J/psi K* and in the CP eigenstate J/psi KS. The result obtained from the full sample of data collected by ATLAS at 7 and 8 TeV is the most accurate single measurement of the width difference currently available.

  15. Glass formation of the Fe-Hf system studied by thermodynamic calculation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.L.; Wang, W.C.; Li, J.H.; Liu, B.X.

    2010-01-01

    For the Fe-Hf system characterized by a negative heat of formation, the glass-forming range/ability (GFR/GFA) was studied by thermodynamic calculation based on Miedema's model and Alonso's method. It was found that amorphous phase could be formed in a composition range of 24-86 atom% Hf and that alloy with composition of Fe 58 Hf 42 has the best GFA in the system. Experimentally, ion beam mixing was carried out to synthesize amorphous alloys in the Fe-Hf system. It turned out that in the samples with overall compositions located in the calculated GFR, amorphous phases were indeed obtained, whereas no amorphous phase was obtained if the overall compositions were located outside of the predicted region favoring for amorphous alloy formation, showing a good agreement between the experimental results and the thermodynamic calculation.

  16. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  17. CFD predictions of standby liquid control system mixing in lower plenum of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Christopher; Skarda, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics analysis of BWR lower plenum. • Mixing and stratification of the standby liquid control system injection. • Scoping study highlights the expected flow paths and limitations of experiments. - Abstract: During an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) scenario in certain boiling water reactor (BWR) systems, a standby liquid control system (SLCS) is used to inject a sodium pentaborate solution into the reactor system in order to quickly shut down (scram) the reactor without the use of the control rods. Some BWR designs utilize a SLCS that injects through a set of nozzles on a vertical pipe in the peripheral region of the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. During the scenario, system water levels are reduced and natural circulation flow rates down through the jet pump nozzles and up into the core are a small fraction of the rated system flow. It is during this period that the SLCS flows are considered. This work outlines some initial scoping studies completed by the staff at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). An attempt at benchmarking the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach using a set of available test data from a small facility is outlined. Due to our lack of information related to specific details of the facility geometry along with the limited data available from the test, the benchmark exercise produced only a qualitative basis for selecting turbulence models and mesh density. A CFD model simulating a full-scale reactor system is developed for the lower plenum of a representative BWR/4 design and SLCS flows and mixing are studied under a range of flow conditions. The full-scale BWR simulation builds upon the lessons learned from the benchmark exercise. One challenge for this work is the large size of the domain and the relatively small size of the geometric details such as flow passages and gaps. The geometry is simplified to make meshing feasible by eliminating some of the small features. The

  18. Lithography-free nanofluidic concentrator based on droplets-on-demand system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Zhou, Hongbo; Yao, Shuhuai

    2013-11-01

    Biomarkers are usually low-abundance proteins in biofluids and below detection limit of conventional biosensors. Nanofluidic concentration devices allow efficient biomolecules trapping by utilizing ion concentration polarization near nanochannels. However, once the electric field is turned off, the electrokinetic concentration plug cannot maintain its concentration status and starts to diffuse. In order to maintain the high concentration and extract the concentrated sample for further analysis, a good approach is to encapsulate these plugs into water-in-oil droplets. Here we developed a nanofluidic concentrator based on droplet-on-demand generator to encapsulate concentrated sample in nL droplets. The lithography-free nanochannels were patterned by thermal cracking on the surface of PS Petri-dish. The resulting nanochannel arrays were 30 nm in depth. In combination with microchannels on PDMS, the micro-nano hybrid chip was developed. We used FITC solution to demonstrate that the chip significantly increased the sample concentration for more than 100 folds within 5 minutes. By tuning the pulsed pressure imposed by the solenoid valve connected to the concentration channel, the system can generate a desired volume of droplet with a target sample concentration at a prescribed time. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under General Research Fund (Grant No. 621110).

  19. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  20. Data concentrator card and test system for the CMS ECAL readout

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, N; Alemany, R; Cardoso, N; Varela, J

    2003-01-01

    The Data Concentrator Card (DCC) is part of the Off-Detector (OD) Electronics sub-system of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The DCC is responsible for crystal and trigger data collection from the Front-End system and from the ECAL Trigger system respectively.

  1. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  2. Design and experimental investigation of a Multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Zeshao; Hu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system was proposed. • A prototype of this new concentrator was developed for experimental investigation. • Experimental investigation results showed a good concentrating uniformity. - Abstract: Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energies and meaningful for the sustainable development of energy source. A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) solar power system was proposed in this paper, the design principle of the multi-segment plate concentrator of this solar power system was given, which could provide uniform solar radiation flux density distribution on solar cells. A prototype of this multi-segment plate CPV solar power system was developed for the experimental study, aiming at the investigations of solar radiation flux density distribution and PV performances under this concentrator design. The experimental results showed that the solar radiation flux density distribution provided by the multi-segment plate concentrator had a good uniformity, and the number and temperature of solar cells both influence the photoelectric transformation efficiency of the CPV solar power system.

  3. High concentration of Daunorubicin and Daunorubicinol in human malignant astrocytomas after systemic administration of liposomal Daunorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, K. W.; de Witt Hamer, P. C.; Leenstra, S.; Bakker, P. J.; Beijnen, J. H.; Troost, D.; Kaaijk, P.; Bosch, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    The value of chemotherapy in patients with malignant astrocytoma remains controversial. In our laboratories in vitro experiments with organotypic spheroid cultures showed superior effectiveness of anthracyclines. Systemic administration did not provide in therapeutic concentrations so far. Because

  4. Using Potentiometric Free Drug Sensors to Determine the Free Concentration of Ionizable Drugs in Colloidal Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Chakraborty, Anjan; Xi, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of free drug sensors (FDS) to measure free ionized drug concentrations in colloidal systems, including micellar solutions, emulsions, and lipid formulations during in vitro lipolysis. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) wer...

  5. Design factors of sensors for the optical tracking systems of solar concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh. I.; Fazylov, A. K.; Orlov, S. A.; Burbo, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Basic diagrams for the sensors of the optical tracking systems of solar concentrators are considered, the design factors that determine their accuracy are analyzed, a new sensor design is suggested, and its optimal parameters are determined. (authors)

  6. Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseung Na

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the R&D on fuel cells for portable applications concentrates on increasing efficiencies and energy densities to compete with other energy storage devices, especially batteries. To improve the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC systems, several modifications to system layouts and operating strategies are considered in this paper, rather than modifications to the fuel cell itself. Two modified DMFC systems are presented, one with an additional inline mixer and a further modification of it with a separate tank to recover condensed water. The set point for methanol concentration control in the solution is determined by fuel efficiency and varies with the current and other process variables. Feedforward concentration control enables variable concentration for dynamic loads. Simulation results were validated experimentally with fuel cell systems.

  7. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Abernathey, R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper uses a suite of Earth system models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science, each of which results from an inconsistency between theoretically motivated global energy balances and direct observations. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in Earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s-1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere and thus exhibit large gradients along isopycnals while radiocarbon equilibrates slowly and thus exhibits smaller gradients along isopycnals. Thus it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox, by increasing the transport of mantle helium to the surface more than it would radiocarbon. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the southeastern Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi below the thermocline than is seen in theoretical

  8. Field test analysis of concentrator photovoltaic system focusing on average photon energy and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2015-08-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system is unique and different from the common flat-plate PV system. It uses a multi-junction solar cell and a Fresnel lens to concentrate direct solar radiation onto the cell while tracking the sun throughout the day. The cell efficiency could reach over 40% under high concentration ratio. In this study, we analyzed a one year set of environmental condition data of the University of Miyazaki, Japan, where the CPV system was installed. Performance ratio (PR) was discussed to describe the system’s performance. Meanwhile, the average photon energy (APE) was used to describe the spectrum distribution at the site where the CPV system was installed. A circuit simulator network was used to simulate the CPV system electrical characteristics under various environmental conditions. As for the result, we found that the PR of the CPV systems depends on the APE level rather than the cell temperature.

  9. Classification of polynomial integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Takayuki; Wolf, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We perform a classification of integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations with respect to higher symmetries. We consider polynomial systems that are homogeneous under a suitable weighting of variables. This paper deals with the KdV weighting, the Burgers (or potential KdV or modified KdV) weighting, the Ibragimov-Shabat weighting and two unfamiliar weightings. The case of other weightings will be studied in a subsequent paper. Making an ansatz for undetermined coefficients and using a computer package for solving bilinear algebraic systems, we give the complete lists of second-order systems with a third-order or a fourth-order symmetry and third-order systems with a fifth-order symmetry. For all but a few systems in the lists, we show that the system (or, at least a subsystem of it) admits either a Lax representation or a linearizing transformation. A thorough comparison with recent work of Foursov and Olver is made

  10. Classification of polynomial integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations: I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda 669-1337 (Japan); Wolf, Thomas [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 (Canada)

    2005-09-02

    We perform a classification of integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations with respect to higher symmetries. We consider polynomial systems that are homogeneous under a suitable weighting of variables. This paper deals with the KdV weighting, the Burgers (or potential KdV or modified KdV) weighting, the Ibragimov-Shabat weighting and two unfamiliar weightings. The case of other weightings will be studied in a subsequent paper. Making an ansatz for undetermined coefficients and using a computer package for solving bilinear algebraic systems, we give the complete lists of second-order systems with a third-order or a fourth-order symmetry and third-order systems with a fifth-order symmetry. For all but a few systems in the lists, we show that the system (or, at least a subsystem of it) admits either a Lax representation or a linearizing transformation. A thorough comparison with recent work of Foursov and Olver is made.

  11. Specific heat measurements of the antiferroelectric phase transition in the mixed system KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghivelder, L.; Bastos, C.A.M.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Weid, J.P. von der.

    1984-01-01

    The specific heat of KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x) mixed crystals was measured for four chlorine concentrations between x=0,90 and x=1,00. The entropy change ΔS and critical temperature T sub(c) were obtained and the results are discussed in terms of the orientational motion of the CN - molecular ions. (Author) [pt

  12. Influence of multivalent ions on power production from mixing salt and fresh water with a reverse electrodialysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis is a membrane-based technique for production of sustainable electricity from controlled mixing of a diluted electrolyte solution (e.g., river water) and a concentrated electrolyte solution (e.g., sea water). Reverse electrodialysis has been investigated with pure sodium

  13. Multilevel Tunnelling Systems and Fractal Clustering in the Low-Temperature Mixed Alkali-Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Jug

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and dielectric anomalies of window-type glasses at low temperatures (T<1 K are rather successfully explained by the two-level systems (2LS standard tunneling model (STM. However, the magnetic effects discovered in the multisilicate glasses in recent times, magnetic effects in the organic glasses, and also some older data from mixed (SiO21−x(K2Ox and (SiO21−x(Na2Ox glasses indicate the need for a suitable extension of the 2LS-STM. We show that—not only for the magnetic effects, but also for the mixed glasses in the absence of a field—the right extension of the 2LS-STM is provided by the (anomalous multilevel tunnelling systems (ATS proposed by one of us for multicomponent amorphous solids. Though a secondary type of TS, different from the standard 2LS, was invoked long ago already, we clarify their physical origin and mathematical description and show that their contribution considerably improves the agreement with the experimental data. In spite of dealing with low-temperature properties, our work impinges on the structure and statistical physics of glasses at all temperatures.

  14. A Mixed WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To address the issue that the phasor measurement units (PMUs of wide area measurement system (WAMS are not sufficient for static state estimation in most existing power systems, this paper proposes a mixed power system weighted least squares (WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA technology. The hybrid calculation model is established by incorporating phasor measurements (including the node voltage phasors and branch current phasors and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. Based on PMU placement optimization and bias analysis, the effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations of different cases. Furthermore, emulating calculation shows this method greatly improves the accuracy and stability of the state estimation solution, compared with the traditional WLS state estimation.

  15. Lithium isotope effect in the extraction systems of polyethers: effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shengqiang; Fu Lian

    1991-01-01

    Separation factors of lithium isotopes at 20 deg C were determined in the extraction systems of B15C5-CHCl 3 /LiBr-H 2 O. The initial concentration of LiBr was controlled in the extent of more than 2 mol/l. It may be established that the increase of LiBr concentration causes a remarkable increase of the separation factor. The essence of this effect due to the change in salt concentration was discussed in connection with examination of relevant phenomena in literature. It can be concluded that the relationship between α and Cm, the concentration of lithium salt, is dependent on K Q and K P express respectively, lithium isotope exchange equilibrium constants between Li-crownether complex and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration less than 1-2 mol/l, and between lithium salt ion pair and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration more than 2 mol/l in aqueous phase

  16. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Integrative improvement method and mixed-integer programming in system planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadegheih, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, system planning network is formulated for mixed-integer programming and a Ga. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses and the power generation costs. The Dc load flow equations for the network are embedded in the constraints of the mathematical model to avoid sub-optimal solutions that can arise if the enforcement of such constraints is done in an indirect way. The solution of the model gives the best line additions. and also provides information regarding the optimal generation at each generation point. This method of solutions is demonstrated on the expansion of a 5 bus -bar system to 6 bus-bars

  18. Random crystal field effects on the integer and half-integer mixed-spin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ali; Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have focused on the random crystal field effects on the phase diagrams of the mixed spin-1 and spin-5/2 Ising system obtained by utilizing the exact recursion relations (ERR) on the Bethe lattice (BL). The distribution function P(Di) = pδ [Di - D(1 + α) ] +(1 - p) δ [Di - D(1 - α) ] is used to randomize the crystal field.The phase diagrams are found to exhibit second- and first-order phase transitions depending on the values of α, D and p. It is also observed that the model displays tricritical point, isolated point, critical end point and three compensation temperatures for suitable values of the system parameters.

  19. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  20. Achieving nonlinear optical modulation via four-wave mixing in a four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2018-05-01

    We propose an accessible scheme for implementing tunable nonlinear optical amplification and attenuation via a synergetic mechanism of four-wave mixing (FWM) and optical interference in a four-level ladder-type atomic system. By constructing a cyclic atom-field interaction, we show that two reverse FWM processes can coexist via optical transitions in different branches. In the suitable input-field conditions, strong interference effects between the input fields and the generated FWM fields can be induced and result in large amplification and deep attenuation of the output fields. Moreover, such an optical modulation from enhancement to suppression can be controlled by tuning the relative phase. The quantum system can be served as a switchable optical modulator with potential applications in quantum nonlinear optics.

  1. Conflicting demands of No Child Left Behind and state systems: Mixed messages about school performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An ever-increasing reliance on student performance on tests holds schools and educators accountable both to state accountability systems and also to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB Act of 2001. While each state has constructed its own definition of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP requirements within the confines of NCLB, substantial differences between the accountability requirements of many state systems and NCLB still have resulted in mixed messages regarding the performance of schools. Several features of NCLB accountability and state accountability systems contribute to the identification of a school as meeting goals according to NCLB but failing to do so according to the state accountability system, or vise versa. These include the multiple hurdles of NCLB, the comparison of performance against a fixed target rather than changes in achievement, and the definition of performance goals. The result of these features is a set of AYP measures that is inconsistent both with existing state accountability systems and also with state NAEP performance. Using existing achievement to set the cut-score measured by AYP and using the highest-performing schools to set the year-to-year improvement standards would improve the NCLB accountability system.

  2. Materials for Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems: Optical Properties and Solar Radiation Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. H.; Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; Lemon, M. F.; Romano, E. C.; Boydell, P.

    2010-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are designed to operate over a wide range of solar concentrations, from low concentrations of ˜1 to 12 Suns to medium concentrations in the range from 12 to 200 Suns, to high concentration CPV systems going up to 2000 Suns. Many transparent optical materials are used for a wide variety of functions ranging from refractive and reflective optics to homogenizers, encapsulants and even thermal management. The classes of materials used also span a wide spectrum from hydrocarbon polymers (HCP) and fluoropolymers (FP) to silicon containing polymers and polyimides (PI). The optical properties of these materials are essential to the optical behavior of the system. At the same time radiation durability of these materials under the extremely wide range of solar concentrations is a critical performance requirement for the required lifetime of a CPV system. As part of our research on materials for CPV we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of various polymeric materials to define the optimum material combinations for various CPV systems.

  3. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies' results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%

  4. Optimizing a portable biosensor system for bacterial detection in milk based mix for ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biscotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary focuses of the food industry is providing products compliant with safety standards. The microbiological analysis helps in the identification of the presence of pathogen microorganisms in the food. The analysis with Agar Plate is the classic method. This approach guarantees a high accuracy, but it needs a long detection time (twenty-four to forty-eight hours, beyond high costs and skilled technician. In recent times have been proposed many different methods to have a faster response, and between them there is the impedance method. One of its features is that it is fast, in fact it requires between three to fourteen hours to obtain a reliable measurement. The system is accurate, and suitable to be executed automatically. To test this method has been used UHT Ice Cream Mix. A known volume of mix has been inoculated with increasing percentage of cultures of E. coli. The measurement of the impedance of the inoculated mix has been done by an electronic board designed for the application, and by applying a sinusoidal voltage to the test tube. The signal was digitally generated by the microprocessor, and supplied externally through a D.A. converter. The signal was then filtered to delete from its spectrum the high frequency components typical of the digitally generated signals. The data obtained from impedance instrument showed a reliable correspondence with those from the plate count. By working in less time compared to traditional methods, this tool is well suited for in-situ preliminary analysis in commercial and professional foodservice environment.

  5. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...

  6. Experimental study including subjective evaluations of mixing and displacement ventilation combined with radiant floor heating/cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation systems and radiant heating/cooling systems. In the first two tests, the simulated residential room was equipped either by a mixing ventilation system supplying warm air for space heat...

  7. Optimization of a Point Focus Concentration Photovoltaic System with Passive Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenlo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is modeling the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells operating in concentration systems with circular geometry and coupled to a heat sink plate for passive cooling. The proposed thermal behavior model analyses the temperature surface distribution of both PV solar cell and heat sink plate as function of light concentration. The model also allows analyzing the influence of other parameters such as uniform and non-uniform variation of the heat sink plate thickness or variation of the thermal transmission coefficient. The optimal range of the concentration factor is studied using simple models for the PV solar cell efficiency and Fresnel lens concentrator performance together with a function of costs applied to medium concentration silicon crystalline PV cells and high efficiency and high concentration multi-junction PV cells. Finally, experimental main parameters and its procedures measurement for concentration systems are presented. Modeling results show that the use of a high conductivity disk thermally coupled between the rear side of the cell and the cooling plate reduces the working cell temperature. Results also indicates that use of a light redirecting prism by total internal reflection of sunlight, reduces optical losses due to concentrator defects and chromatic aberration and increases the angle tracking error acceptance without having to increase the area of the PV solar cell

  8. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  9. Forage production in mixed grazing systems of elephant grass with arrowleaf clover or forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristine Seibt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Most dairy production systems are pasture-based, usually consisting of sole grass species. This system facilitates pasture management, but results in high production costs, mainly because of nitrogen fertilizers. An alternative to making forage systems more sustainable is to introduce legumes into the pasture. Mixed pastures allow better forage distribution over time and reduce fertilization costs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, throughout the year, three forage systems (FS: FS1 (control - elephant grass (EG, ryegrass (RG, and spontaneous species (SS; FS2 - EG + RG + SS + arrowleaf clover; and FS3 - EG + RG + SS + forage peanut. Elephant grass was planted in rows spaced 4 m apart. Ryegrass was sown between the EG lines, in the winter. Arrowleaf clover was sown according to the respective treatments and forage peanut was preserved. Evaluation was carried out using Holstein cows. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (FS, and three repetitions (paddocks with repeated measurements (grazing cycles. Forage mass achieved 3.46, 3.80, and 3.91 t ha-1 for the treatments FS1, FS2 and FS3, respectively. The forage systems intercropped with legumes produced the best results.

  10. Experimental Aspects of Colloidal Interactions in Mixed Systems of Liposome and Inorganic Nanoparticle and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gradzielski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, growing attention has been devoted to the study of the interactions taking place in mixed systems of phospholipid membranes (for instance in the form of vesicles and hard nanoparticles (NPs. In this context liposomes (vesicles may serve as versatile carriers or as a model system for biological membranes. Research on these systems has led to the observation of novel hybrid structures whose morphology strongly depends on the charge, composition and size of the interacting colloidal species as well as on the nature (pH, ionic strength of their dispersing medium. A central role is played by the phase behaviour of phospholipid bilayers which have a tremendous influence on the liposome properties. Another central aspect is the incorporation of nanoparticles into vesicles, which is intimately linked to the conditions required for transporting a nanoparticle through a membrane. Herein, we review recent progress made on the investigations of the interactions in liposome/nanoparticle systems focusing on the particularly interesting structures that are formed in these hybrid systems as well as their potential applications.

  11. A Local Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and a Weighted and Constrained Least-Squared Method for Mixed Odor Analysis by Electronic Nose Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuo-Min Shyu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of work has been done to develop techniques for odor analysis by electronic nose systems. These analyses mostly focus on identifying a particular odor by comparing with a known odor dataset. However, in many situations, it would be more practical if each individual odorant could be determined directly. This paper proposes two methods for such odor components analysis for electronic nose systems. First, a K-nearest neighbor (KNN-based local weighted nearest neighbor (LWNN algorithm is proposed to determine the components of an odor. According to the component analysis, the odor training data is firstly categorized into several groups, each of which is represented by its centroid. The examined odor is then classified as the class of the nearest centroid. The distance between the examined odor and the centroid is calculated based on a weighting scheme, which captures the local structure of each predefined group. To further determine the concentration of each component, odor models are built by regressions. Then, a weighted and constrained least-squares (WCLS method is proposed to estimate the component concentrations. Experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The LWNN algorithm is able to classify mixed odors with different mixing ratios, while the WCLS method can provide good estimates on component concentrations.

  12. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2007-06-01

    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.

  13. Multilevel Tunnelling Systems and Fractal Clustering in the Low-Temperature Mixed Alkali-Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and dielectric anomalies of window-type glasses at low temperatures (T glasses in recent times, magnetic effects in the organic glasses, and also some older data from mixed (SiO2)1−x(K2O)x and (SiO2)1−x(Na2O)x glasses indicate the need for a suitable extension of the 2LS-STM. We show that—not only for the magnetic effects, but also for the mixed glasses in the absence of a field—the right extension of the 2LS-STM is provided by the (anomalous) multilevel tunnelling systems (ATS) proposed by one of us for multicomponent amorphous solids. Though a secondary type of TS, different from the standard 2LS, was invoked long ago already, we clarify their physical origin and mathematical description and show that their contribution considerably improves the agreement with the experimental data. In spite of dealing with low-temperature properties, our work impinges on the structure and statistical physics of glasses at all temperatures. PMID:23861652

  14. Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1976-01-31

    This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

  15. A Proposed Concentration Curriculum Design for Big Data Analytics for Information Systems Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Big Data is becoming a critical component of the Information Systems curriculum. Educators are enhancing gradually the concentration curriculum for Big Data in schools of computer science and information systems. This paper proposes a creative curriculum design for Big Data Analytics for a program at a major metropolitan university. The design…

  16. A concentrator system for BI-CPVT with static linear Fresnel lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Sonneveld, P.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Zwart, de H.F.

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse with Fresnel lenses in the south facing roof and a receiver for concentrated Photovoltaic with water cooling (CPVT system) will result in electrical and thermal energy output from the solar energy excess entering a greenhouse. The PV system converts about half of the direct radiation

  17. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  18. Acute effect of a fight of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA on the serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Poderoso de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, lactate (LAC, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU on mixed martial arts (MMA athletes, before and after a fight. We divided 20 MMA athletes into two groups of 10 fighters each, according to the result of a fight, and were then evaluated four times: 24 hours before (-24h, one hour before (-1h, immediately after (0h and 24 hours after the fight (+24h. It was observed: a significant decrease in T and T/C between moment -24h and 0h and a subsequent increase between the moment 0h and +24h and a reverse behaviour in variables C, LAC and GLU (p<0.0001; a decrease in CK between moment -24h and -1h and an increase between moment -1h and +24h (p<0.0001; and differences between winners and losers T levels, in moments -24h, -1h, 0h and +24h (p = 0.009 e p < 0.001, p = 0.005 e p = 0,001, T and C, respectively, in T/C in the moments -24h and 0h (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively and in GLU levels (p<0.0001 in the moment 0h. Therefore, it seems that an MMA fight leads to metabolic stress and muscle damage, regardless of the result of the fight. The coaches have now more biochemical and hormonal references and indicators in response to an MMA fight.

  19. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: liming@ynnu.edu.c [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China); Li, G.L. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. {yields} Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. {yields} The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating

  20. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  1. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-06-09

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector directs the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and distributes light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting, uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  2. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with summation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-05-05

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector redirects the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and provides light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting that uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  3. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  4. Using systems analysis to improve decision making in solving mixed waste problems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Welch, T.D.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Systems analysis methods and tools have been developed and applied to the problem of selecting treatment technologies for mixed wastes. The approach, which is based on decision analysis, process modeling, and process simulation with a tool developed in-house, provides a one-of-a-kind resource for waste treatment alternatives evaluation and has played a key role in developing mandated treatment plans for Oak Ridge Reservation mixed waste

  5. Investigation on the effect of thermal resistances on a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system is studied. • The performances of different cooling systems are analyzed and compared. • Sandwiching a copper plate between the PV and TE can improve the efficiency. • Four thermal design principles of the system are proposed. - Abstract: A thermal analysis of a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system is carried out in this paper. Both the output power and the temperature distribution in the hybrid system are calculated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. Three possible approaches for designing the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system are presented by analyzing the thermal resistance of the whole system. First, the sensitivity analysis shows that the thermal resistance between the TE module and the environment has a more great effect on the output power than the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The influence of the natural convection and the radiation can be ignored for the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. Second, it is necessary to sandwich a copper plate between the PV and the TE for decreasing the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The role of the copper plate is to improve the temperature uniformity. Third, decreasing the area of PV cells can improve the efficiency of the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. It should be pointed out that decreasing the area of PV cells also increases the total thermal resistance, but the raise of the efficiency is caused by the reduction of the heat transfer rate of the system. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the total thermal resistance may not be suitable for optimizing the area of PV cells.

  6. High performance mixed optical CDMA system using ZCC code and multiband OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, N. M.; Anuar, M. S.; Junita, M. N.; Rashidi, C. B. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a high performance network design, which is based on mixed optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system using Zero Cross Correlation (ZCC) code and multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) called catenated OFDM. In addition, we also investigate the related changing parameters such as; effective power, number of user, number of band, code length and code weight. Then we theoretically analyzed the system performance comprehensively while considering up to five OFDM bands. The feasibility of the proposed system architecture is verified via the numerical analysis. The research results demonstrated that our developed modulation solution can significantly enhanced the total number of user; improving up to 80% for five catenated bands compared to traditional optical CDMA system, with the code length equals to 80, transmitted at 622 Mbps. It is also demonstrated that the BER performance strongly depends on number of weight, especially with less number of users. As the number of weight increases, the BER performance is better.

  7. On the optimal mix of wind and solar generation in the future Chinese power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Matthias; Weissbart, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest and fastest growing economies in the world. Until now, the corresponding growth of electricity consumption has been mainly provided by coal. However, as national reserves are limited and since burning coal leads to severe environmental problems, the employment of alternative sources of energy supply has become an important part of the Chinese energy policy. Recent studies show that wind energy alone could meet all of China's electricity demand. While our results validate these findings with regard to annual production, we look at the hour-by-hour resolution and uncover a major limitation: wind generation will not match the demand at every given point in time. This results in significant periods with over- and undersupply. Our study shows that combining wind and solar generation in the power system reduces overproduction significantly and increases the capacity credit of the combined VRE (variable renewable energy sources). The article demonstrates that up to 70% of VRE comprising 20–30% solar generation in the form of photovoltaics (PV) can be integrated into China's electricity system with moderate storage requirements. We encourage planners to consider those findings in their long-term planning in order to set up a sustainable power system for China at low costs. - Highlights: • Analyzing the potentials for wind and solar generation in China. • Capacity credit of variable renewable energy sources. • Future storage demand for a renewable based Chinese power system. • Defining the optimal mix of wind and solar generation.

  8. High performance mixed optical CDMA system using ZCC code and multiband OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawawi N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have proposed a high performance network design, which is based on mixed optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA system using Zero Cross Correlation (ZCC code and multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM called catenated OFDM. In addition, we also investigate the related changing parameters such as; effective power, number of user, number of band, code length and code weight. Then we theoretically analyzed the system performance comprehensively while considering up to five OFDM bands. The feasibility of the proposed system architecture is verified via the numerical analysis. The research results demonstrated that our developed modulation solution can significantly enhanced the total number of user; improving up to 80% for five catenated bands compared to traditional optical CDMA system, with the code length equals to 80, transmitted at 622 Mbps. It is also demonstrated that the BER performance strongly depends on number of weight, especially with less number of users. As the number of weight increases, the BER performance is better.

  9. A Platform-Based Methodology for System-Level Mixed-Signal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of today's embedded electronic systems as well as their demanding performance and reliability requirements are such that their design can no longer be tackled with ad hoc techniques while still meeting tight time to-market constraints. In this paper, we present a system level design approach for electronic circuits, utilizing the platform-based design (PBD paradigm as the natural framework for mixed-domain design formalization. In PBD, a meet-in-the-middle approach allows systematic exploration of the design space through a series of top-down mapping of system constraints onto component feasibility models in a platform library, which is based on bottom-up characterizations. In this framework, new designs can be assembled from the precharacterized library components, giving the highest priority to design reuse, correct assembly, and efficient design flow from specifications to implementation. We apply concepts from design centering to enforce robustness to modeling errors as well as process, voltage, and temperature variations, which are currently plaguing embedded system design in deep-submicron technologies. The effectiveness of our methodology is finally shown on the design of a pipeline A/D converter and two receiver front-ends for UMTS and UWB communications.

  10. A Compound Detection System Based on Ultrasonic Flow Rate and Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-Hui WANG; Fang MU; Li-Feng WEI

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new detection system for monitoring gas concentration and flow rate. Velocity difference of ultrasonic wave in bi-directional propagation in measured gas is recorded and utilized for computing the online gas concentration and flow rate. Meanwhile, the temperature compensation, return signal processing and error analysis algorithms are applied to improve the accuracy. The experimental results show that, compared with the single sensor measurement of gas flow rate or conce...

  11. Bioremediation of mixed microbial mats: System development of mixed contaminants for application at the Savannah River Site. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Phillips, P.

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this project is to develop and field test the mixed microbial mat bioremediation system for decontamination of target sites at SRS. Although microbial mats have performed well in several pilot projects in the past, atypical problems and site characteristics at SRS demand special field designs. In the interest of designing a pilot and locating it at an appropriate site, the project investigators have worked closely with the technical staff at the SREL. We have concluded that the diverse characteristics of contaminations at SRS may dictate testing several pilot designs during the course of this project

  12. Smart investments in sustainable food production: revisiting mixed crop-livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Thornton, P K; Notenbaert, A M; Wood, S; Msangi, S; Freeman, H A; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Peters, M; van de Steeg, J; Lynam, J; Parthasarathy Rao, P; Macmillan, S; Gerard, B; McDermott, J; Seré, C; Rosegrant, M

    2010-02-12

    Farmers in mixed crop-livestock systems produce about half of the world's food. In small holdings around the world, livestock are reared mostly on grass, browse, and nonfood biomass from maize, millet, rice, and sorghum crops and in their turn supply manure and traction for future crops. Animals act as insurance against hard times and supply farmers with a source of regular income from sales of milk, eggs, and other products. Thus, faced with population growth and climate change, small-holder farmers should be the first target for policies to intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies.

  13. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    the reverse Schreinemakers (RS) method. The method is based on simple mass balance principles similar to the wet residues method. It allows for accurate determination of the mixed-solvent phase composition even though part of the solvent may precipitate as complexes between solvent and salt. Discrepancies......A method based on Schreinemakers's tie-line theory of 1893 is derived for determining the composition and phase amounts in solubility experiments for multi-solvent electrolyte systems. The method uses the lever rule in reverse compared to Schreinemakers's wet residue method, and is therefore called...... from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi...

  14. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  15. A thermal analysis study on proprietary quick-setting mixed binder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, N.; Dulama, M.; Diaconescu, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a study, by thermal analysis, of the hydration of a mixed binder system consist of Portland composite cement type CEM II/A-M(S-LL) 32,5 R and calcium aluminate cement type GORKAL 70, patented by the authors for embedding spent radioactive solvents. Cement hydration reactions are often affected by the presence of a spent radioactive solvent, usually retarded. This process can be monitored by thermal analysis and often quantified. The data are being used as a reference to compare the changes in the cement blend hydration during the solidification caused by the presence of the spent radioactive solvents itself or by emulsifier additives which are being availed. Detailed analysis of DTG (derivative thermo gravimetric) decomposition profiles of portlandite and carbonate enabled the evaluation of admixture-related parameters concerning portlandite formation and also indicated the behaviour of specific carbonates during the hydration process. (authors)

  16. Eliminating four-wave-mixing crosstalk in wavelength-division-multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Wing C.; Yang, Guu-Chang

    1996-11-01

    To reduce four-wave-mixing crosstalk in long-haul wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) lightwave systems, the use of unequally spaced channels has recently been proposed. Instead of being solved y integer linear programming, the unequal-spaced channel-allocation problem is here treated as constructing suitable optical orthogonal codes in optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA). Three 'algebraic' algorithms on finding the frequency locations of unequally spaced WDM channels are reported. The constructions are based on generating optical CDMA codewords with a predetermined pulse separation and 'aperiodic' autocorrelation sidelobes no greater than one. The algorithms potentially provide a fast and simple alternative to solve the problem, besides the recently reported computer-search method.

  17. A SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN CASPIAN HYRCANIAN MIXED FORESTS ECOREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI BALI

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a form of sustainable nature-based tourism, promotes conservation of ecological and scenic values. In this study, a Spatial Decision Support System, SDSS, was developed based upon Multi Criteria Evaluation, MCE, for ecotourism development in the Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests ecoregion, northern Iran. For this, important criteria and constraints for ecotourism development were shortlisted using the Delphi Method. The criteria were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP. The obtained results indicated that "distance from water resources", "land use", "slope", "soil", "climate", "distance from roads", "land cover density", "erosion", and "distance from residential areas" were the most important criteria, respectively. The findings suggest that GIS-based SDSS is suitable to engage the various criteria affecting the development of ecotourism destinations. This empirical research develops a new method that can significantly facilitate planning forecotourism development with respect to ecological capability of ecotourism destinations.

  18. Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvents are analyzed in terms of the general features of ion-exchange equilibria and of isotope effects in chemical equilibria. The special role of solvent fractionation effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents is pointed out. The various situations arising in isotope fractionation in ion exchange in mixed solvents due to solvent fractionation effects are theoretically discussed. The experimental data on lithium isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents are shown to conform to the above situations. The limitations of ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents for isotope fractionation are pointed out. 3 tables

  19. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  20. Improved oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of dabigatran etexilate via Soluplus-TPGS binary mixed micelles system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei; Zhang, Jinjie; Ding, Rui; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2017-04-01

    The clinical use of dabigatran etexilate (DABE) is limited by its poor absorption and relatively low bioavailability. Our study aimed to explore the potential of a mixed micelle system composed of Soluplus ® and D-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) to improve the oral absorption and bioavailability of DBAE. DBAE was first encapsulated into Soluplus/TPGS mixed micelles by a simple thin film hydration method. The DBAE loaded micelles displayed an average size distribution of around 83.13 nm. The cellular uptake of DBAE loaded micelles in Caco-2 cell monolayer was significantly enhanced by 2-2.6 fold over time as compared with DBAE suspension. Both lipid raft/caveolae and macropinocytosis-mediated the cell uptake of DBAE loaded micelles through P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-independent pathway. Compared with the DBAE suspension, the intestinal absorption of DBAE from DBAE mixed micelles in rats was significantly improved by 8 and 5-fold in ileum at 2 h and 4 h, respectively. Moreover, DBAE mixed micelles were absorbed into systemic circulation via both portal vein and lymphatic pathway. The oral bioavailability of DBAE mixed micelles in rats was 3.37 fold higher than that of DBAE suspension. DBAE mixed micelles exhibited a comparable anti-thrombolytic activity with a thrombosis inhibition rate of 63.18% compared with DBAE suspension in vivo. Thus, our study provides a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DBAE.