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Sample records for concentration mtc concept

  1. Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Boegi, Christian; Winter, Matthew J.; Owens, J. Willie

    2009-01-01

    development of sound criteria for data interpretation when the exposure of organisms has exceeded the MTD. While the MTD approach is well established for oral, topical, inhalational or injection exposure routes in mammalian toxicology, we propose that for exposure of aquatic organisms via immersion, the term Maximum Tolerated Concentration (MTC) is more appropriate

  2. Concentration of sup(99m)Tc from the eluate of 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, T.; Mora, M.; Fraga de Suarez, A.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A method is described to concentrate sup(99m)Tc solutions, originated in 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators, independent of its age. The techniques of preparation of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are also described. (author) [es

  3. Studies of techniques for the post-elution concentration of 99mTc obtained from gel type 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katia Noriko

    2009-01-01

    On average 80% of the radiopharmaceuticals used in Nuclear Medicine are labeled with 99 mTc due to its physical properties and easy attainment through of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. The Directory of Radiopharmacy (DIRF) of IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with 99 Mo produced by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo reaction that occurs at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 mL with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (25 mCi)/mL. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (50 mCi)/mL. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration of 99 mTc for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demands of the market, with a proved quality. Two types of systems of post-elution concentration were developed: the single and the tandem. The most appropriate system for the gel generator of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc, being at the same time sterile and vacuum automated, was the tandem system using Dionex 2.5 cc/QMA cartridges. The gel generator is eluted with 10 mL of solution of 0.1% NaCl and the pertechnetate anion is retained in the QMA cartridge and further eluted with 4 mL of saline. The process takes no more than 30 minutes. The elution efficiency of the system of concentration was 90 %. At the beginning of 2009 a global crisis in the supply of 99 Mo took place making it necessary the development of alternative technologies for the production of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators using fission produced 99 Mo and the development of an appropriate method to extend the useful life of this generator. The results of this study showed that the same system developed for the post- concentration of the gel generator can be employed for the fission generator, using the tandem system, giving a concentration factor of 3 for the elution of 99 mTc. (author)

  4. Reagent' sets for the concentration of sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco de Salas, G.N.; Arciprete, J.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-10-01

    A simple technique for the concentration of the eluates from 99 Mo/sup(99m)Tc and 113 Sn/sup(113m)In generators is described. The reagents' sets provided by the C.N.E.A. for the labelling of different radiopharmaceuticals can be used by only reducing their volumes proportionally. Both concentration techniques for Tc-99m and In-113m will be supplied to users as reagents' sets. (author) [es

  5. Studies of post-elution concentration of {sup 99m}-Tc eluted from a gel type chromatographic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br; jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals most used in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine are those labeled with the metastable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) due to its ideal physical properties of decay (t{sub 1/2} 6.01 h, E{gamma} 140 keV), low cost and availability facilitated through the commercial generator {sup 99}Mo /{sup 99m}Tc. This radionuclide is formed by the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 99}Mo adsorbed on an alumina column of the generator and collected in the form of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) by elution with saline solution (0.9%). The Radiopharmacy Center (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 98}Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo reaction that occurs in IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 ml with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (34 mCi) / ml. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (69 mCi) / ml. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration using ion exchange cartridges in tandem (cation - anion) for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demand of market, with a proved quality. This system of concentration will be made based in the technique of solid phase extraction (SPE) using commercial cartridges of extraction, which contains the solid phase and eluent saline solution (0.9%). As the eluent results of this system used in the gel generator of MoZr will be compared with the fission generator currently produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  6. Magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and MTC-subtraction: enhancement of cartilage lesions and intracartilaginous degeneration in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Dombrowski, F.; Leutner, C.; Wagner, U.; Reiser, M.

    1994-01-01

    Human articular cartilage from 16 cadaveric or amputated knees was studied using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on-resonance magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and MTC-subtraction MRI. Results were compared with subsequent macroscopic and histopathological findings. MTC-subtraction and T2-weighted spin-echo images visualized cartilaginous surface defects with high sensitivity and specificity. MTC and T2-weighted spin-echo images revealed intra-cartilaginous signal loss without surface defects in 80% of the cases, corresponding to an increased collagen concentration. It is concluded that MTC is sensitive to early cartilage degeneration and MTC-subtraction can be helpful in detecting cartilage defects. (orig.)

  7. sup(99m)Tc-2-mercaptopropionylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Odori, Teruo; Morita, Rikushi; Yokoyama, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    Labeling of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (2-MPG) with sup(99m)Tc, was studied and its chemical characteristics were examined. Further, biliary excretion behavior of this complex was comparatively estimated in mice, rats and rabbits. sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG was rapidly excreted in large quantities into the bile in mice and rats: within 1 hr after injection, 51% of the injected dose was recovered from the bile in rats. On the other hand, the ligand exchange reaction between this complex and penicillamine indicates that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc species is coordinated with 2-MPG. These results suggest that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc state is an effective feature in biliary excretion behavior of sup(99m)Tc compounds. Another interesting in vivo behavior of sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG is the difference observed in mice and rabbits: in mice, very high sup(99m)Tc activity is concentrated in the gallbladder and the clearance from tissues other than the gallbladder is rapid, whereas in rabbits, although a rapid and high excretion into the gallbladder is observed, a considerable high sup(99m)Tc activity is retained in the liver and the kidney. One reason for this different in vivo behavior is the low stability of this complex at high dilution: a big animal has the large dilution volume which lead to higher decomposition estimated by the higher liver and kidney retention or the lower bile excretion. In conclusion, studies carried on sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG showed a good biliary excretion behavior but an in vivo unstableness in big animals. (author)

  8. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  9. Studies of post-elution concentration of 99m-Tc eluted from a gel type chromatographic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals most used in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine are those labeled with the metastable technetium ( 99m Tc) due to its ideal physical properties of decay (t 1/2 6.01 h, Eγ 140 keV), low cost and availability facilitated through the commercial generator 99 Mo / 99m Tc. This radionuclide is formed by the β - decay of 99 Mo adsorbed on an alumina column of the generator and collected in the form of sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) by elution with saline solution (0.9%). The Radiopharmacy Center (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with 99 Mo produced by 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo reaction that occurs in IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 ml with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (34 mCi) / ml. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (69 mCi) / ml. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration using ion exchange cartridges in tandem (cation - anion) for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demand of market, with a proved quality. This system of concentration will be made based in the technique of solid phase extraction (SPE) using commercial cartridges of extraction, which contains the solid phase and eluent saline solution (0.9%). As the eluent results of this system used in the gel generator of MoZr will be compared with the fission generator currently produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  10. The factors affecting MTC of thorium–plutonium-fuelled PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, Nurjuanis Zara; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Shwageraus, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Plutonium loading in a plutonium–thorium (Pu–Th) mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled pressurized water reactor (PWR) core is typically constrained by large maximum radial form factors (RFF) and positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). The large form factors in higher Pu content fuels stem from the large differences in burnup, and thus reactivity, between fresh and burnt fuel, while positive MTC can potentially be the result of the high soluble boron concentrations needed to maintain criticality for such reactive fuel. The conventional solution to these problems is the use of burnable poisons (BPs). While BPs are able to reduce RFF, the positive MTC is not entirely due to a large critical boron concentration (CBC) requirement. In fact, analysis shows a positive MTC in Th–Pu fuel is mainly caused by fissioning in the epithermal–fast energy range. A reduction in epithermal–fast fissioning through the use of certain BPs and the strategic employment of loading patterns that encourage leakage are more effective in attaining negative MTC, as a reduction in CBC has a negligible effect on MTC. This paper examines the contributions to positive MTC by isotope and energy and identifies characteristics of BPs that are able to mitigate positive MTC in a Pu–Th MOX PWR core.

  11. Novel concept of nonimaging single reflection solar energy concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovsky, D.

    2004-07-01

    Many solar applications require temperatures higher than those that can be achieved by common flat-plate collectors. Temperatures over 100 C are necessary e.g. for industrial process heat. Such temperatures can be obtained by means of solar energy concentrators. Advantages of concentrating the solar radiation can bring in addition to higher temperatures also decrease in heat losses and material savings due to smaller size of absorber, if taking into account that costs for material absorber per square meter can be possibly higher than costs for e.g. concentrating mirrors. On the other hand, using the concentration, two other kinds of losses will raise: losses of diffuse radiation and optical losses. There exist a variety of solar energy concentrators for different purposes. For lowtemperature applications, inexpensive concentrators of diffuse radiation can be used. For these concentrators, acceptance angle A defines the ability to concentrate the diffuse radiation and also its concentration factor C. To this class of concentrators belongs e.g. nonimaging types like CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), V-trough types, cylindrical concentrators etc. This paper deals with development of a new type of concentrator, novel concept of which is based on functionality of CPC by means of flat mirrors, primarily designed for needs of SME's (Small and Medium Enterprises). The CLON project is being ellaborated under the 5th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig.)

  12. Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota

  13. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nota, Benjamin; Vooijs, Riet; Straalen, Nico M. van; Roelofs, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing protein (MTC) was assessed, using quantitative PCR, in response to six different metals, each at two concentrations in soil. The expression of mtc was induced after exposure to all metals, except for one chromium concentration. Exposure to soil originating from metal-contaminated field sites also induced mtc, while the expression did not change in response to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Since this transcript is induced by most of the tested metals, it may potentially be a good indicator of metal contamination. The presented gene expression assay might become a useful tool to screen potentially polluted sites, in order to identify the ones that need further ecotoxicological investigation. - Highlights: → mtc expression in the springtail Folsomia candida is measured in response to different metals. → Expression of this gene changed in response to all tested metals, except for one. → Metal-contaminated field soils also changed the expression of mtc significantly. → The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene did not change mtc's expression. → mtc expression may be a specific indicator of metal soil contamination. - Exposure to metal containing soil induces the expression of mtc in the springtail Folsomia candida.

  14. (99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC imaging and 177Lu DOTA-octreotate treatment in non-iodine-concentrating dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases: an unusual alternative diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip; Joshi, Amit

    2014-07-01

    The value of Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy clarifying skeletal and hepatic-predominant metastatic disease in a 55-year-old woman (diagnosed earlier to have papillary carcinoma thyroid and had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation) is illustrated. The whole-body radioiodine scan and battery of serum tumor markers were normal. Multiple metastatic foci in the liver and skeleton were Tc HYNIC-TOC avid. Serum chromogranin A level was substantially elevated (1771.60 ng/mL). This represents an unusual alternative diagnosis signified by a highly positive scan in the setting of apparent non-iodine-concentrating metastatic disease in a patient of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  15. [Facial rejuvenation and concentric malar lift: the FACE RECURVE concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, C; Buthiau, D; Buis, J

    2006-04-01

    liposuctions and retromuscular reinjections. The advantage with regard to the medical procedures is greater stability over time and the greater precision of these muscular actions (one third of a muscle can be weakened for example) and the fat reinjections can be more stable. These procedures can be performed under local anesthesia. In cases of more advanced ageing, surgery offers new treatment possibilities that include, for the midface region, the concentric malar lift. It replaces, on the orbital rim, the sub-orbicularis oculi fat that has descended eccentrically as a result of the contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The procedure, using the subperiosteal detachment plane, is therefore stable over time. At the same time, specific muscles are weakened. The aims of restoring fatty volumes and muscular tonuses are thus achieved. Similarly, in the neck, the platysma muscle is specifically weakened. Each area is studied in line with its specificities. For the first time, the skin tension of the facelift has no more to be maximum to treat the relief of the jawl line, of the palpebro malar groove and so on. The skin tension becomes moderate, just to remove the excess of skin. The relief is faded with the specific muscular and fatty action. The name of this new concept is Face Recurve.

  16. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a non-intrusive method for the determination of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) plays an important role in the feedback mechanism and thus in the inherent stability of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). Due to the inaccuracy of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques, many power utilities nowadays only measure the zero-power MTC since its determination is relatively straightforward and accurate. For the at-power MTC determination during the remaining fuel cycle, core calculations are assumed to be reliable enough. Nevertheless, these calculations were never benchmarked and most importantly, the use of high burnup fuel might induce a slightly positive MTC at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) due to the high initial boron concentration. Even if in such a case the Doppler effect would still insure a negative reactivity feedback, monitoring the MTC throughout the cycle could become crucial. In this respect, not only the sign of the MTC is of importance, but also its magnitude. Consequently, developing a method that would permit monitoring the MTC during the fuel cycle is of great interest. One of the main disadvantages of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques is that the reactor has to be perturbed in order to induce a change of the moderator temperature. The modification of other parameters that can only be estimated by core calculation represents also a severe drawback of these methods, both for their precision and their reliability. A measurement performed at Ringhals-4 by using the so-called boron dilution method revealed that the uncertainty associated to the MTC estimation could even be much larger than previously expected due to the calculated reactivity corrections. These corrections are very sensitive to the input parameters chosen for the core simulation, and slight mis-estimations of these have large reactivity effects. It is known that if the reactivity noise and the moderator temperature noise could be measured, the MTC could be determined without disturbing

  18. Development of a non-intrusive method for the determination of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C

    2000-07-01

    The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) plays an important role in the feedback mechanism and thus in the inherent stability of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). Due to the inaccuracy of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques, many power utilities nowadays only measure the zero-power MTC since its determination is relatively straightforward and accurate. For the at-power MTC determination during the remaining fuel cycle, core calculations are assumed to be reliable enough. Nevertheless, these calculations were never benchmarked and most importantly, the use of high burnup fuel might induce a slightly positive MTC at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) due to the high initial boron concentration. Even if in such a case the Doppler effect would still insure a negative reactivity feedback, monitoring the MTC throughout the cycle could become crucial. In this respect, not only the sign of the MTC is of importance, but also its magnitude. Consequently, developing a method that would permit monitoring the MTC during the fuel cycle is of great interest. One of the main disadvantages of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques is that the reactor has to be perturbed in order to induce a change of the moderator temperature. The modification of other parameters that can only be estimated by core calculation represents also a severe drawback of these methods, both for their precision and their reliability. A measurement performed at Ringhals-4 by using the so-called boron dilution method revealed that the uncertainty associated to the MTC estimation could even be much larger than previously expected due to the calculated reactivity corrections. These corrections are very sensitive to the input parameters chosen for the core simulation, and slight mis-estimations of these have large reactivity effects. It is known that if the reactivity noise and the moderator temperature noise could be measured, the MTC could be determined without disturbing

  19. {sup 99m}Tc generator preparation using (n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo produced ex-natural molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, So Van [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-03-01

    Theoretical assessment on the chromatographic {sup 99m}Tc generator preparation using (n, {gamma}) {sup 99}Mo produced ex-natural molybdenum was carried out. The relationship between the neutron flux for MoO{sub 3} target activation, Mo-content or Mo adsorption capacity of column packing material, {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate concentration and/or {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity of eluate was established. The reasonably lower limit of neutron flux of reactor and Molybdenum content of column packing material were found out to estimate the production of portable chromatographic generators available for nuclear medicine application. The concentration of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate eluate of low {sup 99m}Tc concentration using the column elution technique was also evaluate theoretically and conducted successfully in practice. Three options of {sup 99m}Tc generator using Titanium-Molybdate, Zirconium-Molybdate and Zirconium Oxide as generator column-packing materials were prepared and successfully put into use in nuclear medicine application. (author)

  20. Milking technique of sup(99m)Tc generators and labeling efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, N.; Guignard, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Increased levels of 99 Tc in generator produced sup(99m)Tc have an adverse effect on the labelling efficiency of red blood cells and human serum albumin. A two-step milking technique in which the first 1-2 ml of eluate is discarded has been found to produce higher and more constant labelling efficiency of lymphocytes and platelets than a one-step procedure. Binding efficiency of platelet-rich plasma and lymphocytes with sup(99m)Tc is greater in the two-step technique. High activity concentration in the eluate for critical labelling is between 1.5-3 ml. (U.K.)

  1. Assessment of Students' Scientific and Alternative Conceptions of Energy and Momentum Using Concentration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega, Bekele Gashe; Govender, Nadaraj

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the scientific and alternative conceptions of energy and momentum of university first-year science students in Ethiopia and the US. Written data were collected using the Energy and Momentum Conceptual Survey developed by Singh and Rosengrant. The Concentration Analysis statistical method was used for analysing the Ethiopian…

  2. Performance of UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water within DESAR concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Fernandes, T.; Wiryawan, Y.; Tafwik, A.; Visser, de M.; Zeeman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Separation of wastewater streams produced in households according to their origin, degree of pollution and affinity to a specific treatment constitutes a starting point in the DESAR concept (decentralised sanitation and reuse). Concentrated black water and kitchen waste carry the highest load of

  3. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Line, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that technetium-99m radiolabeled human alpha-fetoprotein (99mTc AFP) localizes in human breast cancer cells in-vivo, most likely concentrating in breast cancer cells due to a specific receptor not found in normal adult breast tissue...

  4. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Line, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that technetium-99m radiolabeled human alpha-fetoprotein (99mTc AFP) localizes in human breast cancer cells in-vivo, most likely concentrating in breast cancer cells due to a specific receptor not found in normal adult breast tissue...

  5. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  6. Design of nuclear desalination concentrate plant by using zero discharge desalination concept for Bangka Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlan Dewita, Siti Alimah

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a process to separate salt of seawater by using nuclear energy. Desalination concentrate is a problem in nuclear desalination. Desalination concentrate is sometimes discharged directly into the seawater, therefore it can affects the water quality of beach and rise negative effects on the biota in the vicinity of the output. ZDD (Zero Discharge Desalination) concept can be applied to minimized environment impact. This study is conducted by using PWR type NPP as nuclear heat source and using ZDD concept to process desalination waste. ZDD is a concept for processing of desalination concentrate into salt and chemical products which have economic values. Objectives of this study is to design nuclear desalination concentrate processing plant in Bangka Island. The methodology is literature assessment and calculation with excel programme. The results of this study shows that the main the products are NaCl (pharmaceutical salt) and cakes BaSO4, Mg(OH)2BaCO3 as by products. (author)

  7. Business Service Outsourcing: An Evolution of Concentration on Core Business Concepts and Transaction Cost Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Juma'h

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Present and evaluate the literature with respect to business service outsourcing (BSO, with a particular concentration on a common form of BSO, information technology (IT. The review defines the issues with respect to BSO in terms of drivers and motivations, as well as internal and external implications for BSO companies and their contractors. BSO is an evolution of transaction cost theory and concentration on core business concepts. Although, there are several attempts to explain when a company should outsource, these theoretical frameworks are difficult to apply in practice since satisfaction is a function of expectation and the identification of activities are core commodity is not straightforward.

  8. EPRI 25kW high concentration photovoltaic integrated array concept and associated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.A.; Dostalek, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective photovoltaic array design for the high concentration technology being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute for utility scale applications. The concept of an ''integrated array'' is to attach Fresnel lens parquets directly to the front of the tracker structure and PV panels directly to the back of the structure thereby eliminating redundant structural components. The concept also incorporates the maximum use of automated manufacturing techniques for all components thereby minimizing material waste, fabrication and assembly labor. This paper also describes the results of a first approach cost and economic study for the technology which shows the potential for levelized energy cost below $0.10/kWh for a 50 MW ac plant given a mature technology

  9. Performance of UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water within DESAR concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Fernandes, T; Wiryawan, Y; Tawfik, A; Visser, M; Zeeman, G

    2005-01-01

    Separation of wastewater streams produced in households according to their origin, degree of pollution and affinity to a specific treatment constitutes a starting point in the DESAR concept (decentralised sanitation and reuse). Concentrated black water and kitchen waste carry the highest load of organic matter and nutrients from all waste(water)streams generated from different human activities. Anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water is a core technology in the DESAR concept. The applicability of the UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water was investigated under two different temperatures, 15 and 25 degrees C. The removal of total COD was dependent on the operational temperature and attained 61 and 74% respectively. A high removal of the suspended COD of 88 and 94% respectively was measured. Effluent nutrients were mainly in the soluble form. Precipitation of phosphate was observed. Effective sludge/water separation, long HRT and higher operational temperature contributed to a reduction of E. coli. Based on standards there is little risk of contamination with heavy metals when treated effluent is to be applied in agriculture as fertiliser.

  10. A review of sup(99m)Tc generator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator has found widespread use because it is ideally suited for scintigraphy. The preparation of sup(99m)Tc generators using alumina and other ion exchange systems is described. Other methods of separating 99 Mo and sup(99m)Tc, such as solvent extraction and sublimation, are also discussed. Some of the problems associated with the alumina column type sup(99m)Tc generator are listed with possible causes and solutions to their problems. The current biomedical applications of the sup(99m)Tc radioisotope are the basis of a $100 million nuclear medicine business. The importance of the sup(99m)Tc generator makes it imperative that we understand and solve the problems associated with its manufacture. (author)

  11. 99mTc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references

  12. To the radiotoxicity of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ftacnikova, S [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the radiotoxicity and RBE values of Auger electrons for {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals were discussed. Expression for the expected RBE for {sup 99m}Tc compounds is given. For the Auger electrons emitted in the decay of {sup 99m}Tc the RBE(Auger) = 10 and a value of 20 for the radiation weighing factor were recommended. (J.K.) 4 refs.

  13. Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC) is committed to quality testing and inspection services that are delivered on time and...

  14. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  15. Study of the elution {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: corain.lopes@uol.com.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Over the last years {sup 99m}Tc has become a very important asset in modern nuclear medicine, due to the emission of gamma ray of optimal energy (140 keV) and a suitable half-life (6.04 h). A further attribute of {sup 99m}Tc is its formation from the decay of {sup 99}Mo and the availability from {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator systems. The most common and practical generator types consist of a chromatographic column packed with aluminium oxide, onto which the highly purified fission product {sup 99}Mo (imported from Canada) is adsorbed in the form of molybdate. {sup 99m}Tc is further eluted with saline solution. The objective of this work is to study the performance and the elution profile of {sup 99m}Tc from high activity generators in order to decrease molybdenum and aluminium concentration. The experiments involved the use of paper filters and Sep Pak columns and also the changing in the time interval between elutions. {sup 99}Mo breakthrough was measured using a dose calibrator and aluminium by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best results were achieved using a Sep Pak column containing neutral aluminium oxide. (author)

  16. Development of a noise-based method for the determination of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) is an important safety parameter of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In most countries, the so-called at-power MTC has to be measured a few months before the reactor outage, in order to determine if the MTC will not become too negative. Usually, the at-power MTC is determined by inducing a change in the moderator temperature, which has to be compensated for by other means, such as a change in the boron concentration. An MTC measurement using the boron dilution method is analysed in this thesis. It is demonstrated that the uncertainty of such a measurement technique is so large, that the measured MTC could become more negative than what the Technical Specifications allow. Furthermore, this technique incurs a disturbance of the plant operation. For this reason, another technique relying on noise analysis was proposed a few years ago. In this technique, the MTC is inferred from the neutron noise measured inside the core and the moderator temperature noise measured at the core-exit, in the same or in a neighbouring fuel assembly. This technique does not require any perturbation of the reactor operation, but was nevertheless proven to underestimate the MTC by a factor of 2 to 5. In this thesis, it is shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that the reason of the MTC underestimation by noise analysis is the radially loosely coupled character of the moderator temperature noise throughout the core. A new MTC noise estimator, accounting for this radially non-homogeneous moderator temperature noise is proposed and demonstrated to give the correct MTC value. This new MTC noise estimator relies on the neutron noise measured in a single point of the reactor and the radially averaged moderator temperature noise measured inside the core. In the case of the Ringhals-2 PWR in Sweden, Gamma-Thermometers (GTs) offer such a possibility since in dynamic mode they measure the moderator temperature noise, whereas in static

  17. Production of kits for the labelling with 113sup(m)In and sup(99m)Tc, at the CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcos, M.C.; Kurcbart, Horacio; Nowotny, G.; Ramos, Elsa; Riesgo, J.G.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1978-05-01

    The actual state of the production of radiopharmaceuticals in the form of reagents kits at the C.N.E.A. is described. This could allow the users to label compounds with sup(113m)In and sup(99m)Tc in an easy and reproducible way. At present, the following sets are provided routinarily a) To label with sup(99m)Tc: Albumin macroaggregates: calcium gluconate; antimonium sulfide colloid, sodium phytate; sodium calcium DTPA; seroalbumin; sodium pyrophosphate; sodium citrate. b) To label with sup(113m)In: albumin macroaggregates; PVP-bicarbonate; DTPA; human seroalbumin. Regarding products in a developping stage, we have: to labed with sup(99m)Tc: dimercapto-succinic acid, set for the labelling of human erythrocytes, set for sup(113m)In and sup(99m)Tc concentration and bleomicin; to label with sup(113m)In: EDTMP sup(99m)In. (author) [es

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of hydroxamamide-based tetradentate ligands as a new class of thiol-free chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L C; Nakayama, M; Harada, K; Nakayama, H; Tomiguchi, S; Kojima, A; Takahashi, M; Arano, Y

    1998-04-01

    Both N,N'-ethylene bis(benzohydroxamamide) [(C2(BHam)2)] and N,N'-propylene bis(benzohydroxamamide) [(C3(BHam)2)] were designed as new thiol-free chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. Synthetic procedures using oxadiazoline intermediates were developed for C2(BHam)2 and C3(BHam)2. Both C2(BHam)2 and C3(BHam)2 formed 99mTc complexes with high yields over a wide pH range (pH 3-12) at room temperature. Complexation yields of over 95% were achieved at ligand concentrations as low as 2.5 x 10(-6) M. Reversed-phase HPLC analyses indicated that both C2(BHam)2 and C3(BHam)2 formed 99mTc complexes as single species with stabilities much higher than those of 99mTc-BHam. Selective complex formation of 99mTc with the two ligands was observed in the presence of human IgG. No decomposition with low protein binding were demonstrated when the two 99mTc complexes were incubated in murine plasma. Although further structural studies are required, these findings implied that the Ham-based tetradentate ligands would serve as new chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

  19. A neutral lipophilic complex of sup(99m)Tc with a multidentate amine oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Hoffman, T.J.; Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Propylene amine oxime, 3,3'-(1,3-propanediyldiimino)bis(3-methyl-2-butanone)dioxime, (PnAO) forms a neutral lipophilic complex with sup(99m)Tc in >95% yield at room temperature at pH 5-10. The complex can be prepared with generator produced sup(99m)Tc using 10 -5 M SnC 4 H 4 O 6 as the reducing agent at ligand concentrations as low as 3 x 10 -5 M. It is stable in saline solutions for as long as 24 h. [Sup(99m)Tc]PnAO may be useful as an imaging agent which passively diffuses across the blood brain barrier. (author)

  20. In vivo regional quantitation of intrathoracic /sup 99m/Tc using SPECT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.E.; Greer, K.; Lischko, M.

    1982-01-01

    A whole-body single-photon emission computed tomographic system (SPECT) was used to quantitate the activities of a series of /sup 99m/Tc point sources in the dog's thorax and to evaluate attenuation of a uniform esophageal line source containing a known concentration of /sup 99m/Tc. A first-order attenuation correction and an empirically derived attenuation coefficient of 0.09 cm-1 were used in the SPECT analyses of the intrathoracic point sources. The relationship between SPECT measurements of multiple point-source activities and the same sources measured in air was linear over a range of 100 to 1000 muCi (slope 1.08; R2 coefficient of determination 0.97). These data are sufficiently accurate to allow an estimate of the regional activity of radiopharmaceutical in the dog's thorax and justify their use in experimental quantitation of regional pulmonary perfusion

  1. Occupational exposure to {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in a radiopharmacy room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Bruna P.; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Souza, Wanderson; Santos, Maristela; Medeiras, Geiza; Conceicao, Cirilo S. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional], e-mail: brunapvalle@gmail.com, e-mail: kenya@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br, e-mail: wander@ird.gov.br, e-mail: mstela@ird.gov.br; Abrantes, Marcio Borges de [Centro de Medicina Nuclear Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: marcioabrantes@pop.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also {sup 131}I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 {+-} 14,34 mBq/m{sup 3} and 0.72 {+-} 0.36 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. (author)

  2. Alternative generators of the 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    9 9mTc is the most widely used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. 9 9mTc radionuclide is obtained from a generator, in which 9 9Mo servest as the parent radionuclide. In the generator 9 9mTc and 9 9Mo radionuclides are found in genetic balance and 9 9mTc radionuclide is chemically extracted from the system periodically. Although there already exists many ways and variants of manufacturing 9 9mTc generators, search for new variants of the 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc generator systems continue. An example is the investigations carried out with the support of the IAEA. In these research works, generators based on elution of poly molybdate gels have been developed and evaluated. These generators will be serving as alternative technologies for production of 9 9mTc radionuclide, which use 9 9Mo produced by non-fission means. It is known that in Australia and China more than 30% of 9 9mTc generators are gel-generators. The works of authors are devoted to the problem of searching new perspective materials as a column material that will serve as adsorbent. The main purpose of all the research on alternative technologies is the usage of parent radionuclide 9 9Mo that is obtained from 9 8Mo(n, γ) 9 9Mo reaction instead of as a fission product. Our work examines the possibility of reception of generators 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc using non-fission 9 9Mo that is based on insoluble salts of molybdate

  3. Magnesium-Molybate Compounds as Matrix for 99Mo/99mTc Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Monroy-Guzman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions, eluate volume as well as the addition order of molybdate and magnesium solutions’ influences on the final 99mTc were evaluated. Polymetalates and polymolybdates salts either crystallized or amorphous were obtained depending on the magnesium salt and Mg:Mo molar ratio used in matrix preparation. 99Mo/99mTc generator production based on magnesium-99Mo molybdate compounds allow reduction of preparation time and eliminates the use of specialized installations. The best generator performances were attained using matrices prepared from 0.1 mol/L MgCl2·6H2O solutions, ammonium molybdate solutions at pH 7 and at a Mg:Mo molar ratio of 1:1.

  4. Non-MTC gait cycles: An adaptive toe trajectory control strategy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiranayagam, Braveena K; Sparrow, W A; Lai, Daniel T H; Begg, Rezaul K

    2017-03-01

    Minimum-toe-clearance (MTC) above the walking surface is a critical representation of toe-trajectory control due to its association with tripping risk. Not all gait cycles exhibit a clearly defined MTC within the swing phase but there have been few previous accounts of the biomechanical characteristics of non-MTC gait cycles. The present report investigated the within-subject non-MTC gait cycle characteristics of 15 older adults (mean 73.1 years) and 15 young controls (mean 26.1 years). Participants performed the following tasks on a motorized treadmill: preferred speed walking, dual task walking (carrying a glass of water) and a dual-task speed-matched control. Toe position-time coordinates were acquired using a 3 dimensional motion capture system. When MTC was present, toe height at MTC (MTC height ) was extracted. The proportion of non-MTC gait cycles was computed for the age groups and individuals. For non-MTC gait cycles an 'indicative' toe height at the individual's average swing phase time (MTC time ) for observed MTC cycles was averaged across multiple non-MTC gait cycles. In preferred-speed walking Young demonstrated 2.9% non-MTC gait cycles and Older 18.7%. In constrained walking conditions both groups increased non-MTC gait cycles and some older adults revealed over 90%, confirming non-MTC gait cycles as an ageing-related phenomenon in lower limb trajectory control. For all participants median indicative toe-height on non-MTC gait cycles was greater than median MTC height . This result suggests that eliminating the biomechanically hazardous MTC event by adopting more of the higher-clearance non-MTC gait cycles, is adaptive in reducing the likelihood of toe-ground contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Labelled Preformed liposomes with 99MTC-DTPA, 99 MTC-ECD, 99MTC-MDP and 99MTC-MIBI : Labelling procedures and stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.O.; Teran, M.A.; Vales, M.E.; Frier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Liposomes labelled with gamma e miters like 99mTc, can be used for scintigraphic imaging to non-invasively track and quantify the distribution of liposomes in the body. In vitro studies were done to choose a suitable radiopharmaceutical (RF) to be attached to performed liposomes. 99mTc-Complexes (DTPA, ECD, MDP, MIBI) were used to label collagen liposomes. Commercial kits were labelled with 99mTc04-(TechnoNuclear). Quality controls of the RF were performed. Collagen liposomes suspended in saline 0.9% were incubated at 4.25.37 and 60 for 30 min. Efficiency of the labelling procedure was determined by gel filtration using Sephadex G25 (Pharmacia) and NaC10.9%. Samples of 100mL (74MBq), were seeded and fractions of 0.5mL were colleted and measured in an ionisation chamber (Capintec CRC). Stability of the labelled liposomes was assessed incubating 0.5mL, of the suspension with 1mL of human serum during 30 min at 37 . Dialysis was performed using dialysis bags of 64 K pore size and NaCI 0.9% at room temperature. Samples of the saline bath were collected at 30.60 and 90 min. and measured in a solid scintillation counter Ortec.Liposomes labelled with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTcMIBI showed a labelling efficiency of 80%; liposomes incubated with 99mTc-MDP were labelled in a 50% and 99mTc-ECD did not bind to liposomes in the conditions of study. Incubation of labelled liposomes with human serum showed 50% of strong binding to the plasmatic proteins for 99mTc-DTPA but low values (5%) for the other specimens. Labelled liposomes were achieved, with different RF, showing a suitable in vitro stability to perform in vivo studies

  6. Preparation of clinical-scale 99Mo/99mTc column generator using neutron activated low specific activity 99Mo and nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 as column matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-10-01

    Preparation of clinical-scale (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator using (n,γ) activated low specific activity (99)Mo and nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) as a high capacity sorbent matrix is attempted. Nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) was synthesized by 'solid state mechanochemical' reaction of aluminum nitrate with ammonium bicarbonate. Experimental parameters were optimized to effectively separate (99m)Tc from (99)Mo using this sorbent as the column matrix. The performance features of a 13 GBq (350 mCi) (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator using this sorbent and (99)Mo produced by (n,γ) route having specific activity 12.9-18.5 GBq/g were evaluated for 10 days. The sorbent possessed the requisite selectivity for (99)Mo and demonstrated a maximum sorption capacity of 200 ± 5mg Mo/g, which is ~10 times higher than that of ordinary acidic alumina. The overall yield of (99m)Tc was >80%, with radionuclidic purity >99.99% and radiochemical purity >99%. The yield of (99m)Tc varied from 7.8 to 2.1 GBq in the eluate for the six days of operation of the generator. The radioactive concentration of (99m)Tc eluted was adequate for the formulation of radiopharmaceuticals. The performance of the generator remained consistent over an extended period of 10 days. The eluted (99m)Tc was suitable for the formulation of (99m)Tc-DMSA and (99m)Tc-EC resulting in high radiolabeling yields (>98%). The effectiveness of γ-Al(2)O(3) as a new generation sorbent in the development of clinically useful (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator using low specific activity (99)Mo and yielding (99m)Tc with adequate radioactive concentration and high purity suitable for formulation of radiopharmaceuticals is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proof of concept Laplacian estimate derived for noninvasive tripolar concentric ring electrode with incorporated radius of the central disc and the widths of the concentric rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Lee, Colin; Besio, Walter G

    2017-07-01

    Tripolar concentric ring electrodes are showing great promise in a range of applications including braincomputer interface and seizure onset detection due to their superiority to conventional disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of surface Laplacian estimation. Recently, we proposed a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1)-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1)-point method for n ≥ 2 that allows cancellation of all the truncation terms up to the order of 2n. This approach has been used to introduce novel multipolar and variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrode configurations verified using finite element method. The obtained results suggest their potential to improve Laplacian estimation compared to currently used constant interring distances tripolar concentric ring electrodes. One of the main limitations of the proposed (4n + 1)-point method is that the radius of the central disc and the widths of the concentric rings are not included and therefore cannot be optimized. This study incorporates these two parameters by representing the central disc and both concentric rings as clusters of points with specific radius and widths respectively as opposed to the currently used single point and concentric circles. A proof of concept Laplacian estimate is derived for a tripolar concentric ring electrode with non-negligible radius of the central disc and non-negligible widths of the concentric rings clearly demonstrating how both of these parameters can be incorporated into the (4n + 1)-point method.

  8. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  9. Investigation of anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in relation to natural conception rate and time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne-Sofie; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm; Hilsted, Linda Maria; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Hvidman, Helene Westring

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations can predict pregnancy rates and time to pregnancy (TTP) in women attempting to conceive naturally/having an unplanned conception, and whether there is a lower AMH threshold compatible with natural conception. This prospective cohort study included 260 women aged 25-42 years in two subcohorts: (A) healthcare workers at Rigshospitalet (2008-2010), and (B) women consulting the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic (2011-2014), Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Pregnancy rates and TTP at 2-year follow-up were stratified into AMH groups: low: 33 pmol/l. Pregnancy rates increased with increasing AMH: 60.1% (low) versus 70.0% (intermediate) versus 78.3% (high) (P = 0.03). The highest pregnancy rate (84.1%) was seen in regular cycling women with high AMH. TTP was reduced in women with high AMH compared with intermediate or low AMH (stepwise trend test P = 0.01). Natural conceptions were observed with AMH concentrations down to 1.2 pmol/l. In conclusion, high AMH, especially in ovulatory women, was associated with higher pregnancy rates. Nonetheless, TTP reflected a large variation in fecundity within similar AMH concentrations and natural conceptions occurred with AMH down to 1.2 pmol/l. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance tests on column materials for {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sombrito, E Z; Bulos, A D; Tangonan, M C [Chemistry Research Section, Atomic Research Div., Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    To meet the need of producing a {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, different procedures for preparing zirconium molybdate gels were tested. Performance tests were done on molybdate gel columns prepared using the procedures developed by Vietnam and China, and recently, on a polyzirconium compound (PZC) prepared in Japan. The conditions for the batch drying of a large volume of the gel material were studied as well as the conditions in preparing a column to concentrate technetium-99m. The performance of PZC sample as column material for the generator was also evaluated. (author)

  11. Investigations on the structures of sup(99m)Tc and 113Sn pyrophosphate complexes and of sup(99m)Tc and 113Sn ethane hydroxy diphosphate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohloch, M.

    1980-01-01

    The complex formation of double labelling of bivalent 113 Sn and reduced, quadrovalent sup(99m)Tc with pyrophosphate (PPi) or ethane hydroxy diphosphorate (EHDP) has been investigated by means of in vivo distribution in the rat. The molar rates of sup(99m)Tc and 113 Sn to PPi resp. EHDP, as well as the pH-value and the initial concentration is varied. Furthermore, both elements were oxidized with H 2 O 2 in the alkaline medium. Four typical sup(99m)Tc and two typical 113 Sn in-vivo distribution patterns can be differentiated: 1. Pertechnetate, characterized by a strong enrichment in the stomach, forms when all Sn-II has been oxidized to Sn-IV in the preparation. 2. One bone-seeking 113 Sn-II PPi (EHDP) complex and a sup(99m)Tc-IV PPi (EHDP) complex each, which are formed at least equimolar ratio of Sn to PPi (EHDP) and suffiently high concentration of PPi (EHDP) in the physiological pH-value. 3. A non-bone-seeking sup(99m)Tc-IV compound, which is enriched in the kidneys instead, is formed in the weakly alkaline medium or at low PPi (EHDP) concentration. This is probably monomeric technetium dioxide dihydrate. 4. A sup(99m)Tc as well as a Sn colloid is formed at deficient ligand concentration (PPi or EHDP to Sn). The chemical composition of the complexes is discussed the possible reaction courses are illustrated in the following diagrams. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Effect of acidity and chemical composition of sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on sup(99m)Tc accumulation in necrotic tissue of rat myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilcek, S; Machan, V; Kalincak, M [Ustav Radioekologie a Vyuzitia Jadrovej Techniky, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Nicak, A [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta

    1981-04-30

    Experiments showed that the cumulation of technetium-99m following the administration of /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate and s/sup 99m/Tc-Sn-oxytetracycline in the necrotic tissue of rat myocardium damaged by cauterization depended on the end pH value. The maximum /sup 99m/Tc cumulation in the myocardial lesion was noted when the end pH value ranged in 5.5 to 6.0. It appeared that pyrophosphate concentration decrease below the critical limit not only affected the cumulation of /sup 99m/Tc in the particular organs but also in the necrotic tissue of the myocardium.

  13. Effect of acidity and chemical composition of sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on sup(99m)Tc accumulation in necrotic tissue of rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilcek, S.; Machan, V.; Kalincak, M.; Nicak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments showed that the cumulation of technetium-99m following the administration of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate and sup(99m)Tc-Sn-oxytetracycline in the necrotic tissue of rat myocardium damaged by cauterization depended on the end pH value. The maximum sup(99m)Tc cumulation in the myocardial lesion was noted when the end pH value ranged in 5.5 to 6.0. It appeared that pyrophosphate concentration decrease below the critical limit not only affected the cumulation of sup(99m)Tc in the particular organs but also in the necrotic tissue of the myocardium. (author)

  14. Bioaccumulation of /sup 95m/Tc in fish and snails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1982-03-01

    Concentration factors for technetium recommended in radiological assessment models for freshwater biota are default values based on the behavior of iodine in the environment. In this study a small experimental freshwater pond was spiked with /sup 95/mTc to obtain data for calculating concentration factors for fish and snails. A model using the pond data was developed to calculate steady-state body burdens for freshwater biota. The concentration factors based on the calculated body burden for carp (Caprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 11, 75 and 121, respectively. The concentration factor for carp was less than the recommended value of 15 listed in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 for calculating radiation dose to man; however, the concentration factors for mosquitofish and snails exceeded the recommended values by 5 and 24 times, respectively.

  15. Bioaccumulation of sup(95m)Tc in fish and snails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; DeAngelis, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1982-03-01

    Concentration factors for technetium recommended in radiological assessment models for freshwater biota are default values based on the behavior of iodine in the environment. A small experimental freshwater pond was spiked with sup(95m)Tc to obtain data for calculating concentration factors for fish and snails. A model using the pond data was developed to calculate steady-state body burdens for freshwater biota. The concentration factors based on the calculated body burden for carp (Caprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 11,75 and 121, respectively. The concentration factor for carp was less than the recommended value of 15 listed in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 for calculating radiation dose to man; however, the concentration factors for mosquitofish and snails exceeded the recommended values by 5 and 25 times, respectively.

  16. Sup(99m)Tc compounds for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifka, J.; Budsky, F.

    1980-01-01

    The applications of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine are discussed, such as sodium pertechnetate in thyroid and brain scintigraphy, complex compounds in lungs and liver diao.nosis. Technetium generators are classified according to the method of separating sup(99m)Tc from 99 Mo. Adsorption generators are used, molybdate-99 is adsorbed on an Al 2 O 3 -packed column while pertechnetate-99m is eluted with 0.9% NaCl solution. Also used is continuous pertechnetate-99m extraction with methyl ethyl ketone from 0.5 M potassium molybdate and 2.5 M of potassium carbonate. The manufacture is described of kits for sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals preparation, eg., Diagos I, a gluconate complex, a lyophilisate for sup(99m)Tc-sodium pyrophosphate injections, a diagnostic kit for lung scintiscanning. (H.S.)

  17. Examining the Role of Concentration, Vocabulary and Self-Concept in Listening and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgramm, Christine; Suter, Nicole; Göksel, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Listening is regarded as a key requirement for successful communication and is fundamentally linked to other language skills. Unlike reading, it requires both hearing and processing information in real-time. We therefore propose that the ability to concentrate is a strong predictor of listening comprehension. Using structural equation modeling,…

  18. An integrated membrane bioreactor - nanofiltration concept with concentrate recirculation for wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing water shortages drive the need for water reuse. Membranes are a very suitable technology for purification of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) permeate can be polished by nanofiltration (NF), allowing the production of high quality reusable water. The NF concentrate potentially is an

  19. Development of kits for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for infection imaging. Report of a co-ordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major health problem and cause of death worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Nuclear medicine imaging, because of its sensitivity, offers an attractive option for diagnosis of focal infections. This needs a reliable radiopharmaceutical that can selectively concentrate in sites of infection. Over the years 67 Ga and other radiopharmaceuticals that localize in inflammation associated with infection sites, also known as 'non-specific agents' have been used for infection imaging. However, experience has shown that an 'infection specific agent' that concentrates selectively at sites of infection and not inflammation would have several advantages. The first such agent developed more than two decades ago was 111 In-leucocytes which is still considered a 'gold standard'. Considerations of cost, availability, and superior properties for imaging make 99 mTc a better label than 111 In. 99 mTc white blood cell (WBC) was developed subsequently and used for infection imaging. However, both 111 In and 99 mTc WBCs have a number of drawbacks, in particular: each patient's blood sample has to be collected and individually radiolabelled; well-trained staff and suitable facilities for separating and labelling the patient's blood are needed; the risk of infection and cross-contamination associated with potential blood-borne microorganisms; and cost of materials. Because of these, considerable efforts have been continuously made towards developing convenient replacements for 99 mTc WBCs with limited success, 99 mTc antigranulocyte antibody being a good example. However, these radiopharmaceuticals still have many disadvantages, related to either their cost and availability or their performance. In view of the large potential for applications in patients, the development of new and improved 99 mTc labelled infection specific imaging agents was considered as a very worthwhile aim for scientific research in general and, in particular, for the

  20. Structural concepts for very large (400-meter-diameter) solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion of various types of large space structures is presented. A brief overview of the history of space structures is presented to provide insight into the current state-of-the art. Finally, the results of a structural study to assess the viability of very large solar concentrators are presented. These results include weight, stiffness, part count, and in-space construction time.

  1. Study to modify the elution system in a sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado S, Baldomero.

    1979-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator is a system that allows us to obtain sup(99m)Tc through the radioactive desintegration of 99 Mo, a radionuclide absorbed in an alumine chromatographic column, the sup(99m)Tc extraction is accomplished by elution and the 99 Mo remains at the column. In this work we try to modify the elution procedure of the generator. At present after eluating the generator, it must be dried with air, in order to support the column in an oxidant atmosphere to avoid the reduction of the technetiate. This reduction causes a low yield of elution, since the reduced species of the technetium can not be eluated. The drying of the column with air complicates a little the elution procedure, and we look to simplify it, the employed methods to resolve the problem were: a) adding an oxidant agent to the elution saline solution, b) adsorbing an oxidant in the alumina chromatographic column, after that the 99 Mo was settled. In the case a) the used oxidant agents were KMnO 4 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , NaNo 2 , etc. At concentration rates of 10 -7 M the obtained yields in high activity generators were of the 25-30%. In the case b) variable amounts of a disolution of 2.5 mg/ml of K 2 CrO 4 were adsorbed, the obtained yields in high activity generators were about 85-90%, this second procedure was better, it lets us keep the column wet and it is not necessary to dry it with air, and in this way it can be carried out more easily and efficiently the elution procedure. (author)

  2. Development of {sup 99m}Tc extraction-recovery by solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Nishikata, Kaori; Izumo, Hironobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Shiina, Takayuki; Ohta, Akio; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro [Chiyoda Technol Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc is used as a radiopharmaceutical in the medical field for the diagnosis, and manufactured from {sup 99}Mo, the parent nuclide. In this study, the solvent extraction with MEK was selected, and preliminary experiments were carried out using Re instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Two tests were carried out in the experiments; the one is the Re extraction test with MEK from Re-Mo solution, the other is the Re recovery test from the Re-MEK. As to the Re extraction test, and it was clear that the Re extraction yield was more than 90%. Two kinds of Re recovery tests, which are an evaporation method using the evaporator and an adsorption/elution method using the alumina column, were carried out. As to the evaporation method, the Re concentration in the collected solution increased more than 150 times. As to the adsorption/elution method, the Re concentration increased in the eluted solution more than 20 times. (author)

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of Sn+2 in lyophilized kit for labeling with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Sampel, Carolina Judith; Melo, Ivani Bortoleti; Okamoto, Miriam R.Y; Silva, Constancia P.G

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of 99 mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals depends on the reduction of the technetium pertechnetate, commonly by stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ). The determination of the Sn +2 contents in the lyophilized preparations represents an important quality control procedure that may be applied to the process and to the final product. The objective os this work is the optimization of an spectrophotometric assay to the determination os Sn +2 contents in a citrate-stannous lyophilized kit for 99 mTc labeling. The spectrophotometric methodology employed is based in the colour development when Sn +2 reacts with sodium molybdate in the presence of potasium thiocyanate in chloridric medium. The colourfull reaction studied showed high stability after 60 minutes of the mixtures preparation. The sequence of reagents introduction in the reaction mixture was determinant to the assay. The molibdenium-stannous-tiocianate sequence produces calibration curves with good correlations (R2 ≥ 0.99). The concentrations of the molibdenium solution was also studied, in order to determine a ideal concentration for the Sn +2 range. The spectrophotometric method studied was usefull to the determination of Sn +2 content in different batches of citrate-stannous preparations. The method was fast and easy and can be applied to different stages of the production process, in order to guarantee the content of Sn +2 in the preparations (Au)

  4. conception d'un systeme solaire à concentration pour la desinfection de la bacterie de legionelle

    OpenAIRE

    BELABBACI, Chérifa

    2014-01-01

    La légionellose est une infection pulmonaire aiguë dont le mode de contamination résulte de l’inhalation d’aérosols contenant des légionelles. La bactérie de la légionelle pneumophile responsable de 90% de la maladie de légionellose. Ces bactéries trouvées dans les milieux aquatiques naturels et colonisent les réservoirs et les systèmes de distribution d’eau potable comme les hôpitaux et les réseaux municipaux avec une concentration qui varie entre 2.3.103UFC/ml à 103UFC/l. Cette bactérie se ...

  5. Osteomyelitis diagnosis by {sup 99m}Tc radiolabeled aptamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.R.; Ferreira, I.M.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: imendesf@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N.; Diniz, O.F., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Osteomyelitis, which is characterized by progressive inflammatory destruction and new opposition of bone, is still a difficult infection to treat. The clinical diagnosis in late stages is achieved easily, but an early diagnosis is more challenging. Staphylococcus aureus is a common agent found in osteomyelitis and bone prostheses infection. Diagnosis by scintigraphy has advantages because it is a non-invasive procedure and is able to perform an early diagnosis even before anatomic changes. Thus, nuclear medicine could contribute to an accurate diagnosis since specific radiopharmaceuticals were developed. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacteria identification in an osteomyelitis experimental model. The aptamers selected to S. aureus were directly labelled with {sup 99m}Tc and were evaluated by biodistribution studies. Wistar rats with intraosseous infection in the right paw were used. A random aptamer labelled with {sup 99m}Tc was as control. Six animals were used in each group. The aptamers labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 2,23 ± 0,20, after 3 h. The control group presented a target/non-target ratio 1,08 ± 0.23. The results indicated that the radiolabeled aptamers were able to identify specifically the infection foci and they should be further explored for infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. (author)

  6. 93Tc and sup(93m)Tc gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, Yu.N.; Zarubin, P.P.; Kobelev, V.F.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The sup(93,93m)Tc decay was studied. The spectra of γ-rays accompanying the decay of this nuclide were studied. 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc were obtained in the (dn)-reaction on 92 Mo. To ensure a more reliable identification of γ-rays, the isotopic composition of the targets, the bombardment time, the energy of the bombarding deuterons (5-12 MeV) and the spectrum processing program were varied. The energies and relative intensities of the γ-rays of the 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc decay are listed in tables together with data of other investigatxons. The results obtained largely confirm the known data. Four new transitions were added in the sup(93m)Tc spectrum namely 1046.8, 2011.8, 2182.0, and 2861.5 keV. The 2739.0 keV transition was eliminated from the 93 Tc spectrum. The appropriate changes and additions were made in the 93 Tc decay scheme, and three new levels were introduced: 2479.0, 2821.7, and 3025.8 keV. The values of log ft of some levels of 93 Tc were estimated

  7. The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution for (n,γ99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on Zirconium-Based Material (ZBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saptiama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The many problems in preparing fission product 99Mo led into this work to develop 99Mo/99mTc generator using neutron-irradiated natural MoO3 targets and, more specifically, to develop a zirconium-based material (ZBM for chromatography columns that have an adsorption capacity of more than 100 mg Mo/g ZBM. This paper reports our recent experiments in the use of sodium hypochlorite solution of various concentrations to improve the yield of 99mTc in performance of (n,γ99Mo/99mTc generators based on the ZBM. The synthesized ZBM was coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate for improving the hardness of the material. The adsorption of [99Mo]molybdate into ZBM was carried out by reacting ZBM into [99Mo]molybdate solution at 90°C to form ZBM-[99Mo] molybdate. ZBM-[99Mo]molybdate was then packed into generator column, then eluted with 10 × 1 mL of saline followed by 1 × 5 mL of NaOCl solution. The NaOCl solution concentrations used were 0.5%; 1%; 3%; and 5% for each column, respectively. This study resulted in a ZBM which has a 99Mo adsorption capacity of 167.5 ± 3.4 mgMo/g ZBM, as well as in a yield eluate of 99mTc of up to 70%, and the find that the optimum NaOCl concentration was 3%. The use of sodium hypochlorite solution affected 99Mo breakthrough. The higher sodium hypochlorite concentration used, the more 99Mo breaktrough exist on 99mTc eluate.

  8. Contribution of the ''simple solutions'' concept to estimate density of actinides concentrated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorel, C.; Moisy, Ph.; Dinh, B.; Blanc, P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate criticality parameters of nuclear fuel solution systems, number density of nuclides are needed and they are generally estimated from density equations. Most of the relations allowing the calculation of the density of aqueous solutions containing the electrolytes HNO 3 -UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , usually called 'nitrate dilution laws' are strictly empirical. They are obtained from a fit of assumed polynomial expressions on experimental density data. Out of their interpolation range, such mathematical expressions show discrepancies between calculated and experimental data appearing in the high concentrations range. In this study, a physico-chemical approach based on the isopiestic mixtures rule is suggested. The behaviour followed by these mixtures was first observed in 1936 by Zdanovskii and expressed as: 'Binary solutions (i.e. one electrolyte in water) having a same water activity are mixed without variation of this water activity value'. With regards to this behaviour, a set of basic thermodynamic expressions has been pointed out by Ryazanov and Vdovenko in 1965 concerning enthalpy, entropy, volume of mixtures, activity and osmotic coefficient of the components. In particular, a very simple relation for the density is obtained from the volume mixture expression depending on only two physico-chemical variables: i) concentration of each component in the mixture and in their respectively binary solutions having the same water activity as the mixture and ii), density of each component respectively in the binary solution having the same water activity as the mixture. Therefore, the calculation needs the knowledge of binary data (water activity, density and concentration) of each component at the same temperature as the mixture. Such experimental data are largely published in the literature and are available for nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. Nevertheless, nitric acid binary data show large discrepancies between the authors and need to be

  9. Adaptation of the concept of varying time of concentration within flood modelling: Theoretical and empirical investigations across the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Antoniadi, Sylvia; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Bacchi, Baldassare; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The time of concentration, tc, is a key hydrological concept and often is an essential parameter of rainfall-runoff modelling, which has been traditionally tackled as a characteristic property of the river basin. However, both theoretical proof and empirical evidence imply that tc is a hydraulic quantity that depends on flow, and thus it should be considered as variable and not as constant parameter. Using a kinematic method approach, easily implemented in GIS environment, we first illustrate that the relationship between tc and the effective rainfall produced over the catchment is well-approximated by a power-type law, the exponent of which is associated with the slope of the longest flow path of the river basin. Next, we take advantage of this relationship to adapt the concept of varying time of concentration within flood modelling, and particularly the well-known SCS-CN approach. In this context, the initial abstraction ratio is also considered varying, while the propagation of the effective rainfall is employed through a parametric unit hydrograph, the shape of which is dynamically adjusted according to the runoff produced during the flood event. The above framework is tested in a number of Mediterranean river basins in Greece, Italy and Cyprus, ensuring faithful representation of most of the observed flood events. Based on the outcomes of this extended analysis, we provide guidance for employing this methodology for flood design studies in ungauged basins.

  10. Development of methodology for evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I incorporated activities during lactation; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao da atividade de {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 131}I em lactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dantas, A.L.A.; Mesquita, S.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira, S.M.V., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2012-07-01

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  11. MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc mammary scintigraphy; Centellografia mamaria con MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayosky, Maria C; Parma, Elvira P; Armesto, Amparo M; Zarlenga, Ana C [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Oncologico de Medicina Nuclear; Cresta, Carlos; Azar, Maria E; Noblia, Cristina [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Servicio de Mastologia

    1999-07-01

    121 patients suspected of breast cancer were studied with MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc to evaluate the suitability of the mammary scintigraphy in patients with doubtful cancer diagnosis.The results show 93 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity and indicate the usefulness of this procedure to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis.

  12. Use of pyrophosphate-/sup 99m/Tc in diagnosis of malignant tumors of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, Yu N; Purizhanskii, I I; Survila, Z P; Agranat, V Z; Korsunskii, V N

    1976-10-01

    Pyrophosphate-/sup 99m/Tc was administered intravenously in a dose of 0.05 to 0.08 mCi per 1 kg body weight of the patient. Studies were made after 4, 6, and 24 hours with fixed and movable detectors. During investigations a gamma-chamber magnetic memory and a 4096-channel analyzer were also used. A quantitative processing of the material was made. The authors determined distribution of the preparation in normal and pathological bone tissue. A total of 142 patients with tumors of the bone tissue were examined; 858 radioisotope measurements were made. An analysis of accumulation of pyrophosphate-/sup 99m/Tc in primary osteogenic tumors in systemic affections of the bones and bone metastases was made. There is a relation between the concentration of the radiopharmaceutical preparation and the morphological structure of the tumor. Reduction in the accumulation of the radioactive indicator took place after radiation and medicinal effect, this made it possible to judge the regression of the tumor.

  13. Study of gels of molybdenum with cerium in the preparation of generators of 99Mo - 99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moraes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc has ideal nuclear properties for organ imaging in nuclear medicine, and it is obtained from the 99Mo-99mTc generator. Four different types of generators are available: chromatographic that uses 99Mo from fission of uranium; MEK solvent extraction; Tc2O7 sublimation; gel chromatographic. This work presents the preparation of gel generators of molybdenum with cerium and characterization of the gels: mass ratio between molybdenum and cerium, structure, size of particles and elution percentage of 99mTc after irradiating the gels. Eight gels were prepared at the same temperature of 50 ºC with concentrations of NaOH of 2 and 4 mol/L, mass ratio of 0.31 and 0.38 and final pH of 3.5 and 4.5. The analysis of the results proved that these gels are not adequate for preparation of the generators of 99Mo-99mTc, since the elution percentages are low, when compared with the gel of molybdenum with zirconium.O 99mTc é o radiofármaco mais utilizado em Medicina Nuclear. Ele é obtido do gerador de 99Mo-99mTc e existem quatro tipos diferentes de geradores: cromatográfico que utiliza 99Mo de fissão; extração por solvente com MKT; sublimação do heptaóxido de tecnécio; cromatográfico tipo gel. Este trabalho apresenta a preparação de geradores tipo gel de molibdênio com cério, a caracterização desses géis com relação à quantidade de molibdênio e de cério, sua estrutura, tamanho das partículas e porcentagem de eluição do 99mTc após o gel ser irradiado. Foram preparados oito géis na temperatura de 50ºC com concentração de NaOH de 2 e 4 mol/L, relação de massa de 0,31 e 0,38 e pH final de 3,5 e 4,5. A análise dos resultados comprovou que esses géis não são adequados para preparação dos geradores de 99Mo-99mTc, já que as porcentagens de eluição são baixas, quando comparadas com o gel de molibdênio com zircônio.

  14. Results of regular study on radionuclidic purity of sup(99m)Tc obtained from 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.; Rohacek, J.; Husak, V.

    1979-01-01

    A total of 39 sup(99m)Tc eluates obtained from 9 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators delivered by The Radiochemical Centre Amersham during one year was studied with regard to their radionuclide purity. Using a Ge(Li) spectrometer the contaminants 60 Co, 103 Ru, 131 I, 134 Cs, 140 La and 188 Re were found in sup(99m)Tc-eluates with average levels ranging from 2.9 x 10 -3 to 2.8 x 10 -1 per cent of sup(99m)Tc activity. The additional total body absorbed dose caused by these contaminants, as calculated from their average content in sup(99m)Tc eluates, was less than 1% of the dose due to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CS [de

  15. The accumulation, retention and distribution of {sup 95m}Tc in crab (Cancer pagurus L.) and lobster (Homarus gammarus L.). A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D L; Knowles, J F; Winpenny, K [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    1988-08-01

    The accumulation, retention and distribution of {sup 95m}Tc has been compared in lobsters and edible crabs kept under identical experimental conditions. The steady-state concentration factor (C{sub ss}) for the uptake of {sup 95m}Tc from seawater was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17{center_dot}9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14{center_dot}4), whereas in lobsters there was no such sex difference and the C{sub ss} of 1161 was much greater than in crabs. The uptake of technetium from food (as indicated by whole body counts) was only moderately greater in lobsters than crabs. Retention of {sup 95m}Tc was similar for crabs and lobsters of both sexes but the clearance rate was greater after the nuclide had been taken up from seawater (t{sub b1/2}=51 days) than from food (t{sub b1/2}=108 days). In all crabs and most male lobsters {sup 95m}Tc was predominantly in the hepatopancreas while in a few male and all female lobsters it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. In hepatopancreas cells of both species {sup 95m}Tc occurred mainly in the cytosol and some initial steps were taken to determine the relationship between technetium and cytosol proteins. The results for crab and lobster are compared with those from previous studies on these and other crustacean species. The possible basis for the much higher concentrations of technetium in lobsters than crabs is discussed and further research suggested. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. OFDM with Index Modulation for Asynchronous mMTC Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Seda; Tusha, Armed; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2018-04-21

    One of the critical missions for next-generation wireless communication systems is to fulfill the high demand for massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC). In mMTC systems, a sporadic transmission is performed between machine users and base station (BS). Lack of coordination between the users and BS in time destroys orthogonality between the subcarriers, and causes inter-carrier interference (ICI). Therefore, providing services to asynchronous massive machine users is a major challenge for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). In this study, OFDM with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is proposed as an eligible solution to alleviate ICI caused by asynchronous transmission in uncoordinated mMTC networks. In OFDM-IM, data transmission is performed not only by modulated subcarriers but also by the indices of active subcarriers. Unlike classical OFDM, fractional subcarrier activation leads to less ICI in OFDM-IM technology. A novel subcarrier mapping scheme (SMS) named as Inner Subcarrier Activation is proposed to further alleviate adjacent user interference in asynchronous OFDM-IM-based systems. ISA reduces inter-user interference since it gives more activation priority to inner subcarriers compared with the existing SMS-s. The superiority of the proposed SMS is shown through both theoretical analysis and computer-based simulations in comparison to existing mapping schemes for asynchronous systems.

  17. Transport of /sup 99m/Tc complexes through the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Corder, E.H.; Fields, A.T.; Callery, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen /sup 99m/Tc complexes have been synthesized and used to determine the relationships between protein binding, lipophilicity and membrane transport. The lipophilicity of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes was altered by adding substituents to either IDA, EDTA, DTPA or oxine; membrane transport was estimated using the brain uptake index (BUI) method. The BUI of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes was found to vary directly with lipophilicity and inversely with protein binding. These results demonstrated that /sup 99m/Tc-oxine derivatives are better suited for use in the development of intracellular tracers than are the /sup 99m/Tc derivatives of aminopolycarboxylates

  18. Role of 99mTc labelled GHA in post treatment evaluation of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Biochemical investigations have a major role to play in the management of primary brain tumours. It is well known that major biochemical changes occur during cancerous transformation including changes in the energy metabolism of the cell. Changes take place in terms of utilization of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis and expression of antigens and receptors. Changes also take place in disruption of transport mechanisms across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries like blood brain barrier. In the management of primary brain tumours positron emitting tracers have an undisputed role and the role of cationic tracers like Thallium-201, 99m-Tc MIBI and 99m-Tc tetrofosmin has been cited as an alternative to positron tracers in neuro oncology. It must be borne in mind that the cationic tracers are expensive to procure and facilities for positron emission tomography are not available in most of the developing countries. Tc-99m GHA Brain Imaging: Keeping in view the above, a cheaper alternative for PET radio tracers was evaluated. We have so far conducted more than 100 brain SPECT studies, using Tc-99m Glucoheptonic acid (GHA), in 60 patients of brain tumour, both at the time of their diagnosis, as well as after treatment during the follow-up period. Tc-99m Glucoheptonic acid (GHA) is a chemical glucose analogue. Avid concentration of the radiopharmaceutical was noted in viable tumor tissue in the SPECT images done one hour after injection of 740 MBq of 99m-Tc GHA. This was subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination in patients undergoing re-surgery for residual disease or follow up and clinical correlation in patients under remission. Avid tracer concentration was also well demonstrated in recurrent disease (proven by clinical examination, histopathology and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). No significant tracer uptake was seen in areas of radiation induced necrosis. Non-specific uptake in the tumor bed was

  19. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams--black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR--decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented for an enhanced primary treatment or, in some situations, as a main treatment. Two reactor configurations were extensively studied; accumulation system (AC) and UASB septic tank at 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. Due to long retention times in an AC reactor, far stabilisation of treated medium can be accomplished with methanisation up to 60%. The AC systems are the most suitable to apply when the volume of waste to be treated is minimal and when a direct reuse of a treated medium in agriculture is possible. Digested effluent contains both liquid and solids. In a UASB septic tank, efficient separation of solids and liquid is accomplished. The total COD removal was above 80% at 25 degrees C. The effluent contains COD and nutrients, mainly in a soluble form. The frequency of excess sludge removal is low and sludge is well stabilised due to a long accumulation time.

  20. In vitro studies of leukocyte labeling with /sup 99m/Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Vincent, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method for labeling leukocytes in vitro with /sup 99m/Tc is described. Separated leukocytes are incubated with /sup 99m/Tc, followed by reduction with stannous chloride and washing with acid citrate dextrose solution. Maximum labeling occurs after at least 5 min incubation with pertechnetate, followed by at least 10 min incubation with stannous chloride. Labeling is similar at room temperature and at 37 0 C. The labeled leukocytes are viable, and reutilization of label does not occur in vitro. In acid conditions (pH 5.2), the elution of /sup 99m/Tc from leukocytes is comparable with that of 32 P-diisopropylfluorophosphate, but /sup 99m/Tc elution is greater at pH 7.2 to 7.4. Neutrophils label more heavily with /sup 99m/Tc than do monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets

  1. Chemistry of /sup 99m/Tc labeling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Problems have been reported with the use of kit-produced /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals. This study was undertaken to understand the chemistry involved in various stannous kit systems. The relation between Tc, tin, and the ligands used to complex the reduced Tc was investigated. It is concluded that for reliable performance, stannous kits should be prepared so that most of the tin is kept in the usable (reducing) form; a solution would be to use minimum tin and a large excess of complexing agent. Oxidation of the Tc complex to free pertechnetate is not a major problem in most kit systems. 5 figures

  2. Peptic ulcer imaging with /sup 99m/Tc sucralfate and possible advantages of /sup 99m/Tc sucrose octasulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CentiColella, A.; Scopinaro, F.

    1986-01-01

    Sucralfate is a basic aluminum salt of sucrose octasulfate that protects the damaged mucosa and also the normal mucosa from peptic aggression. In fact sucralfate adheres to the mucosa as pH decreases below 4, and buffers the acid, slowly releasing sucrose octasulfate that forms insoluble complexes with the proteins exuded by the ulcers, or is washed out of the stomach. Sucralfate itself is also able to precipitate with proteins in the ulcers. Sucralfate may be labelled by several methods: /sup 99m/Tc HSA, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA, /sup 75/Se, /sup 111/In. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical results obtained using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA sucralfate, which the authors believe is the only labelled sucralfate suitable for clinical studies and to discuss the possible diagnostic uses of /sup 99m/Tc sucrose octasulfate. In fact, it has been possible to label the sucrose octasulfate either with /sup 99m/Tc DTPA or with /sup 99m/Tc without the use of intermediate ligands

  3. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa, K.; Elmitwally, T.A.; Gaillard, A.; Leeuwen, van M.; Zeeman, G.

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20degreesC for a

  4. Conception of dairy cows in different seasons of the year in relation to thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekeova, E.; Elecko, J.; Hendrichovsky, V.; Hajurka, V.; Choma, J.; Krajnicakova, M.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation took place in March, June and November following estrus synchronization with cloprostenol. The concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the blood serum were determined by RIA using commercial kits. It is derived from the results that conception of dairy cows is in indirect proportion to the thyroid hormone levels. (M.D.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 22 refs

  5. Technetium 99mTc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi; Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon

    1968-01-01

    Technetium 99 mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or 131 I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced 99 mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  6. Technetium {sup 99m}Tc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi [Capital Army Hospital, ROKA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1968-03-15

    Technetium {sup 99}mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or {sup 131}I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced {sup 99}mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  7. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  8. Asialoglycoprotein-receptor-targeted hepatocyte imaging using {sup 99m}Tc galactosylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Mi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan-Jeong [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jayjeong@chonbuk.ac.kr; Kim, Se-Lim [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Myung-Hee [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Jae-Woon [Division of Applied Materials Engineering, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee-Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Kyu [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong-Su [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    This study investigated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide-galactosylated chitosan (HGC) in hepatocyte imaging. HGC was obtained by coupling the galactose moiety of both lactobionic acid and succinimidyl 6-hydrazinonicotinate hydrochloride (succinimidyl HYNIC). The coupled product was then radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc using stannous chloride and tricine as reducing agent and coligand, respectively. Labeling efficiency was >90% both in room temperature and in serum up to 24 h after injection. The hepatic uptake properties of {sup 99m}Tc HGC were studied in Balb/C mice. {sup 99m}Tc HGC and {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide chitosan (HC) were intravenously injected into mice, with receptor binding identified by coinjection with 9 and 14 mg of free galactose. Images were acquired with a {gamma}-camera. After injection via the tail vein of the mice, {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed high selectivity for the liver, while {sup 99m}Tc HC without a galactose group showed low liver uptake. In addition, the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc HGC was blocked by coinjection of free galactose. Tissue distribution was determined at three different times (10, 60 and 120 min). The liver accumulated 13.16{+-}2.72%, 16.11{+-}5.70% and 16.55{+-}2.28% of the injected dose per gram at 10, 60 and 120 min after injection, respectively. {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed specific and rapid targeting of hepatocytes. It is a promising receptor-specific radiopharmaceutical with potential applications in liver imaging for the evaluation of hepatocytic function.

  9. Accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research)

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity.

  10. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Izaki, M.; Giorgi, M.C.P.; Soares Junior, J; Meneghetti, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in organs and tissues. It may affect virtually any system, preferably heart, kidneys and liver. The cardiac involvement produces a spectrum of clinical features, usually with progressive dysfunction. Early diagnosis is important for institution of appropriate therapy. Case report: Male patient, 75 years old, with diagnosed congestive heart failure functional class III and Mobitz II second-degree atrial-ventricular block, was hospitalized for implantation of definitive cardiac pacemaker. Patient mentioned history of worsening effort dyspnoea over a one-month period, progressing to minimum effort, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and paroxysms of dry cough, and swelling of lower limbs. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypertrophy of left ventricle (LV), with systolic dysfunction due to diffuse hypokinesia and hyperrefringent aspect in the septum. It was questioned a cardiac infiltrating process. Cardiac amyloidosis was considered as a diagnostic hypothesis. The patient underwent a pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy, which showed abnormal tracer uptake in the heart projection, with diffuse pattern on the left ventricle walls, compatible with the clinical suspicion cardiac amyloidosis, which was later confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Discussion: In this case report, the patient had clinical and other auxiliary examinations, such as electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography, compatible with cardiac amyloidosis, which led to implementation with pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy and later endomyocardial biopsy. Cardiac amyloidosis occurs in about half the cases of primary amyloidosis (AL) and is rare in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Its clinical presentation is polymorphic and it can be classified into four distinctive types: restrictive cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction, postural hypotension and conduction disorders

  11. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  12. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed /sup 95m/Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1984-10-01

    Previous coefficients for transfer of technetium from feed to poultry have utilized default values. These investigations examined the uptake and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in male and female Japanese quail following their ingestion of Tc incorporated into alfalfa during growth. Approximately 8% of the daily ingested Tc was transferred to eggs. Biological half-time was one to two days. After 10 days of feeding, 80% of the Tc was in yolk, 20% in albumin, and less than 1% in shell and associated membranes. The Tc levels in albumin reached a maximum between three and five days, compared to six to seven days for yolk. Laying female quail contained 27% of the daily-ingested Tc compared to 5% for males. However, approximately 23% of the daily female Tc intake was contained in the developing ova and reproductive organs. The highest Tc concentrations were in oocytes of laying hens, followed by the fully formed unlaid egg and the ovaries. The uterine shelled egg contained five times the amount of Tc present in other edible tissues combined. For males, the gizzard contained about 53% of the Tc in other edible tissues, followed by muscle (25%), liver (19%), and heart (3%). The transfer coefficient (pCi/kg edible tissue per pCi/day) for plant-incorporated /sup 95m/Tc was about 0.35 day/kg for both sexes. 17 references, 4 tables

  13. Effects of Momordica charantia on osmotic fragility and label red blood cells and plasmatic protein with 99m-Tc in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnata, Simey S.L.P. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: sfmagnata@terra.com.br; Correia, Marilia B.L.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson C.; Souza, Grace M.L.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Terra, Daniele A.; Amorim, Lucia F. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2005-07-01

    The use of natural products in the treatment physiopathology awaken the interest in the inquiry of the action mechanisms. The Momordica charantia, Melao de Sao Caetano, is used in the Caribbean and Orient for the diseases as stomatitis, cancer and diabetes. This work aims to verify the effect of the Momordica charantia's aqueous extract leaves on osmotic fragility and on labeling red blood cells (RBC) and plasmatic proteins with {sup 99m}Tc in vitro. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, samples of heparinized blood (500 mL) was incubed for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v); after centrifugation, the RCB were submitted the incubation (1 hour) with a gradient of NaCl (0;0,1;0,25;0,4;0,7 and 0.9%), the OD of supernatant was determined. With regards to label red blood cells and plasmatic proteins with {sup 99m}Tc in vitro was carried out by incubating of anticoagulant whole blood (500 mL) for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v). A stannous chloride solution of 1,2 {mu}g/mL was added the incubation for 60 minutes. After this the {sup 99m}Tc (3,7 MBq) was added and the incubation was continued for another 10 minutes. Those were centrifuged, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid 5% and mensured in a counter. The results shows that with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the concentration of 100% provoked hemolysis. The Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who modify the fixation of {sup 99m}Tc in red blood cells. The results show with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the quantity 100% provoked hemolysis. It is concluded that the Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who unchains the cellular fragility and {sup 99m}Tc fixation, showing a reduction effect. (author)

  14. /sup 99m/Tc labelled ulcer avid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Linari, G.; Baldieri, M.; Liberatore, M.; Corti, E.; Signori, C.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfated oligosaccharides have some interesting pharmacological properties: they are anticoagulants and protect the ulcerative areas of epithelia by precipitating over ulcers together with exudative proteins. Some sucralfate labelling methods using /sup 75/Se, /sup 111/In, /sup 99m/Tc-albumin and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA have been reported. Only the /sup 99m/Tc-sucralfate has, at present, the requisites to be used as an ulcer-seeking agent. The aim of this study were: (a) to introduce a simple and easy-to-repeat method for the labelling of sucralfate with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; (b) to demonstrate that it is possible to label the sucrose octasulfate directly with /sup 99m/Tc without the aid of other ligands (e.g. DTPA)

  15. Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-06-01

    This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.

  16. The accumulation and retention of {sup 95m}Tc by the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D. E-mail: d.j.swift@cefas.co.uk

    2001-07-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study bioaccumulation and determine a concentration factor (CF) for technetium ({sup 95m}Tc) in the homarid crustacean Nephrops norvegicus L. The steady state CF for accumulation from seawater was estimated to be about 2000 and the biological half-time was about 50 days. The highest tissue Tc concentrations were found in the green gland and the digestive gland. Depuration following accumulation from water was slow with a half-time of about 165 days. Tc accumulation from labelled food followed a biphasic model with one compartment containing about 94 percent of the ingested activity and with a half-time of about 1 day and the second compartment containing about 6 percent of the ingested activity with a half-time of about 56 days. Most retained activity was found in the digestive gland.

  17. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  18. A {sup 99m}Tc Generator using PZC for (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adang, H G; Mutalib, A; Suparman, I; Hamid,; Purwadi, B; Pancoko, M; Setiowati, S; Yulianti, V; Robertus, D H [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The high performance adsorbent Poly Zirconium Compound (PZC) was produced by Department of Radioisotope, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This compound was developed as an adsorbent for natural Mo (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc Generator. In the present paper, we report the performance of the PZC for a {sup 99m}Tc Generator which was focused on the yield, on elution profile and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough. (author)

  19. Exhaled ethane concentration in patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract - a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, Jo Etienne; Skeldon, Kenneth D; Stuart, Robert C; Padgett, Miles J

    2009-06-01

    There has been growing interest in the measurement of breath ethane as an optimal non-invasive marker of oxidative stress. High concentrations of various breath alkanes including ethane have been reported in a number of malignancies. Our aim was to investigate the use of novel laser spectroscopy for rapid reporting of exhaled ethane and to determine whether breath ethane concentration is related to a diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal malignancy. Two groups of patients were recruited. Group A (n = 20) had a histo-pathological diagnosis of either esophageal or gastric malignancy. Group B (n = 10) was made up of healthy controls. Breath samples were collected from these subjects and the ethane concentration in these samples was subsequently measured to an accuracy of 0.2 parts per billion, ppb. Group A patients had a corrected exhaled breath ethane concentration of 2.3 +/- 0.8 (mean +/- SEM) ppb. Group B patients registered a mean of 3.1 +/- 0.5 ppb. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.39). In conclusion, concentrations of ethane in collected breath samples were not significantly elevated in upper gastrointestinal malignancy. The laser spectroscopy system provided a reliable and rapid turnaround for breath sample analysis.

  20. Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of heat into current can be obtained by a process with two stages. In the first one, the heat is used for distilling a solution and obtaining two flows with different concentrations. In the second stage, the two flows are sent to an electrochemical cell that produces current by consuming the concentration difference. In this paper, we propose such an electrochemical cell, working with water solutions of zinc chloride. The cell contains two electrodes, made respectively of zinc and silver covered by silver chloride. The operation of the cell is analogous to that of the capacitive mixing and of the “mixing entropy battery”: the electrodes are charged while dipped in the concentrated solution and discharged when dipped in the diluted solution. The cyclic operation allows us to extract a surplus of energy, at the expense of the free energy of the concentration difference. We evaluate the feasibility of such a cell for practical applications and find that a power up to 2 W per m2 of the surface of the electrodes can be achieved.

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of Ubiquicidin 29-41-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Dias, Luis Alberto Pereira; Higa, Olga Z.; Silva, Fabiana M. da; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: dpvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Passos, Priscila; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M., E-mail: fabiana@biosintesis.com.br [Laboratorio Biosintesis Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work carried out cytotoxicity tests using a radiopharmaceutical compound produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP to certify its safety through in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Since 2009, the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) requires that such tests have to be carried out following good laboratory practices (GLP) and in according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines in order to certify its safety for medical use. Those guidelines comprises series of technical recommendations performed to assure quality of experiments. The study chose Ubiquicidin 29-41, an antimicrobial peptide used to discriminate bacterial infection foci from inflammatory sites. Amounts of UBI{sub 29-41} were conjugated or not to {sup 99m}Tc and diluted to equivalent concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000% of the maximum dose (or activity) administered in adults. Possible cytotoxic effects were evaluated in comparison to untreated controls as well as positive and negative damage controls. Both full (radioactive) radiopharmaceuticals, as their precursors (only molecules without conjugation to isotopes) showed no significant cytotoxic effect (cytotoxicity ≤ 10%). The study was conducted for the first time in the country comprising preclinical testing of this radiopharmaceutical in accordance with internationally accepted quality parameters, ensuring the safety of its use and enabling inclusion in the pharmaceutical regulatory agenda. (author)

  2. Stability 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' of the diisopropyl-IDA sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Leon, A.S.; Robles, A.M.; Correa, Angela; Oliver, Guillermo; Gamma, Santos; Lanzzeri, Stella; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' stability of the diisopropyl (IDA-3) kit in solution and of the molecule labelled with sup(99m)Tc was studied. The following items were studied a) shelf life of the kit in solution b) 'in vitro' stability of the labelled molecule c) distribution and elimination kinetics d) identification and behaviour of the excretion products. Chromatographic control shows 95% yield of labelled product after 20 days storage at 4 deg C and 92% yield after 30 days in the same conditions; biological distribution was good in both cases. Regarding the 'in vitro' stability, no alteration was observed within the 4 hours after its preparation. The stability of the complex was determined by the reaction between sup(99m)TcIDA-3 and DTPA. Analysis by electrophoresis shows the complex to be stable even with DTPA concentrations 5 times higher. Kinetics of distribution and elimination of the labelled molecule, in animals, were afterwards confirmed by sequential scintigraphic images in humans. The excretion of unaltered sup(99m)Tc-IDA by biliary and urinary ways was confirmed by cromatographic and electrophoretic analysis of bladder and gall bladder content and by determination of its biological distribution. (author) [es

  3. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, E.-P.

    1978-03-01

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used [fr

  4. Labelling and optimization of PHOTOFRIN {sup registered} with {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhar-e-Alam, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Roohi, S.; Amir, N.; Zahoor, R. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Isotope Production Div.; Atif, M.; Firdous, S. [National Institute of Laser and Optronics, Islamabad (Pakistan). Biophotonics Lab.

    2010-07-01

    PHOTOFRIN {sup registered} was labelled with {sup 99m}Tc using SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as reducing agent. Instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) in 0.05 M NaOH was used for evaluation of radiochemical purity. Labelling efficiency was dependent on various factors that include the ligand/reductant ratio, pH and time of incubation. Therefore, optimum conditions of labelling were also determined. The stability of {sup 99m}Tc-PHOTOFRIN {sup registered} in serum was checked by using fresh human serum. Tissue distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-PHOTOFRIN {sup registered} was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. PHOTOFRIN {sup registered} was labelled with an efficiency of > 95% under optimum conditions, which were PHOTOFRIN {sup registered}: 200 {mu}g, pH: 3-4, SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O: 15 {mu}g and 30 min incubation at room temperature. The {sup 99m}Tc-labelled PHOTOFRIN {sup registered} remained stable in human serum for 24 h. Biodistribution study in rats revealed maximum concentration of the labelled compound in liver, lungs and spleen at 0.5 h, and significant activity was also seen in the bladder and urine, indicating the mode of urinary excretion of PHOTOFRIN {sup registered}. (orig.)

  5. Effect of iron deficiency anemia on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmanovici, Gabriela P. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Salgueiro, Maria J. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Janjetic, Mariana A. [Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leonardi, Natalia M. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boccio, Jose R. [Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, Marcela B. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mzubi@ffyb.uba.ar

    2006-05-15

    The distribution of colloids and labeled cells in organs is influenced by their intrinsic properties and by the state of the investigated subject. Iron deficiency remains an unsolved nutritional problem all over the world; one of its severe consequences is anemia. Because iron metabolism principally takes place in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skeletal muscle and blood, we studied the effect of iron deficiency anemia on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc phytate, {sup 99m}Tc gelatin colloid and {sup 99m}Tc RBC (red blood cells labeled with {sup 99m}Tc). Our results show that iron deficiency anemia modifies the pattern of biodistribution of the two colloids assayed. However, this behavior is different for both of them. This work contributes to studies that kinetically and statistically establish that iron deficiency anemia induces a significant inversion in the spleen-liver activity relationship when centellographic studies are performed with colloids such as {sup 99m}Tc phytate.

  6. A Co-Powered Biomass and Concentrated Solar Power Rankine Cycle Concept for Small Size Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Tortora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the matching of an advanced small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP Rankine cycle plant with end-user thermal and electric load. The power plant consists of a concentrated solar power field co-powered by a biomass furnace to produce steam in a Rankine cycle, with a CHP configuration. A hotel was selected as the end user due to its high thermal to electric consumption ratio. The power plant design and its operation were modelled and investigated by adopting transient simulations with an hourly distribution. The study of the load matching of the proposed renewable power technology and the final user has been carried out by comparing two different load tracking scenarios, i.e., the thermal and the electric demands. As a result, the power output follows fairly well the given load curves, supplying, on a selected winter day, about 50 GJ/d of thermal energy and the 6 GJ/d of electric energy, with reduced energy dumps when matching the load.

  7. Determination of 99Mo contamination in 99mTc elute obtained from 99Mo/99mTc- generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momennezhad, M.; Zakavi, S. R.; Sadeghi, R.

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc is a widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine centers which is obtained by elution from Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. Usually the generators are either supplied by the Iran Atomic Energy Agency or by private companies from foreign countries. In this study we have measured 99 Mo contamination in 99m Tc elute from different generators in a period of one year. Materials and Methods: The radionuclide impurity of the 99m Tc elute were studied in two types of radionuclide generators (A: produced in Iran and B: Imported from other country). In-vitro measurements were performed using dose calibrator. Direct measurements were made, using a standard canister at the time of milking of the generators and also in Subsequent hours after milking. Results: The results showed a mean of 99 Mo impurity in generators A and B to be 0.00932±0.0043 and 0.0170±0.0127 respectively. Although the results showed that the 99 Mo contamination in 99 mTc elute was lesser than the maximum accepted activity limit of 0.015%, the difference in these two types may reflect different methods of productions of generator, as well as the quality control procedures. Conclusion: The mean of 99 Mo contamination in generators produced in Iran Atomic Energy Organization was lesser than generators imported from foreign origin.

  8. A systematic review of the concept and clinical applications of bone marrow aspirate concentrate in tendon pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mohamed A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon pathologies are a group of musculoskeletal conditions frequently seen in clinical practice. They can be broadly classified into traumatic, degenerative and overuse-related tendinopathies. Rotator cuff tears, Achilles tendinopathy and tennis elbow are common examples of these conditions. Conventional treatments have shown inconsistent outcomes and might fail to provide satisfactory clinical improvement. With the growing trend towards the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in other branches of medicine, there is an increasing interest in treating tendon pathologies using the bone marrow MSC. In this article, we provide a systematic literature review documenting the current status of the use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC for the treatment of tendon pathologies. We also asked the question on the safety of BMAC and whether there are potential complications associated with BMAC therapy. Our hypothesis is that the use of BMAC provides safe clinical benefit when used for the treatment of tendinopathy or as a biological augmentation of tendon repair. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist while preparing this systematic review. A literature search was carried out including the online databases of PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane Library from 1960 to the end of May 2015. Relevant studies were selected and critically appraised. Data from eligible studies were extracted and classified per type of tendon pathology. We included 37 articles discussing the application and use of BMAC for the treatment of tendon pathologies. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP appraisal confirmed a satisfactory standard of 37 studies. Studies were sub-categorised into: techniques of extraction, processing and microscopic examination of BMAC (n = 18, where five studies looked at the evaluation of aspiration techniques (n = 5, augmentation of rotator cuff tears (n = 5

  9. Isolation and labelling of human leucocytes with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbaek, H.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the leucocyte isolation procedure on cell labeling with sup(99m)Tc has been evaluated. Separation of leucocytes was performed by two procedures: (1) sedimentation on methyl cellulose, followed by discontinuous gradient centrifugation; (2) methyl cellulose sedimentation and hypotonic haemolysis of residual red blood cells. After washing the cells in saline and incubation with a stannous pyrophosphate agent, the leucocytes were labelled with 5-10 mCi sup(99m)Tc. Procedure 1 gave a higher purity but lower recovery of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and a minor contamination of red blood cells. sup(99m)Tc labelling of cells was slightly more efficient with this method, probably due to the presence of red blood cells. Procedure 1 is recommended for in vitro studies on cell kinetics and procedure 2 is recommended for clinical use. (orig.)

  10. Studies on the preparation of sup(99m)Tc labelled medical tracer compounds: pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.R.; Park, K.B.; Shim, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    A crude extract from a Korean native plant, Banha (Pinellia ternata), has been known to agglutinate the erythrocytes of rabbit, mouse and especially erythrocytes of leukemic patients, Sarcoma-180 cell and Ehrlich ascite cell. The Banha lectin was labelled either with 125 with 125 I by means of chloramine-T method or with sup(99m)Tc by using aqueous sodium pertechnetate (- sup(99m)Tc) solution and stannous chloride as a reducing agent. Their labelling yield was 60% and 98%, respectively. These labelled compounds were administered to mice by intraperitoneal injections and their radioactivity distributions were measured after 3 hours. The uptake of 125 I labelled compound to tissue in mice appeared in the order of kidney, pancreas, spleen, liver, blood, and stomach, but in the case of sup(99m)Tc, it appeared in the order of kidney, pancreas, stomach, liver, spleen and blood

  11. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99Mo through a hydrous zirconium oxide column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengatti, J.

    1980-01-01

    The preparation of 99 Mo-,sup(99m)Tc generator based on the adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide column, employing the in exchange technique, is described. The adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) and the separation of sup(99m)Tc, generated by the decay of 99 Mo with saline solution, are analised. The sup(99m)Tc separation yield, pH of the eluted solution, aspect of the elution curve and the adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide calcined at 800 0 C are studied. The chemical and radioactive purities of the final product are analysed and the variation of the elution yield for successive elutions is studied. (Author) [pt

  12. A new inorganic adsorbent of (n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo for the practical {sup 99m}Tc generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Y; Nishino, M [Kaken Co., Asahi, Ibaraki (Japan). Functional Materials Inst.; Ishikawa, K; Tatenuma, K; Kurosawa, K; Tanase, M; Yamabayashi, H

    1998-10-01

    Technetium-99m is used most widely in diagnostic nuclear medicine. By the milking procedure, it is normally eluted as the daughter nuclide from {sup 99}Mo adsorbed in an alumina column as a generator. Molybdenum-99 with high specific activity has been produced in large quantities from the fission of irradiated {sup 235}U. However, the production process involves the troublesome handling process of various fission products in the high radiation field and generates highly radioactive and poisonous wastes. To avoid these drawbacks, some gel generators have been proposed. They are of zirconium molybdate, zirconium molybdophosphate or titanium molybdate gel, which are able to be applied to {sup 99}Mo obtained easily by (n, {gamma}) reaction of natural Mo. However, it has become apparent that the gel has been prepared only under certain strict conditions such as concentrations and reaction temperature, and eventually the elution rate of {sup 99m}Tc was unstable because of any influences of the gel preparation conditions. We have developed and reported a new inorganic adsorbent (Polyinorganic Zirconium Compound: PZC) of {sup 99}Mo with a low specific activity obtained by (n, {gamma}) reaction to overcome the problems of gel generators above mentioned. PZC was prepared from ZrCl{sub 4} and isopropyl alcohol. The adsorbed amount of {sup 99}Mo (Mo) to PZC was about 200 mg/g-PZC, and the yield of {sup 99m}Tc was about 80%. And the breakthrough of {sup 99}Mo was less than 0.5%. In this paper, the properties of the improved PZC, performance of generators with {sup 99}Mo loaded from 0.5 to 470 MBq, and a method to reduce the breakthrough of {sup 99}Mo are described. (author)

  13. Mean temperature of the catch (MTC in the Greek Seas based on landings and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C. Tsikliras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mean temperature of the catch (MTC, which is the average inferred temperature preference of the exploited species weighted by their annual catch, is an index that has been used for evaluating the effect of sea warming on marine ecosystems. In the present work, we examined the effect of sea surface temperature on the catch composition of the Greek Seas using the MTC applied on the official catch statistics (landings for the period 1970-2010 (Aegean and Ionian Seas and on experimental bottom trawl survey data for 1997-2014 (southern Aegean Sea. The MTC of the landings for the study period increased from 11.8 οC to 16.2 οC in the Aegean Sea and from 10.0 οC to 14.7 οC in the Ionian Sea. Overall, the rate of MTC increase was 1.01 οC per decade for the Aegean and 1.17 οC per decade for the Ionian Sea and was positively related to sea surface temperature anomalies in both areas. For the survey data, the increase of the MTC of the bottom trawl catch in the southern Aegean Sea was lower (0.51 οC per decade but referred to a shorter time frame and included only demersal species. The change in MTC of official and survey catches indicates that the relative catch proportions of species preferring warmer waters and those preferring colder waters have changed in favour of the former and that this change is linked to sea surface temperature increase, both internally (through the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or externally (warming trend driven.

  14. Role of /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake in the evaluation of thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucupira, M.S.; Camargo, E.E.; Nickoloff, E.L.; Alderson, P.O.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the 20 min /sup 99/mTc-pertechnetate uptake test, the records of 246 consecutive patients were reviewed. Of these, 192 patients (151 females, 41 males; 10 weeks to 78 years) had at least one year clinical follow-up or a confirmed diagnosis by biopsy or surgery and were included in our study. In these patients, the /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake and hormonal values (T3 resin uptake, T4 RIA, T-index) were obtained. These results were then compared to the clinical diagnosis at the time of the uptake and one year later. All patients received an i.v. injection of 5 mCi of /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate. Imaging was performed using a pinhole collimator and a scintillation camera interfaced to a computer. Regions of interest for the thyroid and the background were used to calculate the 20 min /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake as a percentage of the injected dose. /sup 99/mTc uptake and hormonal values were confirmatory in 158 patients (82.3%): 138 were euthyroid, 18 were hyperthyroid and 2 were hypothyroid. In 29 other patients (15.1%) the pertechnetate uptake provided useful additional information and helped to identify Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8 patients); thyroid suppression by exogenous iodide, steroids or T4 (7 patients); overtreated hyperthyroidism (1 patient); persistent hyperthyroidism (5 patients); different stages of Grave's disease (4 patients); and toxic nodular goiter (4 patients). The /sup 99/mTc uptake was misleading in 5 euthyroid patients (2.6%). We have found the /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake a useful adjunct to measurement of hormonal levels in patients with suspected thyroid disease.

  15. Transfer of 131I and sup(95m)Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the behaviour of 131 I (Tsub(1/2)=8.0d) and sup(95m)Tc (Tsub(1/2)=61d), which were sprayed on to pasture that was subsequently grazed by a herd of dairy goats. The transfer of 131 I to goats milk was about 5600 times more than that of sup(95m)Tc after 5 d of grazing contaminated pasture. Most of the difference appeared to be explained by a progressive immobilisation of technetium on vegetation, which occurred during the first few days of the experiment. (UK)

  16. Detection of metastatic bone cancer by scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc labelled sodium pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromer, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    Bone scanning with sup(99m)Tc sodium pyrophosphate was performed in 65 patients with primary neoplasms, using a gamma-camera. The scans are compared to those obtained with 85 Sr and 87 Sr. Sup(99m)Tc appears to be superior to the other two in the detection of metastatic bone lesions, mainly because of its physical characteristics (high yield of 140 KeV photons, short physical half-life). The advantages related to these characteristics are emphasized: possibility of rapid and systematic investigation of the whole skeleton using a gamma-camera; low dose irradiation of the patient which enables frequent repetitive studies to be performed [fr

  17. Development of 99Mo/99mTc Generator System for Production of Medical Radionuclide 99mTc using a Neutron-activated 99Mo and Zirconium Based Material (ZBM as its Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saptiama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum produced from fission of U-235 is the most desirable precursor for 99Mo/99mTc generator system as it is non-carrier added and has high specific activity. However, in the last decade there has been short supply of 99Mo due to several constrains. Therefore, there have been many works performed for development of 99Mo/99mTc generator system using 99Mo which is not produced from either LEU or HEU. This report deals with development of 99Mo/99mTc generator system where zirconium-based material (ZBM is used as adsorbent of neutron-activated 99Mo. The system was prepared by firstly irradiating natural Mo in the G. A. Siwabessy reactor to produce neutron-activated 99Mo. The target was dissolved in NaOH 4N and then neutralized with 12 M HCl. The 99Mo solution was then mixed with a certain amount of ZBM followed by heating at 90°C for three hours to allow the 99Mo adsorbed on ZBM. The 99Mo-ZBM (9.36 GBq of 99Mo was Mo/ 4.2 g ZBM was packed on a fritz-glass column. This column was then fitted serially with an alumina column for trapping 99Mo breakthrough. The columns were then eluted daily with saline solution for up to one week. The yield of 99mTc was found to be between 53.7 – 74% (n= 5. All 99mTc eluates were clear solutions with pH of 5. Breakthrough of 99Mo in 99mTc eluates was found to be 0.031 ± 0.019 μCi 99Mo/ mCi 99mTc (n= 5 which was less than the maximum activity of 99Mo allowed in 99mTc solution ( 99%. Radiolabeling of this 99mTc towards methylene diphosphonate (MDP kit gave a radiolabelling efficiency of 99%. In summary, a new 99Mo/99mTc generator system that used neutron-activated 99Mo and ZBM as its adsorbent has been successfully prepared. The 99mTc produced from this new 99Mo/99mTc generator system attained the quality of 99mTc required for medical purposes.

  18. Sodium metabisulfite: a new reducer agent for direct labelling of immunoglobulins with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas, F.; Hernandez, T.; Rodriguez, M.E.; Perera, A.; Hernandez, L.; Valdes, M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for direct labeling of antibodies with 99mTc is described. Sodium Metabisulfite (SMB) was evaluated as a new reducing agent of disulfide bridges of the IgG molecule. Under selected experimental conditions, radiochemical purities of the label higher than 90.0% were achieved in most of the experiments. On the basis of the obtained yields an empiric equation which describes the system was computed as: Y=93.6+2.1X5 - 1.36X6+0.9X7. The absence of X4 indicated that the purification on Sephadex of the reduced IgG was not relevant to the labeling process. The most important variables were tin ion concentration (X5), the volume of Tin-Tartrate solution (X6) and the incubating time between reduced IgG and Tin-Tartrate solution (X7). A low aggregation and fragmentation of the IgG molecule was obtained when a SMB/IgG molar relation of 750/1 was used. The stability of the 99mTc-IgG was assessed by DTPA, HSA and L-Cysteine challenge studies. An acceptable level of dissociation was observed in presence of DTPA and L-Cysteine, when the Tartrate anion was used. However the transchelation level for HSA was about 80.0 per cent. These preliminary results showed that SMB could be a useful reducing agent for direct labeling of IgG. Further studies are needed to correctly evaluate it. (author)

  19. Quantitative hepatosplenic scintiscanning. Experimental and clinical studies to determine the contents of radioactivity in liver and spleen following administration of 99mTc sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuchtinger, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hepatosplenic scintiscans were obtained from 78 patients following administration of 99mTc sulfur colloid using a double-head scanner and subjected to quantitative analysis. It was the aim of the study to assess the practicability of quantitative scintiscanning of liver and spleen, to define the range of generally acceptable, normal values for the concentration of 99mTc sulfur colloid in liver and spleen as well as to evaluate the clinical relevance of this method. The following values were determined to be normal: 4.7±1.5 for the liver: Spleen ratio; 31±3% for the proportion of the left hepatic lobe in total liver concentration; 68.7±5.4% and 17.4±3.6% for the active contents of liver and spleen, respectively. Quantitative scintiscanning constitutes a very sensitive method to detect transformation processes in the liver that are associated with a decreased liver: Spleen ratio and an increased ratio between the left hepatic lobe and the total organ. The method is unsuitable to assess pathological accumulation of the tracer substances. The question as to whether the use of the more time-consuming procedure of quantitative scintiscanning is justified by the additional diagnostic information gained remains to be investigated in further studies. (TRV) [de

  20. WE-AB-204-12: Dosimetry at the Sub-Cellular Scale of Auger-Electron Emitter 99m-Tc in a Mouse Single Thyroid Follicle Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A; Benabdallah, N; Desbree, A [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-roses (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetry study at the sub-cellular scale of Auger-electron emitter 99m-Tc using a mouse single thyroid cellular model to investigate the contribution of the 99m-Tc Auger-electrons to the absorbed dose and possible link to the thyroid stunning in in vivo experiments in mice, recently reported in literature. Methods: The simulation of S-values for Auger-electron emitting radionuclides was performed using both the recent MCNP6 software and the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 toolkit. The dosimetric calculations were validated through comparison with results from literature, using a simple model of a single cell consisting of two concentric spheres of unit density water and for six Auger-electron emitting radionuclides. Furthermore, the S-values were calculated using a single thyroid follicle model for uniformly distributed 123-I and 125-I radionuclides and compared with published S-values. After validation, the simulation of the S-values was performed for the 99m-Tc radionuclide within the several mouse thyroid follicle cellular compartments, considering the radiative and non-radiative transitions of the 99m-Tc radiation spectrum. Results: The calculated S-values using MCNP6 are in good agreement with the results from literature, validating its use for the 99m-Tc S-values calculations. The most significant absorbed dose corresponds to the case where the radionuclide is uniformly distributed in the follicular cell’s nucleus, with a S-value of 7.8 mGy/disintegration, due mainly to the absorbed Auger-electrons. The results show that, at a sub-cellular scale, the emitted X-rays and gamma particles do not contribute significantly to the absorbed dose. Conclusion: In this work, MCNP6 was validated for dosimetric studies at the sub-cellular scale. It was shown that the contribution of the Auger-electrons to the absorbed dose is important at this scale compared to the emitted photons’ contribution and can’t be neglected. The obtained S

  1. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  2. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent.

  3. {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi imaging. Can it be a useful substitute for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in infantile jaundice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, R.; Kakhki, V.R.D.; Zakavi, R. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Kianifar, H.R. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran). Paediatric Dept.; Ansari, K. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran). Nuclear Medicine Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is an integral part in the diagnostic work-up of the neonatal cholestasis syndrome. However, less than optimal specificity is its major disadvantage. Differentiation between biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis is nearly impossible in some cases with poor hepatocellular function. {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi (MIBI) is a cationic lipophilic agent which is a substrate of P-glycoprotein. This glycoprotein is normally expressed in biliary canalicular surfaces of hepatocytes. This property provides a hepatic excretory mechanism which is different from bilirubin excretion. In this study we evaluated the value of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI in differential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis. 20 infants with a mean age of 2.41 months (range, 0.1-5 months) were included in the study. Ten infants turned out to have extrahepatic biliary atresia and the other ten had neonatal hepatitis. Hepatobiliary (with {sup 99m}Tc BrIDA) and {sup 99m}Tc MIBI scintigraphy were performed for all the patients. {sup 99m}Tc MIBI scintigraphy has shown bowel activity in all patients, including the patients with biliary atresia. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy revealed bowel activity only in five patients with neonatal hepatitis. Bowel visualization with {sup 99m}Tc MIBI may be seen in patients with biliary atresia and {sup 99m}Tc MIBI has limited value in differential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis. (orig.)

  4. /sup 99m/Tc labeling of antibodies to cardiac myosin Fab and to human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Carvalho, A.; Locke, E.; Gold, H.K.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a method of labeling biologically active labile macromolecules, such as human fibrinogen (HF) and anticardiac-myosin Fab (AM-Fab), with /sup 99m/Tc at neutral pH. This method uses dithionite reduction of pertechnetate and subsequent labeling, to test the method with acid-labile macromolecules. Complexes of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid with macromolecules such as human fibrinogen (D-HF) and anticardiac-myosin Fab (D-AM-Fab) were labeled and utilized in in vitro and in vivo studies. In biodistribution studies, the /sup 99m/Tc D-HF had a two-component blood clearance (half-times 1 hr and 15 hr) and was 80--88% coagulable. The /sup 99m/Tc AM-Fab retained its immunoreactivity as tested by affinity chromatography; also during in vivo localization in experimental myocardial infarction. This labeling technique provides an easy and efficient approach to the /sup 99m/Tc labeling of other biologically active and acid-labile macromolecules

  5. Radiation damage to mouse testis cells from [/sup 99m/Tc] pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, T.A.; Suzuki, N.; Glenn, H.J.; Haynie, T.P.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The radiation dose and the biologic damage to mouse testis from intravenously administered [/sup 99m/Tc] pertechnetate were studied. The dose was measured for penetrating radiations from /sup 99m/Tc, using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculations from the uptake of the nuclide in the testis, and was found to be 4.9 rads per mCi of 99 Tc. The biologic damage was measured by the decrease in the number of sperm heads in the testis, counted both by hemacytometer and by Coulter counter. In preliminary experiments using external gamma radiation from 137 Cs, the number of sperm heads reached a minimum 29 days after irradiation. Twenty-nine days after injection of 5.8 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc, which gives 28 rads to the testis, the number of sperm heads decreased to 70% of control. The biologic effect corresponds to that seen after 40 rads of gamma radiation from 137 Cs. The damage to mouse testis cells from internally administered /sup 99m/Tc as measured in an in vivo system appears to be at least as significant as that from external gamma irradiation, if not more so

  6. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate

  7. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomicic, M.

    1977-07-01

    At the present time sup(99m)Tc is widely used in nuclear medicine and its uses are increasing. It can be produced by various methods, and of those most frequently used today two have special features making them particularly applicable to the large-scale production of instant sup(99m)Tc - these are solvent extraction with methyl-ethyl-ketone and the sublimation methods. This report presents a bibliographic review of these methods, their main perfomance parameters, and experience obtained from the development and operation of a sublimation generator. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from irradiated MoO 3 was carried out with high yields (75-95%) after multiple repetition of the separation process with molybdenum trioxide heated for half an hour at a maximum temperature of 850-890 deg C in an air flow. The activity ratio of molybdenum in the separated sup(99m)Tc was of the order of 4 x 10 -5 . (author)

  8. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. Electrolytic preparation of sup(99m)Tc human serum albumin using tin electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Mani, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    A method for labelling human serum albumin [HSA] with sup(99m)Tc using electrolytically generated Sn/II/ ions has been developed. The procedure uses Sn electrodes for electrolysis and gives high labelling yields. The amount of Sn released into the final product was found to be much less than the reported toxic levels. A ready-to-use kit for obtaining sterile sup(99m)Tc HSA is described. Tin metal wires sealed in aluminium were irradiated in a CIRUS reactor at a neutron flux of 7.5x10 12 n cm -2 sec -1 for one month. The 113 Sn produced in the wire was used for tracer studies with the electrolitically labelled HSA. sup(99m)Tc in the form sodium pertechnetate in 0.9% NaCl was obtained by methyl ethyl ketone extraction from alkaline solutions of neutron irradiated 99 Mo [specific activity 50-200 mCi/g] in the solvent extraction generator developed at Isotope Division, BARC. Radiochemical purity analysis of sup(99m)Tc labelled HSA prepared by the above procedure was carried out by ascending paper chromatography on Whatman No.1 paper, and 85% methanol and 0.9% sodium chloride as solvents. (F.Gy.)

  10. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-01-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global 1999 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35 cents/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8 cents/mCi to 15.0 cents/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S

  11. Sampling strategy and analysis of trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on medieval human bones--the concept of chemical life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2013-07-30

    Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pulmonary hyperpolarized (129) Xe morphometry for mapping xenon gas concentrations and alveolar oxygen partial pressure: Proof-of-concept demonstration in healthy and COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriadov, A; Farag, A; Kirby, M; McCormack, D G; Parraga, G; Santyr, G E

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) hyperpolarized (129) Xe morphometry magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to map regional differences in lung tissue micro-structure. We aimed to generate absolute xenon concentration ([Xe]) and alveolar oxygen partial pressure (pA O2 ) maps by extracting the unrestricted diffusion coefficient (D0 ) of xenon as a morphometric parameter. In this proof-of-concept demonstration, morphometry was performed using multi b-value (0, 12, 20, 30 s/cm(2) ) DW hyperpolarized (129) Xe images obtained in four never-smokers and four COPD ex-smokers. Morphometric parameters and D0 maps were computed and the latter used to generate [Xe] and pA O2 maps. Xenon concentration phantoms estimating a range of values mimicking those observed in vivo were also investigated. Xenon D0 was significantly increased (P = 0.035) in COPD (0.14 ± 0.03 cm(2) /s) compared with never-smokers (0.12 ± 0.02 cm(2) /s). COPD ex-smokers also had significantly decreased [Xe] (COPD = 8 ± 7% versus never-smokers = 13 ± 8%, P = 0.012) and increased pA O2 (COPD = 18 ± 3% versus never-smokers = 15 ± 3%, P = 0.009) compared with never-smokers. Phantom measurements showed the expected dependence of D0 on [Xe] over the range of concentrations anticipated in vivo. DW hyperpolarized (129) Xe MRI morphometry can be used to simultaneously map [Xe] and pA O2 in addition to providing micro-structural biomarkers of emphysematous destruction in COPD. Phantom measurements of D0 ([Xe]) supported the hypotheses that differences in subjects may reflect differences in functional residual capacity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of patellar chondromalacia with MR: comparison between T2-weighted FSE SPIR and GE MTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarini, Luca; Perrone, Alessandra; Murrone, Mario; Marini, Stefania; Stefanelli, Michele

    2004-09-01

    To compare two different MR sequences to tissue signal suppression in the study of patellar cartilage abnormalities. We examined 26 patients with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging: sequences included spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR), with fat suppression and T2-weighted images, magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) sequences, T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences. All patients underwent conventional knee arthroscopy and in all patients a hyaline cartilage lesion was assessed in three articular zones: the patellar medial facet, the lateral facet and the patellar crista. Was assessed 78 articular facets. The lesions were classified using a standard arthroscopic grading system adapted to MR imaging: normal cartilage that corresponds to the grade 0 according to the Noyes grading system, low grade lesions that correspond to the grade I e IIa and high grade lesions that correspond to grades IIb and III. The arthroscopic results were compared with MR images. We assessed the MR diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and MR positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the two sequences taking into consideration total lesions, and high-grade and low grade lesions separately. Twenty-four low grade lesions (16 grade I e 8 grade IIa) and 18 high grade lesions (10 grade IIb e 8 grade III) were diagnosed by arthroscopy. Regarding low grade and high-grade lesions together, the accuracy was 77% for MTC sequences and 90% for SPIR sequences. In identifying low-grade lesions, the sensitivity was 88% for SPIR sequence and 42% for MTC sequences. Specificity for the detection of all lesions was 89% for the SPIR sequences and 94% for the MTC sequences. The SPIR sequence visualised water content abnormalities in degenerating cartilage, which are representative of low-grade lesions. The sensitivity of the sequence enabled us to obtain improved contrast for detecting cartilage surface irregularities. The MTC sequences allowed us to grade high

  14. The accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity. (author)

  15. The separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99Mo through an aluminium oxide chromatographic columm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99 Mo using the chromatographic method is studied. Alumina is used as adsorbent. The pH values for adsorption of carrier-free 99 Mo on columns filled with ordinary alumina and with that thermically treated at 1000 0 C for five hours, and the separation conditions of sup(99m)Tc using physiologic solution as eluent are determined. The sup(99m)Tc separation yields of both columns are compared and the quality of the products obtained by successive elutions for 10 days is analyzed. (Author) [pt

  16. Evaluation of the influence of pH in the efficiency of the {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc at basis of zirconium molybdate; Evaluacion de la influencia de pH en la eficiencia del generador {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc a base de molibdato de zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L V

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 99m}Tc are the radionuclide more used in the nuclear medicine, it is used for diagnostic and therapy, and he is commonly takes place by means of a generator {sup 99} Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, using molybdenum ({sup 99}Mo) product of the fission of the uranium, adsorbed over alumina. This generator imposes the use of high activities you specify of {sup 99} Mo, as well as of complex processes of separation of the one {sup 99} Mo, generating important quantities of radioactive waste of medium activity. As well as, the production of these generators, demands the use of reactors of great capacity that Mexico not it possesses, in such a way that, presently work is carried out a generator of {sup 99} Mo- {sup 99m} Tc, in the one which {sup 99} Mo taken place by the reaction {sup 98} Mo(n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo that it was part from a gel to base is used of molybdate and zirconium. It was found, therefore, to produce a generator {sup 99} Mo- {sup 99m}Tc with the help of gels of zirconium and molybdates with the same characteristics of quality and purity that those obtained by the one traditional generator and that it can be carried out under the conditions technical-economics prevailing in Mexico. Specifically, this work has been focused to the study of the effect caused by the variation of the one p H in the solutions of ZrOCl{sub 2} * 8H{sub 2}O (zirconil) and of molybdates, of the relationships molars zirconium : molybdenum (Zr:Mo), as well as the effect of the concentration variation, time of preparation and consequently p H of the ZrOCl{sub 2} * 8H{sub 2}O in the synthesis of the gel zirconium - {sup 99} molybdenum, on the efficiency of the generator and the quantity of {sup 99} Mo presents in the {sup 99m} Tc taken place by this means. The gel used for the production of {sup 99m}Tc will possess a discharge efficiency of recovery of {sup 99m}Tc and a contained first floor of pollutants, in particular smaller to 0.015% of {sup 99} Mo, main source of impurity radionuclide

  17. Studies on chemical effects on x-ray intensity ratios of K/sub β//K/sub α/ in nuclear decay of technetium nuclides /sup 99m/Tc, /sup 97m/Tc, and /sup 95m/Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, I.; Kaji, H.; Yoshihara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical effects of characteristic x-ray intensity ratios of K/sub β//K/sub α/ were investigated for the second d-group element Tc in the decay processes /sup 99m/Tc → 99 Tc (two-step isomeric transition), /sup 97m/Tc → 97 Tc (one-step isomeric transition), and /sup 95m/Tc → 95 Mo (electron capture). The objective nuclides were produced by (n, γ)β - , (d, xn), and (α, xn) reactions and were chemically separated from the target materials. The x rays were measured with a pure germanium detector, and the K/sub β/ x rays were analyzed into the two components K/sup prime//sub beta1/ and K/sup //sub beta2/ using a computer program. The chemical effect of the intensity ratio was more pronounced for K/sup prime//sub beta2//K/sub α/ than for K/sup //sub beta1//K/sub α/, as expected. The effect was larger in KTcO 4 than in the other species of Tc 2 S 7 , K 2 TcCl 6 , and Tc metal. The effect in the two-step isomeric transition in /sup 99m/Tc was found to be larger than in the one-step isomeric transition in /sup 97m/Tc. The effect in the electron capture in /sup 95m/Tc (Mo x rays) was similar to that in /sup 97m/Tc although the ratio K/sub β//K/sub α/ was smaller in /sup 95m/Tc than in /sup 97m/Tc, reflecting the change of nuclear charge. The tendency of the observed chemical effect was explained by taking into account the interfering factors which involve Pauling's ionicity in chemical bonding between Tc and its counter atom

  18. The Clinical usefulness of {sup 99mT}c HMPAO Leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99mT}c phytate, a substitute for {sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72{+-}6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both {sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/{sup 99ms}ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections.

  19. Predicting acute and chronic effects of wood preservative products in Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata based on the concept of concentration addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Weisbrod, Barbara; Schoknecht, Ute; Sacher, Frank; Kehrer, Anja

    2014-02-01

    The current European legislation requires that combined effects of the active substances and any substance of concern contained in biocidal products are taken into account in environmental risk assessment. The hypothesis whether the consideration of active substances together with all formulation additives that are labeled as presenting an environmental hazard is sufficient for a reliable environmental risk assessment was tested in the present study by investigating 3 wood preservative products. Relevant single substances in the products, some of their generic mixtures, the biocidal products themselves, and aqueous eluates prepared from the products (representing potential environmental mixtures) were tested for effects on algal growth and Daphnia acute immobilization as well as reproduction. Predictions for the products and the eluates were based on the concept of concentration addition and were mostly found to provide reliable or at least protective estimates for the observed acute and chronic toxicity of the mixtures. The mixture toxicity considerations also indicated that the toxicity of each product was dominated by just 1 of the components, and that assessments based only on the dominating substance would be similarly protective as a full-mixture risk assessment. Yet, there remained uncertainty in some cases that could be related to the toxicity of transformation products, the impact of unidentified formulation additives, or synergistic interaction between active substances and formulation additives. © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Follow-up of a case of subacute thyroiditis with uncommon thyroid {sup 99m}Tc uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Chengjiang, E-mail: 10518093zz@163.com [Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Hospital of Medical College. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2013-07-01

    Thyroidal 99mTc uptake in the acute thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is always inhibited. However, a patient with SAT had signs in the right-side thyroid gland with transient thyrotoxicosis and slightly high 99mTc uptake levels in the right lobe, low 99mTc uptake in the left lobe, and normal overall uptake. Histological examination showed cellular destruction and granulomatous inflammatory changes in the right lobe, with marked interstitial fibrosis in the left lobe. The patient was thyrotrophin-receptor antibody (TRAb) positive. After a short course of prednisolone, SAT-like symptoms and signs improved. TRAb-positivity resolved spontaneously after 22 months, and TSH levels were slightly low for 22 months. Levels then kept normal in the following four years. In conclusion, high 99mTc uptake by the right lobe was due to the combined effects of TRAb and left thyroid gland fibrosis. (author)

  1. Status of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc production development by (n, {gamma}) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Mutalib, Abdul [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Tangerang (Indonesia); Chakrov, Petr [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan (INP-NNC-RK), Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-03-15

    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes in the field of nuclear medicine. As one of effective uses of the JMTR, JAEA has a plan to produce {sup 99}Mo by (n, {gamma}) method, a parent nuclide of {sup 99m}Tc. JAEA has performed R and D on production method of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc in JMTR cooperating with foreign organizations and relevant Japanese enterprises under the cooperation programs. In this paper, present status of R and D for production of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc in JMTR under international cooperation is introduced and constructions of the irradiation and PIE facilities at the JMTR site are also described. (author)

  2. Development of 99mTc agents for imaging central neural system receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals that bind to central neural system (CNS) receptors in vivo are potentially useful for understanding the pathophysiology of anumber of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their diagnosis and treatment. Carbon-11 labelled compounds and positron emission tomography(PET) imaging have played a vital role in establishing the usefulness of imaging the dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic and benzodiazapine receptors, and relating the receptor density to disease status. Since the use of 11C agents is constrained due to their 20 min half-life, various radiohalogenated analogues based on the structure of 11C compounds have been successfully developed, providing comparable information. Iodine- 123 is the most widely employed of these radioisotopes; it has a longer, 13 h, half-life. Through the use of 123I, there has been a steady growth in CNS receptor imaging studies employing single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). SPECT, as compared with PET, has slightly inferior image resolution but has the advantage of being readily available worldwide. However, the 123I radiopharmaceutical is expensive and the distribution system outside of the major markets is not well developed for its supply on a routine basis. The ideal radioisotope for SPECT imaging is 99mTc, due to its low cost per dose, availability through commercially available generator systems and physical decay characteristics. Over 80% of all diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging studies worldwide are conducted using this radioisotope. Development of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for imaging CNS receptors is therefore of considerable importance. On the basis of the recommendations of a consultants meeting, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated in 1996 a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Agents for Imaging CNS Receptors based on 99mTc. At that time there were no 99mTc CNS receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals available even though work on

  3. Technetium /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin lung scans. Use in chronic childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, J.S.; Koch, D.F.; Isenberg, P.D.; Werner, P.

    1976-01-01

    Serial roentgenograms and technetium /sub 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin lung scans were done simultaneously in 30 bronchodilator-dependent asthmatic children and young adults during both relative remission and attacks of status asthmaticus. When chest roentgenograms showed air trapping and increased peribronchial vascular markings associated with persistent perfusion defects, the children benefited from further laboratory studies and continuous comprehensive therapy. Serial scans provided information about underperfusion that was not discernible either by roentgenograms or by usual blood gas studies. Also, lung scans are easier to obtain in children with long-standing asthma than are detailed pulmonary tests. In our study, technetium /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin scans showed persistent regional perfusion defects in 20 children with chronic asthma during relative remission and exacerbations

  4. Transfer of 131I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of 131 I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of 131 I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to 131 I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Rapid radiochemical methods for preparation of sup(99m)Tc labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Banodkar, S.M.; Kothari, K.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Several inorganic and organic compounds incorporating sup( 99 m)Tc are being extensively used for imaging various body organs. The preparation of these sup( 99 m)Tc compounds with the necessary purity requirements is carried out by controlled reduction of sup( 99 m)Tc-pertechnetate using Sn(II) ions as the reducing agent followed by complexation with various active ingredients. The authors here present procedures developed at Radiopharmaceuticals Section of BARC for preparing sup( 99 m)Tc-diphosphonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-glucoheptonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-albumin microspheres and sup( 99 m)Tc-phytate with high radiochemical purity. The paper also describes procedures for the preparation of freeze-dried kits for single step preparation of these compounds. The paper also describes the authors' experience with various analytical procedures for the determination of radiochemical purity of these preparations. (author)

  6. Our experience with B.A.R.C. sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, V.; Pandurengan, N.; Lakshmanan, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc has been eluted from its parent 99 Mo by solvent extraction method. It is pointed out that there is considerable variation in the eluted activity in day to day practice and any administration of the isotope to the patient must be measured in an isotope calibrator. Operator dose levels have been recorded which are quite within the permissible levels. (auth.)

  7. The {sup 99m}Tc generator using poly zirconium chloride (PZC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar; Dahalan, Rehir; Kasim, Shaaban [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    The {sup 99m}Tc generator system has been prepared using poly zirconium chloride (PZC) to replace alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as a adsorbent. The Mo-98 (MoO{sub 3}) was irradiated using our 1 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor. The amount of Mo-99 adsorbed to the PZC has been studied and the yield from the elution was about 20%. (author)

  8. Labelling of bilirubin with /sup 99m/Tc and pharmacokinetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, I.; Schneider, G.; Blottner, A.; Deckart, H.; Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch

    1982-01-01

    The yield of the bilirubin labelling with /sup 99m/Tc amounted to 97%. The labelled complex has been stable for 24 hours with the pH range 2-7.5. As evidenced in animal experiments the labelled bilirubin is probably subjected to natural degradation processes. Side effects could not be noticed. A disadvantage seems to be the slow transfer of /sup 99m/Tc-bilirubin from the hepatic cell to the biliary capillary

  9. /sup 99m/Tc dextran: a new blood-pool-labeling agent for radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, E.; Robinson, G.D.; Kuhl, D.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    We have explored the possibility of imaging the cardiac blood pool with dextran (Dx) labeled with /sup 99m/Tc (Tc) after Sn2+ reduction. Stannous dextran (SnDx) kits were prepared in advance and labeling was performed by adding /sup 99m/Tc. The labeling efficiency was greater than 95%. /sup 99m/Tc dextran (TcDx) was highly stable both in vivo and in vitro. In seven dogs we compared the quality of blood-pool images obtained with TcDx of different molecular weights (4 X 10(4) . Dx-40; 5 X 10(5) . Dx-500; 2 X 10(6) . Dx-2000) and with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells (TcRBC) labeled in vitro, and determined the organ distribution of this new agent by whole-body scanning and blood sampling. TcDx provided high-quality cardiac blood-pool images up to 60 min after injection. The heart-to-lung ratios averaged 3.7 for TcDx-40, 3.9 for TcDx-500, and 5.4 for TcRBC at 60 min. Whereas TcDx-40 showed a relatively rapid initial urinary excretion and TcDx-2000 was degraded rapidly, TcDx-500 demonstrated the best kinetics for blood-pool imaging. Thus, TcDx is a new radiopharmaceutical with high labeling efficiency and stability. It overcomes a number of the limitations of currently used blood-labeling agents and may become useful for blood-pool imaging in man

  10. Comparative evaluation of 123I and /sup 99m/Tc for thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Ansari, A.N.; Bradley-Moore, P.R.; Lambrecht, R.; Wolf, A.

    1975-01-01

    Both /sup 99m/Tc and 123 I can be used to advantage in assessing thyroid function and anatomy. The nuclides have similar principal gamma photons, and their short physical half-lives result in low radiation dose, thus allowing administration of large quantities of activity. The very early uptakes of these radionuclides by the thyroid do not bear a consistent relationship, and that requires further study. The clinical value of 123 I depends ultimately on its consistent availability at reasonable cost

  11. Quantitative evaluation of bile diversion surgery utilizing /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickremesinghe, P.C.; Dayrit, P.Q.; Manfredi, O.L.; Fazio, R.A.; Fagel, V.L.

    1983-01-01

    This is a report of 21 patients presenting with epigastric pain, bilious vomiting, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, iron-deficiency anemia, and weight loss, who had undergone Billroth II gastrectomy from 3 to 35 yr earlier. Eighteen of 21 patients were found to have significant enterogastric reflux indices varying from 60% to 95% demonstrated by /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphy. Thirteen patients had diversion antireflux surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y procedure, and 1 patient had a Henley loop jejunal interposition. Postoperative /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphic studies showed the enterogastric reflux indices to have decreased significantly to a range of 2%-26% (p less than 0.00001). There was marked improvement of symptoms, including correction of anemia and weight gain in those patients who had been anemic or who had sustained earlier weight loss. The enterogastric reflux indices of 10 asymptomatic control patients after Billroth II gastrectomy ranged from 4% to 45%. /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphy is useful in evaluating patients before and after bile diversion surgery, and demonstrates the quantitative decrease in enterogastric reflux after such surgery

  12. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of triiodothyronine upon the 131I and sup(99m)Tc uptake by the submandibular salivary glands in A2G mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssay, A.B.; Gamper, C.H.; Curbelo, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    The organ:plasma ratios and the isotope uptake in thyroid and submandibular glands were measured at different time intervals after a tracer dose of 131 I or sup(99m)Tc. Triiodothyronine depressed markedly the isotope uptake in both glands, but the inhibition of 131 I or sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroids was obtained with much lower doses. Thyrotrophin, while increasing markedly the 131 I or sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroids, did not produce any change in the 131 I or sup(99m)Tc uptake by the submandibular glands, when given either to normal or to triiodothyronine-inhibited mice. (author)

  14. Comparison of carrier-added [99mTc] EDTMP and carrier-free preparations of [99mTc] EDTMP and [99mTc] DPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcal, A.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R.; Pirich, C.; Mitterhauser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in malignant bone lesions is a prerequisite for adequate bone scanning. Visual image analysis is impaired due to high soft-tissue activity with currently available [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP-kits. This study aimed to compare carrier-added [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP with carrier-free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD preparations in clinical routine. 15 μg and 150 μg perrhenic acid respectively were added to [ 99m Tc]-pertechnetate (>6 GBq in 3 ml phys. saline). The solution was then transferred into a vial, containing 1 mg of EDTMP, 3.6 mg stannous(II)chloride and 10 mg ascorbic acid under inert conditions. Under vigorous stirring the reaction mixture was heated to 45 o C for 10 min. After cooling down to room temperature the labelling mixture was sterile filtrated (millipore 0.22 μm). Quality control was performed using radio-ITLC (Whatman SG; acetone or ethanol: R f perrhenate/pertechnetate 0.87, colloid/product 0.05; phys. saline: R f colloid 0.00, perrhenate/pertechnetate and product 0.9) allowing rapid and efficient assessment of the product. Carrier free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD were prepared according to instructions of the manufacturer. Clinical studies were performed in 29 patients according to a routine bone scanning protocol by injecting 700-800 MBq of the respective tracer and whole body imaging 3 h thereafter. Radiochemical purity and radiochemical yield relied on various parameters such as concentration of carrier and reducing agent and reaction conditions (pH, reaction time, temperature). Means of the labelling yield were 22 % for the preparation using 150 μg of carrier (5 preparations), 80 % for the preparation using 15 μpg of carrier (10 preparations) and 91 % for the carrier free products (5 preparations). Radiochemical purity was >96 % in all experiments. Colloid was formed in very low amounts, and was completely removed by sterile filtration. In clinical studies quantitative analysis

  15. Bone-seeking /sup 99m/Tc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    A bone-seeking, technetium-99m-tin-phosphonate complex effective as a skeletal-imaging agent has been found particularly useful for diagnostic purposes. Skeletal tissue concentrations or technetium-99m obtained with the complex compare favorably to other bone-seeking radionuclides

  16. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated

  17. UPPGHA: Uniform Privacy Preservation Group Handover Authentication Mechanism for mMTC in LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine Type Communication (MTC, as one of the most important wireless communication technologies in the future wireless communication, has become the new business growth point of mobile communication network. It is a key point to achieve seamless handovers within Evolved-Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN for massive MTC (mMTC devices in order to support mobility in the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A networks. When mMTC devices simultaneously roam from a base station to a new base station, the current handover mechanisms suggested by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP require several handover signaling interactions, which could cause the signaling load over the access network and the core network. Besides, several distinct handover procedures are proposed for different mobility scenarios, which will increase the system complexity. In this paper, we propose a simple and secure uniform group-based handover authentication scheme for mMTC devices based on the multisignature and aggregate message authentication code (AMAC techniques, which is to fit in with all of the mobility scenarios in the LTE-A networks. Compared with the current 3GPP standards, our scheme can achieve a simple authentication process with robust security protection including privacy preservation and thus avoid signaling congestion. The correctness of the proposed group handover authentication protocol is formally proved in the Canetti-Krawczyk (CK model and verified based on the AVISPA and SPAN.

  18. Developing and Testing a Scale of Moral Thinking and Communication (MTC) Functioning: A Preliminary Study and Its Implications for Moral Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ming Angela; Thoma, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a scale assessing students' moral thinking and communication (MTC) functioning as well as to explore the implications for moral development and education. The rationale of MTC functioning, including interaction of four independent competencies: moral awareness, moral judgement, moral discourse, and…

  19. 99mTc-3PRGD2 Scintimammography in Palpable and Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol,PEG4-RGD2 (99mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography (SMM in patients with either palpable or nonpalpable breast lesions and compare SMM to mammography to assess the possible incremental value of SMM in breast cancer detection. We also investigated the αvβ3 expression in malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety-four patients with 110 lesions were included in this study. Mammograms were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS by a specialized imaging radiologist. Prone SMM was performed 1 hour after injection of 99mTc-3PRGD2. Scintigraphic images were interpreted independently by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a three-point system, and the kappa value was calculated to determine the interreader agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare SMM and mammography with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Diagnostic values for breast cancer detection were evaluated for each lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate integrin αvβ3 expression. Histopathology revealed 46 malignant lesions and 64 benign lesions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SMM were 83%, 73%, 77%, 69%, and 85%, respectively. The kappa value between the two reviewers was 0.63. The diagnostic values of SMM were higher than those of mammography in evaluating overall breast lesions. A sensitivity of 91% was achieved when SMM and mammography results were combined with 60% of all false-negative mammography findings classified as true-positive results by SMM. Integrin αvβ3 expression was positively identified using SMM imaging. SMM is a promising tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies when used in addition to mammography and can be used to image αvβ3 expression in breast cancer with good image quality.

  20. Massive Machine-Type Communication (mMTC) Access with Integrated Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Pattathil, Sarath; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We present a connection establishment protocol with integrated authentication, suited for Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC). The protocol is contention-based and its main feature is that a device contends with a unique signature that also enables the authentication of the device towards...... the network. The signatures are inspired by Bloom filters and are created based on the output of the MILENAGE authentication and encryption algorithm set, which is used in the authentication and security procedures in the LTE protocol family.We show that our method utilizes the system resources more...

  1. Survey of /sup 99m/Tc contamination of laboratory personnel: hand decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, H.; Van Tuinen, R.J.; Lukes, S.J.; Feller, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Decontamination after exposure to various /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals was tested with serial hand washings both with and without soap. All radiopharmaceuticals were removed more effectively with soap and the degree of decontamination related closely to the number of washings. The affinity of the radiopharmaceuticals for the skin varied, depending upon the labeled material, and only macroaggregated albumin was effectively removed to less than 1% of its original activity with soap. Activity transfer to the opposite hand could be substantial with macroaggregated albumin and sulfur colloid if soap is not used

  2. Study of Eustachian tube drainage function with radioisotope (99m-Tc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marone, S.A.M.; Miniti, A.

    1985-01-01

    The knowledge of the physiological condition of the Eustachian tube is of major significance to the understanding of the middle ear pathology as well as for the treatment of each case. This paper studies the drainage function of the Eustachian tube. The choice of the Technetium (99m-Tc) as tracer was based on its physical qualities - tracer perfectly adaptable to the detection system, pure gamma emitter, low energy and 6 hours half-life. The use of Tc-99m turns out to be a very accurate method for testing the drainage function. It is an entirely physiological method, and it produces no side effect reactions. (Auth.)

  3. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of 99mTc as hepatobiliary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, F C; Maddalena, D J; Wilson, J G; Bautovich, G J

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di[o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with 99mTc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, 99mTc-Br-EDDHA and 99mTc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of 99mTc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile.

  4. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of sup(99m)Tc as hepatobiliary agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Bautovich, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di[omicron-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with sup(99m)Tc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, sup(99m)Tc-Br-EDDHA and sup(99m)Tc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of sup(99m)Tc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile. (author)

  5. Labeling of human immune gamma globulin with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.W.; Huang, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Human immune serum gamma globulin and rabbit anti-Stap. aureus antibody have been successfully labeled with sup(99m)Tc at pH 7.4 with an average binding efficiency of 86 and 82%, respectively. The labeled proteins behave similarly to unlabeled gamma-globulin fraction in the normal human serum as demonstrated by protein electrophoresis. The biological half-time of sup(99m)Tc-gamma-globulin in dog has been determined to be 54 min for the fast component and 14.7 hr for a slower component. Immunological assays demonstrate no significant change in antibody activity after labeling process. (author)

  6. Rapid and accurate determination of radiochemical purity of sup(99m)Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The wide spread use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and limitation of the short half-life of the isotope, is associated with an urgent need for a rapid, simple but accurate method for determining the radiochemical purity of the compound. A short paper chromatographic (KK) or thin layer chromatographic (KLT) method using 95% methanol or 0.9% saline solution as solvents, has solved the problem. With these methods, the amount of free sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in a compound, can be determined in only a few minutes. These methods compare satisfactorily with lengtheir procedures. (author)

  7. Computer assisted analysis of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate bone uptake in Paget's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayan, M.L.; Eisenberg, J.; Volpert, E.; Shai, F.; Mroczek, R.

    1982-01-01

    The present clinical study describes a method of evaluation of Paget's disease bone by computer assisted analysis of activity curves obtained over normal and pathological portions of the skeleton in the same patient. The data obtained lead to a differential diagnosis between Paget's and metastatic disease of the bone, as well as an evaluation of subsequent therapy. The results indicate a higher bone activity, (expressed by bone flow and bone uptake, of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate) in Paget's than in metastatic disease of the bone, as well as a normalization of these parameters after prolonged therapy of Paget's patients with salmon calcitonin

  8. Localization of the acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, E.; Mothe, G.; Wyse, E.

    1984-01-01

    For the detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid has been sugested. The procedure for labeling RBC with sup(99m)Tc consisted in injecting IV 1 mg of ClSn; 20 minutes after injection of tin 10 cc of blood were withdrawn in a syringe containing 20 mCi of sup(99m)Tc; this was incubated for 10 minutes and then injected IV. Scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity was done in supine position and performed with a large field gamma camera with a parallel hole-low energy colimator. Computer adquisition of images was started 5 minutes after RBC injection and made at the rate of one enery 5 minutes for 45 minutes. 14 patients were studied divided in: a) control: 6 patients. b) with active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 4 patients had positive scintigraphy. The hemorrhage was documented with superior mesenteric arteriography, endoscopy and/or necropsy. The sensitivity was 100%. In 4 out of 14 patients scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC compared with simultaneous sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that all patients with positive sup(99m)Tc RBC had also positive sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy. c) without active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: all of them had negative scintigraphy (specificity 100%). Abdominal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC or sulfur colloid are both sensitive for detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and the negative study suggests the absence of active hemorrhage. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy should be the initial procedure to study these patients and abdominal arteriography should be performed only in patients with positive abdominal scintigraphy. (M.E.L.) [es

  9. Actions needed to ensure a reliable supply of 99Mo and 99mTc?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Peykov, P.

    2014-01-01

    The NEA established the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) to examine the causes of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc supply shortages in 2009. It undertook an economic analysis and determined that lack of economic sustainability in producing reactors was the major cause of the shortages. From that it developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. Since then it has looked at the way the supply chain has implemented these policy principles through initiating a self-assessment process, which revealed uneven application and lack of adherence to the key principle of full cost recovery. As part of the analysis, the NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo/ 99 mTc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. This current paper presents the preliminary results from an updated 99 Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major 99 Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease 99 Mo irradiations. It concludes with a review of the effectiveness of the actions taken to date and indicates where further action is needed. (author)

  10. Preparation and labelling hydroxyapatite with 223Ra and 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkova, E.; Micolova, P.; Vlk, M.; Kozempel, J.; Rabyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation, studies and investigation of novel nanoparticles suitable for targeted delivery of 223 Ra and 99 mTc. Preliminary experiments were focused on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) and their affinity to 223 Ra and 99m Tc. Technetium-99m ( 99 mTc, T 1 /2 = 6.0 h) is the most commonly used medical radionuclide for diagnostic procedures. Radium-223 is the first -emitting radionuclide approved for targeted radionuclide therapy. The physical half-life of 223 Ra of 11.4 days is providing sufficient time for the synthesis, distribution and administration of the radiopharmaceutical to patients. HANPs labelling yields with 223 Ra were 95 - 100 % and with 99m Tc were 93 - 94 % depending on the reaction conditions. HANPs were studied on FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRPD (X-Ray Powder Diffraction), DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering), and the sizes of nanoparticles were studied at temperatures 80, 120 and 200 grad C. (authors)

  11. Comparison of film sensitivity for sup(99m)Tc gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Katayama, Masaharu; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1975-01-01

    Recently a new method of γ-ray imaging by holography has been studied at several nuclear medical laboratories. The holography is of a very simple. An axis Fresnel zone plate made of lead (2 mm thickness) is placed between the γ-ray source and a detector, and its shadow is recorded as a hologram. The hologram obtained is illuminated by parallel beams of He-Ne laser (6328 A), and an image of the radioisotope distribution in the object is reconstructed by diffraction. The better the resolution of the shadow hologram, the better are the reconstructed images obtained. For this reason the detector for recording the γ-ray hologram must be selected carefully. Three kinds of medical X-ray film were used as detectors for holograms to compare film sensitivity. Generally these medical X-ray films have poor sensitivity to γ-rays of sup(99m)Tc. In order to intensify the film sensitivity for γ-rays of sup(99m)Tc, combinations of six kinds of intensifying screens were studied. Good film sensitivity was obtained by RP (Kodak Co.) film combined with a KZ-S fluorescent intensifying screen. The fluorescent screen was better than fluorometallic screens with similar properties. Using this film-screen combination, shadow holograms could be recorded for 2-3 minutes and images could be optically reconstructed. (auth.)

  12. A Survey of Agreement Rate between Simple MTC and Post Contrast T1 Sequence MRI for Diagnosing Active Multiple Sclerosis Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farshchian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: MS is the most common disabling neurological disorder. Identifying new active MS plaques at the onset and clinical status and faster onset of treatment as well as evaluating the response to treatment is important and MRI with contrast is the best indicator for these measures. Materials & Methods: This study was cross-sectional including 62 patients with diagnosed MS. Whose clinical symptoms suggested the recurrence of MS. They were referred to the radiol-ogy department to undergo brain MRI with injection for the diagnosis of active plaques by a neurologist,The Data were analyzed using statistical tests and SPSS 21 software. Results: Based on the sequences of post contrast T1, pre contrast MTC and post contrast MTC 74, 272 and 271 plaques were respectively discovered. Detection of active MS plaques on T1 sequences after injection were in poor accordance and had significant difference with MTC before and after injection. Moreover, detection of active MS plaques on MTC sequences be-fore injection were in good accordance and did not show significant difference with MTC se-quences after injection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it seems that the purpose of MRI in MS patients is deter-mining the amount of active plaques. Sequences of pre contrast and post contrast MTC are significantly more than sequences of post contrast T1. Therefore, using sequences of MTC can be helpful in MRI. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:97-102

  13. Benchmark experiment for the cross section of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Aikawa, M.; Haba, H.; Otuka, N.

    2016-05-01

    As nuclear medicine community has shown an increasing interest in accelerator produced 99mTc radionuclide, the possible alternative direct production routes for producing 99mTc were investigated intensively. One of these accelerator production routes is based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. The cross section of this nuclear reaction was studied by several laboratories earlier but the available data-sets are not in good agreement. For large scale accelerator production of 99mTc based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction, a well-defined excitation function is required to optimise the production process effectively. One of our recent publications pointed out that most of the available experimental excitation functions for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. To confirm the proper amplitude of the excitation function, results of three independent experiments were presented (Takács et al., 2015). In this work we present results of a thick target count rate measurement of the Eγ = 140.5 keV gamma-line from molybdenum irradiated by Ep = 17.9 MeV proton beam, as an integral benchmark experiment, to prove the cross section data reported for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions in Takács et al. (2015).

  14. Technology of the sup(99m)Tc generator, Elumatic III made by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, H.; Pasqualini, R.; Reboul, J.

    1982-01-01

    The article describes the choices leading to the development of an ''integrated'' 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator meeting the following requirements: (a) total activity eluted in a volume of 5 ml; (b) adequate radioprotection both for the user and the manufacturer; (c) injectable eluate. (author)

  15. Suggested treaty benefits approaches for collective investment vehicles (CIVs) and its investors under the OECD MTC 2010 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; Weber, D.; van Weeghel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collective Investment Vehicles (CIVs) are specifically addressed in the 2010 update of the OECD Model Tax Convention (MTC) and the Commentary thereto. Attention is paid to the tax treaty position of CIVs in an international context. The main question is whether a CIV is treaty eligible and if not,

  16. Preperation and performance of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc chromatographic column generator based on zirconium molybdosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, M.; Saber, H.M.; El-Sadek, A.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Labs. Center; Nassar, M.Y. [Benha Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2016-08-01

    Zirconium molybdosilicate (ZrMoSi) gel prepared using {sup 99}Mo radiotracer via peroxo route was used as a base material for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc column generator. The {sup 99m}Tc elution yield and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough in the eluate were studied as a function of the pH-value of gel precipitation, gel drying temperature and Zr: Mo: Si molar ratio. Precipitation pH-value of 2, drying temperature of 100 C and Zr: Mo: Si molar ratio of 0.5: 0.5: 1 were found to be the optimum conditions achieving {sup 99m}Tc elution yield of 82% and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough of 1.0 x 10{sup -3}%. The gel prepared with the optimum conditions was characterized by BET surface area and pore size analyzer, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TGA and DTA), XRD, XRF and FESEM. Technetium-99m eluted from the optimum ZrMoSi {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator was found to have a high radiochemical purity (98% as {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chemical purity meeting criteria of clinical grade.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of MTC-220 and its metabolites in beagle dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Manman; Mi, Jiaqi; Liu, Zhihao; Hu, Jinping; Sheng, Li; Wang, Baolian; Li, Dan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Yan

    2014-10-01

    A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of MTC-220 and its metabolites (paclitaxel and MDA-linker) in dog plasma has been developed and validated. After addition of docetaxel (internal standard), plasma samples containing MTC-220, paclitaxel and MDA-linker were prepared based on a simple protein precipitation by adding two volumes of acetonitrile. The separation was performed on a ZorbaxSB-C18 column (3.5μm, 2.1mm×100mm) at a flow rate of 0.2ml/min, using acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v) as mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The MS/MS ion transit ions monitored were 1444.4→623.8 for MTC-220, 876.4→307.9 for paclitaxel, 631.2→531.2 for MDA-linker and 830.2→549.1 for the internal standard. Linear detection responses were obtained for MTC-220, paclitaxel and MDA-linker ranging from 10 to 5000, 5 to 2500 and 5 to 500ng/ml, respectively. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQs) for MTC-220, paclitaxel and MDA-linker were 10, 5 and 5ng/ml, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD, %) of the three analytes do not exceed 10.9% except for LLOQs (≤17.50), and the accuracy (RE, %) were within ±17.5% for LLOQs and ±12.6% for the others. The average recoveries of three compounds were greater than 85.0%. The analytes were proved to be stable during all sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. The validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of MTC-220 and its metabolites in beagle dogs after intravenous infusion of MTC-220 at 2.5mg/kg. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates for internal quality control of light transmission aggregometry: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüller, F; Rosskopf, K; Mangge, H; Mahla, E; von Lewinski, D; Weiss, E C; Riegler, A; Enko, D

    2017-12-01

    Essentials In platelet function testing, standardized internal controls (IQC) are not commercially provided. Platelet function testing was performed daily on aliquoted pooled platelet concentrates. Pooled platelet concentrates showed stability for control purposes from Monday to Friday. Pooled platelet concentrates provide the necessary steadiness to serve as IQC material. Background Standardized commercially available control material for internal quality control (IQC) of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is still lacking. Moreover, the availability of normal blood donors to provide fresh platelets is difficult in small laboratories, where 'volunteers' may be in short supply. Objectives To evaluate the implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) for IQC material for LTA. Methods We used buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs from the blood bank as IQC material for LTA. On each weekend one PC was prepared (> 200 mL) and aliquoted from the original storage bag on a daily basis in four baby bags (40-50 mL), which were delivered from Monday to Friday to our laboratory. The IQC measurements of at least 85 work-weeks (from Monday to Friday) were evaluated with this new IQC material. LTA was performed on a four-channel Chronolog 700 Aggregometer (Chronolog Corporation, Havertown, PA, USA) (agonists: collagen, adenosine diphosphate [ADP], arachidonic acid [AA] and thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 [TRAP-6]). Results The medians of platelet aggregation from IQC measurements with collagen, ADP and AA from Monday to Friday were 68.0-59.5, 3.0-2.0 and 51.0-50.0%, respectively, and the mean of platelet aggregation with TRAP-6 was 71.2-66.4%. Conclusions Buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs serve as a reliable and robust IQC material for LTA measurements and would be beneficial for the whole laboratory procedure and employees' safety. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. {sup 99m}Tc Nanocoll: A radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node localisation in breast cancer-In vitro and in vivo results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gommans, G.M.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West-Fries Hospital Hoorn (Netherlands); Department of Nuclear Medicine (0030), Medical Centre Alkmaar, Wilhelminalaan 12, 1815 JD Alkmar (Netherlands)], E-mail: g.m.m.gommans@mca.nl; Gommans, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Twente University of Technology (Netherlands); Zant, F.M. van der [Department of Nuclear Medicine (0030), Medical Centre Alkmaar, Wilhelminalaan 12, 1815 JD Alkmar (Netherlands); Teule, G.J.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Maastricht (Netherlands); Schors, T.G. van der [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, West-Fries Hospital Hoorn (Netherlands); Waard, J.W.D. de [Department of Surgery, West-Fries Hospital Hoorn (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This study evaluated labelling efficiency and radiochemical purity of {sup 99m}Tc colloid albumin to identify an optimal labelling protocol for sentinel node detection. Results indicate that a 72 h eluate is not recommended for high specific labelling of {sup 99m}Tc colloid albumin. Ex vivo, significantly higher count rates were reached using a 2 h eluate in vacuum or nitrogen. Labelling 26 MBq/{mu}g {sup 99m}Tc colloid albumin with a 2 h eluate under nitrogen is recommended because of the ease of labelling.

  20. 99mTc ovalbumin labelled eggs for gastric emptying scintigraphy: in-vitro comparison of solid food markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédérique; Salaun, Pierre Y; Couturier, Olivier; Querellou, Solène; Le Duc-Pennec, Alexandra; Mougin-Degraef, Marie; Bizais, Yves; Legendre, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    The reliability of solid phase gastric emptying measurements by scintigraphy requires a marker that remains within the solid component of the test meal, and which is not degraded by the gastric juice throughout the scintigraphic procedure. In Europe, foods are most often labelled with 99mTc rhenium sulfide macrocolloid (RSMC) but this solid phase marker was withdrawn from the market in January 2004. To test other potential solid phase markers and to compare them to the reference marker RSMC. These markers were rhenium sulfide nanocolloid (RSNC), tin fluoride colloid (TFC), phytates and two albumins (Alb and AlbC). All were radiolabelled with 99mTc. After quality control, each 99mTc marker was incorporated into the albumin of one egg. Then, egg white and yolk were mixed together, and a well-cooked omelette was prepared. Aliquots of the omelette were incubated with an acidic solution of pepsin at 37 degrees C which mimicked gastric juice. Unbound radioactivity in the supernatant fraction was measured at various times up to 3 h. The radiochemical purity was > 95% for all radiopharmaceuticals. During the in-vitro incubation, the percentage of 99mTc labelled colloids released from the omelette increased continuously: after 3 h, 5% for TFC and RSMC, 8% for phytates, and > 9% for the two albumins and RSNC. Considering quality controls and release of 99mTc during in-vitro incubation of the omelette, TFC showed the same behaviour as the reference marker RSMC. Thus, TFC seems to be the best candidate to replace RSMC for the radiolabelling of the solid phase of the gastric emptying test meal.

  1. Determination of Sn in 99{sup m}Tc Radiopharmaceutical Kits by Polarographic Methods; Determinacion de Estano en Radiofarmacos de 99{sup m}Tc mediante Metodos Polarograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, M; Cruz, J; Sanchez, M

    2009-07-01

    Kits of 99{sup m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals are used in nuclear medicine for diagnosis of different diseases. Sn (II) is one of the essential components in their formulations, which is used for reduction 99{sup m}Tc-pertechnetate in cold kits for on-site preparation 99{sup m}Tc-pertechnetate radiopharmaceuticals. Usually, these cold kits contain different additives (complexing agents, antioxidants, buffers, etc.) and the amount of Sn (II) varies from kit to kit. The determination of Sn in these products is essential in assessing their quality. We report here the development of a new polarographic method for the determination of Sn (II) and total Sn in representative radiopharmaceuticals kits (for the content of Sn and chemical composition) produced at the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS). These methods were validated by analysis of variance and recovery techniques. From the results of the validation, the characteristic functions of uncertainties and fits are considered for the established methods, which give the necessary evidences to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods according to the current trends in Analytical Chemistry. This work provides practical results of great importance for CENTIS. After the speciation of Sn in the MAG3 radiopharmaceuticals kit is inferred that the production process is affected by uncontrolled factors that influence in the product stability, which demonstrates the necessity for analytical tools for the characterization of products and processes. (Author) 57 refs.

  2. The major/minor concept: dependence of the selectivity of homogeneously catalyzed reactions on reactivity ratio and concentration ratio of the intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Dai, Zhenya; Drexler, Hans-Joachim; Hapke, Marko; Preetz, Angelika; Heller, Detlef

    2008-07-07

    The homogeneously catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins with cationic Rh(I) complexes is one of the best-understood selection processes. For some of the catalyst/substrate complexes, experimental proof points out the validation of the major/minor principle; the concentration-deficient minor substrate complex, which has very high reactivity, yields the excess enantiomer. As exemplified by the reaction system of [Rh(dipamp)(MeOH)2]+/methyl (Z)-alpha-acetamidocinnamate (dipamp=1,2-bis((o-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphino)ethane), all six of the characteristic reaction rate constants have been previously identified. Recently, it was found that the major substrate complex can also yield the major enantiomer (lock-and-key principle). The differential equation system that results from the reaction sequence can be solved numerically for different hydrogen partial pressures by including the known equilibrium constants. The result displays the concentration-time dependence of all species that exist in the catalytic cycle. On the basis of the known constants as well as further experimental evidence, this work focuses on the examination of all principal possibilities resulting from the reaction sequence and leading to different results for the stereochemical outcome. From the simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1) When an intermediate has extreme reactivity, its stationary concentration can become so small that it can no longer be the source of product selectivity; 2) in principle, the major/minor and lock-and-key principles can coexist depending on the applied pressure; 3) thermodynamically determined intermediate ratios can be completely converted under reaction conditions for a selection process; and 4) the increase in enantioselectivity with increasing hydrogen partial pressure, a phenomenon that is experimentally proven but theoretically far from being well-understood, can be explained by applying both the lock-and-key as well as the major

  3. ACS labelled with sup(99m)Tc and cartilage scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, J.C.; Harmand, M.F.; Blanquet, P.

    1976-01-01

    ACS, chondroitine-sulphate acid, is the principal mucopolysaccharide of cartilagineous substance. We therefore thought it of interest to label this molecule with sup(99m)Tc so as to obtain a scintigraphic image of cartilagineous formations. sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate and the sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphates permit simultaneous imaging of hyperactive zones in bone and cartilage. The ACS-labelling technique is based on the reduction of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by the tin-II-ion. Sephadex-gel chromatography at different pH-levels was used to study labelling gain, under optimum conditions it can attain 85%. The labelled product was administered intravenously and studied in rat and rabbit. An identical biological half-life of 15 minutes was found for both species. Scintigraphes from rabbits permitted clear visualization of the epiphyses of tubular bones, intervertebral cartilage, and auricular cartilage. These encouraging results point to interesting clinical applications

  4. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan

  5. '99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on High Radionuclidic Pure Zirconium Molybdate Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Mostafa, M.; El-Amir, M.A.; El-Absy, M.A.; Mohamed, O.I.; Farag, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    99 Mo / 99 mTc radioisotope generator was prepared using in-situ precipitated zirconium molybdate chromatographic column. Zirconium molybdate gel matrix was synthesized by precipitation of neutron activation molybdenum-99 from its solution after variety purification processes to prevent contamination of the 99m Tc eluate with cross-contaminants. Greeter than 82.7 ± 0.4 % of the generated 99m Tc was immediately and reproducible eluted by passing 10 ml 0.9 % NaCl solution through the 1 g zirconium molybdate- 99 Mo column matrix at a flow rate of 0.5 ml / min and room temperature with high chemical, radionuclide ( ≥ 99.9 % 99m Tc) and radiochemical purity ( ≥ 97.7 % % as 99 mTcO 4 - ) with ph value suitable for medical uses.

  6. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of sup(99m)Tc as hepatobiliary agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Bautovich, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di(omicron-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl) ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with sup(99m)Tc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, sup(99m)Tc-Br-EDDHA and sup(99m)Tc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of sup(99m)Tc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile.

  7. Radiation-hygienic assessment of sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, N.P.; Kochetova, G.P.; Zol'nikova, N.I.; Trunov, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-hygienic evaluation of labour conditions and degree of medical personnel irradiation during operation of short-lived radionuclide generators (of the activity 12950MBq, 18500 MBq) in radionuclide diagnosis has been made. For the purpose the exposure dose rate in working places from sup(99m)Tc generator was determined. Simultaneously, operation by operation timing at all the sta.oes of technological process is carried out. Measurements are realized at four levels (head, breast, pelvis, hands). It is shown, that total personnel dose at the first day of operation with generator constitutes 8.64 mR to hands, 1.12 mR to head, 2.333 mR to breast, 1.309 mR to pelvis

  8. Comparisons of 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc activity measurements in activimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Hernandez Rivero, Aerulio T.; Serra Aguila, Rolando A.; Martinez Herrera, Ernesto; Varela Corona, Consuelo

    2003-01-01

    The correct administration to a patient of the a priori established activity of the radiopharmaceutical is an important factor to ensure the confidence in the diagnosis or the therapy efficiency, keeping at the same time the human exposure as low as possible. National comparisons for the 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc activity measurements in activimeters have been organized for the first time with the aim of obtaining information about the quality of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In the comparison run participated ten Cuban Nuclear Medicine Departments and the laboratories involved in the production of that kind of compounds. The comparison results, shown in this paper, have facilitated the identification of the problems and to initiate preventive actions. Furthermore, these results reflect the need of establishing Quality Systems in Nuclear Medicine in Cuba

  9. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  10. 99m-Tc tetrofosmin scintigraphy vs mammography in breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaukovic, L.J.; Spaic, R.; Markovic, S.; Stankovic, N.; Dimitrijevic, S.; Strbac, M.

    2002-01-01

    99m-Tc tetrofosmin is a widely used radiotracer for breast cancer imaging. Routine mammography ,as a method for screening breast cancer patients, might be insufficient for diagnosis, especially in patients with dense breast. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the results of mammography (MM) and scintimammography with 99m- Tc tetrofosmin (SMM) in detection of primary breast cancer. Method: Thirty patients with breast disease were included in study. All of them had clinical investigation, MM, SMM and surgical biopsy for final histological diagnosis. An amount of 600 MBq 99m- Tc tetrofosmin was injected intravenously in the arm opposite to the side of breast lesion. Ten minutes after injection planar breast 7-minutes scans were performed in supine (anterior) and prone (left and right lateral) position. Results: Out of 30 lesion breast cancer was histologically confirmed in 20 (15 ductal invasive, two lobular, one colloid, one papillar carcinoma and one case of cyst sarcoma phylodes- malignant type.) For MM sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 60% and accuracy of 76 % were obtained. At SMM 19/ 20 malignant lesions were detected. Only one false negative result was obtained in 1.0 cm lobular infiltrative cancer, although the smallest detectable lesion measured 0.6 cm. At pathohistology ten lesions presented benign. Four false positive results (two fibroadenomas, one lipogranuloma and one case of fibrocystic disease) were observed, six true negative results in four cases with fibrocystic disease and two fibroadenomas. The overall sensitivity of scintimammography was 95%, specificity 60% and accuracy 83%. Conclusion: We concluded that sensitivity of 99m-Tc tetrofosmin scintimammography in detection of breast cancer is superior to that of mammography. Our results suggest that 99m -Tc tetrofosmin is a suitable tumor seeking agent for breast cancer imaging

  11. Scintigraphic images of bacterial infection using aptamers directly labeled with {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.R.; Correa, C.R.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: crisrcorrea@gmail.com, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance and is the most commonly agent found in infections of soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled by the direct method with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacterial infection identification by scintigraphy. The radiolabeled aptamers radiochemical purity and stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice (n=6) were used for the scintigraphic imaging studies. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus, the second group with C. albicans and the third group received zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (18 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 h and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling yield with {sup 99m}Tc was over 90%. The radiolabeled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The scintigraphic image profiles showed high uptake in the kidneys and bladder in all groups, indicating a main renal excretion consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the molecule. No accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the thyroid, stomach, liver and spleen, indicating acceptable levels of radiochemical impurities. The group infected with S. aureus showed a visible uptake in the infected right thigh at 1 h post-injection. For the control groups (C. albicans and zymosan) visible differences between the right and left thighs were not observed. The radiolabeled aptamers were able to distinguish aseptic inflammation from bacterial infection and bacterial from fungal infection. (author)

  12. A new instrument for quick determination of radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air. Concept, analytical basis, calibration, caveats, the embodiment and field results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreve, J.D. Jr.; Miller, R.W.; Cleveland, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new technique for measuring the radiation exposure hazard associated with radon daughters has been developed over a three-year period by Kerr McGee Nuclear Corporation. General physical configurations of the instrument were field evaluated and redesigned for maximum utility and user convenience in an underground mining situation. The principle of operation is based on the observation that the sum of ALPHA and BETA activity of a radon daughter sample collected on a particulate filter is a slowly vrying constant over a wide range of air 'age' and radon gas concentrations. The model 811 Instant Working Level Meter can provide a working level readout directly in 3 1/2 minutes after the start of air sampling as opposed to the 30-90 minutes necessary when using the other available techniques. The model 811 weighs 11 pounds, has digital LED readout directly in working level, can be used to estimate gamma exposure, and is operated by Ni Cad rechargeable batteries capable of providing 40 working level determinations in an 8 hour period. The working level measurements can be used together with a nomograph to calculate the approximate 'age of air' and to estimate the concentration of radon gas that produced the sample. A comparison and analysis of results obtained using the 811 and the Kusnetz and Tsivoglou methods both in the field and the laboratory, indicates the Instant Working Level Meter provides comparable data in about one-tenth the time. The economics and capacity for greater protection will be discussed as well as operating mechanics and principles

  13. Development, preparation and control of sup(99m)Tc or sup(113m)In labelled stannous hydroxide radiopharmaceuticals. Part of a coordinated programme on radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cervera, J.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of different sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In radiopharmaceuticals using stannous chloride was investigated. Chemical and radiochemical procedures for the quality control of these preparations were studied. Toxicity and biological controls of the preparation were carried out. Procedures for the preparation and control of the following radiopharmaceuticals have been standardized by the authors; albumin macroaggregates labelled with sup(99m)Tc, sup(113m)In and other isotopes for lung scanning; albumin microspheres labelled with sup(99m)Tc for lung scanning; sup(99m)Tc or sup(113m)In-labelled stannous hydroxide colloid for liver scanning; sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate for liver scanning; sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dextrose, a new radiopharmaceutical which has been proposed by the authors and is now used in Mexico for renal and cerebral scanning and sup(99m)Tc-Sn pyrophosphate and diphosphonate for bone scanning

  14. Incremental value of combined 99MTc tetrofosmin parathyroid scintigraphy, rapid intra operative PTH assays and minimally invasive radio-guided surgery (MIRS) in optimizing parathyroidectomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma, S.; Kumar, S.; Babu, T.; Kumar, H.; Nair, V.; Nair, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Aim of our study was to evaluate incremental diagnostic value of 99mTc Tetrofosmin parathyroid SPECT (TPSPECT), rapid intra operative quick parathyroid hormone measurement (QPTH) combined with radio guidance provided by scintillation probe (Minimally Invasive Radio guided Surgery MIRS) in parathyroid surgeries. While TPSPECT is an established investigation in preoperative workup of hyperparathyroidism patients , MIRS is a relatively new concept in Indian subcontinent. Methods: 29 pts (M: F = 18: 11), age range 16- 65 yrs (mean 41+ 9 yrs) having clinical and biochemical hyperparathyroidism underwent TPSPECT between Jan 02 -04, using 20 mci IV 99mTc Tetrofosmin. Pts with familial hyperparathyroidism , previous nodular goiters and previous neck irradiation were excluded from study. Scintigraphy comprised of immediate, delayed planar and SPECT imaging of neck and chest. Imagewise abnormal, persistent tracer uptake was considered positive for adenoma and diffuse uptake for hyperplasia. 26 pts underwent exploration (22 adenomas and 4 hyperplasias).18 pts had benefit of intraoperative QPTH. A select group (after Dec 2003) i.e. 9 pts got the assistance of radioguided probing. Peroperatively NM physician used cordless handheld gamma probe (Gamma Finder, World of Medicine, Germany) in neck and mediastinum to detect parathyroid adenoma / hyperplasias. A five fold increase in radioactive counts perceived by probe when compared to background was considered positive for parathyroid adenoma / hyperplasia. If PTH levels fell from baseline by at least 50%, the surgery was concluded as complete. Results: In all 22 pts suspected to have primary hyperparathyroidism TPSPECT identified adenomas (100 % sensitivity). While planar imaging had a sensitivity of 90.1% (20/22 pts), SPECT identified the adenoma in all pts. Interestingly only 3/22 pts had ectopic glands while 5 had more than one adenomas. The most commonly involved gland was left inferior. In secondary

  15. Design of an X -band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized 99Mo/99mTc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaewoong; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2017-10-01

    The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, 99mTc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, 99Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of 99Mo/99mTc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for 99Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such 99Mo/99mTc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized 99Mo/99mTc supply chain, we designed an X -band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby 99Mo/99mTc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of 99Mo/99mTc in Japan.

  16. Design of an X-band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoong Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, ^{99m}Tc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, ^{99}Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for ^{99}Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply chain, we designed an X-band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc in Japan.

  17. Comparative analysis of hepatopulmonary shunt obtained from pretherapy 99mTc MAA scintigraphy and post-therapy 90Y Bremsstrahlung imaging in 90Y microsphere therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar A; Zade, Anand A; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha A; Agrawal, Archi; Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin

    2012-05-01

    (99m)Tc macroaggregate albumin (MAA) scintigraphy is routinely used to estimate the hepatopulmonary shunt (HPS) of (90)Y microspheres because of their comparable average particle sizes (20-30 µm). However, the MAA particle size can vary from 10 to 90 µm. Therefore, HPS computed from (99m)Tc MAA scintigraphy may not accurately represent the HPS of (90)Y microspheres. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to investigate the accuracy of (99m)Tc MAA scintigraphy in estimating the HPS of (90)Y microspheres. Nineteen sessions of transarterial radioembolization using (90)Y therasphere were carried out in 17 patients for hepatic malignancies (both primary and secondary). For each session of therapy, a pretherapeutic (99m)Tc MAA scintigraphy and post-therapeutic (90)Y Bremsstrahlung scintigraphy were performed. The HPSs obtained from these images were compared. The mean HPS fractions calculated from the pretherapeutic (99m)Tc MAA study and the post-therapeutic (90)Y Bremsstrahlung images were 4.77 ± 2.81 and 4.52 ± 2.5%, respectively. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.96. (99m)Tc MAA scintigraphy accurately predicts the HPS of (90)Y microspheres.

  18. Distribuição do dextran-99mTc e do carvão ativado no linfonodo-sentinela em coelho = Distribution of dextran-99mTc and activated carbon in sentinel lymph nodes of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha, Rogério Porto da

    2006-01-01

    Conclusões: A solução de CA (6% e corante vital (azul patente V na proporção 1: 1 determinou uma fácil identificação do LS no intra-operatório. A análise comparativa da distribuição do CA e do dextran-99mTc demonstra que ambos se comportaram da mesma forma concentrando-se na mesma metade do LS

  19. Precision measurement of the half-life of {sup 90m}Nb and {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikunaga, H.; Fujisawa, H.; Ooe, K. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Graduate School of Science] [and others

    2011-07-01

    We have produced {sup 90m}Nb and {sup 99m}Tc in the reactions of {sup nat}Zr(p, xn){sup 90m}Nb and {sup 100}Mo({gamma}, n){sup 99}Mo, followed by disintegration to {sup 99m}Tc, respectively, and measured the halflives of these nuclides by using a reference source method. In order to determine the short half-lives of {sup 90m}Nb precisely, an on-line gas-jet system has been employed. As a result, the half-lives of these nuclides were determined with good precision on the order of magnitude of 0.1%. (orig.)

  20. NTS1-R-targeted diagnostic imaging of malignant tumors with 99mTc labeled neurotensin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulou, A.; Nock, B.; Maina, T.; Galanis, A.; Cordopatis, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies, based on receptor radio autoradiography methods in human biopsy specimens, have demonstrated the expression of neurotensin receptors of subtype 1 (NTSI-R) at a high density in primary human cancers, such as in ductal exocrine pancreatic carcinoma, Ewing's sarcoma and meningioma. This finding provides the molecular basis for the scintigraphic detection of NTS1-R-positive tumors in patients using radiolabeled NT analogues in combination with SPECT. We synthesized two novel NT analogues based on the NT (8-13) peptide sequence - essential for interaction with the NTS1-R - and modified at the N-terminal by a covalently attached open chain tetraamine chelator for stable binding of the radionuclide. In this work, a comparative study of the new compounds in cells and animal models is presented and their suitability in the NTS1-R- targeted diagnostic imaging of malignant tumors is discussed. In particular, the tetra-amine functional analogues NT1: [N4- (a) Ala0, Dab9] NT (8-13) and NT2: [N4- (a) Ala0, Dab9, Tle12] NT (8-13) were synthesized by SPPS techniques applying Fmoc/Boc protection strategies. The ES-MS spectra of the chromatographically purified products were consistent with the expected formulae. Incorporation of the radiometal (99mTc) by the open chain tetraamine framework proceeded different at room temperature in alkaline aqueous medium using SnCl2 as reducing agent in the presence of citrate. Under the above mild conditions labelling was nearly quantitative leading to single radiopeptide species of high specific activity. During competition binding assays in human colon adenocarcinoma WiDr cell membranes, using [125I-Tyr3] NT as the radioligand, both peptide conjugates demonstrated high affinity binding to the NTS1-R with IC50s 30 and 80 pM, respectively (IC50 for native NT= 0.20 nM). Both radiopeptides showed a rapid and NTS1-R-mediated migration into the intracellular compartment of the same cells reaching a 95% internalization

  1. Reduction of relative centrifugation force within injectable platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF) concentrates advances patients' own inflammatory cells, platelets and growth factors: the first introduction to the low speed centrifugation concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukroun, J; Ghanaati, S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze systematically the influence of the relative centrifugation force (RCF) on leukocytes, platelets and growth factor release within fluid platelet-rich fibrin matrices (PRF). Systematically using peripheral blood from six healthy volunteers, the RCF was reduced four times for each of the three experimental protocols (I-III) within the spectrum (710-44 g), while maintaining a constant centrifugation time. Flow cytometry was applied to determine the platelets and leukocyte number. The growth factor concentration was quantified 1 and 24 h after clotting using ELISA. Reducing RCF in accordance with protocol-II (177 g) led to a significantly higher platelets and leukocytes numbers compared to protocol-I (710 g). Protocol-III (44 g) showed a highly significant increase of leukocytes and platelets number in comparison to -I and -II. The growth factors' concentration of VEGF and TGF-β1 was significantly higher in protocol-II compared to -I, whereas protocol-III exhibited significantly higher growth factor concentration compared to protocols-I and -II. These findings were observed among 1 and 24 h after clotting, as well as the accumulated growth factor concentration over 24 h. Based on the results, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to enrich PRF-based fluid matrices with leukocytes, platelets and growth factors by means of a single alteration of the centrifugation settings within the clinical routine. We postulate that the so-called low speed centrifugation concept (LSCC) selectively enriches leukocytes, platelets and growth factors within fluid PRF-based matrices. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of cell and growth factor enrichment on wound healing and tissue regeneration while comparing blood concentrates gained by high and low RCF.

  2. Alcoholic hepatitis with negligible sup(99m)Tc uptake and transient elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hirosuke; Okumura, Makoto; Shimizu, Masanori; Eimoto, Tadaaki

    1981-01-01

    A 35 year old male with typical alcoholic hepatitis presented almost negligible uptake of sup(99m)Tc on the liver scan. Electron microscopic findings disclosing decreased number of Kupffer cells and impaired blood flow in the sinusoids may elucidate extremely diminshed uptake of isotope by the liver. Transient elevation of serum α-fetoprotein up to 3200 ng/ml observed during the active stage may indicate a regeneration process of hepatic necrosis occurred following the acute alcoholic hepatitis. (author)

  3. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between {sup 99m}Tc and HDR {sup 192}Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de; Lima, Carla Flavia de; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with {sup 99m}Tc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and methods: simulations of implants with {sup 99m}Tc-filled and HDR {sup 192}Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results: the {sup 99m}Tc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1} and 0.190 cGyh{sup -1} at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1}, respectively, for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the {sup 99m}Tc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion: temporary {sup 99m}Tc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. (author)

  4. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between 99mTc and HDR 192Ir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with 99mTc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR 192Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and Methods: Simulations of implants with 99mTc-filled and HDR 192Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results: The 99mTc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h-1.mCi-1 and 0.190 cGyh-1.mCi-1 at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh-1.mCi-1, respectively, for the HDR 192Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the 99mTc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR 192Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion: Temporary 99mTc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR 192Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice.

  5. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with {sup 99m}Tc in alcoholic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S., E-mail: rogov@tpu.ru; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Villa, N. E. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Sazonova, S. I. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Cardiology, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with {sup 99m}Tc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  6. Determination of radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical preparations using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Moura, Rebeca G.; Shiki, Andressa M.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: patyosborne@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) evaluation is a prerequisite for radiopharmaceuticals before the administration in patients. RCP is defined as the proportion of the total radioactivity in the product that is present in the specified chemical form. The most widely used techniques for RCP determination in radiopharmaceutical preparations are thin layer chromatography (TLC-Al), instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) and paper chromatography (PC). These techniques combined with radioactivity detection are one of the most important tools in the RCP of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. Several methods are used for the determination of the spatial distribution of radioactivity on the strips. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for radioactivity measurement in the determination of RCP in {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner. Lyophilized radiopharmaceuticals were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. The analysis was carried out using TLC-Al and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-Cellulose) sheets, ITLC-SG and 3MM Whatman PC. The radioactivity distribution was determined by counting each strip during 1 minute in a radiochromatography TLC scanner. For comparison, the strips were cut into small pieces and each one was separately measured in a gamma-counter during 0.20 minutes in 70-210 KeV {sup 99m}Tc window. USP 36 and FDA specify that not less than 90% of the total radioactivity must be in the spot corresponding to {sup 99m}Tc labeled compound. In conclusion, the procedure for RCP determination of ALBUMINA-TEC, DEX500-TEC, ECD-TEC, MACRO-TEC and MIBI-TEC can be faster using radiochromatography. (author)

  7. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, R.J.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Leppo, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of /sup 99m/Tc into red blood cells pretinned in vivo was measured by collecting blood samples in stannous DTPA solution, which served as a competing ligand for /sup 99m/Tc. This collection technique permitted a measurement of high-affinity red-cell labeling efficiency at the instant of sampling. At 0.5 min after injection only 62% of technetium is tightly bound to the red cell; this rises to 94.5% at 10 min. Based on the graded labeling of the red cells, the in vivo labeling procedure was modified by isolating pertechnetate and red blood cells tinned in vivo in a syringe during the first 10 min of labeling. The pertechnetate is thus prevented from distributing to extravascular compartments, and 90% of the injected /sup 99m/Tc is firmly bound to red blood cells at the time of injection. In a series of 23 patients, seven were tested with the in vivo method and seven with the modified in vivo method, and nine patients were tested with each method on separate occasions. A decrease in gastric activity and improved image quality were found with the modified method compared with the standard method of in vivo red-cell labeling

  8. Quality audit programme for {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I radioactivity measurements with radionuclide calibrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Leena [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: leena@barc.gov.in; Anuradha, R.; Kulkarni, D.B. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-06-15

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy has increased over the years with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I being most widely used. Quality audit programmes for radioactivity measurements of {sup 131}I have been ongoing and the 12th audit was recently conducted among seventy nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in India. An audit for the activity measurements of {sup 99m}Tc was conducted for the first time among ten NMCs in Mumbai, India. These programmes for radioactivity measurements have become very important to establish traceability of measurements to national and international standards and ensure accurate calibration of radionuclide calibrators. The results of both the audits are very encouraging. Ninety-four percent of the NMCs for {sup 131}I activity measurements were within a window of {+-}10% and for {sup 99m}Tc one NMC was deviating more than {+-}10%. The methodology adopted for the audit and results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of 99mTc and 188Re Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vanessa

    Radiopharmaceuticals are very powerful diagnostic tools for evaluation of a host of medical conditions. These drugs are labeled with radioactive isotopes, which are utilized to create pictures of areas of interest through absorption of the drug. They are currently in high demand due to their ability to image areas that traditional imaging devices cannot. The radioisotope 99mTc, with a half-life of 6.01 hours and a 140 keV gamma emission, is central to many radiopharmaceutical compounds. This isotope is easily obtained from a 99Mo-99mTc generator, through beta decay and column chromatography separations. Very little technetium, less than 6 ng, is needed to label the pharmaceuticals for use in-vivo. Another radioisotope 188Re is also important due to its ability to be used for therapy while being tracked throughout the body. Radiotherapy gives radiopharmaceuticals a huge advantage by their ability to destroy rapidly growing cells. One of the main reasons there is interest in rhenium pharmaceuticals is the chemical similarity between it and technetium. The 188Re isotope also has a considerably short half-life of approximately 17 hours and has emission energy of 155 keV. The 188Re isotope is separated from 188W-188Re generator, analogously to the 99Mo-99mTc generator. The ligand used in this work is a pentapepetide macrocyclic ligand. This ligand, KYCAR (lysyl-tyrosyl-cystyl-alanyl-arginine), has been designed as a potential chelating ligand for imaging and therapeutic in vivo agents. Ligands are chosen based on their in-situ biological behavior, and are used in the complexation with technetium and rhenium. Understanding and exploiting technetium and rhenium chemistry can provide insight into the reaction mechanisms and coordination chemistry of these compounds. The exploration of various oxidation states as a function of the ligands used and the reaction conditions can help develop novel radiopharmaceuticals. The investigations of the manipulation of oxidation states

  10. Comparative uptake of 67Ga and /sup 99m/Tc MDP in rabbits with a benign noninfected bone lesion (fracture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushberg, J.T.; Hoffer, P.B.; Schreiber, G.J.; Lawson, A.J.; Lawson, J.P.; Lord, P.

    1985-01-01

    Mid-shaft fractures of the radius and ulna were produced in 3 to 4 kg New Zealand white rabbits and quantitative uptake of /sup 99m/Tc MDP and 67 Ga determined at 11, 18, 25, 32, 51, and 78 days following fracture. Two hundred microCi of 67 Ga was administered 24 hours prior to sacrifice and 1.5 mCi /sup 99m/Tc MDP 2 hours prior to sacrifice. Specific activity ratios (SARs) were determined between fracture and control sides for bone, muscle and skin. SARs for bone were surprisingly similar for /sup 99m/Tc MDP and 67 Ga, reaching peak values of 6.07 +/- 0.64 (/sup 99m/Tc 18 days); 6.58 +/- 0.90 ( 67 Ga 32 days), subsequently decreasing to minimum values at 78 days postfracture (/sup 99m/Tc MDP 2.25 +/- 0.14; 67 Ga 2.18 +/- 0.08). There was no statistically significant difference in SAR for /sup 99m/Tc MDP vs. 67 Ga in bone at any time after fracture. Whole sections of limb were resected on selected animals and activity ratios determined for these sections as a function of the contribution of activity from the various tissues in the volume of interest. Total activity ratios of 67 Ga were lower than bone SARs as a result of the contribution of activity from muscle and skin. Thus, the apparent lower activity ratios noted on 67 Ga images compared with /sup 99m/Tc MDP images in this fracture model were not due to differences in bone SARs but rather due to the higher soft tissue background activity contribution in the 67 Ga images

  11. Compensation of Cross-Contamination in Simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Kalantari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a common protocol to use 201Tl for the rest and 99mTc for the stress cardiac SPECT imaging. Theoretically, both types of imaging may be performed simultaneously using different energy windows for each radionuclide. However, a potential limitation is the cross-contamination of scattered photons from 99mTc and collimator X-rays into the 201Tl energy window. We used a middle energy window method to correct this cross-contamination. Material and Methods: Using NCAT, a typical software torso phantom was generated. An extremely thin line source of 99mTc activity was placed inside the cardiac region of the phantom and no activity in the other parts.  The SimSET Monte Carlo simulator was used to image the phantom in different energy windows. To find the relationship between projections in different energy windows, deconvolution theory was used. We investigated the ability of the suggested functions in three steps: Monte Carlo simulation, phantom experiment and clinical study. In the last step, SPECT images of eleven patients who had angiographic data were acquired in different energy windows. All of these images were compared by determining the contrast between a defect or left ventricle cavity and the myocardium. Results: We found a new 2D kernel which had an exponential pattern with a much higher center. This function was used for modeling 99mTc down scatter distribution from the middle window image. X-ray distribution in the 201Tl window was also modeled as the 99mTc photopeak image convolved by a Gaussian function. Significant improvements in the contrasts of the simultaneous dual 201Tl images were found in each step before and after reconstruction. In comparison with other similar methods, better results were acquired using our suggested functions. Conclusion: Our results showed contrast improvement in thallium images after correction, however, many other parameters should be evaluated for clinical approaches. There are many

  12. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  13. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection

  14. Radiolabeling of VEGF165 with 99mTc to evaluate VEGFR expression in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Filippo; Artico, Marco; Taurone, Samanta; Manni, Isabella; Bianchi, Enrica; Piaggio, Giulia; Weintraub, Bruce D; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W; Agostinelli, Enzo; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Angiogenesis is the main process responsible for tumor growth and metastatization. The principal effector of such mechanism is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and other components of tumor microenvironment. Radiolabeled VEGF analogues may provide a useful tool to noninvasively image tumor lesions and evaluate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs that block the VEGFR pathway. Aim of the present study was to radiolabel the human VEGF165 analogue with 99mTechnetium (99mTc) and to evaluate the expression of VEGFR in both cancer and endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment. 99mTc-VEGF showed in vitro binding to HUVEC cells and in vivo to xenograft tumors in mice (ARO, K1 and HT29). By comparing in vivo data with immunohistochemical analysis of excised tumors we found an inverse correlation between 99mTc-VEGF165 uptake and VEGF histologically detected, but a positive correlation with VEGF receptor expression (VEGFR1). Results of our studies indicate that endogenous VEGF production by cancer cells and other cells of tumor microenvironment should be taken in consideration when performing scintigraphy with radiolabeled VEGF, because of possible false negative results due to saturation of VEGFRs.

  15. Dose to the stomach wall from injected /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Deus, S.F.; Snyder, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    In estimating the radiation dose to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) it has been assumed generally that the measured activity in the tract, i.e., in the walls, is present in the contents. This assumption has been necessary because absorbed fractions for photons were available only for the source in the contents. During the past year and a half, however, absorbed fractions, or specific absorbed fractions, have been estimated for photon emitters in the walls. In the work presented here new values are applied to estimate dose to the walls of the GIT from administration of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The dose to the stomach wall from photons is found to be less than the dose from nonpenetrating radiation, assuming complete absorption of energy. Thus, a correct estimation of average dose to the wall requires use of absorbed fractions of energy for electrons as well as for photons. The problem is discussed and values of absorbed fractions for electrons are given which are based on a uniform distribution of the activity. However, a final resolution of the problem will require further biological data on the fraction of activity in the wall and the fraction in the contents

  16. Cooperative study with sup(99m)Tc diisopropil-IDA on biliary tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitta, A.E.A.; Mollerach, F; Almeida, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a cooperative study on the investigation of the biliary tract with sup(99m)Tc diisopropyl-IDA are presented. 15 normal volunteers and 75 patients with acute cholecystitis (AC), chronic cholecystitis (CC), hepatocellular jaundice (HCJ), incomplete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (IEBO) and complete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (CEBO) were studied. The biological behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical in the two groups was determined through the measurement of the uptake times and of the times of arrival in the hepatic parenchyma, in the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts, in the gallbladder, in the duodenum and in the kidneys. The pathophysiologic features found in the AC, CC, HCJ, IEBO and CEBO are described. It is concluded that the procedure has a selective indication in the AC, that its value is limited in the CC, and that in jaundice, except in very special situations, the method gives very little information of clinic value. The possibility of performing cooperative scientific studies between Latin-American Departments, increasing their efficiency, is emphasized. (author) [es

  17. Optimizing labeling conditions for cysteine-based peptides with {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabahnoo, Hamideh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal, E-mail: sjhosseinim@yahoo.com [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Radiolabelled peptides have attracted a great deal of attention due to their wide applicability in the development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. They can easily be used in diagnostic imaging as carriers for the delivery of radionuclides to tumors as well as for therapy. Previous investigations revealed that technetium(V) could form stable complexes with peptide-based ligands of N{sub 3}S type such as Cys-Gly-Gly-Gly. Herein, a targeting HER-2 receptor peptide was labeled with technetium-{sup 99m} ({sup 99m}Tc) with two different types of tetrapeptide-based ligands, Cys-Gly-Gly-Gly and Cys-Ser-Ser-Ser. The effect of experimental parameters in the labeling procedure such as type of buffer solutions, pH of media, and type of exchange ligands were optimized toward obtaining maximum labeling yield. The optimum labeling conditions were different for two peptides. Shelf life of both labeled peptides was determined by analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) that showed radiochemical yield up to 95% even after 4 h. (author)

  18. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Radionuclideos usados em medicina nuclear ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) no sistema de esgoto e no ambiente marinho da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-08-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc. The radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc decays to {sup 99}Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10{sup 5} years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the {sup 131}I and {sup 99}Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10{sup 5} Bq/year of {sup 99}Tc e 7.12 x 10{sup 12} Bq/year of {sup 131}I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10{sup -6}mSv for {sup 131}I and 2.87 x 10{sup -14} mSv for {sup 99}Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10{sup -1} mSv/year for {sup 131}I and 10{sup -10} mSv/year for {sup

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} SPECT to monitor early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Bin; Chen, Bin; Wang, Ting; Chen, Minglong; Ji, Tiefeng; Gao, Shi; Ma, Qingjie [China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changchun (China); Song, Yan [China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Department of Breast Surgery, Changchun (China); Wang, Xueju [China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Department of Pathology, Changchun (China)

    2015-08-15

    Monitoring of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is important for optimal management of patients with breast cancer. {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} SPECT is a newly developed imaging modality for evaluating tumor vascular status. In this study, we investigated the application of {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} SPECT in evaluating therapy response to NCT in patients with stage II or III breast cancer. Thirty-three patients were scheduled to undergo {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} SPECT at baseline, after the first and second cycle of NCT. Four patients had extremely low {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} uptake at baseline, and were not included in the subsequent studies. Changes in tumor to nontumor (T/N) ratio were compared with pathological tumor responses classified using the residual cancer burden system. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to compare the power to identify responders between the end of the first and the end of the second cycle of NCT. The impact of breast cancer subtype on {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} uptake was evaluated. The correlation between {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} uptake and pathological tumor response was also evaluated in each breast cancer subtype. Surgery was performed after four cycles of NCT and pathological analysis revealed 18 responders and 15 nonresponders. In patients with clearly visible {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} uptake at baseline, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} SPECT were 86.7 %, 85.7 % and 86.7 % after the first cycle of NCT, and 92.9 %, 93.3 % and 93.3 % after the second cycle, respectively. Among these patients, the HER-2-positive group demonstrated both higher T/N ratios and a greater change in T/N ratio than patients with other breast cancer subtypes (P < 0.05). A strong correlation was found between changes in T/N ratio and pathological tumor response in the HER-2-positive group (P < 0.03). {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD{sub 2} SPECT seems to be useful for determining the pathological

  20. Synthesis, labeling with {sup 99m}Tc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals; Sintese, marcacao com {sup 99m}Tc e biocinetica de radiofarmacos perfusorios diaminoditiolicos para cintilografias cerebrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-07-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been

  1. Synthesis, labeling with {sup 99m}Tc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals; Sintese, marcacao com {sup 99m}Tc e biocinetica de radiofarmacos perfusorios diaminoditiolicos para cintilografias cerebrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-07-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been obtained by

  2. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re; Desenvolvimento de metodos para marcacao de DMSA pentavalente com {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula, email: jtoniolo@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to {approx} 8.5 with NaHCO{sub 3}. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of {sup 99m}Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with {sup 188}Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were

  3. The labelling of antibody anti-PBP2a with {sup 99m}Tc; Estudo de marcacao do anticorpo monoclonal anti-PBP2a com {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mororo, Janio da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of life-threatening infections such as bacteraemia and endocarditis. Unfortunately, many strains of this bacterial species have become resistant to certain antibiotics, including methicillin and amoxicillin. These strains are known as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a) is the enzyme responsible for conferring resistance p-lactams antibiotics for MRSA, being one promising molecule for therapy with mAb. However, besides the therapy, the methods of diagnosis are also inefficient because the diagnosis currently takes several days to produce a reliable result. Taking into account, the objective of this research was radiolabeling one anti-PBP2a mAb developed by Bio-Manguinhos/FioCruz-RJ, utilizing {sup 99m}Tc, for in situ diagnostic of the infectious caused by MRSA. First, anti-PBP2a mAb was reduced utilizing 2-mecaptoethanol (2-ME) for generate sulphydryl groups (-SH) and after to be labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. In this work, were utilized two techniques of direct method: Method 1, using tartrate and gentisic acid reagents, acting like transchelant and stabilizer agents, respectively; and Method 2, using one commercial kit of MDP. Besides the radiolabeling, the mAb reduced and mAb labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were submitted to immunoreactivity analysis, with SDS-PAGE non-reducing, Immunoblotting, ELISA and neutralization assay in vitro methods. The quantity produced of sulphydryl groups by mAb was satisfactory, approximately 5 per mAb, utilizing 6.500:1 of 2-ME:mAb molar ratio. The better labeling method was Method 2, with labeling yield of 73.5%, and showed a good stability after 2 hours (73.2%). The better formulation was: 0.5 mg of mAb anti- PBP2a, 10 {mu}U of MDP kit, after resuspended with 5 mL of saline, and 75.48 MBq (2.04 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc, reacting by 15 minutes. The labeled mAb maintained the immunoreactivity, utilizing immunologic and in vitro experiments. (author)

  4. Production of $^{99}$?? and $^{99m}$Tc in the $^{100}$Mo($\\gamma, n$) Photonuclear Reaction at the Electron Accelerator - MT-25 Microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelnikov, A V; Gustova, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2004-01-01

    $^{99}$Mo was obtained in the $^{100}$Mo($\\gamma, n$) reaction at the electron accelerator - MT-25 microtron of the LNR. A foil of $^{\\rm nat}$Mo(9.6{\\%} $^{100}$Mo) and $^{100}$MoO$_{3}$ powder (100{\\%} ^{100}$Mo) were used as targets. The $^{99}$Mo radiation yield under experimental conditions amounted to 3.2 kBq/$\\mu $A$\\cdot $h$\\cdot $mg of $^{100}$Mo. The $^{99m}$Tc isolation from the target material and other radioactive impurities was realized by means of ion exchange. A possibility of use of the $^{99}$Mo/$^{99m}$Tc generator based on molybdenumcarbonyl was investigated. The radioactive impurity content in the final $^{99m}$Tc preparations did not exceed 10$^{-5}$ Bq/Bq.

  5. Single-molecule visualization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae leading-strand synthesis reveals dynamic interaction between MTC and the replisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jacob S; Spenkelink, Lisanne M; Schauer, Grant D; Hill, Flynn R; Georgescu, Roxanna E; O'Donnell, Michael E; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2017-10-03

    The replisome, the multiprotein system responsible for genome duplication, is a highly dynamic complex displaying a large number of different enzyme activities. Recently, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae minimal replication reaction has been successfully reconstituted in vitro. This provided an opportunity to uncover the enzymatic activities of many of the components in a eukaryotic system. Their dynamic behavior and interactions in the context of the replisome, however, remain unclear. We use a tethered-bead assay to provide real-time visualization of leading-strand synthesis by the S. cerevisiae replisome at the single-molecule level. The minimal reconstituted leading-strand replisome requires 24 proteins, forming the CMG helicase, the Pol ε DNA polymerase, the RFC clamp loader, the PCNA sliding clamp, and the RPA single-stranded DNA binding protein. We observe rates and product lengths similar to those obtained from ensemble biochemical experiments. At the single-molecule level, we probe the behavior of two components of the replication progression complex and characterize their interaction with active leading-strand replisomes. The Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10), an important player in CMG activation, increases the number of productive replication events in our assay. Furthermore, we show that the fork protection complex Mrc1-Tof1-Csm3 (MTC) enhances the rate of the leading-strand replisome threefold. The introduction of periods of fast replication by MTC leads to an average rate enhancement of a factor of 2, similar to observations in cellular studies. We observe that the MTC complex acts in a dynamic fashion with the moving replisome, leading to alternating phases of slow and fast replication.

  6. Radio localization of inflammatory bowel diseases using 99mtc-colloidal bismuth subcitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, G.; Miranda, M.; Sanchez, I.; Oliva, J.; Velasco, M.; Paniagua, M.; Pinol, F.; Riano, A.; Paneque, A.; Castillo, J.; Leyvad, R.

    2006-01-01

    A correct diagnosis and adequate assessment of disease activity is crucial in the management and surveillance of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However, in certain occasions the obtained results by means of traditional techniques are not correlated specifically with the inflammatory state of the mucosal wall, mainly in case of the small bowel, due to its no accessibility. This investigation constituted a multi centric clinical trial phase I-II. Forty-four patients were prospectively evaluated with the objective of determining the validity of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-Sn-CBS for the diagnosis of illnesses with ulcerations of the intestinal tube. Of the evaluated patients, 20 presented Cohns Disease (in 1 of them the scintigraphy was not useful), Idiopathic Ulcerative Colitis, 3 gastric ulcer and 20 patients were seemingly healthy, conforming these last ones the group control. Five hundred mgs of CBS were labelled with 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 99mTc and administered by oral via as unique dose. The diagnostic test had duration of three days for each patient: first day for the patient's preparation with soft diet and 20% mannitol and two days for the image registrations. The images were carried out at 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post administered the product. All procedures were performed by experienced examiners, who were blinded to the clinical data and other results. It was determined the sensibility and specificity of this technique taking like reference test, the colonoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, intestinal transit and/or biopsy, achieving a sensibility of 91,3% and a specificity of 90%. During the whole study an adverse event appeared, which had not very probable causation according to the scale of Karch and Lasagna. It can be concluded that the diagnostic criteria established in this study can be useful for the evaluation of inflammatory bowel diseases by scintigraphy with 99mTc-Sn-CBS. (Author)

  7. Determination of 99Mo contamination in a nuclear medicine patient submitted to a diagnostic procedure with 99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Maranhão Dantas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a radionuclide widely used for imaging diagnosis in nuclear medicine. In Brazil it is obtained by elution from 99Mo-99mTc generators supplied by the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN. The elution is carried out in radiopharmacy laboratories located in hospitals and clinics. Depending of the quality of the generator and conditions of use during the elution process, 99Mo can be extracted from the column of the generator, becoming a radionuclidic impurity of the eluate used for the obtention of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered to the patient. 99Mo emits high-energy photons and beta particles and its presence degrades the quality of the image and unnecessarily increases the radiation dose delivered to the patient. An in-vivo measurement technique was developed to verify the occurrence of internal contamination by 99Mo in nuclear medicine patients. Direct measurements were made in a volunteer who underwent myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamibi. The results indicated the presence of internal contamination of the patien by 99Mot. The activity was tracked for several days, and an assessment of the radiation dose from the contaminant 99Mo was made.O 99mTc é um radionuclídeo largamente utilizado em diagnósticos por imagem em medicina nuclear. No Brasil, ele é obtido por eluição de um gerador de 99Mo-99mTc fornecido pelo IPEN. A eluição do gerador é feita nas clínicas onde se realizam os exames. Durante a eluição o 99Mo pode ser carreado da coluna, tornando-se uma impureza radionuclídica do eluato a ser utilizado para a obtenção do radiofármaco administrado ao paciente. O 99Mo emite fótons de alta energia e partículas beta, e sua presença, além de provocar degradação na qualidade da imagem do exame, aumenta desnecessariamente a dose de radiação no paciente. Assim, com o objetivo de verificar a possível ocorrência de contaminação interna por 99Mo em pacientes de medicina nuclear, foi desenvolvida

  8. Scintigraphic discrimination of infections from cancer with 67Ga citrate and sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Sato, Tachio

    1977-01-01

    A paralleled study was carried out on lung cancer and infectious lesions by scintigraphy with 67 Ga citrate and sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. Malignancies were Ga-positive but Tc-negative whilest infective lesions were positive with both radioisotopes. The technic is simple and yet unique in that it employs radioisotopic uptake ratios which were computed by recording radioactivity over such lesions and over appropriate control sites. This technic may offer a prompt and prospective means of making a differential diagnosis of lung cancer and active lung abscesses. Confirmative value of lesion to control region counting ratio was also emphasized. (auth.)

  9. Performance study of molybdenum gels with titanium for preparation of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators; Estudo do desempenho de geis de molibdenio com titanio no preparo de geradores de {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vmoraes@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc is the most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine, due to nuclear characteristics. It is obtained by the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo, generator of radioisotope system. When {sup 99}Mo is produced by the activation in reactor, the most used technique for the preparation of the generators is the gel type generator, which incorporates {sup 99}Mo to the gel that is insoluble, chemically inert to the solutions and with properties of ion exchange. Several countries had already studied this methodology, as is the case of Vietnam, India, China, Australian. This work has the objective of studying the performance and characterization of molybdenum gels with titanium. Four variables in the preparation of the gel were studied: mass ratio between Mo and Ti (1.80 and 2.25), concentration of NaOH (2 and 4 mol/L), final temperature (25 and 50 deg C) and pH (3.5 and 4.5). The prepared gels were analyzed with relation to the size of its particles, identification of its structure, amount of molybdenum, amount of titanium, profile of elution, pH of the elution, determination of the radioisotopes in the eluate and final radiochemical purity. The final result is a formularization of the gel with the best characteristics for posterior preparation of the generator of {sup 99m}Tc-{sup 99}Mo. (author)

  10. Immediate renal imaging and renography with /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate to assess renal blood flow, excretory function, and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, E.C.; DeNardo, G.L.; Hines, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc MDP) was evaluated as a clinical renal imaging agent in 20 patients referred for bone scintigraphy. Sequential scintigraphy, which was started immediately after injection, yielded blood flow studies of high quality, and subsequent images accurately delineated renal anatomy and excretion in nonazotemic patients. In comparison with delayed images, early images were vastly superior in quality and demonstrated improved target-to-nontarget activity ratios (p < 0.001) and improved lesion detectability (p < 0.01). Renal imaging performed incidental to bone scintigraphy with MDP can be greatly enhanced by initiating sequential scintigraphy immediately after injection

  11. Production of the antimicrobial peptide UBI 29-41 labelled with 99mTc by an indirect method; Obtencion del peptido antimicrobiano UBI 29-41 marcado con 99mTc empleando un metodo indirecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevares, Noemi; Crudo, Jose L; Zapata, Miguel; Castiglia, Silvia G. de [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Dept. de Radioquimica

    2003-07-01

    The infection processes are a major problem in human health causing a high number of human deaths all around the world. Diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine is an attractive option in the detection of infection processes due to its sensitivity. The antimicrobial peptides are very important in the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, since their antimicrobial activity towards a great variety of microorganisms have been proven. The aim of this work was to obtain the antimicrobial peptide UBI 29-41 labelled with technetium 99 m, by an indirect method via NHS-Hynic and tricine as a coligand, and evaluate its stability and its ability to discriminate between infection and inflammation sites. The radiochemical purity of the labeling procedure was 95.5{+-}1,2 %. The cysteine challenge showed a great stability of the 99mTc UBI-Hynic, and the stability in human serum showed that the 81% of the radioactivity remained bounded to UBI-Hynic at 48 hs of incubation. The bio distribution's studies showed main elimination via kidney of 99mTc UBI-Hynic and the target/non target ratio was 1,81 for infected mice and 1,16 for inflamed mice. (author)

  12. Does the chocolate interfere with the radiolabelling of erythrocytes with 99 mTc?; Le chocolat interfere-t-il avec le radiomarquage des erythrocytes au 99 mTc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustani, H.; Colavolpe, C.; Imbert-Joscht, I.; Moubarik, C.; Havlik, P.; Pisano, P.; Guillet, B. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Nord, Marseille, (France)

    2009-05-15

    We present in this work the case of a failure of erythrocytes labelling with {sup 99m}Tc for a twenty five years old patient making the examination not interpretable. The patient reported that she drank a chocolate drink the morning before the examination. it is the first observation of a such interaction between the chocolate consumption. We do not have any explanation at this date, some compounds in the cocoa can be considered with caution. Some flavonoids (catechins and pro-cyanidins) modify the plasmatic and intra-erythrocyte oxido-reducer statute and could interact with the labelling (specific reduction of the {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate in the middle of erythrocyte by the tin pyrophosphate. These compounds, as well as the methyl-xanthine-theobromine, seem modify the membrane permeability of erythrocytes and could interfere with the input of pyrophosphate or {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in the middle of erythrocyte. these observations, in spite of preliminary ones, lead us to recommend near the patients to avoid the chocolate foods in the twenty four hours before this type of examinations. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the

  14. COMET concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  15. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  16. Management concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Management concepts evolve through time. Health care managers can learn new concepts by evaluating classical management strategies, as well as modern-day strategies. Focusing on quality improvement and team building can help managers align the goals of their departments with the goals of the organization, consequently improving patient care.

  17. PENGARUH REGENERASI KOLOM ALUMINA ASAM TERHADAP RECOVERY DAN KUALITAS 99mTc HASIL EKSTRAKSI PELARUT MEK DARI 99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang H G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PENGARUH REGENERASI KOLOM ALUMINA ASAM TERHADAP RECOVERY DAN KUALITAS 99mTc HASIL EKSTRAKSI PELARUT MEK DARI 99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON. Melalui kerjasama antara PTRR-BATAN, Chiyoda dan JAEA Jepang telah dilakukan pemurnian 99mTc dari 99Mo hasil aktivasi neutron dengan menggunakan metode kromatografi kolom alumina asam terhadap hasil ekstraksi MEK (Metil Etil Keton. Pemurnian 99mTc dengan metode kolom alumina asam hanya dapat digunakan satu kali dan pemurnian berikutnya harus diganti dengan kolom baru. Hal ini dinilai kurang praktis dan juga memerlukan biaya yang mahal. Dalam penelitian ini dicoba penggunaan kolom alumina asam untuk pemurnian 99mTc lebih dari satu kali dengan melakukan proses regenerasi dengan cara melewatkan larutan HNO3 0,1N setiap kali proses pemurnian selesai. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan larutan 99mTc yang dapat digunakan untuk penandaan kit radiofarmaka. Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah recovery, profil elusi, pH, kemurnian radiokimia dan kemurnian radionuklida (lolosan 99Mo. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan selama 5 hari telah diperoleh pH ~5, recovery > 60 %, kemurnian radiokimia > 95 % dan lolosan 99Mo tidak terdeteksi. Dari hasil perlakuan terhadap kolom alumina asam dengan larutan HNO3 0,1 N disimpulkan bahwa kolom alumina asam tidak perlu diganti setiap hari. Kata kunci: 99mTc, 99Mo, MEK, kolom alumina asam, kemurnian radiokimia. ABSTRACT Purification of 99mTc from 99Mo activation using acidic alumina column chromatography system from MEK (Methyl Ethyl Keton extraction has been carried out through cooperation between PTRR - BATAN, Chiyoda and JAEA Japan. This method has a limitation that acidic alumina column for purification of 99mTc can be used only once, for the next purification acidic alumina column should be replaced with new column, so it is less practical and also requires high cost. This study aims to obtain a 99mTc solution can be use for labelling of a

  18. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  19. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  20. Production of the antimicrobial peptide UBI 29-41 labelled with 99mTc by an indirect method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevares, Noemi; Crudo, Jose L.; Zapata, Miguel; Castiglia, Silvia G. de

    2003-01-01

    The infection processes are a major problem in human health causing a high number of human deaths all around the world. Diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine is an attractive option in the detection of infection processes due to its sensitivity. The antimicrobial peptides are very important in the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, since their antimicrobial activity towards a great variety of microorganisms have been proven. The aim of this work was to obtain the antimicrobial peptide UBI 29-41 labelled with technetium 99 m, by an indirect method via NHS-Hynic and tricine as a coligand, and evaluate its stability and its ability to discriminate between infection and inflammation sites. The radiochemical purity of the labeling procedure was 95.5±1,2 %. The cysteine challenge showed a great stability of the 99mTc UBI-Hynic, and the stability in human serum showed that the 81% of the radioactivity remained bounded to UBI-Hynic at 48 hs of incubation. The bio distribution's studies showed main elimination via kidney of 99mTc UBI-Hynic and the target/non target ratio was 1,81 for infected mice and 1,16 for inflamed mice. (author)

  1. In vivo/in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Langhammer, H.; Pabst, H.W.; Bauer, U.; Sauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A reliable and stabile in vivo/in vitro labeling technique of red blood cells (RBC) is described. The patients are injected 20% of the content of an unlabeled kit used for bone scintigraphy (TechneScan PYP, Byk-Mallinckrodt). 15 minutes later 3 ml blood are sampled in a heparinized syringe. The blood is incubated together with 30-40 mCi (1-1.5 GBq) sup(99m)Tc for 10 minutes in a water bath at 35-37 0 C. After centrifugation at 500 g a dose of 15-25 mCi (0.6-1 GBq) sup(99m)Tc labeled RBC may be withdrawn in a volume of 1-1.5 ml. Mean labeling efficiency is 88%, without using the first eluat of a Tc-generator the yield is as high as 92%. Due to the small volume, the labeled RBC may be reinjected as bolus and first pass radionuclide angiocardiography can be performed. Using labeled RBC, scintigraphy of the intravasal space is possible up to 20 hours without deterioration in contrast or accumulation of radioactivity in the extravasal space or in other organs. Evaluation of heart function can be performed up to 10 hours. In addition, labeled RBC are useful in detecting unknown gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [de

  2. Biokinetic and dosimetry of {sup 99m}Tc-14F7-monoclonal antibody in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Joaquin; Calderon, Carlos; Pimentel, Gilmara; Oliva, Juan P., E-mail: jgg@infomed.sld.cu [Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, Cidad Habana (Cuba); Casaco, Angel [Division de Ensayos Clinicos, Centro de Inmunologia Molecular, Reparto Siboney, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: The 14F7 murine MAb is an IgG1 that binds specifically to GM3(Neu-Gc) ganglioside strongly recognizing the antigen displayed in human breast and melanoma tumors. A preliminary report showed in vivo evidences of presence of GM3(Neu-Gc) ganglioside in human breast primary tumors using 14F7 MAb labelled with {sup 99m}Tc. In this work the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-14F7 MAb in patient with breast cancer were studied. The absorbed dose in normal organ and tumors was also calculated. The patients were selected from a Phase I/II clinical trial which included 14 female patients with cytological diagnose of breast carcinoma in stage II without previous onco-specific treatment. Three groups were conformed: Group I (0.3mg, n=5), Group II (1mg, n=5) and Group III (3mg, n=4). The activity ranged in 1.11 - 1.48GBq (30- 40mCi) was intravenously administered during 1-2min. The {sup 99m}Tc-14F7 plasma clearance was determined by blood sampling at 5, 10, 20, 30min and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h after injection. All urine excreted by patients was collected during 24h after injection at intervals of 0-2h, 2-8h and 8-24h. Prior to injection, a transmission scan of head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis was obtained using a {sup 57}Co flood source. Anterior and posterior whole body images were acquired at 30min, 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h after injection using a Gamma Camera (SophyCamera DS7) with pinhole collimator. Static anterior and posterior images were obtained from head, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and lateral images of each breast in pendular position at 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h. Internal absorbed dose calculation was performed according to MIRD formalism using the S values for adult non-pregnant female phantom downloaded from the RADAR website. Self-absorbed tumor dose were calculated assuming those as spheres with uniform distribution of activity. The plasma clearance of radiotracer in all groups shows a monoexponential decay behaviour with biological elimination half time

  3. Evaluation of '99Mo presence in eluates of 99mTc used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. During the elution process 99 Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between 99 Mo and 99m Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the 99 Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of 99 Mo in 99m Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of 99 Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a 99 Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of 99 mTc and 99 Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented 99 Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the samples, eluted from a generator of 1000 mCi, the calculated MBT value was very close

  4. Radioguided sentinel node biopsy with 99mTc colloidal (Re) sulphide: Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, G.; Alonso, O.; Aizen, B.; Juri, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It has been demonstrated that nodal metastases from different solid tumors are not random events. Tumour spread within the regional draining basin has been shown to progress in an orderly fashion with first draining basin (sentinel node) most likely to have metastatic involvement. Thus, the sentinel node examination accurately reflects the histology of the remainder of the lymphatic basin. Sentinel node biopsy (SLB) with previous lymphatic mapping by means of radiocolloid lymphoscintraphy has been proposed by many authors as a routine method for staging the regional lymph nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. A positive SLB is found to carry high prognostic significance and identifies those patients who might benefit from early therapeutic lymph node dissection and adjuvant treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our experience with radioguided SLB in patients with different tumours. We studied 154 patients between 1998-2003, with clinically localized breast cancer (n=45), melanoma (n=82), cervix carcinoma (n=22) and penis carcinoma (n=5). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed 6-18 hours before surgery using a LFOV gamma camera equipped with a LEHR collimator. A dose of 111-185 MBq of 99mTc colloidal sulphide (Nanocis, Cis bio international, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France) was injected around the primary lesion (melanoma, breast cancer, and penis carcinoma) and into the four quadrants of the cervix (cervix carcinoma). All basins identified by lymphoscintigraphy were explored through incisions directed by the use of a gamma probe. Radioactivity (counts /sec) of the sentinel node(s) and the adjacent tissues was measured in-vivo and verified ex-vivo after removal. A signal to background ratio higher than 2 to 3 in-vivo and higher than 10 ex-vivo was considered significant. Blue dye mapping was performed in all cases of breast cancer but left at discretion of the surgeon for the remaining tumours. Serial sections of the

  5. Comparative study of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators at base of synthesized gels starting from activation and fission {sup 99}Mo; Estudio comparativo de generadores {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc a base de geles sintetizados a partir de {sup 99}Mo de activacion y de fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, I Z [UAEM, Paseo Colon esq. Paseo Tollocan, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F; Rivero G, T; Rojas N, P [ININ, Carretera Mexico -Toluca S/N, 52045 La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The {sup 99m}Tc is used for diagnostic and therapy. It is produced starting from {sup 99}Mo, absorbed in chromatographic columns, loaded with alumina that absorb only 0.2% of {sup 99}Mo with high specific activities of {sup 99}Mo, obtained from the {sup 235}U fission. Given these conditions and limitations, new preparation procedures of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators, its have been developed, using zirconium molybdates gels that incorporates until 30% of {sup 99}Mo, conserve similar characteristics of quality and purity that the traditional generator. The radiochemical characteristics of the {sup 99m}Tc elution, depend strongly on the gel preparation conditions. In particular, the present work has by object to determine the influence of the {sup 99}Mo used type, fission or activation product, during the gels synthesis, as well as the used air flow for the agitation in the gels preparation and its influence in the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators quality. When diminishing the flow of agitation air the efficiency it increases and in the radionuclide purity of the eluates and when using {sup 99}Mo from fission for the gels production it increases in an important way the elutriation efficiency, the radiochemical and radionuclide purity of the {sup 99m}Tc eluates. (Author)

  6. Development and utilization of the inorganic polymer materials for {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator based on (n, gamma) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Koji; Terunuma, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshio; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi [KAKEN Co., Mito, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A molybdenum (Mo) adsorbent called PZC (Poly Zirconium Compound) with high efficiency of Mo adsorption has been developed in order to generate {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo produced from natural Mo by (n, gamma) method. The {sup 99m}Tc generator using PZC has cleared mostly the technical subjects. By the results of many experiments, cold and hot test with {sup 99}Mo activity from low level (10{sup 5} Bq) to high level (10{sup 10} Bq), it has been confirmed that the PZC method can be practically applied for the (n, gamma) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. From the reasons that PZC has the ability and many merits such as high adsorption capacity (>250 mg-Mo/g-PZC) of Mo, high elution yield (av. 80%) of {sup 99m}Tc, the low breakthrough (<0.05 kBq-{sup 99m}Mo/MBq-{sup 99m}Tc) of {sup 99}Mo and others, the current (n, fission) {sup 99m}Tc generator utilizing {sup 99}Mo produced from enriched uranium will be taken the place by PZC method. In this paper, the practicability of PZC and a newly developed functional material PTC(Poly Titanium Compound) as the (n, gamma) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator, and an ability of PZC as the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator will be shown. (author)

  7. Achalasia diagnosed by {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy; Diagnose einer Achalasie durch {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetat-Szintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie; Gallowitsch, H.J. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie; Kresnik, E. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie; Lind, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie

    1997-06-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a {sup 99m}Tc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal {sup 99m}Tc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for {sup 99m}Tc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine 73jaehrige Patientin zeigte bei der {sup 99m}Tc-Schilddruesenszintigraphie eine von der Schilddruese abgesetzte deutliche fokale Speicherung links kaudal der Schilddruese. Die weitere diagnostische Abklaerung mittels Sonographie, CT, Oesophagoskopie und videoassistiertem Kontrastmittelschluckakt ergab als Ursache der {sup 99m}Tc-Speicherung eine Achalasie. Die Erklaerung einer {sup 99m}Tc-Speicherung in der Speiseroehre waere die unspezifische {sup 99m}Tc-Aufnahme in den Speicheldruesen mit nachfolgender Tracerelimination ueber den Speichel. Depotbildungen von Speichel bei Erkrankungen der Speiseroehre, die mit einer Transportstoerung des Speichels verbunden sind, koennen dadurch Schilddruesengewebe vortaeuschen. (orig.)

  8. The Effect of (99m)Tc on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise

    2012-01-01

    the administration of a tracer marked with (99m)Tc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient...

  9. Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.A.; Pereztol, O.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Alvarez, I.; Fraxedas, R.; Mesa, G.; Rodriguez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted on evaluating the Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc. In the dosimetry studies and biodistribution five healthy volunteers were included and in the pharmacokinetic studies five patients were included with less than 5% of probability of suffering illness of artery coronary

  10. Evaluation of sup(99m)Tc labeled amino acids as radiopharmaceuticals, 4. S-substituted cysteines and N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Maeda, Tatsuo; Ohya, Masato; Sugata, Setsuro; Kono, Akira (Kyushu Cancer Center Research Inst., Fukuoka (Japan)); Matsushima, Yoshikazu

    1982-06-01

    Sixteen sup(99m)Tc labeled ligands were evaluated as scintigraphic agents. The ligands studied were cysteine, glutathione, their S-substituted derivatives, lysine-N sup(epsilon), N sup(epsilon)-diacetic acid, glycylglycine-N,N-diacetic acid, glycylglycylglycine-N,N-diacetic acid, taurine-N,N-diacetic acid, hydrazine-N,N-diacetic acid, ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid, and propylne-1,3-diamine-N/sup 1/-,N/sup 1/-diacetic acid. The ligands were labeled with sup(99m)Tc by the SnCl/sub 2/ method with more than 95% yield. The in vivo behavior of the sup(99m)Tc labeled ligands were studied in golden hamsters and dogs. The organ distribution in golden hamsters indicated clearance both by hepatobiliary and renal systems. The pancreas/blood ratios were much lower in the sup(99m)Tc ligands than in /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine. Scintigraphic studies in dogs showed that the liver and kidneys were well visualized but the accumulation by the pancreas was not sufficient for clear visualization.

  11. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  12. The diagnostic value of monoclonal antibody scan (leucoscan) compared with 99mTc MDP bone scan and Ga 67 in diagnosing bone and joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukouraki, S.I.; Velidaki, A.; Prassopoulos, V.; Karkavitsas, N.; Vavouranakis, H.; Hatjipavlou, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays different radiopharmaceuticals have been developed as 99mTc MDP, 67Ga citrate, 111In oxine- and 99mTc HMPAO labeled leucocytes for the accurate localization of bone/joint infection, but all of them have limitations that encouraged the search of new agents characterized from high and early uptake in infectious/inflammatory tissues, low toxicity and no accumulation in non inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of a 99mTc labeled antigranulocyte Fab' fragment (Leucoscan) with 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67 Ga. The monoclonal antibody, Leucoscan, is an IgG murine Fab' fragment directed against a NCA-90 epitope located on the surface of granulocytes. 45 patients with suspected bone and joint infection (18 total hip prosthesis, 4 knee prosthesis, 8 vertebral infection and 15 long bones) were included in this study. All patients underwent conventional Rx, bone scan, 67Ga scan and Leucoscan. Three phase 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67Ga scan were performed using standard procedures. For Leucoscan the antibody was labeled with 25 mCi of 99mTc and was infected intravenously over 30 seconds. Ten minutes planar images were taken 1 h and 2 hrs p.i using a GE Millennium γ camera provided with a LEGP collimator. Images were evaluated as score 1 (no abnormal uptake), score 2 (probably positive), score 3 (definitely infected) according the intensity of abnormally increased uptake. Results were compared with 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67Ga scans. The final diagnosis was given by the surgical verification with histopathology or culture. All 45 patients had pathologic proof of presence/absence of bone and joint infection. 36/45 were positive for bone or joint infection and 9/45 were negative.30/36 patients with surgically proven bone and joint infection had true positive Leucoscan, 26/36 had true positive MDP bone scan and 20/36 true positive 67Ga scan. Nine out of 9 patients with proven absence of inflammation had true negative

  13. Axitinib treatment in advanced RAI-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and refractory medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevila, Jaume; Trigo, José Manuel; Aller, Javier; Manzano, José Luís; Adrián, Silvia García; Llopis, Carles Zafón; Reig, Òscar; Bohn, Uriel; Cajal, Teresa Ramón Y; Duran-Poveda, Manuel; Astorga, Beatriz González; López-Alfonso, Ana; Martínez, Javier Medina; Porras, Ignacio; Reina, Juan Jose; Palacios, Nuria; Grande, Enrique; Cillán, Elena; Matos, Ignacio; Grau, Juan Jose

    2017-10-01

    Axitinib, an antiangiogenic multikinase inhibitor (MKI), was evaluated in the compassionate use programme (CUP) in Spain (October 2012-November 2014). 47 patients with advanced radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, n  = 34) or medullary thyroid cancer (MTC, n  = 13) with documented disease progression were treated with axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. Progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events (AEs) were secondary objectives. Regulatory authorities validated the CUP, and all patients signed informed consent form. Axitinib was administered as first-line therapy in 17 patients (36.2%), as second-line in 18 patients (38.3%) and as third/fourth-line in 12 patients (25.5%). With a median follow-up of 11.5 months (0-24.3), ORR was 27.7% (DTC: 29.4% and MTC: 23.1%) and median PFS was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.1-12.2) (DTC: 7.4 months (95% CI: 3.1-11.8) and MTC: 9.4 months (95% CI: 4.8-13.9)). Better outcomes were reported with first-line axitinib, with an ORR of 53% and a median PFS of 13.6 months compared with 16.7% and 10.6 months as second-line treatment. Twelve (25.5%) patients required dose reduction to 3 mg b.i.d. All-grade AEs included asthenia (53.2%), diarrhoea (36.2%), hypertension (31.9%) and mucositis (29.8%); grade 3/4 AEs included anorexia (6.4%), diarrhoea (4.3%) and cardiac toxicity (4.3%). Axitinib had a tolerable safety profile and clinically meaningful activity in refractory and progressive thyroid cancer regardless of histology as first-line therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that cross-resistance between MKIs is suggested in thyroid cancer, highlighting the importance of prospective sequential clinical studies. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Evaluation of aptamers labelled with {sup 99m}Tc for identification of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; Avaliacao de aptameros marcados com {sup 99m}Tc para identificacao de focos infecciosos de Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance because it is often associated with many infections in humans. This bacterium can cause diseases ranging from simple infections to life-threatening infections such as endocarditis, pneumonia, meningitis, toxic shock syndrome, septicemia, osteomyelitis, among others. S. aureus is the most commonly agent found in infections of the skin and soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. The difficulty in early detection of specific foci caused by bacteria has raised the need to search for new techniques for this purpose. Diagnosis by scintigraphy has advantages over other methods because it is able to identify damage tissues without the need of invasive procedures and is able to perform an early diagnosis even before anatomic changes. Thus, nuclear medicine could contribute to an accurate diagnosis of bacterial infections, since specific radiopharmaceuticals were developed. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. Radiolabeled aptamers specific to the infectious agents, could give a significant contribution to the infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and used for the bacteria identification in vitro and in vivo. The aptamers labeled with {sup 32}P and incubated in vitro with S. aureus cells showed high affinity for the bacterial cells when compared with the library of oligonucleotides with random sequences used as control. The aptamers labeled with {sup 99m}Tc also showed affinity for S. aureus cells when compared with the library, but unspecific binding was also verified. The {sup 99m}Tc labelled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma of Swiss mice and in excess of cysteine. The in vivo biodistribution studies using Swiss mice with intramuscular infection in the right thigh showed that

  15. Dosimetric contribution of organs of biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I to estimate radiation doses in thyroids of children of 1 and 5 years; Contribucion dosimetrica de organos de la biocinetica del {sup 99m}Tc y {sup 123}I para estimar dosis en tiroides de ninos de 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Abanto, D.M.; Rocha, D.; Garcia, W.H.; Marin, K., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT), Trujillo (Peru); Quispe, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The absorbed doses by thyroids during uptake studies through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing {sup 123}I (iodine) or {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) are estimated. Using the MIRD scheme and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for thyroids in children of 1 and 5 years, the objective of the study was to determine whether the dosimetric biokinetic contributions of the organs of {sup 123}I (iodide) and {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) biokinetic are significant in the estimated of the absorbed dose for thyroid uptake studies.

  16. Influence of antiseptic on the impurities in the preparation of dimercaptosuccinic labelled with {sup 99m}Tc; Influence des antiseptiques sur la presence d'impuretes dans la preparation de l'acide dimercaptosuccinique marque au 99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaye, T.; Rosenberg, T.; Perdrisot, R. [CHU de Poitiers, Service de medecine nucleaire et biophysique, 86 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: antiseptic solutions are used to disinfect the rubber stoppers on the bottles of radiopharmaceutical. Small amounts of these solutions can pass into the bottle when the cap is pricked to inject the {sup 99m}Tc. After finding in a patient a suboptimal labelling using biseptin, we studied the effect of various antiseptics on the presence of impurities in the preparation of the dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-D.M.S.A.). Conclusions: We recommend using 70% isopropanol or modified alcohol Cooper instead of biseptin to disinfect the D.M.S.A. bottles caps. (N.C.)

  17. Labeling of unnatural amino acids with sup(99m)Tc and tissue distribution of the labeled products in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamemasa, Osamu; Goto, Rensuke; Takeda, Atsushi

    1981-01-01

    The selective affinity of amino acids for pancreas, due to its high rate of protein synthesis, has prompted us to synthesize new radio-labeled amino acids for pancreatic imaging. Labeling of 19 unnatural amino acids with sup(99m)Tc was tried in the usual way, and 10 labeled products were obtained with low yields. The highest distribution of radioactivity from all these labeled amino acids, which had been injected intravenously into mice, was found in the kidney, whereas little activity was found in the pancreas. Their low distributions in stomach suggest little dissociation of the labeled amino acids into sup(99m)TcO 4 - in mice. It is presumed that these labeled amino acids behave unlike their original amino acids in the body. (author)

  18. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  19. Comparison of the chemical behaviour of humanized ACMS VS. Human IGG radiolabeled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero Santamaria, Alejandro; Zayas Crespo, Francisco; Mesa Duennas, Niurka; Castillo Vitloch, Adolfo J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the chemical behaviour of humanized AcMs vs. human IgG radiolabeled with 99 mTc. to this end, 3 immunoglobulins were analyzed, the IgG (human), the humanized monoclonal antibody R3 (Acm-R3h) and the humanized monoclonal antibody T1. The results obtained reveal slight differences as regards the behaviour of theses immunoglobulins before the labelling with 99T c, which shows differences in the chemical behaviour of these proteins. Although in theory the modifications that are made to the AcMs in order to humanize them must not affect their chemical behaviour, the obtained data indicate that the conditions for their radiolabelling should not be extrapolated from other proteins; on the contrary, particular procedures should be elaborated for each AcM-h

  20. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jmlo@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  1. Bone scanning with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate to assess condylar hyperplasia. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, S.R.; Proffit, W.R.; Terry, B.C.; Staab, E.V.; Burkes, E.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia poses a problem in planning treatment because it is a self-limiting process for some but not all patients. Continued growth creates a progressive deformity that requires condylectomy, whereas an enlarged condyle can be left in place after hyperplastic growth ceases, even if ramus surgery is needed to correct asymmetry. Bone scan with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate can be used to assist in making the differential diagnosis. In the two patients reported here, abnormal metabolic activity revealed by bone scans supported clinical and historical evidence that the condylar hyperplasia was active and required surgical correction, including condylectomy. The two cases demonstrate different approaches to postsurgical orthodontic treatment, depending on the amount of normal growth expected

  2. Solvent extraction technology of 90Mo-sup(99m)Tc system: design and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sewatkar, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The design features of 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc solvent extraction system have been reviewed. An improved semi-automated system has been improvised using the basic equipment of an indigenous unit along with other accessories, and with an added element of radiation protection to handle daily about 300-600 millicurie amounts of reactor-produced very low specific activity 99 Mo. The system has been used routinely for obtaining sup(99m)TcO 4 - - required for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine for the last twelve years. The performance characteristics of this unit with respect to yield and purity of 99 TcO 4 - - consistency of the process, the radiation dose to personnel and related health physics aspects have been evaluated. (author)

  3. HPLC characterization of clinically used sup(99m)Tc bone agents. Relative tissue distribution of fractionated components in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Richards, P.; Ford, L.A.; Benson, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    A study was undertaken to separate and characterize the components of clinically used (kit produced) 99m-Tc-Sn-MDP and 99m-Tc-Sn-EHDP preparations by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using radioactivity detection mode. Tissue distribution studies of the HPLC fractionated species were carried out in mice in order to define the in vivo behavior of the individual components. Effect of many variables such as time, oxygen, pH, temperature, etc. on the above two systems was also studied in relation to the composition as determined by HPLC and changes, if any, in the biological behavior. The results demonstrate the unique capabilities of reverse phase HPLC for rapid and high resolution analysis of complex 99mTc radiopharmaceutical mixtures

  4. {sup 99m}Tc radiolabeling and biodistribution study of scorpionfish (Scorpaena plumieri) venom in Swiss mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soprani, Juliana; Pujatti, Priscilla B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear(CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia]. E-mail: falejs@yahoo.com.br; priscillapujatti@yahoo.com.br; santosr@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely G. de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Depto. de Ciencias Fisiologicas]. E-mail: suelygf@gmail.com; Simal, Carlos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: csimal@brfree.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The use of radiotracers in research of animal venom has been scarce, although it allows an excellent approach to follow the process of biodistribution and kinetics of toxins, and tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical use. Our group has demonstrated that Scorpaena plumieri venom (SP) possess high antitumoral activity and can be a source of template molecules for the development of antitumoral drugs. The purpose of this study was to radiolabel SP with 99mTc and investigate its biodistribution profile. High labeling yield was obtained and the results suggest that [99mTc]SP can be an useful tool for in vivo studies. The analysis indicated that SP is excreted manly by the kidneys with a slow clearance rate. The significant [99mTc]SP uptake in the heart and lungs may explain, at least partially, the pulmonary edema and effect cardiac observed by the envenoming. (author)

  5. Evaluation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator columns after irradiation with different absorbed doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: ntfukumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator is widely used in nuclear medicine and it consists of a glass column containing Teflon® strips and alumina in which {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 235}U fission is adsorbed. The {sup 99}mTcO4- eluate shall meet the sterile and pyrogen free conditions for injectable radiopharmaceuticals as determined by the Good Manufacturing Practices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using gamma radiation in the sterilization of the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator column and the influence on the elution efficiency. Alumina-containing columns were irradiated with 10, 15, 25 and 50 kGy absorbed doses. Alumina samples and control (non-irradiated) were submitted to X-ray diffraction and the combined use of scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Teflon® samples were evaluated by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffractograms and micrographies with elemental analysis showed no significant changes in the crystalline structure of the alumina because it was stable α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TGA demonstrated that higher doses showed changes in lower temperatures and times than the control material. For DSC the higher the absorbed dose, the greater the polymer chain breakage and crosslinking in the material. The generator system without radioactivity was set up with the irradiated columns and the eluates demonstrated to be sterile and pyrogen free. The effects of different absorbed doses on the generator column, although some reported changes in the materials, demonstrated that the sterilization of the columns by irradiation with gamma rays as an alternative to wet heat sterilization is feasible from a technical and financial point of view. (author)

  6. Scintigraphies after renal transplant: study of transplant function and of sup(99m)Tc labelled lymphocytes transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guey, A; Touraine, J L; Collard, M; Traeger, J [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1977-01-01

    In a first series of scintigraphic investigations in patients with a renal transplant, 'conventional' tracers, were used (sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate and sodium iodohippurate iodine-131) and they gave insight on alteration of the function of the transplanted kidney. Precisions on scintigraphic criteria of diagnosis of vascular complications and urinary fistulae were obtained but no clear cut discrimination between ischemic acute tubular necrosis and early rejection was apparent. Despite the use of a data acquisition and processing system (SCINTI-16) and despite improved functional characterization of the transplant, such methods do not appear to provide definite criteria for an early diagnosis of acute rejection. A different approach, using lymphocytes as a vector, was investigated. A method for lymphocyte labelling with sup(99m)Tc was developed. Labelled autologous lymphocytes were injected to normal volunteers and to patients, then the body distribution was determined and followed over a period of 24 hours. The activity was more precisely quantified at the site of the transplant, repeatedly for 24 hours following injection, and the resulting curves were altered in phases of preclinical rejection. The lymphocyte transit in the kidney would be slower during acute rejection crises of the transplanted kidney and this might be responsible for the different aspect of the curve, especially at 3 to 5 hours. This working hypothesis, will be analysed and documented, using more precise quantifications (close selection of the studied area), evaluating the intrarenal transit of each lymphocyte subpopulation and accurately measuring isotope release. It will then perhaps be possible to define very precise and precocious criteria of rejection.

  7. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  8. Simple Concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 295-319 ISSN 0353-5150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/0792 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : concept * constructions * set-theoretical paradigm Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  10. Discussion on twenty-two hepatobiliary scintigraphs performed with technetium 99m-labelled N-(2,6 dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (or HIDA-99mTc) at the Val-de-Grace Army Instruction Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, Philippe.

    1978-12-01

    Intraveinously injected technetium 99m-labelled N-(2,6 dimethyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid, or HIDA-99mTc, is taken up by the hepatocytes and secreted in the bile, a fraction being normally eliminated by the kidneys. Isotopic examination with HIDA-99mTc gives valuable information on the morphology of the liver during the first minutes of the test, thus revealing the presence of parenchyma disease. In all observed cases of secondary hepatic localisations in particular the HIDA-99mTc images overlie those obtained with technetium colloids. By the examination it is also possible: - to establish the existence or otherwise of a functional vesicle, - to follow the path of the radiotracer along the bile duct. In short, HIDA-99mTc hepatobiliary scintigraphy is particularly useful for the study of hepatocyte uptake and bile elimination since it allows a continuous quantitative study of the liver-bile function under given physiological conditions [fr

  11. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of {sup 99m}TC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Reyes, Ana Laura [Cudim, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using {sup 99m}Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  12. Development of more efficacious /sup 99m/Tc organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, May 1, 1983-January 1, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of many different technetium complexes in the Tc(NaBH 4 )-HEDP, Tc(NaBH 4 )-MDP, and Tc(NaBH 4 )-DMAD systems has been clearly demonstrated by HPLC-separation of reaction mixtures. The dramatically different biodistributions exhibited by the various complexes strongly suggests that an improved skeletal radiopharmaceutical would result if the single technetium complex which exhibits the optimum biodistribution properties is administered to the patient. The influence of pH, time, concentrations of TcO 4 - and ligand, and the nature of reductant on the relative amounts of the different complexes formed were investigated. Electrochemical reduction offers a means of possibly generating a desired complex in very high yield due to the precision with which redox potential can be controlled. Additionally, we have developed HPLC methods with uv and electrochemical detection for the determination of total TcO 4 - in eluents from the 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc radionuclide generator. The inadequacy of current theory to accurately predict total TcO 4 - in generator eluents was demonstrated in that the concentration of total TcO 4 - is a major factor determining the yield of individual Tc-diphosphonate complexes. Spectroelectrochemistry proved an effective technique to study the redox properties of Tc-complexes. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  13. The preparation of {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc using Poly-Zirconium Compound (PZC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laohawilai, S [Isotope Production Div., Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    The process of for providing the {sup 99m}Tc-gel generator followed the protocol that received from Department of Radioisotopes, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI. Sodium molybdate (molybdenum-99), pH 7 with concentration 20 mg/ml and activity nearly 1 mCi/ml was added into the adsorbent (PZC). The total activity of {sup 99}Mo was about 10 mCi and the heating time was varied from 3-18 hours at 70degC. The properties of the gel were studied for elution profile and elution efficiency. The molybdenum breakthrough in sodium pertechnetate (technetium-99m) was also performed. (author)

  14. Studies on {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc adsorption and elution behaviors using the inorganic sorbent ceric tungstate and conventional organic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Fattah, Alaa El-Din A. Abdel; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Adsorption behavior of {sup 99}Mo(VI) and {sup 99m}Tc(VII) was studied on ceric tungstate (CeW) and compared with the adsorption on the conventional cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The studies were carried out under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of contact time and pH on the adsorption was investigated under static conditions. High K{sub d}-values for sorption of {sup 99}Mo(VI) on (CeW) were obtained over the investigated pH range. {sup 99m}Tc was adsorbed with much lower K{sub d}-values. The K{sub d}-values were pH dependent. K{sub d}-values of {sup 99}Mo-adsorption on AG-2X8 were lower than those on (CeW) and vice versa for {sup 99m}Tc. Ionic species of both elements were not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8, indicating the absence of cationic species and the adsorption of both elements on AG-2X8 and (CeW) as anionic species. The loading and elution behaviors of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc on (CeW) were studied using different eluents. {sup 99}Mo remained strongly adsorbed under all conditions whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Adsorption of some fission products, i.e. {sup 95}Zr(IV) and {sup 95}Nb(V), in addition to {sup 123m}Te(IV) and {sup 75}Se(IV), as representatives of their corresponding fission product isotopes, as well as {sup 181}Hf, as probable radioactive contaminant was also studied. Solutions of the ionic species of those metals were loaded in mixtures together with {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) columns. Strong adsorption of those ionic species and {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) was found whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Different eluents were investigated for eluting {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-adsorbed on (CeW).

  15. Use of 99mTc from a commercial 99Mo/9mTc generator as yield tracer for the determination of 99Tc at low levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jensen, Mikael; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of Tc-99 and impurity radionuclides in the Tc-99m tracer solution obtained from a commercial Mo-99/Tc-99m generator were measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. Mo-99 and Ru-103 were found in the Tc-99m eluate. A simple separation using two extra alumina...... cartridges was investigated to purify the eluate to obtain a suitable Tc-99m tracer with low Tc-99 concentration. The activity ratio of Tc-99/Tc-99m in the prepared Tc-99m solution is lower than 15 x 10(-9), which is higher than the theoretical ratio of less than 10 x 10(-9). The possible reason is discussed....... The Tc-99 in the 20 kBq spiked Tc-99m tracer was found to be less than 0.3mBq, which is lower than the detection limit of the radiometric method used for environmental samples. The purified Tc-99m eluate is used as yield tracer for the determination of low levels of Tc-99 in environmental samples. (c...

  16. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  17. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  18. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. Considerations on the domestic production of 99Mo/99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    2012-01-01

    At present, a bulky import product, 99 Mo supplied in Japan is produced by a nuclear fission method which enables to produce a generator system with no need of commercially preparing 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals due to its high specific activity. However its usage of enriched uranium target leads to avoiding the fission method from the option of domestic production. In order to secure the domestic supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, the neutron activation method, aiming to meet about 20% of domestic demand, is under development along with the re-start program of JMTR. Development of various production methods using accelerators are also in progress. In those non-fission methods with reactors or accelerators, rapid and effective procedures for concentration and refinement of 99m Tc solution eluted from 99 Mo of low specific activity are the subjects to be considered for attaining the stable labeling performances. (author)

  19. Introductory concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical theories are commonly classified as being either ''classical'' or ''modern''. The reasons for this distinction are both historical and substantive. Limited in the sophistication of their measuring instruments, early scientists proposed theories appropriate for the description of the simplest and most accessible physical phenomena, e.g., the trajectories of the planets. Because of the class of phenomena observed, certain beliefs came to underlie all classical theories with regard to the nature of time, space, matter, etc. For example, the idea was undisputed that an object has at all times both a definite position and velocity. Not until the interior of the atom and the nature of electromagnetic radiation were explored was it discovered that the concepts of classical physics are inadequate to deal with many phenomena. A reassessment of fundamental postulates led to the formulation of modern physics which, it is believed, successfully treats the behavior of all physical systems. To gain an understanding of the rudiments of modern physics, one proceeds as the early scientists did by first mastering the classical concepts that emerge from their intuitive picture of the world. Modifications of these concepts are subsequently introduced which allow a more accurate treatment of physical phenomena, particularly atomic and nuclear systems

  20. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  1. On the dose calculation at the cellular level and its implications for the RBE of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, R., E-mail: robert.freudenberg@uniklinikum-dresden.de; Runge, R.; Maucksch, U.; Berger, V.; Kotzerke, J. [University Hospital/Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden, Saxony 01307 (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Based on the authors’ previous findings concerning the radiotoxicity of{sup 99m}Tc, the authors compared the cellular survival under the influence of this nuclide with that following exposure to the Auger electron emitter {sup 123}I. To evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both radionuclides, knowledge of the absorbed dose is essential. Thus, the authors present the dose calculations and discuss the results based on different models of the radionuclide distribution. Both different target volumes and the influence of the uptake kinetics were considered. Methods: Rat thyroid PC Cl3 cells in culture were incubated with either{sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I or were irradiated using 200 kV x-rays in the presence or absence of perchlorate. The clonogenic cell survival was measured via colony formation. In addition, the intracellular radionuclide uptake was quantified. Single-cell dose calculations were based on Monte Carlo simulations performed using Geant4. Results: Compared with external radiation using x-rays (D{sub 37} = 2.6 Gy), the radionuclides {sup 99m}Tc (D{sub 37} = 3.5 Gy), and {sup 123}I (D{sub 37} = 3.8 Gy) were less toxic in the presence of perchlorate. In the absence of perchlorate, the amount of activity a{sub 37} that was necessary to reduce the surviving fraction (SF) to 0.37 was 22.8 times lower for {sup 99m}Tc and 12.4 times lower for {sup 123}I because of the dose increase caused by intracellular radionuclide accumulation. When the cell nucleus was considered as the target for the dose calculation, the authors found a RBE of 2.18 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 3.43 for {sup 123}I. Meanwhile, regarding the dose to the entire cell, RBE = 0.75 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 1.87 for {sup 123}I. The dose to the entire cell was chosen as the dose criterion because of the intracellular radionuclide accumulation, which was found to occur solely in the cytoplasm. The calculated number of intracellular decays per cell was (975 ± 109) decays

  2. Investigation of circulating temperature fluctuations of the primary coolant in order to develop an enhanced MTC estimator for VVER-440 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Sandor; Lipcsei, Sandor [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Centre for Energy Research - MTA

    2017-09-15

    Our aim was to develop a method based on noise diagnostics for the estimation of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC) for the Paks VVER-440 units in normal operation. The method requires determining core average neutron flux and temperature fluctuations. The circulation period of the primary coolant, transfer properties of the steam generators, as well as the source and the propagation of the temperature perturbations and the proportions of the perturbation components were investigated in order to estimate the feedback caused by the circulation of the primary coolant. Finally, after developing the new MTC estimator, determining its frequency range and optimal parameters, trends were produced based on an overall evaluation of measurements made with standard instrumentation during a one-year-long period at Paks NPP.

  3. Cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl complexes of 99mTc for the in vivo imaging of the serotonin 5-HT 1a receptor in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, Mouldi; Trabelsi, Adel; MEKNI, Abdelkader; Kretzschmar, M.; Sefert, S.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    The present interest in the 5-HT 1a receptor is due to its implicated role in several major neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, eating disorders and anxiety. For the diagnosis of these pathophysiological processes it is important to have radioligands in hand able to specifically bind on the 5-HT 1a receptor in order to allow brain imaging. due to the optimal radiation properties of 99mTc there is a considerable interest in the development of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for imaging serotonergic CNS receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Here we introduce two cyclopentadienyl technitium tricarbonyl conjugates of piperidine derivatives which show high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas rich in 5-HT 1a receptors

  4. Direct elution of sup(99m)Tc complexes from neutron irradiation produced 99Mo incorporated in a MoCl2-MoBr2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Genova, N.

    1987-01-01

    A novel type of sup(99m)Tc generator, enabling radiopharmaceutical preparation without reductant addition, was prepared and tested. Neutron activated product 99 Mo, in the form of dichloride cluster, was incorporated into inactive molybdenum dichloride-dibromide mixture (MCB) that was left to settle over an activated alumina layer. Direct elution with aqueous ligands such as salicylate or iminodiacetate derivatives in the pH range 6.5-7.5 yielded chemically stable sup(99m)Tc complexes accompanied by small amounts of secondary products (mostly sup(99m)TcO - 4 ). Pentavalent oxidation state in the salicylate complex and tervalent in the iminodiacetate (IDA) and in the N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate (HIDA) complexes were assigned to the element after comparison with reference complexes. The anion exchange version of reverse-phase HPLC was used to resolve the eluted product mixture. (author)

  5. [Shielding effect of clinical X-ray protector and lead glass against annihilation radiation and gamma rays of 99mTc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Koshida, Kichiro; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Takahashi, Masaaki; Kitabayashi, Keitarou; Matsubara, Kousuke; Noto, Kimiya; Kawabata, Chikako; Nakagawa, Hiroto

    2004-12-01

    Various pharmaceutical companies in Japan are making radioactive drugs available for positron emission tomography (PET) in hospitals without a cyclotron. With the distribution of these drugs to hospitals, medical check-ups and examinations using PET are expected to increase. However, the safety guidelines for radiation in the new deployment of PET have not been adequately improved. Therefore, we measured the shielding effect of a clinical X-ray protector and lead glass against annihilation radiation and gamma rays of (99m)Tc. We then calculated the shielding effect of a 0.25 mm lead protector, 1 mm lead, and lead glass using the EGS4 (Electron Gamma Shower Version 4) code. The shielding effects of 22-mm lead glass against annihilation radiation and gamma rays of (99m)Tc were approximately 31.5% and 93.3%, respectively. The clinical X-ray protector against annihilation radiation approximately doubled the skin-absorbed dose.

  6. Impact of Gate 99mTc DTPA GFR, Serum Creatinine and Urea in Diagnosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftari, Rame; Nura, Adem; Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Valon; Murseli, Arbenita; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was determination of validity of 99mTcDTPA estimation of GFR for early detection of chronic kidney failure Material and methods: There were 110 patients (54 males and 56 females) with kidney disease referred for evaluation of renal function at UCC of Kosovo. All patients were included in two groups. In the first group were included 30 patients confirmed with renal failure, whereas in the second group were included 80 patients with other renal disease. In study were included only patients with ready results of creatinine, urea and glucose in the blood serum. For estimation of GFR we have used the Gate GFR DTPA method. The statistical data processing was conducted using statistical methods such as arithmetic average, the student t-test, percentage or rate, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the test. Results: The average age of all patients was 36 years old. The average age of female was 37 whereas of male 35. Patients with renal failure was significantly older than patients with other renal disease (p<0.005). Renal failure was found in 30 patients (27.27%). The concentration of urea and creatinine in blood serum of patients with renal failure were significantly higher than in patients with other renal disease (P< 0.00001). GFR in patients with renal failure were significantly lower than in patients with other renal disease, 51.75 ml/min (p<0.00001). Sensitivity of uremia and creatininemia for detection of renal failure were 83.33%, whereas sensitivity of 99mTcDTPA GFR was 100%. Specificity of uraemia and creatininemia were 63% whereas specificity of 99mTcDTPA GFR was 47.5%. Diagnostic accuracy of blood urea and creatinine in detecting of renal failure were 69%, whereas diagnostic accuracy of 99mTcDTPA GFR was 61.8%. Conclusion: Gate 99mTc DTPA scintigraphy in collaboration with biochemical tests are very sensitive methods for early detection of patients with chronic renal failure. PMID:28883673

  7. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  8. Gamma-ray impurities of {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc determined by means of a HPGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Almeida, Jamille da Silveira; Moreira, Denise Simões; Semmler, Renato; Dias, Mauro da Silva, E-mail: koskinas@ipen.br, E-mail: jamillealmeida@gmail.com, E-mail: denise.moreira@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br, E-mail: msdias@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work aims to present the radioactive impurities gamma rays emitters detected in some radiopharmaceuticals widely applied to diagnosis and therapy purposes, supplied to nuclear medicine services in Brazil by the Radiopharmaceutical Center(CR) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN, in São Paulo. The analysis was undertaken by means of an HPGe gamma spectrometer. The radiopharmaceuticals analyzed were: {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  9. Evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-albumin dilution curve with simultaneous injection of sup(99m)Tc- and 131I-albumins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiko; Kato, Shotaro; Motomura, Masakazu; Kawakita, Seiichi

    1979-01-01

    A critical comparison of radiocardiograms with sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins was made to determine whether or not sup(99m)Te-albumin can be used as a tracer for measuring blood volume (BV) and cardiac output (CO). Simultaneous injection of both isotopes was given to twenty-two patients to obtain radiocardiograms for each by means of a single scintillation counter with two pulse height analyzers. Such method allows for the determination of the energy levels for both sup(99m)Tc and 131 I. The radiocardiographic pattern was somewhat different between sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-radiocardiograms: The ratio of left to right peak height was 16% on the average lower in the sup(99m)Tc-radiocardiogram than in the 131 I-one. The reason for the lower ratio is explained by greater absorption of sup(99m)Tc-radioactivity within the soft tissue interposing between the scintillation probe and heart. The values for sup(99m)Tc-derived blood volume were 7.4% on the average larger than those for 131 I-derived blood volume (p less than 0.01), although the correlation was excellent (r = 0.98 p less than 0.01). There was no systemic difference between cardiac output determined by sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins since the overestimation of blood volume can compensate for the underestimation of CO/BV by sup(99m)Tc-study. In view of its rapid extravasation, sup(99m)Tc-albumin is not so appropriate tracer for accurate measurements of BV and CO/BV, although it may be used for measurement of cardiac output. (author)

  10. Perfusion scintigraphy of the hand with sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres - an alternative to angiography in the diagnosis of peripheral perfusion disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnahl, H M; Hedde, J P [Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Strahleninstitut

    1979-12-01

    sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres were injected in the A. brachialis in addition to angiography of the hand in 15 patients. The hereby obtained results show good correlation between angiography and scintigraphy. The completely normal perfusion scintigram of the hand allows to dispense with angiography. The pathological scan, however, requires angiography. Perfusion scintigraphy of the hand seems to be most useful in the follow-up of therapeutic effects in perfusion disturbances.

  11. Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc diethyl-iminodiacetic acid and 131I rose bengal for hepatobiliary studies in liver-transplant patients: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C. III; Fritzberg, A.R.; Koep, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Previous animal studies indicate that technetium-99m N,α-(2,6-diethylacetanilide)-iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc diethyl-IDA) is superior to 131 I rose bengal ( 131 I RB) in most, but not all, physiologic parameters. Technetium-99m diethyl-IDA has a faster blood clearance, greater hepatic clearance, and a shorter hepatocyte transit time, but 131 I RB exhibits less renal clearance. We evaluated the relative merits of /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl-IDA and 131 I RB in paired studies in ten liver-transplant patients. Technetium-99m diethyl-IDA images were superior to 131 I RB images in demonstrating: (1) the liver parenchyma, (2) intrahepatic ducts, (3) small-bowel activity early after injection, and (4) in a smaller number of comparisons, colonic activity at 24 hr after injection. In addition, the percentage of dose excreted in the urine in 3 h for both radiopharmaceuticals was measured in 19 patients (total serum bilirubin range: 0.5 to 22.4 mg/dl). The percentage of dose of/sup 99m/Tc diethyl-IDA excreted in the urine averaged 7.5 in patients with normal total bilirubin levels and increased significantly with increasing total bilirubin levels. In the case of 131 I RB, normal patients averaged 4.9% of the injected dose in the urine and there was no increase with increasing total bilirubin levels. It is concluded that (1) /sup 99m/TC diethyl-IDA is superior to 131 I RB for imaging the hepatobiliary system, and (2) renal excretion of 131 I RB, unlike that of /sup 99m/Tc diethyl-IDA, is relatively unaffected by the total serum bilirubin level during the first 3 h after injection

  12. Clinical Comparison of 99mTc Exametazime and 123I Ioflupane SPECT in Patients with Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Newberg, Andrew B.; Serruya, Mijail; Gepty, Andrew; Intenzo, Charles; Lewis, Todd; Amen, Daniel; Russell, David S.; Wintering, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinical interpretations of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a cerebral blood flow and a dopamine transporter tracer in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal was to determine how these two different scan might be used and compared to each other in this patient population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-five patients with persistent symptoms after a mild TBI underwent SPECT with both (99m)Tc exametazime to m...

  13. Preparation and characterization of iron(III) {sup 99}Mo-molybdate(VI) gels for the assessment of {sup 99m}Tc elution performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mahmoud; Fasih, Tharwat W.; El-Absy, Mohamed A. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2018-04-01

    New iron(III) {sup 99}Mo-molybdate(VI) gels (Fe{sup 99}Mo) of high Mo content were prepared by the precipitation/filtration method. {sup 99}Mo-MoO{sub 3} dissolved in NaOH was added to aqueous solutions of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} at Mo/Fe mole fractions ∝2.21 and 1.99 with continuous stirring at ambient room temperature. Two different Fe{sup 99}Mo were precipitated from the mixed solutions adjusted at pH 2 and 4.7. The amount of water of hydration increased with the increasing the gel settling time and pH of the mixed solution. The matrices were characterized by radiometric, XRD, SEM, XRF, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA measurements. Small chromatographic columns of 2.0 g Fe{sup 99}Mo containing ≥800 mg Mo tagged with 740 MBq {sup 99}Mo were eluted with 5 mL saline solution. Highly reproducible {sup 99m}Tc elution indices suitable for preparation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators were achieved from generator supported with 0.5 g Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} filter. Elution performance of {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide was highly dependent on the gel structural properties.

  14. Confirmation of hydrazone formation in HYNIC-peptide conjugate preparation, and its hydrolysis during labeling with {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandomkar, M. [Radioisotope Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: msgandomkar@yahoo.com; Najafi, R. [Radioisotope Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafiei, M. [Radioisotope Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.E.S. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Because of its monodenticity, 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) is of interest as a bifunctional chelator for labeling peptide with {sup 99m}Tc. Here, we confirm the formation of hydrazone in HYNIC-conjugated peptide. The preparative HPLC was used to purify the HYNIC conjugated somatostatin-based peptide and the result showed two peaks, even after two consecutive purifications. Analysis of these peaks by mass spectrometry indicated the presence of hydrazone, produced during preparation conjugate. Further, we have shown that presence of hydrazone really does not matter because under {sup 99m}Tc-labeling conditions, hydrazone is hydrolyzed back to HYNIC that then chelates {sup 99m}Tc. A HYNIC-peptide conjugate freeze-dried kit was also prepared in a mildly acidic or neutral condition with a final pH of 6-7. The kit was then labeled by {sup 99m}Tc and incubated in 100 dec. C for 10 min, and a labeling yield of >95% was obtained.

  15. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denmeade, Kristie A [Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia); Constable, Chris [Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren M [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  16. An embedded system based computer controlled process automation for recovery and purification of 99mTc from (n,γ)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Anirban; Pal, S.S.; Bhaskar, P.; Kumari, S.; Khare, V.K.; Duttaroy, A.; Garai, M.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha; Kumar, U.; Das, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    99 Mo produced 99 mTc (t 1/2 = 6 hr, 140 KeV γ-ray) is the most useful radioisotope for nuclear diagnostics. High specific activity 99 Mo is supplied globally mainly by five old reactors whose routine or unscheduled maintenance shutdown causes supply irregularities that adversely affects patient management in nuclear medicine centres. 99m Tc may also be produced via 98 Mo(n,γ) in a natural MoO 3 target in reactor or by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo or 100 Mo(p,2n) 99 mTc reaction in cyclotron. To meet the crisis proposals are there to produce 99 Mo by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo or 99m Tc directly by 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc in a cyclotron. Of the several separation methods of 99 mTc from molybdenum, the most common are adsorption column chromatography, sublimation and liquid-liquid solvent extraction. The conventional methods besides being cumbersome are often hazardous, polluting, require skilled manpower and facilities like fume hood and so are not always practically feasible for hospitals. To address these, VECC and BRIT, Kolkata have collaborated to develop an embedded system based automated 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator from low specific activity 99 Mo using solvent extraction technique, supervised by a PC based GUI. (author)

  17. An experimental study on recovery of renal function using {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigram after percutaneous nephrostomy in unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Nam, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Obstruction on the urinary tract eventually results in damage to the kidneys and lose of function. The questions that concern the clinician are the degree of nephron loss in that kidney and potential for recovery following the relief of obstruction. {sup 99m}Tc DMSA accumulates in tubule cells and has been proposed as a marker of the tubular mass. The authors estimated the renal uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc DMSA for the degree of nephron loss corresponding to duration of hydronephrosis following left ureteral ligation in 5 New Zealand white rabbits and the potential for recovery following percutaneous nephrostomy of hydronephrosis in 24 rabbits. While the renal uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc DMSA of the kidney with unilateral hydronephrosis following ureteral ligation reduced dramatically within 24 hour, that of the opposite healthy kidney increased, and the total renal uptake ratio was same as normal functioning kidneys before ureteral ligation. Upon ureteral release, there was no evidence of definite recovery or impairment in the experimental kidneys for 5 days. The authors conclude that a combination of ureteral release and administration of some drugs such as renal vasodilator or diuretics is an appropriate treatment for the recovery of function in unilateral hydronephrosis.

  18. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, 123I or 131I: 150 case-reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.; Guillet, G.

    1981-01-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of 131 I, 123 I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with 131 I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. 123 I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m 2 ). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. 123 I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate [fr

  19. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, /sup 123/I or /sup 131/I: 150 case-reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, G. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1981-11-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of /sup 131/I, /sup 123/I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with /sup 131/I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. /sup 123/I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m/sup 2/). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. /sup 123/I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of (99m)Tc labeled chondroitin sulfate for monitoring of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Grazyna; Velusamy, Kavitha; Kosik, Siegfried; Menzel, Johannes; Hacker, Marcus; Pagitz, Maximilian

    2016-06-01

    In previous in-vitro and ex-vivo studies we proved the specific uptake of (99m)Tc radiolabeled chondroitin sulfate (CS) in human articular cartilage. As a logical next step for the clinical use for imaging osteoarthritis we investigated in-vivo uptake of (99m)TcCS in dogs. The radiolabeling of CS Condrosulf (IBSA, Lugano, Switzerland) was performed using 25mg of CS and 20-40MBq/kg body weight of (99m)Tc by means of the tin method. In-vivo uptake of (99m)TcCS was evaluated in dogs (n=12, castrated males, 4-9years, with 15-51kg body weight). 6 healthy dogs served as controls and 6 with clinical and radiological signs of osteoarthritis in the carpal, elbow, and tarsal joint were examined. The tracer was i.v. injected into the external cephalic vein. The uptake was monitored after 2, 4, 6 and 24h in healthy and osteoarthritic dogs using a planar gamma camera by regional planar or whole body ventral and dorsal acquisition. For whole body scintigraphy animals were under general anesthesia, for planar under sedation only. In healthy control dogs we did not detect any specific uptake of (99m)TcCS in the cartilage. In contrast, in the diseased dogs suffering from osteoarthritis a significant, specific, persistent uptake between 4 and 6h in tarsal, carpal and cubital joints was documented. Median target (joint) to background (mid antebrachium) ratio (T/B) in the OA joints after 4, 6, and 24h was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Target to background ratio using soft tissue as a background (T/S) a similar significantly higher than in healthy controls. In all osteoarthritic joints we found a significant positive correlation (r=0.8, n=20) between grade of disease (I-III) and T/B. When matching radiographic (X ray) changes in osteoarthritic joints (grade II and III) we found also a maximal uptake of (99m)TcCS at the specific anatomical site of highest cartilage degeneration. None of the dogs experienced any side effects. These results suggest that (99m)TcCS might

  1. Adsorption kinetics of {sup 201}Tl and migration of {sup 99m}Tc in natural soils; Cinetica de adsorcion de {sup 201}Tl y migracion de {sup 99m}Tc en suelos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez N, C. E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Fraccionamiento La Virgen, 52149 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Fernandez R, E.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: estefany_rodriguezn@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The safety is very important in facilities where radioactive wastes are stored. One of the necessary characteristics of the site where these wastes will be disposed is the soil permeability, since a waterproof terrain avoids the diffusion and radionuclide transport in the leakages case. The objective of this work is to study the adsorption kinetics of {sup 201}Tl and the migration of {sup 99m}Tc in natural soil samples. The adsorption kinetics was determined starting from the obtaining of the retention coefficient of the thallium (static method) at different contact times. The technetium diffusion was studied by means of the dynamic method with different soil particles sizes. The results showed that the thallium is totally adsorbed starting from 20 h of contact among this and the mean. On the other hand, the technetium is very mobile in the soil, since it was possible to extract the majority of the tracer with little solvent. Also, it was found that for each soil gram the double water will be needed to leach the technetium almost in its entirety. Moreover, influence exists of the particle size in the migration velocity from the radiotracer to the most mobile being in major sizes than 2 mm that in minor size. (Author)

  2. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo - {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.b, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ({sup 188}W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 188}W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with {sup 188}W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of {sup 188}Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} at pH 7. (author)

  3. Production optimization of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium molybate gel generators at semi-automatic device: DISIGEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Guzman, F., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rivero Gutierrez, T., E-mail: tonatiuh.rivero@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez Malpica, I.Z.; Hernandez Cortes, S.; Rojas Nava, P.; Vazquez Maldonado, J.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Norte Lazaro Cardenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    DISIGEG is a synthesis installation of zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gels for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator production, which has been designed, built and installed at the ININ. The device consists of a synthesis reactor and five systems controlled via keyboard: (1) raw material access, (2) chemical air stirring, (3) gel dried by air and infrared heating, (4) moisture removal and (5) gel extraction. DISIGEG operation is described and dried condition effects of zirconium {sup 99}Mo- molybdate gels on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator performance were evaluated as well as some physical-chemical properties of these gels. The results reveal that temperature, time and air flow applied during the drying process directly affects zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel generator performance. All gels prepared have a similar chemical structure probably constituted by three-dimensional network, based on zirconium pentagonal bipyramids and molybdenum octahedral. Basic structural variations cause a change in gel porosity and permeability, favouring or inhibiting {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} diffusion into the matrix. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} eluates produced by {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel generators prepared in DISIGEG, air dried at 80 Degree-Sign C for 5 h and using an air flow of 90 mm, satisfied all the Pharmacopoeias regulations: {sup 99m}Tc yield between 70-75%, {sup 99}Mo breakthrough less than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}%, radiochemical purities about 97% sterile and pyrogen-free eluates with a pH of 6. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators based on {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gels were synthesized at a semi-automatic device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generator performances depend on synthesis conditions of the zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} diffusion and yield into generator depends on gel porosity and permeability. Black

  4. Functional studies of the oesophagus with sulfur-colloid of sup(99m)Tc and gamma-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Fernandes, F.; Costa, P.M.; Pinheiro, M.F.; Guerreiro, D.

    1982-01-01

    A scintiscanning technique which allows sequential detection and quantification of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER), and study of the oesophageal emptying of a liquid and semi-solid food is presented. At first patients swallowed 5 ml of water containing 1 mCi sup(99m)Tc sulfur-colloid and oesophageal activity is recorded from an anterior view by a gamma-camera. Then, patients ingest 300 ml of water that clear the oesophagus and fill up the stomach. GER index is calculated according to the formula GER = (Ae - Ab)/Ag) x 100, where Ae is the activity in the oesophagus; Ab, is the background activity; and Ag is the gastric activity. GER index presented corresponds to a median of three determinations in upright, supine and supine position with abdominal pressure of 4 kilos. The oesophageal transit time of a semi-solid food in upright and supine position is registered 5 minutes after GER studies through two areas of interest which are positioned: one in the superior third and the other in the inferior third of the oesophagus. Normal GER reflux index was, 0.84 +- 0.37 in the upright position; 0.87 +- 0.43 in the supine position; and 0.90 +- 0.56 in the supine position plus abdominal pressure

  5. Model-based crosstalk compensation for simultaneous 99mTc/123I dual-isotope brain SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Frey, Eric C

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed a model-based method to estimate and compensate for the crosstalk contamination in simultaneous 123I and 99mTc dual isotope brain single photo emission computed tomography imaging. The model-based crosstalk compensation (MBCC) includes detailed modeling of photon interactions inside both the object and the detector system. In the method, scatter in the object is modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique, including contributions from all the photon emissions. The effects of the collimator-detector response, including the penetration and scatter components due to high-energy 123I photons, are modeled using precalculated tables of Monte Carlo simulated point-source response functions obtained from sources in air at various distances from the face of the collimator. The model-based crosstalk estimation method was combined with iterative reconstruction based compensation to reduce contamination due to crosstalk. The MBCC method was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulated and physical phantom experimentally acquired simultaneous dual-isotope data. Results showed that, for both experimental and simulation studies, the model-based method provided crosstalk estimates that were in good agreement with the true crosstalk. Compensation using MBCC improved image contrast and removed the artifacts for both Monte Carlo simulated and experimentally acquired data. The results were in good agreement with images acquired without any crosstalk contamination.

  6. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  7. Advantages and limits of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate scintigraphy in the study of joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillard, J.-F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy are studied for a wide range of joint diseases. 215 scintigraphs are analysed, the results compared with those of authors who have used not only Tc phosphates but also other isotopes after comparison of their advantages and disadvantages, and possible applications suggested for each type of lesion. - The 99m Tc pyrophosphate scintigraphic examination is simple, harmless (a whole-skeleton examination delivers only 80 millirads to the narrow whereas a set of spine and pelvis X-rays delivers 325), reliable and highly sensitive, often anticipating data from radiographic examinations. - In the majority of developing joint diseases of whatever kind, apart from arthroses and certain osteolytic lesions unaccompanied by any healing reaction, a hyperfixation is observed. Generally speaking a scintigraph may be requested whenerver an evolutive bone lesion is suspected in the absence of clinical, radiological and biological evidence. The major disadvantage of the method is that, being highly sensitive, it lacks specificity and is hence unable alone to provide an etiological diagnosis [fr

  8. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Aline.

    1976-01-01

    The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 μC/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations [fr

  9. Development of 99mTc extraction techniques from 99Mo by (n,γ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Hori, Naohiko; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Sato, Yuichi

    2010-11-01

    Investigation of production method of 99 Mo by (n, γ) reaction, where the processing is relatively simple and generating less amount of radioactive waste, is conducted in the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center. The 99 Mo is adsorbed to highly efficient adsorbent PZC after neutron irradiation and 99m Tc is eluted. However, radioactivity concentration of the 99m Tc solution obtained from PZC column loaded with 99 Mo derived by (n, γ) method is lower than that obtained from alumina column with 99 Mo by (n, f) method due to extremely low specific activity of (n, f) 99 Mo. Therefore, it is necessary to develop technique for increasing the amount of 99 Mo and the 99m Tc solution of high radioactivity concentration (minimum: 1Ci/ cm 3 ). In this study, the preliminary fabrication tests using high density MoO 3 pellets were carried out to increase the production of 99 Mo. The method of concentrating 99m Tc solution through solvent extraction with MEK was investigated and a device for this concentration process was also developed. In the preliminary tests of the MoO 3 pellets, the pellets having high density were successfully fabricated by the SPS method. Additionally, it was ascertained that the pellets can be dissolved with 6M-NaOH solution completely. The test for 99 Mo adsorption followed by 99m Tc elution using PZC was carried out. As the result, amount of Mo adsorbed to 1g-PZC was about 250mg, and 99m Tc yield was about 80%. In the concentration test using Re solution instead of 99m Tc solution, it was ascertained that the concentration efficiency is higher than 80% of the theoretical value. A concentration device for 99m Tc solution could be realized based on the method employed in the present experiments. The outcomes of development of 99m Tc extraction techniques from 99 Mo by (n,γ) reaction was reviewed in this paper, and the contents were presented in the 3rd International Symposium on Material Test Reactors. (author)

  10. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Simultaneous 99mTc and 123I dual-isotope brain striatal phantom single photon emission computed tomography: validation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM simultaneous dopamine system brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pan-Fu; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yang, An-Shoei

    2009-11-01

    [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)-amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2',S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo)])-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1) and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) are radiotracers for brain dopamine pre- and postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 99mTc and 123I data acquisition. A five-compartment brain striatal phantom was filled with 99mTc and/or 123I radioactive solutions with different striatal-to-background ratios, ranging from 3:1 to 9:1. SPECT data were acquired with energy window settings of 15% for the centered window at 140 keV for 99mTc and a 10% asymmetric window at 159 keV for 123I. The experiments were carried out using either individual (99mTc or 123I only) or both radionuclides. The striatal-to-background ratios and energy crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I were calculated. The phantom SPECT images demonstrated that the energy crossed interferences from 123I to 99mTc, and vice versa, were 22 +/- 12.4% and 0.4 +/- 1.0%, respectively. A net interference of 7.1 +/- 4.0% for the counts in the 15% centered 99mTc window can be expected from 123I and a net interference of 1.6 +/- 3.3% for the counts in the 10% asymmetric 123I window was derived from 99mTc. The correlation of striatal-to-background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous dual-isotope was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The imaging parameters used in this simultaneous dualisotope SPECT imaging could be used in future clinical practice for imaging patients with movement disorders by using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM. The striatal-to-background ratios were not affected by the crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I.

  13. Simultaneous 99mTC and 123I Dual-Isotope Brain Striatal Phantom Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: Validation of 99mTC-Trodat-1 and 123I-IBZM Simultaneous Dopamine System Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Fu Kao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethylamino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3--N2,N2′,S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo]-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM are radiotracers for brain dopamine preand postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT 99mTc and 123I data acquisition. A five-compartment brain striatal phantom was filled with 99mTc and/or 123I radioactive solutions with different striatal-to-background ratios, ranging from 3:1 to 9:1. SPECT data were acquired with energy window settings of 15% for the centered window at 140 keV for 99mTc and a 10% asymmetric window at 159 keV for 123I. The experiments were carried out using either individual (99mTc or 123I only or both radionuclides. The striatal-to-background ratios and energy crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I were calculated. The phantom SPECT images demonstrated that the energy crossed interferences from 123I to 99mTc, and vice versa, were 22 ± 12.4% and 0.4 ± 1.0%, respectively. A net interference of 7.1 ± 4.0% for the counts in the 15% centered 99mTc window can be expected from 123I and a net interference of 1.6 ± 3.3% for the counts in the 10% asymmetric 123I window was derived from 99mTc. The correlation of striatal-to-background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous dual-isotope was excellent (R2 = 0.99. The imaging parameters used in this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging could be used in future clinical practice for imaging patients with movement disorders by using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM. The striatal-to-background ratios were not affected by the crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I.

  14. The accumulation and retention of 95mTc by the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study bioaccumulation and determine a concentration factor (CF) for technetium ( 95m Tc) in the homarid crustacean Nephrops norvegicus L. The steady state CF for accumulation from seawater was estimated to be about 2000 and the biological half-time was about 50 days. The highest tissue Tc concentrations were found in the green gland and the digestive gland. Depuration following accumulation from water was slow with a half-time of about 165 days. Tc accumulation from labelled food followed a biphasic model with one compartment containing about 94 percent of the ingested activity and with a half-time of about 1 day and the second compartment containing about 6 percent of the ingested activity with a half-time of about 56 days. Most retained activity was found in the digestive gland

  15. On the concept of resting potential--pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells, the resting potential is established by the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions and the different permeabilities of the cell membrane to them. The large concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions are maintained by the Na⁺/K⁺ pump. Under physiological conditions, the pump transports three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell per ATP hydrolyzed. However, unlike other primary or secondary active transporters, the Na⁺/K⁺ pump does not work at the equilibrium state, so the pumping ratio is not a thermodynamic property of the pump. In this article, I propose a dipole-charging model of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump to prove that the three Na⁺ to two K⁺ pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump is determined by the ratio of the ionic mobilities of potassium to sodium ions, which is to ensure the time constant τ and the τ-dependent processes, such as the normal working state of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the propagation of an action potential. Further, the concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell are 0.3027 and 0.9788, respectively, and the sum of the potassium and sodium equilibrium potentials is -30.3 mV. A comparative study on these constants is made for some marine, freshwater and terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that the pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the ion concentration ratios play a role in the evolution of animal cells.

  16. Utility of the tetrophosmine-{sup 99m}Tc in the determination of malignant tumours located in the muscle-skeletal system, preliminary report; Utilidad de la tetrofosmina-{sup 99m}Tc en la determinacion de malignidad de tumores localizados en el sistema musculoesqueletico, reporte preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia R, J C; Gonzalez, I F; Rico, G; Linares, L M; Delgado C, E; Baena, L [Centro Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Adame, G; Gonzalez R, D [MIYMSA, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, J P; Valencia, S [Hospital medica Sur, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    From its authorization by the FDA, as radiopharmaceutical to be used in studies of myocardial perfusion, multiple articles have appeared in the literature it prescribes that its validate the use of the tetrophosmine-{sup 99m}Tc in the valuation of different tumors, so much in the determination of malignancy, like in the evolution and in the response to the treatment. For that reason the objective of this protocol is to evaluate the utility of the tetrophosmine- {sup 99m}Tc in the determination of malignancy in non treated tumors located in the skeletal muscle system, in a population of 40 patients coming from the service of bony tumors of the National Center of Rehabilitation. For the time being its report the discoveries in 27 studies. (Author)

  17. {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi cardiac tomography and dobutamine echocardiography in the identification of reversible left ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction; Tomografia cardiaca con {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi ed ecocardiografia con dobutamina nell'identificazione della disfunzione ventricolare sinistra reversibile nei pazienti con infarto acuto del miocardio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisonni, P.; Cuocolo, A.; Spinelli, L.; Acampa, W.; Florimonte, L.; Nicolai, E.; Petretta, M.; Sodano, A. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Centro per la Medicina Nucleare del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali

    1999-04-01

    The authors investigated the role of technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) sestamibi cardiac imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in detecting myocardial viability early after acute myocardial infarction. [Italian] La presenza di tessuto miocardico ibernato o stordito contribuisce alla genesi della disfunzione ventricolare sinistra nei pazienti con infarto del miocardio. L'identificazione del miocardio malfunzionante ma ancora vitale ha particolare rilevanza nel predire il recupero della funzione ventricolare in seguito a interventi di rivascolarizzazione coronarica. In questo studio e' stato valutato il ruolo della scintigrafia con tecnezio-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) sestamibi e dell'ecocardiografia con dobutamina nell'identificazione del miocardio vitale dopo infarto acuto del miocardio.

  18. DMSA 99mTc an old molecule for a new future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture is concerned with the use of DMSA 99m Tc in nephrology. It described human pharmaceutic and clinical applications of this radiopharmaceutical. As DMSA 99m Tc concentrates actively in the proximal convoluted tubule, it gives an image of functional renal mass. Its integrity is dependent upon several factors, predominantly intrarenal blood flow and intact enzyme function. Its role in pathology is clear in pyelonephritis, hydronephrotic kidney and pediatric diseases. The irradiation dosimetry of DMSA 99m Tc is well established, the critical organ is the renal cortex which receives between 15 and 250 mGy per MBq. Dosimetry remains favourable for the patients if compared with intravenous urography

  19. Ideal flux field dielectric concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Botella, Angel

    2011-10-01

    The concept of the vector flux field was first introduced as a photometrical theory and later developed in the field of nonimaging optics; it has provided new perspectives in the design of concentrators, overcoming standard ray tracing techniques. The flux field method has shown that reflective concentrators with the geometry of the field lines achieve the theoretical limit of concentration. In this paper we study the role of surfaces orthogonal to the field vector J. For rotationally symmetric systems J is orthogonal to its curl, and then a family of surfaces orthogonal to the lines of J exists, which can be called the family of surfaces of constant pseudopotential. Using the concept of the flux tube, it is possible to demonstrate that refractive concentrators with the shape of these pseudopotential surfaces achieve the theoretical limit of concentration.

  20. Occupational exposure to 99mTc and 131I in a radiopharmacy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Bruna P.; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Souza, Wanderson; Santos, Maristela; Medeiras, Geiza; Conceicao, Cirilo S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also 131 I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing 99m Tc and 131 I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the 99m Tc and 131 I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 ± 14,34 mBq/m 3 and 0.72 ± 0.36 mBq/m 3 , respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing 99m Tc and 131 I. (author)

  1. Radiation dose to humans from /sup 99m/Tc labeled dihydrothioctic acid (DHTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Dihydrothioctic acid (DHTA) is a new /sup 99m/Tc-labeled hepatobiliary imaging agent for liver/gall bladder visualization and for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. Nineteen patients with normal liver function were denied oral intake of food or drink after midnight and injected intravenously the following morning with 4mCi /sup 99m/Tc-DHTA, prepared from a commercial kit. Each patient was scanned in a supine position from the mid-thoracic to mid-thigh regions. Scans were performed at various times from 0.25 to 12 hours after DHTA administration; 3 to 10 scans being recorded for each patient. The patients were allowed to eat fatty meals at the normal noon and evening meal times thereby inducing the gall bladder to empty. A dual five-inch rectilinear scanner interfaced to a PDP-8/I computer with 16K of core memory was used for data collection. Data were recorded as the number of counts detected by each probe over a 6.35mm segment. Scanner speed was set so the area of interest could be scanned within 15 minutes. New concepts and methods for organ boundary definitions and compensation for overlapping organs were developd and utilized to obtain the counts within each source organ for each detector. A geometric means of the counts from the two detectors was then calculated for use in cumulated activity determinations

  2. Evaluation of Some Dose Calibration for Measuring of 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Erni-Juita; Hermawan-Candra

    2001-01-01

    99m Tc is a prime radionuclide in nuclear medicine because of worthwhile in many diagnoses. According to ALARA concept, the lowest risk should be considered in the use of radioactive materials especially for health. Center for development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmacy-BATAN, Serpong, serves several nuclear medicine departments supplying all their 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals on a daily basis. It was observed that there was very poor consistency between the assays as determined by P3KRBin and those determined in the various nuclear medicine, using Dose-Calibrator. Investigation has been done to correct measurements result of 99m Tc using several Dose-Calibrators in some hospitals in Java island and the correction factors were vary from 0.91 to 1.16. The same survey done by researcher in Canada using a mock 99m Tc ( 57 Co) and 99m Tc and the correction factors were between 0.74 and 1. Investigation of influences of various environmental conditions on the Calibrator function was also carried out. Influences factors obtained from the survey were vary from 1 to 1.19. (author)

  3. Radiolabeling of rituximab with {sup 188}Re and {sup 99m}Tc using the tricarbonyl technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jeger, Simone [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Osso, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mueller, Cristina; De Pasquale, Christine; Hohn, Alexander; Waibel, Robert [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger, E-mail: roger.schibli@psi.c [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences of the ETH, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: The most successful clinical studies of immunotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) use the antibody rituximab (RTX) targeting CD20{sup +} B-cell tumors. Rituximab radiolabeled with {beta}{sup -} emitters could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody by virtue of the particle radiation. Here, we report on a direct radiolabeling approach of rituximab with the {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 188}Re-tricarbonyl core (IsoLink technology). Methods: The native format of the antibody (RTX{sub wt}) as well as a reduced form (RTX{sub red}) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}. The partial reduction of the disulfide bonds to produce free sulfhydryl groups (-SH) was achieved with 2-mercaptoethanol. Radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro human plasma stability as well as transchelation toward cysteine and histidine was investigated. The immunoreactivity and binding affinity were determined on Ramos and/or Raji cells expressing CD20. Biodistribution was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous Ramos lymphoma xenografts. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency and kinetics of RTX{sub red} were superior to that of RTX{sub wt} ({sup 99m}Tc: 98% after 3 h for RTX{sub red} vs. 70% after 24 h for RTX{sub wt}). {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} was used without purification for in vitro and in vivo studies whereas {sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} was purified to eliminate free {sup 188}Re-precursor. Both radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human plasma for 24 h at 37{sup o}C. In contrast, displacement experiments with excess cysteine/histidine showed significant transchelation in the case of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} but not with pre-purified {sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red}. Both conjugates revealed high binding affinity to the CD20 antigen (K{sub d}=5-6 nM). Tumor uptake of {sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} was 2.5 %ID/g and 0.8 %ID/g for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} 48 h after injection. The values for other

  4. Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmal, S.; Sundaram, P.S.; Kumar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but

  5. Studies of labelling conditions for gentamicin with sup(99m)Tc. Complexation with ruthexium. Establishment of pharmacokinetics parameters through compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, O.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    Gentamicin sulphate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic type specifically used for treatment of infections produced by Gram-negative bacterias but at the other hand it presents ototoxic reactions as a serious side effect. The main purpose of labelling gentamicin with sup(99m)Tc was to obtain a radioactive tracer to carry out biological studies and compartmental analysis of this antibiotic. The optimal labelling conditions of gentamicin sulphate with sup(99m)Tc, using sodium pertechnetate solution eluted from a sup(99)Mo- sup(99m)Tc generator, were stablished by testing different masses of antibiotic, and reduction agent (SnCl sub(2).2H sub(2)O), and also different reaction time and final labelling PH. The same labelling procedure was used with Re (amonium perrenate) in order to obtain some semi-quantitative approximations of the chemical structure of the complex formed, since Re and Tc present similar chemical characteristics. In this way it is possible to suggest the role that the groups NH2 and C-O bonding of the gentamicin play in the complexation process. From the studies of the biological uptake of sup(99m)Tc-gentamicin sulphate in rats, the kidneys showed the highest affinity for the antibiotic. The maximum uptake was observed in 180 to 240 minutes followed by a decrease of it afterwards. For the dose and time used, no significative uptake by the auricular region was detected. Curve of plasma decay of sup(99m)Tc-gentamicin was obtained, and from the exponentials of each beanch of this curve respective half-lives were calculated. Furthermore the apparent volume of distribution was determined, and with the residual radioactivity in the body, the biological half-life and total clearance were obtained. The distribution of sup(99m)Tc-gentamicin in rats was set in a bi-compartments in addition to a retention one for the 24 hours time interval studied. (author)

  6. Radiolabeling of Ceftriaxone with 99mTc as a Targeting Radiopharmaceutical for Staphylococcus Aureus Detection in Mouse Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazli, A.; Saluti, M.; Ahmadi, Gh.; Mirshojaei, F.; Mazidi, M.; Heydari, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Nuclear medicine has an important role in helping the diagnosis of deep-seated infections by developing more specific radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to evaluate 99mTc-labeling ceftriaxone as a new radiopharmaceutical for Staphylococcus aureus infection imaging in nuclear medicine. Radiolabeling of ceftriaxone was carried out by adding 370 MBq of 99mTc to 10 mg of ceftriaxone in the presence of 50 μg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O at pH=5. The radiochemical purity and stability tests at room temperature and human blood serum were evaluated with ITLC. Intramuscular infection was induced by injection of Staphylococcus aureus into the left thigh muscle of the mice. The biodistribution of 99mTc-ceftriaxone was studied in normal and infected mice at various times post-injection. Radiochemical purity of the product was 94.5±5.4% with a good stability at room temperature and human serum, 80.6% and 71.2% after 24 h, respectively. The biodistribution studies showed the localization of 99mTc-ceftriaxone at the site of infection with high sensitivity without any significant accumulation in vital organs. Due to the ease of 99mTc-ceftriaxone conjugation method, high labeling efficiency, and high uptake in the infected muscle, it may provide a promising candidate as a targeting radiopharmaceutical for imaging infectious foci due to Staphylococcus aureus in nuclear medicine.

  7. Diuretic 99mTc DTPA renography in assessment of renal function and drainage in infants with antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Marija; Pucar, Dragan; Jauković, Ljiljana; Sisić, Marija; Krstić, Zoran; Ajdinović, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The controversy over the postnatal management of infants with antenataly detected hydronephrosis (ANH) still exists. We presented the results of diuretic 99mTc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography in 30 infants with the antenatal diagnosis of unilateral renal pelvic dilatation. The aim of this study was to assess the renal function determined by the pattern of drainage and split renal function (SRF) on diuretic renography and to correlate these findings with anteroposterior pelvic diameter (APD) estimated by ultrasonography. A total of 30 infants with 60 renal units (RU) (25 boys and 5 girls, median age 6.0 months, range 2-24) presented with unilateral hydronephrosis on ultrasound in the newborn period, underwent DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy (F+15 protocol). The median APD evaluated on perinatal ultrasound was 15 mm (range 5-30). The postnatal associated clinical diagnosis were pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJ), simple hydronephrosis, megaureter, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and posterior urethral valves in 11, 10, 6, 2 and 1 infant, respectively. Images and Tmax/2 after diuretic stimulation on the background subtracted renographic curves were used as the criteria for classifying the drainage as good, partial, and poor or no drainage. The SRF was calculated with the integral method. Good drainage was shown in 36/60, partial drainage in 13/60 and poor or no drainage in 11/60 RU. The SRF > 40% was observed in 55/60 RU, with no RU showing SRF lower than 23.5%. In infants with severe ANH the obstruction was not excluded in 94.1%. Diuretic renography in antenatally detected hydronephrosis should be a useful tool in postnatal follow up, especially in differentiating nonobstructive hydronephrosis from obstructive. It is also importanat to assess and monitor the SRF. Our results suggest that even in the presence of partial or no drainage, SRF may not be significantly impaired.

  8. 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy to stage liver fibrosis and evaluate reversal after fibrotic stimulus withdrawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin; Guo, Qiyong; Shi, Yu; Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Yang, Zhiguang; Cao, Li; Liu, Changping; Zhao, Zhoushe; Xin, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scintigraphy using 99mTc-3PRGD2 targeting integrin αvβ3 could assess activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Liver fibrogenesis is intimately associated with activation of HSCs, and the fibrolytic process is accompanied by the reduction of the activated HSCs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of this method to assess the severity of liver fibrosis and the reversal after the fibrotic stimulus withdrawal. Methods: Liver fibrosis of different stages was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) injection for 2, 4 and 6 weeks (n = 6 for each time point). Another 6 rats with 8-week TAA administration (the 8-week group) and 6 rats which were injected with TAA for 6 weeks, and then withdrawn of TAA for 2 weeks (spontaneous recovery rats, SRR) were designed. The ratios of radioactivity detected in the liver vs. the heart at 30 min post-injection of 99m Tc-3PRGD2 (L/H30 min ), the collagen proportionate area (CPA), the protein and mRNA levels of integrin α v , integrin β 3 were analyzed and compared among groups. Results: The Ishak stage scores of the livers in the control and 2, 4, 6-week groups increased when the TAA administration period was extended. L/H30 min increased with the upgrading of liver fibrosis and the differences between each pair of groups were statistically significant (p 30 min in the 8-week group was similar to that in the 6-week group (p > 0.05), but was significantly higher than that in the SRR group (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Scintigraphy using 99m Tc-3PRGD2 may provide a non-invasive method for grading liver fibrosis and assessing liver fibrosis reversal.

  9. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978. [/sup 99m/Tc, positron-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation.

  10. Analysis of the variation of the activity of a "9"9"mTc sample after dilution with saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The activity meter is essential equipment in nuclear medicine services.To ensure its good operation and know the factors which may influence its readings is vital for the activity administered to the patient be correct. Many factors may influence the activity meter accuracy, such as the type of container, geometry, and radioactive material volume. The aim of this study was to analyze the measurements variations in 0.5 ml and 1.0 ml of "9"9"mTc pure and diluted in 2.5 ml of saline solution, in containers used in nuclear medicine. Variations of up to 4 % in measured values were found. (author)

  11. /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid measured with a scintillation camera: a parameter of thyroid function. [/sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokole, E.B.; van der Schoot, J.B.; Alberts, C.

    1975-01-01

    A /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate thyroid uptake procedure, using a scintillation camera and a data storage system, is described. After comparison of extrathyroidal activity in several regions below the thyroid, activity in the clavicular regions was preferred for correction of the thyroid uptake measurement. No pertechnetate uptake curve obtained over the initial 15 min after injection was found to be representative of a specific thyroid function, and regional thyroid uptake curves gave only quantitative differences. The 15-min pertechnetate thyroid uptake measurement, with correction for clavicular extrathyroidal activity, correlates well with /sup 131/I uptake and is a good parameter of thyroid function, especially in the distinction of euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

  12. Changes in thyroidal 99mTc uptake and in serum concentration of T3 and TSH after completing alimentary iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, F.; Burandt, S.; Friedrich, K.

    1988-01-01

    Patients before and after prophylaxis of goiter by iodide within a defined period were examined for thyroidal 99m Tc uptake and T 3 as well as TSH values of the serum. The results revealed after iodide prophylaxis better diagnostic evaluability of 99m Tc uptake and a decrease of the mean TSH value in euthyroid patients

  13. Phosphine reduced IgG. A new method for 99mTc labeling immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga de Murphy, C.; Melendez-Alafort, L.; Martinez-Rivero, O.; Gomez, E.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    1997-01-01

    A new technetium labeling method for immunoglobulins reduced with tris(2-carboxy-ethyl)phosphine hydrochloride is presented. The Sandoglobulina IgG source was assayed for purity and optimum reagent's concentration and incubation times were determined. It was purified by column chromatography and labelled with Sn 2+ reduced technetium in the presence of MDP. The kit is easy to prepare, labeling efficiency is >(97±1.9)% and stable for 6 hours.The immunoreactivity of the 99 Tc-IgG was verified by electrophoresis and Western blot tests. The IgG retained its structure after both the reducing and labeling processes and it was the only labeled species. (author)

  14. Study of irradiated bone: Part III. /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate autoradiographic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Corriveau, O.; Casarett, G.W.; Weber, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The macroautoradiographic and microautoradiographic localization of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/TcPPi) was studied in x-irradiated bone of rabbits up to one year post-irradiation. In cortical bone, /sup 99m/TcPPi was concentrated on bone surfaces near vasculature. Both forming and resorbing bone surfaces were comparably labeled at 2 hrs post-injection. Uptake on the surface of sites of haversian bone remodeling was observed to be at least part of the increased /sup 99m/TcPPi observed in irradiated bone in camera images. In irradiated trabecular bone 12 months following irradiation, a patchy decrease in /sup 99m/TcPPi uptake was correlated with localized decreases in vasculature

  15. Phosphine reduced IgG. A new method for {sup 99m}Tc labeling immunoglobulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga de Murphy, C; Melendez-Alafort, L [Radiofarmacia Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Rivero, O [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Habana, Habana (Cuba); Gomez, E [Departamento de Fisiologia de la Nutricion, Instituto Nacional de Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, G [Depeartamento del Reactor y Materiales Radioactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-09-01

    A new technetium labeling method for immunoglobulins reduced with tris(2-carboxy-ethyl)phosphine hydrochloride is presented. The Sandoglobulina IgG source was assayed for purity and optimum reagent`s concentration and incubation times were determined. It was purified by column chromatography and labelled with Sn{sup 2+} reduced technetium in the presence of MDP. The kit is easy to prepare, labeling efficiency is >(97{+-}1.9)% and stable for 6 hours.The immunoreactivity of the {sup 99}Tc-IgG was verified by electrophoresis and Western blot tests. The IgG retained its structure after both the reducing and labeling processes and it was the only labeled species. (author). 11 refs.

  16. Experience in infection images with new radio antibiotic the {sup 99m}Tc-ceftizoxime (TCF); Experiencia en imagenes de infecciones con un nuevo radio-antibiotico la ceftizoxima-{sup 99m}Tc (CFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroa, Victoria E; Rabiller, Graciela; Velasquez Espeche, Maria del H. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Medicina Nuclear; Fioriolli, Marcelo H; Rodriguez, Hernan [Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roca, Manuel; Martin-Comin, Joseph [Hospital Universitario Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear

    2004-07-01

    Previous results obtained in the detection of infections with {sup 99m}Tc-ceftizoxime encourage to the group of work to investigate the behavior of an antibiotic of third generation: the ceftizoxime radiolabelled with {sup 99m}Tc and to compare it with other radio-labels in different infectious / inflammatory pathologies. [Spanish] Anteriores resultados obtenidos en la deteccion de infecciones con el {sup 99m}TC-ceftizoxima incentivo al grupo de trabajo a investigar el comportamiento de un antibiotico de tercera generacion: la ceftizoxima radiomarcada con {sup 99m}Tc y compararlo con otros radiomarcadores en diferentes patologias infecciosas/inflamatorias.

  17. Fast, on the spot preparation of pure [99mTc] TRODAT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Koernyei, J.; Pavics, L.; Csiszar, M.; Szakonyi, Z.; Fueloep, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Based on our experience a reliable preparation of the known dopamine transporter imaging agent, [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 could only be performed by including purification step, independently whichever published labeling method was tried. The aim of our study was to find an easy, on the spot preparation technique ensuring a stable radiochemical purity over 95 %. The precursor compound was prepared according the literature. Two series of one vial kits were aseptically prepared using 100 and 50 micrograms of free ligand. Reconstitution of the vials were carried out with 1 - 3 GBq [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate ( 100 o C, 30 min). The crude reaction mixtures were applied onto a preconditioned C 18-SepPak Light cartridge (Waters). After washing the solid phase with 15 ml of 1:50 ethanol / saline, the radioactive complex was eluted with 1 ml of 1:1 ethanol / saline solution. The separation efficiencies were monitored by dose calibrator measurements, while the radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. All of the recorded HPLC radio-chromatograms exhibited three different peaks in the unpurified reaction mixture: peak-1 was identified as a mixture of hydrophilic technetium complexes, peak-2 was assumed as decomposition product of peak-3 ([ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 diastereomers). It was found for both series of kits that the ratio of impurity peaks (peak-1 and 2) was increased with rising the 99m Tc activity over 1.5 GBq. Using activities below this limit, the peak ratios indicated individual features for each series. Higher ligand concentration resulted about 1:1 ratio of peak-1 and peak-2 while the amount of peak-3 was between 65 % to 95 %. The total amount of impurity peaks were significantly higher (40 to 60 %) for lower ligand concentration, but peak-2 was negligible (1 - 2 %) in this case. With introducing C18-SepPak purification step we were able to remove peak-1 completely from both series of reaction mixtures while the amount of peak-2 had been increased slightly only. The

  18. Studies of monoclonal antibodies IOR-CEA-1 and IOR-EGF/R3 labelled with {sup 99m}Tc; Estudo de marcacao dos anticorpos monoclonais IOR-CEA-1 e IOR-EGF/R3 com {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a speciality that uses radioisotopes for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases and it is considered one of the best tools among the diagnostic modalities for detection of cancer. {sup 99m}Tc is one of the main isotopes for labelling antibodies and in Nuclear Medicine in general, due to its adequate physical properties, availability and low cost. Labelled monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results for diagnosis and therapy of cancer and their use has brought great experimental and clinical advances in the field of oncology. The main clinical applications of immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies are staging and evaluation of tumoral reappearance. The antibodies employed in this work were: OIR-CEA-1, a murine monoclonal antibody that acts directly against CEA expressed in several neoplasia in particular those from the gastrointestinal tract (colorectal cancer) and IOR-EGF/R3, a murine monoclonal antibody that binds to the external domain of EGF-R and it has been used in the diagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. The objectives of this work were the development and optimization of the reduction and purification processes, the radiolabelling techniques and quality control procedures (radiochemical, immunoreactivity and cystein challenge) and imaging studies of monoclonal antibodies OIR-CEA-1 and IOR-EGF/R3, using the simple, fast and efficient method of direct labelling of the antibody with {sup 99m}Tc. The final results was the definition of the best conditions for the preparation of lyophilized reactive kits of OIR-CEA-1 and IOR- EGF/R3 for an efficient diagnostic application in Nuclear Medicine. The most adequate conditions for the labelling of the antibodies were: 1.0 mg Ab, 29 {mu}L MDP, 3.0 {mu}g Sn{sup 2+}, 1 mL of {sup 99m}Tc and 30 min. reaction time. With these conditions the labelling yield was always higher than 95% and the maximum activity of {sup 99m}Tc was about 2220 MBq (60 mCi). The evidences of the efficiency and

  19. Radiolabeling of Herceptin with 99mTc as a Her2 tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Heydari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that is used in treating breast cancer. We labeled this monoclonal antibody with Technetium-99m and performed in vitro and in vivo quality control tests as a first step in the production of a new radiopharmaceutical. Methods: Trastuzumab was labeled with Technetium-99m using Succinimidyl Hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC as chelator. Radiochemical Purity and stability in buffer and serum were determined. Immunoreactivity and toxicity of the complex were tested on SKBR3, MCF7 and A431 breast cancer cell lines. Biodistribution study was performed in normal mice at 4 and 24 h post injection.Results: The radiochemical purity of the complex was 95±1.4%. The stabilities in phosphate buffer and in human blood serum at 24 h post preparation were 85±3.5% and 74±1.2%, respectively. The immunoreactivity of the complex was 86±1.4%. The binding of labeled antibody to the surface of SKBR3, MCF7 and A431 cells were increased by increasing Her2 concentration on the cells surface.Conclusions: The findings showed that the new radiopharmaceutical can be a promising candidate as Her2 antigen scanning for human breast cancer.

  20. Ciprofloxacin-99mTc: labeling and biodistribution in infection diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de Andrade

    2004-01-01

    Labeling and biodistribution studies with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin were done using as radio marker Tc-99m. The aims were to optimize the labeling procedures as well as to analyze its efficacy in the diagnosis of infection sites, healthy and experimentally infected animals were employed to this purpose. On basis of optimized parameters a freeze-dried could be formulated containing 2 mg ciprofloxacin, 30 μg SnCl 2 H O and 5 mg ascorbic acid. This preparation could be easily activated by the addiction of Na 99m Tc) 4 a maximum value of 3700 MBq after a reaction time of 10 minutes only. Yield of the labeling technique higher than 95%, radiochemical stability reached 6 hours after preparation, and shelf life till 2 months was demonstrated. Biodistribution investigations revealed high renal excretion, low concentration in liver and soft tissues, along with affinity for the bacterial focus 1.7-2.4 times higher than for normal tissues. This protocol demonstrated the potential of ciprofloxacin- 99m Tcs a diagnostic agent for infections process. (author)

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of Ubiquicidin 29-41-99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Dias, Luis Alberto Pereira; Higa, Olga Z.; Silva, Fabiana M. da; Vieira, Daniel P.; Passos, Priscila; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M.

    2015-01-01

    The work carried out cytotoxicity tests using a radiopharmaceutical compound produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP to certify its safety through in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Since 2009, the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) requires that such tests have to be carried out following good laboratory practices (GLP) and in according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines in order to certify its safety for medical use. Those guidelines comprises series of technical recommendations performed to assure quality of experiments. The study chose Ubiquicidin 29-41, an antimicrobial peptide used to discriminate bacterial infection foci from inflammatory sites. Amounts of UBI 29-41 were conjugated or not to 99m Tc and diluted to equivalent concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000% of the maximum dose (or activity) administered in adults. Possible cytotoxic effects were evaluated in comparison to untreated controls as well as positive and negative damage controls. Both full (radioactive) radiopharmaceuticals, as their precursors (only molecules without conjugation to isotopes) showed no significant cytotoxic effect (cytotoxicity ≤ 10%). The study was conducted for the first time in the country comprising preclinical testing of this radiopharmaceutical in accordance with internationally accepted quality parameters, ensuring the safety of its use and enabling inclusion in the pharmaceutical regulatory agenda. (author)

  2. Labelling and optimization of PHOTOFRIN registered with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Roohi, S.; Amir, N.; Zahoor, R.; Atif, M.; Firdous, S.

    2010-01-01

    PHOTOFRIN registered was labelled with 99m Tc using SnCl 2 .2H 2 O as reducing agent. Instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) in 0.05 M NaOH was used for evaluation of radiochemical purity. Labelling efficiency was dependent on various factors that include the ligand/reductant ratio, pH and time of incubation. Therefore, optimum conditions of labelling were also determined. The stability of 99m Tc-PHOTOFRIN registered in serum was checked by using fresh human serum. Tissue distribution of 99m Tc-PHOTOFRIN registered was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. PHOTOFRIN registered was labelled with an efficiency of > 95% under optimum conditions, which were PHOTOFRIN registered : 200 μg, pH: 3-4, SnCl 2 .2H 2 O: 15 μg and 30 min incubation at room temperature. The 99m Tc-labelled PHOTOFRIN registered remained stable in human serum for 24 h. Biodistribution study in rats revealed maximum concentration of the labelled compound in liver, lungs and spleen at 0.5 h, and significant activity was also seen in the bladder and urine, indicating the mode of urinary excretion of PHOTOFRIN registered . (orig.)

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  4. Synthesis, labeling with 99mTc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-01-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with 99m Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been obtained by using

  5. Effect of mycorrhizal infection on root uptake by pine seedlings and redistribution of three contrasting radio-isotopes: {sup 85}Sr, {sup 95m}Tc and {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plassard, C.; Ladeyn, I.; Staunton, S. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiose 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2004-07-01

    Mycorrhizal infection is known to improve phosphate nutrition and water supply of higher plants. It has been reported to both increase the uptake of potentially toxic pollutant elements and to protect plants against toxic effects. Little is known about the effect of mycorrhizal infection on the dynamics of radioactive pollutants in soil-plant systems. The aim of this study was to compare the root uptake and root-shoot transfer of three radio-isotopes with contrasting chemical properties ({sup 85}Sr, {sup 95m}Tc and {sup 137}Cs) in mycorrhizal and control, non mycorrhizal plants. The plant studied was Pinus pinaster and the associated ecto-mycorrhizal fungus was Rhizopogon roseolus (strain R18-2). Plants were grown under anoxic conditions for 3 months then transferred to thin layers of autoclaved soil and allowed to grow for four months. After this period, the rhizotrons were dismantled, and plant tissue analysed. Biomass, nutrient content (K, P, N, Ca) and activities of each isotope in roots, shoots and stems were measured, and the degree of mycorrhizal infection assessed. The transfer factors decreased in the order Tc>Sr>Cs as expected from the degree of immobilisation by soil. No effect of mycorrhizal infection on root uptake was observed for Sr. Shoot activity concentration of Tc was decreased by mycorrhizal infection but root uptake correlated well with mycelial soil surface area. In contrast, Cs shoot activity was greater in mycorrhizal than control plants. The uptake and root to shoot distribution shall be discussed in relation to nutrient dynamics. (author)

  6. Determination of bone blood supply with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells and /sup 113m/In transferrin in fractures of femoral neck: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempi, V.; Sandegard, J.

    1982-05-01

    The uptake of in vivo labeled /sup 99m/Tc RBCs and /sup 113/In transferrin was studied in femoral bone of 21 patients who had recent operations for fracture of the femoral neck. Femoral bone biopsies and blood samples were obtained during the operation. The activity values for bone biopsies, erythrocytes, and serum were determined, and the uptake ratios between bone and erythrocyte cpm/g and between bone and serum were calculated. Biopsy samples were taken from the femoral head in 21 cases and from the trochanteric region in 14. The activity ratios for the two tracers correlated well: r . 0.94 for femoral head biopsies (P less than 0.001) and r . 0.98 for samples from the trochanteric region (P less than 0.001). Thus, the procedures are interchangeable and either may be valuable in assessing bone blood supply. An additional patient, studied only with /sup 99m/Tc RBCs, had a subsequent operation for nonunion of a fracture. Samples of both cancellous and cortical bone were obtained from the removed head. The activity ratios for the two types of bone tissue differed significantly (P . 0.02).

  7. Determination of bone blood supply with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells and /sup 113m/In transferrin in fractures of femoral neck: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempi, V.; Sandegard, J.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of in vivo labeled /sup 99m/Tc RBCs and 113 In transferrin was studied in femoral bone of 21 patients who had recent operations for fracture of the femoral neck. Femoral bone biopsies and blood samples were obtained during the operation. The activity values for bone biopsies, erythrocytes, and serum were determined, and the uptake ratios between bone and erythrocyte cpm/g and between bone and serum were calculated. Biopsy samples were taken from the femoral head in 21 cases and from the trochanteric region in 14. The activity ratios for the two tracers correlated well: r . 0.94 for femoral head biopsies (P less than 0.001) and r . 0.98 for samples from the trochanteric region (P less than 0.001). Thus, the procedures are interchangeable and either may be valuable in assessing bone blood supply. An additional patient, studied only with /sup 99m/Tc RBCs, had a subsequent operation for nonunion of a fracture. Samples of both cancellous and cortical bone were obtained from the removed head. The activity ratios for the two types of bone tissue differed significantly

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of a novel "3 + 1" mixed ligand 99mTc complex having an aliphatic thiol as coligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, A; Papadopoulos, M; Leon, E; Mallo, L; Pirmettis, Y; Manta, E; Raptopoulou, C; Chiotellis, E; Leon, A

    2001-03-01

    A novel "3 + 1" mixed ligand 99mTc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethyl-ethilenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand was prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation at tracer level was accomplished by substitution, using 99mTc-glucoheptonate as precursor and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5. Under these conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product with radiochemical purity >80% was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium and 99gTc complexes. Results were consistent with the expected "3 + 1" structure and X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that the complex adopted a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance and excretion through hepatobiliary system. Although brain/blood ratio increased significantly with time, this novel 99mTc complex did not exhibit ideal properties as brain perfusion radiopharmaceutical since brain uptake was too low.

  9. Particularities in the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic of labeled peptide with 99mTc in regional administration of patient with cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau San Pedro, A.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Martin Escuela, J. M.; Galvez Perez, E.

    2013-01-01

    This study had as objective characterize the biodistribution pharmacokinetic and dosimetry of labeled peptide with 9 9mTc in two dose levels, prepared in 2ml, starting from its intratumoral injection in patient with cervix cancer. The protocol selection to use, the correction and calculate methods were analysis object keeping in mind that antecedents of studies of this type didn't exist and that the administration intratumoral can originate new problems not foreseen in conventional intravenous studies. This study carried out mensurations of sensibility that should be corrected in a particular way. A careful protocol of acquisition was designed able to detect the behavior of the radio-peptide in the time, with a serial gathering of samples of blood and urine until the 24 hours, as well as images of the whole body up to 48h. For the quantification of the images they were necessary also the classic corrections of background and of overlapping of structures. The labeled peptide with 9 9mTc administered for intralesional way, like it was of waiting it presented a very high reception tumoral, being this maxim in the first images, however the product was absorbed quickly in blood, reaching its maximum levels in most of the patients as much in serum as in total blood, in the first 5-15 minutes of having administered. (Author)

  10. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  11. Principle of cerebral hemodynamic perfusion in SPECT and new evaluation method of hemodynamic reserve capacity using {sup 99m}Tc tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Masaaki; Mukai, Hironobu; Tada, Motoyuki; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Takimoto, Masamori; Shiozaki, Jun; Inoue, Hisashi [Noto General Hospital, Nanao, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We performed quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using {sup 99m}Tc tracer by the Patlak Plot method with reference to normal aging and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) capacity and then investigated a new evaluation method of CVR. Aging and decrease of ADL were significantly associated with reduction of the mean hemispheric CBF. In the acetazolamide (ACZ) stress test, these retrospective data showed some overlap in each ischemic grade on the relationship between rCBF and CVR response for the predictability of EC/IC bypass surgery. In these controversial problems, we must reconfirm the principle of cerebral hemodynamic perfusion in SPECT. First, retention tracer is distributed via the microcirculatory system to brain tissue. Second, therefore, we should understand not only the circulation of major vessels, but also the dynamics and rheology in parenchymal microcirculation to determine brain SPECT and CVR capacity. In the next step, we approached the new evaluation method of CVR capacity using {sup 99m}Tc tracer by a serial dynamic SPECT with a slip-ring rotational gamma camera. These preliminally findings suggest that a serial dynamic SPECT may be more useful for analyzing the pathophysiology on brain circulation and CVR than conventional approaches. (author)

  12. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteaux, Gerard.

    1977-01-01

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism [fr

  13. Preparation of i.v. 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals from spent moly 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Expiry dating is an important quality assurance precept in (radio) pharmacy. There are occasions when for the sake of patient service one may be forced to continue using an over aged source of 99 Mo to generate 99m Tc beyond 7d, especially when there is short/no supply of 99 Mo, (In the early days the expiry date was 3 d or 3 extractions, whichever one was earlier). With the passage of time a few physico-chemical changes (apart from decay) do occur in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc milieu. The cocktail also begins to contain traces of carried over MEK which is subjected to strong β-, γ irradiation. These impurity (in trace amounts) is soluble in MEK and even, to an extent, in aqueous media. Furthermore, the concentrated impurity tends to seemingly increase in the bulk 99m TcO 4 - since one is compelled to leach TcO 4 - in lower volume of saline. On many occasions we have been constrained to extend the use of 99 Mo beyond 7 - 14 d. Adequate activities were obtained by pooling the previous week's lot of 99 Mo with the current over aged lot. On a few occasions over the past 26 years we have used 99 Mo much beyond 14 d and 2 - 3 occasions for 26 - 28 d (i.e. >10 t 1 /2 of 99 Mo). On each of these occasions the purity of 99m TcO- 4 was ascertained by pharmacopoeial procedures. It was found that despite depleting activities, the purity was not compromised and the trace impurities, even if present, did not cause any interference. We have profitably utilised the bulk TcO- 4 to formulate a variety of i.v. dosage forms of 99m Tc radiodiagnostics. The following strategy was adopted for the patient services - the agents requiring larger activity levels/patients dose were made available in the earlier period, the other during the latter half. It is concluded that pure 99m TcO- 4 can be obtained over the entire useful life-period of 99 Mo, even > 10t l/2

  14. Ligand-protein conjugated quantification assay by UV spectrophotometry in 99mTc indirect labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basualdo, Daniel A.; Rabiller, Graciela; Poch, Carolina; El Tamer, Elias A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Quantify IgG-HYNIC conjugated for obtaining substitution ratio and as a chemical quality control for 99m Tc labeling of this immunoglobulin. Introduction: The Operational Guidance on Hospital Radiopharmacy by IAEA states that the procedures performed in a Radiopharmacy Laboratory fall into three operational levels. At present, Nuclear Medicine Centre of 'Hospital de Clinicas' has an operational level 2b which requires the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals from approved reagent kits and radionuclide generators, and labeling of autologous blood cells. Centre's goal is to reach an operational level 3a, which allows us to compounding radiopharmaceuticals from drugs and radionuclides for diagnosis; modification to existing commercial kits; related research and development. In approach of that goal, we addressed the optimization of conjugation of proteins and peptides with S-HYNIC so as to bring about the procedures involved. In this work, was conjugated nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) with S-HYNIC. Our interest was focused in calculate how many HYNIC groups were incorporated per IgG molecule so that in later stages can be obtained a correlate with labeling efficiency. Materials and methods: A sample of IgG-HYNIC conjugate of 0.2 ml was diluted in 4 ml of benzaldehyde o-sulfonic acid (1 mg / ml, 0.1 M NaAc, pH 4.7). The reaction was incubated at room temperature overnight in darkness. As a negative control took 0.2 ml of IgG-HYNIC conjugate in 4 ml of NaAc buffer 0.1 M. 3 ml of benzaldehyde o-sulfonic acid (1 mg / ml 0.1 M NaAc, pH 4.7) was used as blank. The absorption of the hydrazone was read at 343 nm. The hydrazine concentration was calculated using a molar extinction coefficient ε (343 nm) 17000 M-1cm-1. Results: Molar substitution ratio (MSR) was calculated. The MSR indicates the number of HYNIC groups incorporated in the IgG-HYNIC conjugate determined by the spectrophotometric assay. Conclusions: In labeling with a bifunctional

  15. Regeneration of 98Mo enriched from waste 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Mirzaeva, N.A.; Ashrapov, U.T.; Berdieva, M.; Nushtaeva, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotope generator of technetium-99m have found widespread application in nuclear medicine for production of sodium pertechnetate solution ( 99m Tc). In technology of radioisotope generator making, which developed in Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science the parent radioisotopes of molybdenum-90 are produced with neutron capture reaction of the enriched isotope of molybdenum-98 in nuclear reactor of WWR-SM. The specific activity of 99 Mo is reached to 5.0 Ci/g after activation process of original material ( 98 Mo). The basic mass of the original materials ( 98 Mo) which took for the irradiation is remained inactive. The high cost of enriched 97 Mo to make up necessity of development of method of 98 Mo regeneration with end in view of its recurring in manufacture. In general, the chromatographic type generator are produced in manufacture with aluminium oxide as sorbent for the parent radionuclides. So we studied the description conditions of molybdenum from aluminium oxide phase, its purification from possible accompanying admixtures and production of molybdenum in goods state. The systems: sulphur acid, ammonium and ammonium with hydrogen peroxide have been considered for molybdenum desorption from aluminium oxide phase. The sulphur oxid solution is most optimal medium for molybdenum desorption with concentration 0.5 M and elution rate for this makes up 2.0-2.05 ml/min. The 98 Mo yield makes up not over 87 %. The subsequent purification of the desorption of molybdenum-98 from the possible admixture are realized by using column with tetra-phosphonium alkali. At first , 98 Mo sorption is realized by anion exchange resin, after that sorbate is washing and dispiriting by solution with composition: 1.0 M NH 4 NO 3 +8.0 % NH 4 OH+10 -2 % H 2 O 2 . The 98 Mo yield makes up under 80 %. Further from obtained solution is realized by precipitation of molybdenum-98 in acid medium and separation of sediments from liquid phase, drying if sediments and

  16. Development and evaluation of a novel (99mtc-labeled annexin A5 for early detection of response to chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Ogawa

    Full Text Available (99mTc-HYNIC-annexin A5 can be considered as a benchmark in the field of apoptosis imaging. However, (99mTc-HYNIC-annexin A5 has characteristics of high uptake and long retention in non-target tissues such as kidney and liver. To minimize this problem, we developed a novel (99mTc-labeled annexin A5 using a bis(hydroxamamide derivative [C3(BHam2] as a bifunctional chelating agent, and evaluated its usefulness as an imaging agent for detecting apoptosis. The amino group of C3(BHam2 was converted to a maleimide group, and was coupled to thiol groups of annexin A5 pretreated with 2-iminothiolane. (99mTc labeling was performed by a ligand exchange reaction with (99mTc-glucoheptonate. Biodistribution experiments for both (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 and (99mTc-HYNIC-annexin A5 were performed in normal mice. In addition, in tumor-bearing mice, the relationship between the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy (5-FU and the tumor accumulation of (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 just after the first treatment of 5-FU was evaluated. (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 was prepared with a radiochemical purity of over 95%. In biodistribution experiments, (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 had a much lower kidney accumulation of radioactivity than (99mTc-HYNIC-annexin A5. In the organs for metabolism, such as liver and kidney, radioactivity after the injection of (99mTc-HYNIC-annexin A5 was residual for a long time. On the other hand, radioactivity after the injection of (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 gradually decreased. In therapeutic experiments, tumor growth in the mice treated with 5-FU was significantly inhibited. Accumulation of (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 in tumors significantly increased after 5-FU treatment. The accumulation of radioactivity in tumor correlated positively with the counts of TUNEL-positive cells. These findings suggest that (99mTc-C3(BHam2-annexin A5 may contribute to the efficient detection of apoptotic tumor response after chemotherapy.

  17. Estimation in adults of the glomerular filtration rate in [99mTc] DTPA renography - the rate constant method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Ove

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design an alternative and robust method for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in [ 99 mTc]-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ([ 99 mTc] -DTPA renography with a reliability not significantly lower than that of the conventional Gates' method. Methods: The method is based on renographies lasting 40 min in which regions of interest (ROIs) are manually created over selected parts of certain blood pools (e.g. heart, lungs, spleen, and liver). For each ROI the corresponding time-activity curve (TAC) was generated, decay corrected and exposed to a monoexponential fit in the time interval 10 to 40 min postinjection. The rate constant in min-1 of the monoexponential fit was denoted BETA. Following an iterative procedure comprising usually 5-10 manually created ROIs, the monoexponential fit with the maximum rate constant (BETA max ) was used for estimation of GFR. Results: In a patient material of 54 adult subjects in whom GFR was determined with multiple or one sample techniques with [ 51 Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([ 51 Cr]-EDTA) the regression curve of standard GFR (GFR std ) (i.e. GFR adjusted to 1.73 m 2 body surface area) showed a close, non-linear relationship with BETA max with a correlation coefficient of 95%. The standard errors of estimate (SEE) were 6.6, 10.6 and 16.8 for GFR std equal to 30, 60, and 120 ml/(min .73 m 2 ), respectively. The corresponding SEE values for almost the same patient material using Gates' method were 8.4, 11.9, and 16.8 ml/(min 1.73 m 2 ). Conclusions: The alternative rate constant method yields estimates of GFR std with SEE values equal to or slightly smaller than in Gates' method. The two methods provide statistically uncorrelated estimates of GFR std . Therefore, pooled estimates of GFR std can be calculated with SEE values approximately 1.41 times smaller than those mentioned above. The reliabilities of the pooled estimate of GFR std separately and of the multiple samples method

  18. 99MTC-HL91 spect image versus 18F-FDG PET for detection of head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, L.S.; Liu, R.S.; Chou, K.L.; Yang, B.H.; Liao, S.Q.; Yeh, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Tumor hypoxia is a major complication of oncologic cell switch for chemotherapy(C/T) and / or radiotherapy(R/T). Such lesions detected by selective modem conventional examination remains difficult. 99mTc-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue in vivo. This study aimed to assess efficacy of 99mTc- HL91 in imaging of head and neck cancer and compared the result with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)PET. Methods: Sixteen pts with head and neck cancers (7 hypopharyngeal cancers, 4 laryngeal cancers, 5 tongue base cancers) were enrolled in this study. Primary tumors and suspicious local,regional metastases were diagnosed by clinical examination, CT/MRI , and biopsy. After intravenous injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-HL91, whole body planar scan and regional SPECT at 2hr postinjection were performed. Tumor lesion -to- normal background(T/N) ratios with 3x3 pixels of background ROI were also measured. The reference range of T/N ratio greater 3.0 defined +, close to 2.4 defined +/- and less than 1.5 defined as -. The FDG images with dedicated PET system was performed at 4hr after completion of 99mTc-HL91 study. The visualized tumors uptake with ratio of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5 defined as +.. less than 2.5 defined -. Results: In 7 hypopharyngeal cancers, there are 2FDG+/HL91+, 3FDG+/HL91-, 2FDG+/HL91+/-, In 4 laryngeal cancers, there are 3FDG+/HL91-, 1FDG+/HL91 +/-. In 5 tongue base cancers, there are 5FDG+/HL91-.(Table 1). The T/N ratios of all head and neck cancers in primary tumor and regional lymph nodes were ranged from l.3/1.5 and 1.1/1.2 respectively. The frequency of FDG + in hypopharyngeal cancers is 1.0,in laryngeal cancers is 1.0 and in tongue base cancers is 1.0. The frequency of HL91+/+/- in hypopharyngeal cancers is 0..58,in laryngeal cancers is 0.25.and in tongue base cancers is 0. The overall detection rate of head and neck cancer by FDG+ in this study is 100% and overall detection rate of local-regional hypoxia, by

  19. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  20. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the induction of DNA strand breaks in plasmid DNA and colony formation of PC Cl3 mammalian cells by alpha-, beta-, and Auger electron emitters (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Roswitha; Oehme, Liane; Kotzerke, Jörg; Freudenberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    DNA damage occurs as a consequence of both direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. The severity of DNA damage depends on the physical characteristics of the radiation quality, e.g., the linear energy transfer (LET). There are still contrary findings regarding direct or indirect interactions of high-LET emitters with DNA. Our aim is to determine DNA damage and the effect on cellular survival induced by (223)Ra compared to (188)Re and (99m)Tc modulated by the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Radioactive solutions of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc were added to either plasmid DNA or to PC Cl3 cells in the absence or presence of DMSO. Following irradiation, single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. To determine the radiosensitivity of the rat thyroid cell line (PC Cl3), survival curves were performed using the colony formation assay. Exposure to 120 Gy of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc leads to maximal yields of SSB (80 %) in plasmid DNA. Irradiation with 540 Gy (223)Ra and 500 Gy (188)Re or (99m)Tc induced 40, 28, and 64 % linear plasmid conformations, respectively. DMSO prevented the SSB and DSB in a similar way for all radionuclides. However, with the α-emitter (223)Ra, a low level of DSB could not be prevented by DMSO. Irradiation of PC Cl3 cells with (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc pre-incubated with DMSO revealed enhanced survival fractions (SF) in comparison to treatment without DMSO. Protection factors (PF) were calculated using the fitted survival curves. These factors are 1.23 ± 0.04, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 1.34 ± 0.05 for (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc, respectively. For (223)Ra, as well as for (188)Re and (99m)Tc, dose-dependent radiation effects were found applicable for plasmid DNA and PC Cl3 cells. The radioprotection by DMSO was in the same range for high- and low-LET emitter. Overall, the results indicate the contribution of mainly indirect radiation

  1. Fatores de correção volumétrica na medição de atividade de 99mTc e 123I em calibradores de radionuclídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ribeiro Correia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores de correção para a variação volumétrica dos radiofármacos contidos em recipientes de diferentes geometrias. Comparar a influência desses fatores na determinação da atividade de 99mTc e 123I utilizando dois tipos de calibradores: um com câmara de ionização e outro com detector Geiger-Müller (G-M. Avaliar o desempenho de calibradores de alguns serviços de medicina nuclear em medição de atividade de 99mTc e 123I. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados oito calibradores, frascos de vidro 10R, seringas de plástico de 3 e 5 mL e soluções de 99mTc e 123I. Os fatores de correção foram determinados a partir das medições práticas da variação da leitura do calibrador com a variação do volume da solução no recipiente. O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigida pela norma brasileira. RESULTADOS: A variação da resposta do calibrador com a variação do volume do frasco foi bem maior no calibrador que utiliza G-M. Ela também foi maior para 123I do que para 99mTc. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados confirmam que a resposta dos calibradores depende do volume contido nos recipientes. Essa dependência é mais crítica para os calibradores equipados com detector G-M e para 123I quando comparado com 99mTc.

  2. Species concept and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. Aldhebiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining and recognizing a species has been a controversial issue for a long time. To determine the variation and the limitation between species, many concepts have been proposed. When a taxonomist study a particular taxa, he/she must adopted a species concept and provide a species limitation to define this taxa. In this paper some of species concepts are discussed starting from the typological species concepts to the phylogenetic concept. Positive and negative aspects of these concepts are represented in addition to their application. Keywords: Species concept, Species limitation, Species, Taxonomy, Classification

  3. Diagnostic value of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 scintimammography for differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions: Comparison of visual and semi-quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Xie, Qian; Zhao, Min; Chen, Bin; Gao, Shi; Zhang, Haishan; Xing, Hua; Ma, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of visual and semi-quantitative analysis of technetium-99m-poly-ethylene glycol, 4-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid ((99m)Tc-3PRGD2) scintimammography (SMG) for better differentiation of benign from malignant breast masses, and also investigate the incremental role of semi-quantitative index of SMG. A total of 72 patients with breast lesions were included in the study. Technetium-99m-3PRGD2 SMG was performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPET) at 60 min after intravenous injection of 749 ± 86MBq of the radiotracer. Images were evaluated by visual interpretation and semi-quantitative indices of tumor to non-tumor (T/N) ratios, which were compared with pathology results. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal visual grade, to calculate cut-off values of semi-quantitative indices, and to compare visual and semi-quantitative diagnostic values. Among the 72 patients, 89 lesions were confirmed by histopathology after fine needle aspiration biopsy or surgery, 48 malignant and 41 benign lesions. The mean T/N ratio of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SMG in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (Pvalue for the detection of primary breast cancer, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 81.3%, 70.7%, and 76.4%, respectively. When a T/N ratio of 2.01 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 79.2%, 75.6%, and 77.5%, respectively. According to ROC analysis, the area under the curve for semi-quantitative analysis was higher than that for visual analysis, but the statistical difference was not significant (P=0.372). Compared with visual analysis or semi-quantitative analysis alone, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of visual analysis combined with semi-quantitative analysis in diagnosing primary breast cancer were higher, being: 87.5%, 82.9%, and 85.4%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.891. Results of

  4. Labelling of m-trimethyl silylphenyl-ethylidene-1, i-bisphosphonate with /sup 99m/Tc and its evaluation as an imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, K.M.; Mahmood, R.

    2012-01-01

    Technetium-99m labeled phosphates and phosphonates have since long been in use for bone imaging to diagnose bone infection, bone metastasis and bone fracture. /sup 131/ I -labeled bisphosphonates have also been prepared for targeted radiotherapy of bone metastasis. Although animal experiments show good accumulation of bisphosphonates in bone. The agent has never been tried in humans because of high gamma and beta energy. The agent must first be tested in humans using a relatively safe radioisotope. Technitium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) a radioisotope with relatively low gamma energy 99m and short half-life can serve as a good label. Whether /sup 99m/Tc-labeled bisphosphonates can be used as good imaging agents is another aspect that needs further investigation. A study was therefore, conducted to label m-trimethyl silylphenyl)-ethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate with /sup 99m/Tc and standardize the labeling procedure. The labeling procedure - involved reduction of technetium (TcO/sub 4/) with stannous chloride followed by chelation of technetium with bisphosphonates. Radiochemical purity was checked by paper chromatography. Pyrogenicity was checked by administration of the labeled compound into rabbits. The stability of the compound was determined by noting the radiochemical binding at several intervals of half an hour after preparation. Biodistribution of the agent was studied by injecting the labeled compound into rabbits. The results showed that the compound could be labeled with /sup 99m/Tc without any difficulty. The ease of binding was excellent. There was more than 95% binding of technetium with the compound and the labelled compound was reasonably stable for 5 hours after labeling. The rectal temperature remained stable during this period, which showed that the animal accepted the compound and there were no pyrogenic reactions. Biodistribution studies on rabbit showed that accumulation of agent was poor in bones and the labeled compound remains in blood even after 4

  5. Simultaneous acquisition of (99m)Tc- and (123)I-labeled radiotracers using a preclinical SPECT scanner with CZT detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Matsunari, Ichiro; Nishi, Kodai; Mizutani, Asuka; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Sugama, Jyunko; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Keiichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of (99m)Tc and (123)I was evaluated using a preclinical SPECT scanner with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based detectors. 10-ml cylindrical syringes contained about 37 MBq (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) or 37 MBq (123)I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3R,S-methyl pentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) were used to assess the relationship between these SPECT radioactive counts and radioactivity. Two 10-ml syringes contained 100 or 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF and 100 MBq (123)I-BMIPP to assess the influence of (99m)Tc upscatter and (123)I downscatter, respectively. A rat-sized cylindrical phantom also contained both 100 or 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF and 100 MBq (123)I-BMIPP. The two 10-ml syringes and phantom were scanned using a pinhole collimator for rats. Myocardial infarction model rats were examined using 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF and 100 MBq (123)I-BMIPP. Two 1-ml syringes contained 105 MBq (99m)Tc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) and 35 MBq (123)I-labeled N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT). The two 1-ml syringes were scanned using a pinhole collimator for mice. Normal mice were examined using 105 MBq (99m)Tc-HMPAO and 35 MBq (123)I-FP-CIT. The relationship between SPECT radioactive counts and radioactivity was excellent. Downscatter contamination of (123)I-BMIPP exhibited fewer radioactive counts for 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF without scatter correction (SC) in 125-150 keV. There was no upscatter contamination of (99m)Tc-TF in 150-175 keV. In the rat-sized phantom, the radioactive count ratio decreased to 4.0 % for 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF without SC in 125-150 keV. In the rats, myocardial images and radioactive counts of (99m)Tc-TF with the dual tracer were identical to those of the (99m)Tc-TF single injection. Downscatter contamination of (123)I-FP-CIT was 4.2 % without SC in 125-150 keV. In the first injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and second injection of (123)I-FP-CIT, brain images and radioactive counts

  6. The interest of the C15O2 method for the left to right cardiac shunts evaluation. A comparison with the sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therain, F.; Gros, J.; Debrun, D.; Blond, M.T.; Valois, M.

    1982-01-01

    99mTc pertechnetate dilution method (TcM) is a reference for the left to right shunts (L→RS) evaluation as well as oxymetry is. Another radionuclide method using C 15 O 2 (CO 2 M) was compared with TcM. The results obtained with CO 2 M confirm the reliability of the CO 2 M for the L→RS investigation. Characteristics of both non invasive radionuclide methods are summarized. The advantages of CO 2 M are that it is always available even in presence of valvular insufficiency, severe congestive heart failure, multiple cardiac lesions and that it is always repeatable giving an intra assay control unaccessible to TcM and finally it produces a much lower radiation absorbed dose with a special interest for children investigations

  7. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for {sup 99m}Tc labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura, E-mail: luciana.porto@anvisa.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2016-01-15

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  8. Thermal separation method of preparing apyrogenic and sterile sup(99m)Tc2O7 and equipment for this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machan, V.; Rusek, V.; Vlcek, J.; Kokta, L.; Smejkal, Z.; Rohacek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pure apyrogenic and sterile sup(99m)Tc 2 O 7 is prepared from a mixture of technetium and molybdenum or their compounds, e.g., MoO 3 and Tc 2 O 7 . The mixture is mixed with a granular low-melting material and during separation is heated to 650 to 1000 degC for a time necessary for Tc 2 O 7 liberation. While cooling to room temperature Tc 2 O 7 is condensed outside the molybdenum region. The separation equipment consists of an outer tube with a ground surface extending into the heating system, a removable vessel, a replaceable cartridge for storing the mother nuclide, and a bacteriological filter. (H.S.)

  9. Influence of alumina phases on the molybdenum adsorption capacity and chemical stability for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes-Silva, Cecilia C.; Ferreira, Thiago dos Santos; Paula, Carolina M. de; Otubo, Larissa, E-mail: cecilia.guedes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Flavio M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2016-07-15

    Technetium-{sup 99m} is the clinically most used radionuclide worldwide. Although many techniques can be applied to separate {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used method is the column chromatography with alumina as stationary phase. However, the alumina nowadays used has limited adsorption capacity of molybdate ions which implies the need to develop or improve materials to produce high specific activity generators. In this paper, alumina was obtained by a solid state method and heat treatments at different conditions. The powders had a microstructure with porous particles of γ, δ, θ and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases as well as specific surface area between 36 and 312 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Most interesting results were reached by powders calcined at 900 deg C for 5 hours which had high chemical stability and a molybdenum adsorption capacity of 92.45 mg Mo per g alumina. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Ethane-1-Hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid (EHDP) and preparation of labeled kits by 99mTc for bone studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, T.; Assaad, T.; Ghanem, E.; Ajaia, R.; Karajoli, N.

    2013-08-01

    Ethane-1-Hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid monohydrate (EHDP) is very important precursor in radiopharmaceutical applications for bone diagnosis after labeling with 99mTc, was synthesized in high yield and purity. The compound was characterized by spectroscopic method. EHDP kit for bone imaging after labeling with technetium 99m was prepared according to an optimum conditions, Each vial contains 15 mg of EHDP and 25 mg of stannous chloride SnCl2. The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopeias from of physical, chemical and radiochemical properties. The labeling yield exceeded 95% with an average value 99.6%. Biodistribution study of 99mTc-EHDP showed better clearance after three hours of injection in comparison with 99mTc-MDP kit (author).

  11. Comparison of activity measurements of 131I and 99mTc radionuclides administered in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico Gil.; Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos

    2005-01-01

    A programme for the comparison of activity measurements of radionuclides administered to patients in Nuclear Medicine Services, for the purpose of diagnosis or therapy, is being conducted under the coordination of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, IRD/CNEN. In the present work, measurements of the activity of samples of 131 I and 99 mTc were conducted in the dose calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the city of Porto Alegre, in the period from June to September 2004. The results were analysed to evaluate the compliance with the Brazilian regulation and were also compared to data available in the literature for the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. The performance of the activity meters in Porto Alegre is shown to be very good, which contributes to the radiological protection of patients submitted to diagnosis or therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  12. Human monoclonal antibody 99mTc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, B J; Baum, R P; Staib-Sebler, E; Lorenz, M; Niesen, A; Hör, G

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of 99mTc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%.

  13. Human monoclonal antibody {sup 99m}Tc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, B.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Baum, R.P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Staib-Sebler, E. [Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Lorenz, M. [Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Niesen, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hoer, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of {sup 99m}Tc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral [sup 99m]Tc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Oder, W.; Kramer, J.; Schindler, E.; Podreka, I.; Imhof, H.

    1993-11-01

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and [sup 99m]Tc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOX) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS = III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (au) (18 refs.).

  15. Radioisotope visualization of hepatopancreatic region in patients with mechanical jaundice. [/sup 131/I, /sup 99m/Tc, and /sup 75/Se tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, Yu N; Rozanov, I B; Mironov, S P; Egorova, A I; Diasamidze, Z I

    1976-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of jaundice presents one of the most difficult problems of clinical hepatology. The use of scintillation ..gamma..-chamber and radioactive indicator bengal rose, labeled with /sup 131/I gives the possibility of visualizing the bile secretion and biligenic processes. A total of 82 patients with mechanical jaundice of different etiology have been observed. One of the most important diagnostical findings in mechanical jaundices is visualization of the kidneys image with retention of the stain in the liver. An additional study of the liver with colloid /sup 99m/Tc and the pancreas with /sup 75/Se-methionine taking into account clinical data makes it possible to solve the problem of differential and in separate cases topical diagnosis of the cause of obstruction in the biliary tract.

  16. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  17. Left ventricular function assessment using 123I/99mTc dual-isotope acquisition with two semi-conductor cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras: a gated cardiac phantom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Blaire

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of increased energy resolution of cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras on the assessment of left ventricular function under dual-isotope conditions (99mTc and 123I remains unknown. The Amsterdam-gated dynamic cardiac phantom (AGATE, Vanderwilt techniques, Boxtel, The Netherlands was successively filled with a solution of 123I alone, 99mTc alone, and a mixture of 123I and 99mTc. A total of 12 datasets was acquired with each commercially available CZT camera (DNM 530c, GE Healthcare and DSPECT, Biosensors International using both energy windows (99mTc or 123I with ejection fraction set to 33, 45, and 60 %. End-diastolic (EDV and end-systolic (ESV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF, and regional wall motion and thickening (17-segment model were assessed using Cedars-Sinai QGS Software. Concordance between single- and dual-isotope acquisitions was tested using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and Bland–Altman plots. Results There was no significant difference between single- or simultaneous dual-isotope acquisition (123I and 99mTc for EDV, ESV, LVEF, or segmental wall motion and thickening. Myocardial volumes using single- (123I, 99mTc and dual-isotope (reconstructed using both 123I and 99mTc energy windows acquisitions were, respectively, the following: EDV (mL 88 ± 27 vs. 89 ± 27 vs. 92 ± 29 vs. 90 ± 26 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 82 ± 20 vs. 83 ± 22 vs. 79 ± 19 vs. 77 ± 20 for DSPECT (p = NS; ESV (mL 40 ± 1 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 1 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 37 ± 5 vs. 37 ± 1 vs. 35 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 2 for DSPECT (p = NS; LVEF (% 52 ± 14 vs. 51 ± 13 vs. 53 ± 13 vs. 51 ± 13 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 52 ± 16 vs. 54 ± 13 vs. 54 ± 14 vs. 54 ± 13 for DSPECT (p = NS; regional motion (mm 6.72 ± 2.82 vs. 6.58 ± 2.52 vs. 6.86 ± 2.99 vs. 6.59 ± 2

  18. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a New 99mTc Labeled Substance P Analogue as a Potential Tumor Imaging Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Erfani, Mostafa; Beiki, Davood; Johari Daha, Fariba; Kobarfard, Farzad; Balalaie, Saeed; Fallahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R) are overexpressed on several types of important human cancer cells. Substance P (SP) is the most specific endogenous ligand known for NK1Rs. Accordingly,a new SP analogue was synthesized and evaluated for detection of NK1R positive tumors.[6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-Tyr8-Met(O)11-SP] was synthesized and radiolabeled with 99mTc using ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA)and Tricine as coligands. Common physicochemical properties of radioconjugate were studied and in-vitro cell line biological tests were accomplished to determine the receptor mediated characteristics. In-vivo biodistribution in normal and tumor bearingnude mice was also assessed. The cold peptide was prepared in high purity (>99%) and radiolabeled with 99mTc at high specific activities (84-112GBq/µmol) with an acceptable labeling yield (>95%). The radioconjugate was stable in-vitro in the presence of human serum and showed 44% protein binding to human serumalbumin. In-vitro cell line studies on U373MG cells showed an acceptable uptake up to 4.91 ± 0.22% with the ratio of 60.21 ± 1.19% for its specific fraction and increasing specific internalization during 4 h. Receptor binding assays on U373MG cells indicated a mean Kd of 2.46 ± 0.43 nM and Bmax of 128925 ± 8145 sites/cell. In-vivo investigations determined the specific tumor uptake in 3.36 percent of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) for U373MG cells and noticeable accumulations of activity in the intestines and lung. Predominant renal excretion pathway was demonstrated. Therefore, this new radiolabeled peptide could be a promising radiotracer for detection of NK1R positive primary or secondary tumors. PMID:25561916

  19. Quality control studies of {sup 99}Mo used in {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, Daphne S.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: daphnesaid@usp.br, E-mail: taniabrambilla@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mmatsuda@ipen.br, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators are produced exclusively by the Center of Radiopharmacy at IPEN-CNEN/SP, by importing {sup 99}Mo from different suppliers. {sup 99}Mo (t{sub 1/2} = 66 h) is a fission product of {sup 235}U, therefore, it can be accompanied by several radioisotopes that are highly prejudicial for human health, demanding a strict quality control of this product for generators safe use. The European Pharmacopoeia established some parameters and limits that evaluate the quality of the solution of sodium [{sup 99}Mo]molybdate, that is used as raw material for generator's production. The European Pharmacopoeia also recommends some analytical methods to perform these evaluations, however, it has been observed difficulties on the implementation of these methods by the generator's producers. These difficulties are probably related to the lack of practicability of the proposed methods and the extensive list of utilized reagents. In this work some procedures of the European Pharmacopoeia's quality control method for {sup 99}Mo were evaluated. Different types of solid phase exchanger cartridges were tested for retention of {sup 99}Mo in 3 different conditions. Cartridges that presented percentages of retention higher than 90% were also tested for separation of {sup 99}Mo from possible contaminants (Ru e Te). The results shown that solid phase exchanger cartridges that presented percentages of retention of Mo higher than 90% also presented significant percentages of retention of Ru and Te. An alternative method for separation of {sup 99}Mo from {sup 131}I (other contaminant) are also proposed. (author)

  20. Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/99mTc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Yamaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG and technetium-99m (99mTc radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with 99mTc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner.

  1. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 57}Co, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 54}Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn. Retention of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author).

  2. Simulation of a gamma-camera for activity measurement of {sup 99m}Tc using the Monte Carlo Gate code; Simulação de uma gama-câmara para medidas de atividade de {sup 99m}Tc com o código de Monte Carlo Gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrientos, C.P. Castro; Souza-Santos, D. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mação Junior, J.L.; Wunder, R.S.; Knust, I.C., E-mail: car_pcb@aluno.ird.gov.br [Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has a growing demand for nuclear medicine services (NMS), and radiopharmaceuticals supplied by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) provide approximately two million nuclear medicine (NM) procedures per year. Among these radiopharmaceuticals, one of the most used is {sup 99m}Tc. The manipulation of unsealed radioactive sources presents a risk of incorporation. Workers who handle radiopharmaceuticals in NM procedures should be subject to an internal individual monitoring program to optimize their practices as well as to ensure that dose limits are not exceeded. This program may require measuring the activity of incorporated radionuclides, done in a whole body counter. This measurement may prove impracticable due to the absence of dedicated systems, available to all workers in a country. One solution to this problem would be to perform the measurement of the incorporated activity using the Gamma camera of the NMS in which the occupationally exposed individual (IOE) works. The objective of this work is to simulate with the Monte Carlo method a Gamma camera, with the code Gate, validating the results for the {sup 99m}Tc through measurements performed in an NMS. Measurements of counts were taken around the 140 keV main peak, with and without the collimator, that were correlated with the source activity. The validation shows good agreement between the simulation and the experimental data, with a difference of about 3% for the simulation without the collimator and about 2% for the simulation with the collimator. (author)

  3. Quantitative Concept Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Domenach, Florent; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Poelmans, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) begins from a context, given as a binary relation between some objects and some attributes, and derives a lattice of concepts, where each concept is given as a set of objects and a set of attributes, such that the first set consists of all objects that satisfy all

  4. Experience in the use of low concentration gadolinia as a PWR fuel burnable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildrum, C.M.; Segovia, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    A description is provided of the low concentration gad design being used in the Spanish 3-loop 17 x 17 fueled PWR's. This design uses a relatively small number of high concentration gadolinia fuel rods (6 and 8 w/o Gd2O3) with a large number of low concentration gad rods (2 w/o Gd2O3). The 2 w/o gad rods substitute, in part, the high concentration gad rods, thereby helping reduce the end of cycle reactivity penalty from the residual absorption in the gadolinium. The low concentration gad design is advantageous for long cycles (more than 18 months) and plant up-rating scenarios in that the soluble boron concentration increases that would otherwise result for these situations are avoided. These boron concentration increases could have potentially adverse effects on the plant, since the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) is made less negative, the effectiveness of the boron shutdown safety systems is reduced, and the safety margins are eroded for some accidents, such as for boron dilution events. This paper also reviews the APA nuclear design code system performance for the low concentration gad design. (author)

  5. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  6. The concept of cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  7. KALIMER design concept report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sub, Sim Yoon; Kim, Yeon Sik; Whan, Wim Myung; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  8. KALIMER design concept report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon.

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs

  9. Direct elution of sup(99m)Tc complexes from neutron irradiation produced /sup 99/Mo incorporated in a MoCl/sub 2/-MoBr/sub 2/ mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Genova, N.

    1987-01-01

    A novel type of sup(99m)Tc generator, enabling radiopharmaceutical preparation without reductant addition, was prepared and tested. Neutron activated product /sup 99/Mo, in the form of dichloride cluster, was incorporated into inactive molybdenum dichloride-dibromide mixture (MCB) that was left to settle over an activated alumina layer. Direct elution with aqueous ligands such as salicylate or iminodiacetate derivatives in the pH range 6.5-7.5 yielded chemically stable sup(99m)Tc complexes accompanied by small amounts of secondary products (mostly sup(99m)TcO/sup -//sub 4/). Pentavalent oxidation state in the salicylate complex and tervalent in the iminodiacetate (IDA) and in the N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate (HIDA) complexes were assigned to the element after comparison with reference complexes. The anion exchange version of reverse-phase HPLC was used to resolve the eluted product mixture.

  10. Analytical methods for determination of radiochemical and radionuclidic purity of radiopharmaceuticals containing sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In. Part of a coordinated programme on radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatzeanu, I.

    1974-01-01

    The obtained results on radiochemical and radionuclidic purities determination of sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In-radiopharmaceuticals proved to be a good tool for small hospital units and laboratories in satisfying their duty to improve the quality control. The complicated behaviour of technetium in aqueous solutions during the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, needs further research work to elucidate the mechanisms of interaction of reduced species with media and their disproportionation

  11. Target concentration intervention: beyond Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, N H

    2001-01-01

    Target concentration intervention (TCI) is proposed as an alternative conceptual strategy to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). It is argued that the idea of a therapeutic range has limited the interpretation of measured drug concentrations and diminished the anticipated clinical benefit to patients by use of an oversimplified pharmacodynamic model. TCI on the other hand embraces pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts and uses the idea of a target effect and associated target concentration to make rational individual dose decisions.

  12. Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2008-03-01

    A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.

  13. Brain Tumour Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) Complex and {sup 131}I-Labelled Macroaggregated Albumin - Comparison of Results; La Scintigraphie des Tumeurs Cerebrales a l'Aide de Pertechnetate Marque au {sup 99m}Tc, de Complexe {sup 99m}Tc-Fe-II et de Macroagregats d'Albumine Marques au {sup 131}I. Comparaison des Resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J. P.; Dietz, H.; Schmidt, K. J.; Doerr, F.; Brod, K. H.; Wolf, R. [Institut de Radiologie Clinique et Clinique de Neurochirurgie, Universite de Mayence, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    {sup 99m}Tc, in the form of pertechnetate, has now gained its place in brain scintigraphy. The present authors and many others have found its diagnostic value equal to that of substances labelled with mercury or iodine. Using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate as the basis of their work, the authors attempted to extend isotopic diagnosis by two methods, namely: intra-arterial introduction of macroaggregated albumin; and intravenous injection of a new substance, the {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) complex. Following their publication in 1966 of the results obtained with the first method, the authors now present an account of their experiments carried out on over 100 patients with brain tumours. Compared with scintigraphy involving intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, this new method gives supplementary information which is often of considerable help in clinical neuroradiological diagnosis of these patients. The findings in a majority of cases were confirmed by operation or by autopsy. The method made it possible for the first time to use scintigraphy to visualize the arterial network of the brain. In view of the ease with which brain scintigraphy can be performed after intravenous injection, and also of our experience with the {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) complex in kidney scintigraphy and the evidence of a brief report in the United States literature, the authors decided to try out this substance in the detection of brain tumours. Their first results showed it to be incontestably superior to all others previously applied intravenously. It has the indubitable advantages of {sup 99m}Tc as regards the irradiation dose to the patient and gives an exceptionally precise delineation of the invasive cerebral processes due to a rapid fall in blood concentration. A combination of these two new scintigraphic methods would thus seem to open up new possibilities and greatly enhance the field of application of radioisotopes in the clinical study of brain diseases. The paper contains material

  14. PERFORMANCE - AN EVOLVING CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Assist. Mirela-Oana Pintea Ph.D Student; Lect. Monica-Violeta Achim

    2010-01-01

    The concept of performance is a problematic concept and will remain so as long as the definition of company performance varies depending on the interests of users of information. On this consideration, no consensus was reached regarding the definition, methodology and performance models used. Defining this concept is realized in accordance with its objectives of users of information, while the methodology and models used are influenced by legal regulations and management policies. The approac...

  15. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  16. Empowerment: a Concept Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Febriana, Dara

    2011-01-01

    This paper conceptually analyzed the concept of empowerment using the strategies of Walker & Avant (2005) the objective is to clarify the meaning of the concept and to clearly identify empowerment characteristic that will provide consistent definition for practice and future research. Empowerment is defined and examined using relevant resources of literatures and selected empirical referents that described empowerment as a complex and multidimensional concept. Within nursing context empowerme...

  17. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A.

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  18. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  19. Kierkegaard's concepts: Hypocrisy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauth Hansen, Thomas Martin

    2014-01-01

    Kierkegaard’s Concepts is a comprehensive, multi-volume survey of the key concepts and categories that inform Kierkegaard’s writings. Each article is a substantial, original piece of scholarship, which discusses the etymology and lexical meaning of the relevant Danish term, traces the development...... of the concept over the course of the authorship, and explains how it functions in the wider context of Kierkegaard’s thought. Concepts have been selected on the basis of their importance for Kierkegaard’s contributions to philosophy, theology, the social sciences, literature and aesthetics, thereby making...... this volume an ideal reference work for students and scholars in a wide range of disciplines....

  20. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  1. Scatter and cross-talk correction for one-day acquisition of 123I-BMIPP and 99mtc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Maruoka, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yamada, Shogo

    2004-12-01

    123I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (TET) are widely used for evaluation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism and perfusion, respectively. ECG-gated TET SPECT is also used for evaluation of myocardial wall motion. These tests are often performed on the same day to minimize both the time required and inconvenience to patients and medical staff. However, as 123I and 99mTc have similar emission energies (159 keV and 140 keV, respectively), it is necessary to consider not only scattered photons, but also primary photons of each radionuclide detected in the wrong window (cross-talk). In this study, we developed and evaluated the effectiveness of a new scatter and cross-talk correction imaging protocol. Fourteen patients with ischemic heart disease or heart failure (8 men and 6 women with a mean age of 69.4 yr, ranging from 45 to 94 yr) were enrolled in this study. In the routine one-day acquisition protocol, BMIPP SPECT was performed in the morning, with TET SPECT performed 4 h later. An additional SPECT was performed just before injection of TET with the energy window for 99mTc. These data correspond to the scatter and cross-talk factor of the next TET SPECT. The correction was performed by subtraction of the scatter and cross-talk factor from TET SPECT. Data are presented as means +/- S.E. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon's matched-pairs signed-ranks test, and p corrected total count was 26.0 +/- 5.3%. EDV and ESV after correction were significantly greater than those before correction (p = 0.019 and 0.016, respectively). After correction, EF was smaller than that before correction, but the difference was not significant. Perfusion scores (17 segments per heart) were significantly lower after as compared with those before correction (p correction revealed significant differences in EDV, ESV, and perfusion scores. These observations indicate that scatter and cross-talk correction is required for one

  2. Study of different adsorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of 99Mo - 99mTc and 188W-188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain

    2009-01-01

    Amongst some existing radioisotopes, 99m Tc and 188 Re present adequate physical chemical properties for use in Nuclear Medicine in the areas of diagnosis and therapy, respectively. Moreover, these radioisotopes can be distributed to medical centers in the form of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99m Tc and 188 W- 188 Re, allowing autonomy and practicity in use. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molibdenium and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 188 W- 188 Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to the loading solutions previously prepared, with values of pH adjusted between 1 and 7, and these were then percolated through different devices containing in its interior alumina, resin or poly-zirconium compound also known as PZC. The elutions were carried out within an interval of time of approximately 24 hours for the generator systems of 99 Mo - 99 mTc and 48 hours for the generator systems of 188 W- 188 Re due to the difference between the half-lives of radionuclides involved in the reactions. The eluted samples from both generator systems containing 99m Tc or 188 Re were submitted to quality control tests aiming to evaluate the radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity, but no significant contamination for 99 Mo, 188 W, technetium or rhenium in the colloidal states and zirconium were detected in the eluted solutions and in the solutions extracted with saline solution for any value of pH studied. The commercial alumina cartridges known as Acid Sep Pak were more efficient in retaining the molybdenum in the loading solutions when compared with the others commercial retention devices employed. However, when this comparison extends to the chromatographic alumina columns, the use of acid alumina as adsorbent is more efficient when compared to the Acid Sep

  3. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  4. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc; Desenvolvimento de reagente liofilizado de glucoheptonato-estanho para marcacao de leucocitos com Tecnecio-99m in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes

    2007-07-01

    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 111}In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with {sup 99m}Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of {sup 99m}Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the {sup 99m}Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with {sup 99m}Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and

  5. An exploratory study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN peptide scintimammography in the assessment of breast malignant lesions compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2.6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT. 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers.No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative.99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive expression (integrin

  6. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path

  7. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  8. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  9. Children's Conceptions of Jesus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…

  10. Concepts of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Weisskopf, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    This volume elucidates basic and well-established concepts of particle physics for the autodidact who is curious about recent developments in fundamental physics. Elementary quantum mechanics is a background must. Contents, abridged: The evolution of the particle concept before the advent of quantum mechanics. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and atomic physics. Relativistic quantum theory. Nuclear phenomena. Subnuclear phenomena. Index

  11. Modeling concept drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.

    2015-01-01

    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...... data set from a Spanish bank....

  12. Integral fast reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Key features of the IFR consist of a pool-type plant arrangement, a metal fuel-based core design, and an integral fuel cycle with colocated fuel cycle facility. Both the basic concept and the technology base have been demonstrated through actual integral cycle operation in EBR-II. This paper discusses the inherent safety characteristics of the IFR concept

  13. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  14. Thermodynamic efficiency of nonimaging concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of a nonimaging concentrator is to transfer maximal flux from the phase space of a source to that of a target. A concentrator's performance can be expressed relative to a thermodynamic reference. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics. We review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators, especially for the photovoltaic (PV) role. We introduce the concept of optical thermodynamic efficiency which is a performance metric combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of this new metric. In particular we discuss concentrating PV systems for solar power applications.

  15. Obtaining a metastasis model in vivo for the evaluation of the radiopharmaceuticals sensitivity labeled with {sup 99m}Tc; Obtencion de un modelo de metastasis in vivo para la evaluacion de la sensibilidad de radiofarmacos marcados con {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine currently has a wide range of techniques that support the diagnosis of various diseases, including cancer that prevails as the most important. In the present research work was proposed to develop a model that would study the process known as metastasis, because this process is vital because most of the deaths in patients with some form of cancer are caused by metastasis. The objective was to obtain an in vivo model of metastasis induced with AR42J cells for studying the radiopharmaceuticals sensitivity labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. To achieve the objective proposed a study model in which it could make a real time evaluation of some radiopharmaceuticals with reported efficiency was development, in order to determine their sensitivity in similar conditions to the metastasis process. This required a mouse model that was used to observe a similar process to metastasis, inducing cells of the AR42J cell line, since these cells have good proliferation and have molecular targets for a minimum of 3 standardized radiopharmaceuticals. Was elected radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc, because of its low emission of radiation into the tissues, besides having a half life of 6 hours and provides a good visualization of anatomical structures. On the other hand the stable expression of green fluorescent protein in tumor cells appears to be a suitable tool for the detection of cancer development in early stages and the formation of in vivo micro metastases, so two fluorescence tests were performed and other by electrophoresis. The results showed that both study models can be carried out without increasing complexity and meeting the expectations expected for which they were designed. (Author)

  16. Students’ conceptions analysis on several electricity concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, D. E.; Sarwanto, S.; Sukarmin, S.; Ratnasari, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research is aimed to analyse students’ conceptions on several electricity concept. This is a descriptive research with the subjects of new students of Sebelas Maret University. The numbers of the subject were 279 students that consisted of several departments such as science education, physics education, chemistry education, biology education and mathematics education in the academic year of 2017/2018. The instrument used in this research was the multiple-choice test with arguments. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it can be concluded that most of the students still find misconceptions and do not understand electricity concept on sub-topics such as electric current characteristic in the series and parallel arrangement, the value of capacitor capacitance, the influence of the capacitor charge and discharge towards the loads, and the amount of capacitor series arrangement. For the future research, it is suggested to improve students’ conceptual understanding with appropriate learning method and assessment instrument because electricity is one of physics material that closely related with students’ daily life.

  17. Clinical comparison of 99mTc exametazime and 123I Ioflupane SPECT in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Andrew B; Serruya, Mijail; Gepty, Andrew; Intenzo, Charles; Lewis, Todd; Amen, Daniel; Russell, David S; Wintering, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical interpretations of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a cerebral blood flow and a dopamine transporter tracer in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal was to determine how these two different scan might be used and compared to each other in this patient population. Twenty-five patients with persistent symptoms after a mild TBI underwent SPECT with both (99m)Tc exametazime to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and (123)I ioflupane to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) binding. The scans were interpreted by two expert readers blinded to any case information and were assessed for abnormal findings in comparison to 10 controls for each type of scan. Qualitative CBF scores for each cortical and subcortical region along with DAT binding scores for the striatum were compared to each other across subjects and to controls. In addition, symptoms were compared to brain scan findings. TBI patients had an average of 6 brain regions with abnormal perfusion compared to controls who had an average of 2 abnormal regions (pTBI symptoms. Both types of scans might have distinct uses in the evaluation of chronic TBI patients depending on the clinical scenario.

  18. 16-Cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl 99mTc 16-oxo-hexadecanoic acid: synthesis and evaluation of fatty acid metabolism in mouse myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Iljung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Lee, Kyung-Han; Choi, Yong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2008-06-26

    We synthesized 16-cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl 99mTc 16-oxo-hexadecanoic acid (99mTc-CpTT-16-oxo-HDA, 1) and investigated its potential as a radiotracer for evaluating fatty acid metabolism in myocardium. Radiotracer 1 was synthesized in 22.6 +/- 6.3% decay-corrected yield by a double ligand transfer reaction between the ferrocene adduct of methyl hexadecanoate ( 2) and Na99mTcO 4 in the presence of Cr(CO)6 and CrCl3, followed by hydrolysis of the methyl ester group. Radiotracer 1 was found to be chemically stable (99% at 6 h) when incubated in human serum. A tissue distribution study in mice showed that high radioactivity accumulated in heart (9.03%ID/g at 1 min and 5.41%ID/g at 5 min postinjection) with rapid clearance and that heart to blood uptake ratios increased with time (2.13 at 5 min and 3.76 at 30 min postinjection). Metabolite analysis of the heart tissues using a simple extraction method showed that 99mTc-CpTT-4-oxo-butyric acid was detected as the major radioactive metabolite by HPLC, suggesting that 1 is metabolized to 99mTc-CpTT-4-oxo-butyric acid via beta-oxidation in myocardium.

  19. Country report: United Kingdom. Bifunctional bisphosphonate complexes with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re for the diagnosis and therapy of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Martin de Rosales, Rafael; Blower, P.J., E-mail: rafael.torres@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: philip.blower@kcl.ac.uk [Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College London, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    1,1-Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a family of compounds extensively used in the management of disorders of bone metabolism.{sup 1} They accumulate in areas of high bone metabolism, such as bone metastases, and consequently have been receiving increasing attention as molecular imaging probes and pain palliation treatments.{sup 2} Imaging bone metastases with BPs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or planar scintigraphy is one of the most often-performed clinical imaging procedures. Beta-emitting analogues capable of producing a therapeutic effect have also been developed.{sup 3} In particular, the rhenium compounds {sup 186/188}Re-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate ({sup 186/188}Re-HEDP) have shown promise as palliative agents for bone metastases in recent clinical trials.{sup 4} The radiochemicals consist of a complex of a BP (e.g. methylene diphosphonate, MDP) with gamma- ({sup 99m}Tc) or beta- ({sup 186/186}Re) emitters.

  20. Experience in the use of low concentration gadolinia as a PWR fuel burnable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildrum, C.M.; Segovia, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    A description is provided of the low concentration gad design being used in the Spanish 3-loop 17 x 17 fueled PWR's. This design uses a relatively small number of high concentration gadolinia fuel rods (6 and 8 w/o Gd 2 O 3 ) with a large number of low concentration gad rods (2 w/o Gd 2 O 3 ). The 2 w/o gad rods substitute, in part, the high concentration gad rods, thereby helping reduce the end of cycle reactivity penalty from the residual absorption in the gadolinium. The low concentration gad design is advantageous for long cycles (18+ months) and plant up-rating scenarios in that the soluble boron concentration increases that would otherwise result for these situations are avoided. These boron concentration increases could have potentially adverse effects on the plant, since the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) is made less negative, the effectiveness of the boron shutdown safety systems is reduced, and the safety margins are eroded for some accidents, such as for boron dilution events. These increases in the boron concentration would also require the plant to operate at higher lithium (Li) concentrations in the coolant in order to maintain the pH level at the desired value. Operation at the higher Li concentrations is undesirable because of the concerns over the potential impact on the fuel assembly material performance (e.g., crud and corrosion). This paper also reviews the APA (Alpha/Phoenix-P/ANC) nuclear design code system performance for the low concentration gad design. The design system performance for the reload cores that have or are employing this design has been completely satisfactory. The performance and accuracy of the nuclear design methodology is found to be as good for this design as for the reload cores that use exclusively high gad concentrations, or those that use WABA's - the discrete burnable absorber (BA) used prior to its substitution for gadolinium. (authors)

  1. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  2. Clinical reasoning: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of clinical reasoning in nursing. Clinical reasoning is an ambiguous term that is often used synonymously with decision-making and clinical judgment. Clinical reasoning has not been clearly defined in the literature. Healthcare settings are increasingly filled with uncertainty, risk and complexity due to increased patient acuity, multiple comorbidities, and enhanced use of technology, all of which require clinical reasoning. Data sources. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and OvidMEDLINE, for the years 1980 to 2008. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. Multiple terms have been used synonymously to describe the thinking skills that nurses use. Research in the past 20 years has elucidated differences among these terms and identified the cognitive processes that precede judgment and decision-making. Our concept analysis defines one of these terms, 'clinical reasoning,' as a complex process that uses cognition, metacognition, and discipline-specific knowledge to gather and analyse patient information, evaluate its significance, and weigh alternative actions. This concept analysis provides a middle-range descriptive theory of clinical reasoning in nursing that helps clarify meaning and gives direction for future research. Appropriate instruments to operationalize the concept need to be developed. Research is needed to identify additional variables that have an impact on clinical reasoning and what are the consequences of clinical reasoning in specific situations.

  3. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed sup(95m)Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, male and female Japanese quail were chronically fed alfalfa grown on solutions containing TcO 4 which was mixed into a commercial turkey starter. The objective was to estimate concentration ratios and transfer coefficients from Tc incorporated into alfalfa tissue to quail eggs, edible tissues and other organs. (author)

  4. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  5. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  6. German emergency management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the margin and start-up value concepts (according to ICRP 40 and EU-ordinances) are explained, and it is demonstrated that the two concepts are combinable. The combined concept has the advantage of immediately providing, if required, intervention levels for the various measures to be taken, and of obliging those persons concerned with emergency protection to study and quantify, already at the planning stage, the influence of a range of accident conditions on the decision on measures. In this context, the use of computerized decision support systems which are currently being developed is indispensable. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Advanced fusion concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    While the prospects for the eventual development of a tokamak-based fusion reactor appear promising at the present time, the Department of Energy maintains a vigorous program in alternate magnetic fusion concepts. Several of the concepts presently supported include the toroidal reversed field pinch, Tormac, Elmo Bumpy Torus, and various linear options. Recent technical accomplishments and program evaluations indicate that the possibility now exists for undertaking the next development stage, a proof-of-principle experiment, for a few of the most promising alternate concepts

  8. Radiation promotive concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of radiation promotion was proposed in this study. The proposal of this concept was dependent upon stimulation in growth weight of survived chicks when fertile eggs were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that female chick (Promotive Sex) responded to this proposal concept rather than the male. Moreover, the dose level of 640 rads was found to be the Promotive Dose. It is important before applying ionizing radiation as a growth promotive to take into consideration whether you want increasing egg or meat production, as meat promotion in layers breed is bound to decrease egg production. (orig.) [de

  9. The technological conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrochia, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 'technological conception' examines how a project can be concretized or how it is possible to 'conceive', i.e. to produce operative ideas that can be directly use. The first part of this book, called 'concepts and methods', analyzes the logics of conceiving and its philosophy in the construction of its objects and in the management of its programs or projects. The second part is devoted to some exemplary technologies: roads, tunnels, bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, aerospace constructions, and analyzes different concrete logics of technological conception. Finally, the author shows how todays conception faces the risks and complexity increase of systems and considers the possibility of an entirely automated manufacturing shop in the future. (J.S.)

  10. Stormwater Management Concept Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A stormwater management concept is a statement or drawing, or both, describing the manner in which stormwater runoff from a proposed development will be controlled...

  11. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  12. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  13. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  14. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...... project within the framework: concept - program, these notions being concieved as spatial representations primarily and immediately "given" to architecture....

  15. Innovative confinement concepts workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop occurred in California during the week preceding the Second Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. An informal report was made to the Second Symposium. A summary of the Workshop concluded that some very promising ideas were presented, that innovative concept development is a central element of the restructured US DOE. Fusion Energy Sciences program, and that the Workshop should promote real scientific progress in fusion

  16. Alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostagni, G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports the discussions and statements made by the participants on the actual state and future of five different approaches on the fusion concept; they are the following: bumpy torus, reversed-field pinch, open-ended configurations, compact toroids and stellarators. Tables show for each concept parameters that represent the achieved results; data expected for future devices and extrapolations on reactor requirements are included

  17. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  18. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  19. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  20. The biodistribution study of 99mTc labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody in tumor bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zongxin

    1992-01-01

    The author report the optimal condition of 99m Tc labelling with anti-CEA monoclonal antibody using chelating of 99m Tc with dimethylformamide. The labelling rate of this method is 60%-80%, the radiochemical purity of labelling antibody over 90% and maintain its better immuno activity. The biodistribution of the tumor bearing nude mice demonstrates that as compared with the control group, 24 hours after the intraperitoneal injection the injected labelled antibody has its specific concentration in tumor tissue

  1. Assessment of fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Barner, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relative merits of various LWR UO 2 fuel concepts with the potential for improved power-ramping capability were qualitatively assessed. In the evaluation, it was determined that of the various concepts being considered, those that presently possess an adequately developed experience base include annular pellets, cladding coated with graphite on the inner surface, and packed-particle fuel. Therefore, these were selected for initial evaluation as part of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. For this program, graphite-coated cladding is being used in conjunction with annular pellet fuel as one of the concepts with the anticipation of gaining the advantage of the combined improvements. The report discusses the following: the criteria used to evaluate the candidate fuel concepts; a comparison of the concepts selected for irradiation with the criteria, including a general description of their experience bases; and a general discussion of other candidate concepts, including identifying those which may be considered for out-of-reactor evaluation as part of this program, those for which the results of other programs will be monitored, and those which have been deleted from further consideration at this time

  2. Measuring Concentration in Data with an Exogenous Order

    OpenAIRE

    Abedieh, Jasmin; Groll, Andreas; Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Concentration measures order the statistical units under observation according to their market share. However, there are situations where an order according to an exogenous variable is more appropriate or even required. The present article introduces a generalized definition of market concentration and defines a corresponding concentration measure. It is shown that this generalized concept of market concentration satisfies the common axioms of (classical) concentration measures. In an appl...

  3. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulzbacher, I.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiocomplexation and bioevaluation of 99mTc nitrido-piracetam as a model for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanad, M.H.; Farouk, N.; Fouzy, A.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the work is to radiolabel a piracetam using [ 99m Tc≡N] 2+ core in order to give a 99m TcN-labeled piracetam complex, that is expected to concentrate in brain organ by AMPA receptors. The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>98.0) and maintained stability throughout the working period (8 h) using different quality controls. Biodistribution investigation showed that, the maximum uptake of the complex in the brain was 13.5±0.12% at 5 min post injection (p.i.) of the injected dose/g which retained till 2 h post-injection.

  5. Comparative evaluation of different nanostructured metal oxides for preparation of clinically useful 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The potential of nanostructured metal oxides such as nanotitania, nanozirconia, nanoalumina and mesoporous alumina, as new generation sorbent materials for preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator has recently been demonstrated. A comparative assessment of such materials is essential for determination of their suitability for preparation of clinically useful generators using (n,γ) 99 Mo. Characteristics which were compared included the sorption capacity, shelf-life of the generator, radioactive concentration and purity of 99m Tc for radiopharmaceutical applications. Mesoporous alumina was identified as the most suitable sorbent for ensuring sustainable production of clinical grade 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators using low specific activity 99 Mo. (author)

  6. Radiocomplexation and bioevaluation of {sup 99m}Tc nitrido-piracetam as a model for brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanad, M.H.; Farouk, N. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radioisotopes Production and Radioactive Sources Div.; Fouzy, A.S.M. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Food Toxin and Contaminants Dept.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the work is to radiolabel a piracetam using [{sup 99m}Tc≡N]{sup 2+}core in order to give a {sup 99m}TcN-labeled piracetam complex, that is expected to concentrate in brain organ by AMPA receptors. The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>98.0) and maintained stability throughout the working period (8 h) using different quality controls. Biodistribution investigation showed that, the maximum uptake of the complex in the brain was 13.5±0.12% at 5 min post injection (p.i.) of the injected dose/g which retained till 2 h post-injection.

  7. Teamwork: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xyrichis, Andreas; Ream, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of teamwork. Teamwork is seen as an important facilitator in delivering quality healthcare services internationally. However, research studies of teamwork in health care are criticized for lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents. A universal definition for healthcare settings and professionals is missing from published literature. Walker and Avant's approach was used to guide this concept analysis. Literature searches used bibliographic databases (Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Proquest CSA), internet search engines (GoogleScholar), and hand searches. Literature published between 1976 and 2006 was reviewed but only material in English was included. Based on the analysis undertaken, teamwork is proposed as a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care. This is accomplished through interdependent collaboration, open communication and shared decision-making, and generates value-added patient, organizational and staff outcomes. Praising the value of teamwork without a common understanding of what this concept represents endangers both research into this way of working and its effective utilization in practice. The proposed definition helps reconcile discrepancies between how this concept is understood by nurses and doctors, as well as allied health professionals. A common understanding can facilitate communication in educational, research and clinical settings and is imperative for improving clarity and validity of future research.

  8. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  9. Development of numerical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Peucker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of numerical concepts is described from infancy to preschool age. Infants a few days old exhibit an early sensitivity for numerosities. In the course of development, nonverbal mental models allow for the exact representation of small quantities as well as changes in these quantities. Subitising, as the accurate recognition of small numerosities (without counting, plays an important role. It can be assumed that numerical concepts and procedures start with insights about small numerosities. Protoquantitative schemata comprise fundamental knowledge about quantities. One-to-one-correspondence connects elements and numbers, and, for this reason, both quantitative and numerical knowledge. If children understand that they can determine the numerosity of a collection of elements by enumerating the elements, they have acquired the concept of cardinality. Protoquantitative knowledge becomes quantitative if it can be applied to numerosities and sequential numbers. The concepts of cardinality and part-part-whole are key to numerical development. Developmentally appropriate learning and teaching should focus on cardinality and part-part-whole concepts.

  10. Faith: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan Macleod

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports a concept analysis of faith. There are numerous scholars who consider spirituality and religiosity as they relate to health and nursing. Faith is often implied as linked to these concepts but deserves distinct exploration. In addition, as nursing practice conducted within communities of faith continues to emerge, concept clarification of faith is warranted. Qualitative analysis deliberately considered the concept of faith within the lens of Margaret Newman's health as expanding consciousness. Data sources used included a secondary analysis of stories collected within a study conducted in 2008, two specific reconstructed stories, the identification of attributes noted within these various stories and selected philosophical literature from 1950 to 2009.  A definition was identified from the analysis; faith is an evolving pattern of believing, that grounds and guides authentic living and gives meaning in the present moment of inter-relating. Four key attributes of faith were also identified as focusing on beliefs, foundational meaning for life, living authentically in accordance with beliefs, and interrelating with self, others and/or Divine. Although a seemingly universal concept, faith was defined individually. Faith appeared to be broader than spiritual practices and religious ritual and became the very foundation that enabled human beings to make sense of their world and circumstances. More work is needed to understand how faith community nursing can expand the traditional understanding of denominationally defined faith community practices and how nurses can support faith for individuals with whom they encounter within all nursing practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Preparation of Sb2S3-99mTc radiocolloid for the use in lymphoscintography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados Correa, Francisco.

    1987-01-01

    A series of investigations carried out to obtain a radiocolloid with physical, chemical and pharmaceutical properties appropriate for use in lymphoscintography are described. Variables which affect the safety and efficacy of the radioactive drug were studied, such as the concentrations of the ligand and of the reducing agent, as well as the Tc-99m-labelling efficiency. To determine the best labelling conditions, the effects of temperature, incubation time and the influence of the concentration of the radioactive tracer on the in vitro stability of the product were investigated. Similary, the stability of the product four hours after labelling was observed. The size and shape of the particles were measured by electron microscopy. Biodistribution and toxicity studies were carried out in white Balb C mice. An orange solution of colloidal Sb 2 S 3 labelled with Tc-99 was obtained, which was labelled with 95% efficiency. The particles were negatively charged and had a particle size between 5 and 50 nm. The animal biodistribution studies showed that the lymph nodes selectively take up the radiopharmaceutical with satisfactory efficiency. The product is sterile, pyrogen free and not toxic. (author)

  12. Labelling and Organ Distrbution Characterisics of 99mTc Galacturonate Complex Using Dithionite as Reducing Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hilli, A.M.; Mirza, K.S.; Al Noori, T.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The labelling conditions of 99m T c-galacturonate complex using dithionite as reducing agent for periechnetate have been described. GCS-method has been applied for radiochemical determination of the labelled complex. At a constant amount of the ligand (50mg) in the preparation, high labelling of 99m Tc -galacturonate complex was obtained in the presence of the reducing agent. The effect of pH on the labelling yield have show that labelling occurs only at near neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The organ distribution results of 99m Tc -galacturonate complex as a function of the reducing agent concentration was achieved in rats. On using 8mg of dithionite as reducing agent,the activity uptake in the kindneys was significantly low, while in the bones was higher, but decreased after 1 hr. of injection. This,however is due to the instability of the labelled complex releasing pertechnetate which was evident by the increase of activity in the stomach. The organ distribution picture of the complex has been reversed by increasing the concentration of dithionite(16 mg) in the preparation,where the activity uptake in the kidnys was increased to higher level and in the bones was decreased.The activity in the stomach was rather low indicating a more stable complex towards oxidation or decomposition

  13. Kinetic study on ligand exchange reaction between ethylenedicysteine and 99mTc- glucoheptonate (99mTc-GH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.Y.; Ji, S.R.; Lu, C.X.; Ding, S.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Lin, X.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-L,L-ethylenedicysteine( 99m Tc-EC)is a new type of renal imaging agent. It can be labeled very easily and efficiently at room temperature through direct labeling at pH 12. The need for direct labeling at pH 12 does not compromise the simplicity and ease of preparation of 99m Tc-EC and its practical usefulness in daily routine. On the basis of the labeling experiments, we developed a ligand exchange labeling method, in which the labeling EC with 99m Tc can be performed at pH 8. In order to provide a theoretic basis, a detailed kinetic study of ligand exchange reaction between 99m Tc- glucoheptonate( 99m Tc-GH) and EC was carried out. Materials and Methods: 99m Tc-EC is prepared as follows: 99m Tc-GH + EC → 99m Tc-EC + GH, labeling can be easily performed by adding 99m TcO 4 - (2∼6ml generator elute) to glucoheptonate solution containing SnCl 2 .2H 2 O solution to form 99m Tc-GH, then freshly prepared 99m Tc-GH is transferred to the aqueous solution of different concentrations of EC at different pH value, after being shaken, 99m Tc-EC was formed. Radiolabeling yield(RLY) and radiochemical purity(RCP) of 99m Tc-GH and 99m Tc-EC were measured by Xinhua No.1 paper with developing system of Me 2 CO/H 2 O/con.NH 3 .H 2 O=9/3/1(V/V). 99m Tc-GH(RCP must be over 98%, 80ul, 3.6∼7.4MBq) was added to 1ml of 0.5mol/L phosphate buffer(pH 12) containing different amount of EC(150, 75, 50 and 15ug), the sample was taken out at different time intervals and RCP was determined. The solution of EC(30ul, 5g/L) was added to 1ml of 0.5mol/L phosphate buffer at different pH value(pH11, 10, 9, 8, 7), after completely vortexed, 99m Tc-GH(RCP must be over 98%, 80ul, 3.6∼7.4MBq) was then added, the sample was taken out and RCP was determined as above. The rate constant(k) of ligand exchange reaction at different concentrations of EC and different reaction pH values were calculated out by integrating. Plot ln[1/(1-RLY)] vs t(time) showed a liner relationship, and the rate

  14. Comparative study of 99Mo/99mTc generators at base of synthesized gels starting from 99Mo of activation and of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, I.Z.; Monroy G, F.; Rivero G, T.; Rojas N, P.

    2007-01-01

    At the present time the more used and diffused radionuclide in nuclear medicine it is the Technetium 99 metastable ( 99 mTc) it is used for diagnostic and therapy. It is produced starting from molybdenum 99 ( 99 Mo), which is absorbed in chromatographic columns, loaded with alumina that absorb only 0.2% of 99 Mo situation that forces to use high specific activities of 99 Mo that it is obtained starting from the fission of the 235 U. Given these conditions and limitations, new preparation procedures of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, of low or medium specific activity, its have been developed, using gels of zirconium molybdates that incorporates until 30% in weight of 99 Mo in the gel, and also conserve similar characteristics of quality and purity that those obtained by the traditional generator; reducing by this way the cost of production of the 99m Tc, when using 99 Mo of low specific activity, in the preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. The radiochemical characteristics of the elution of 99m Tc, depends strongly on the gel preparation conditions. In particular, the present work has for object to determine the influence of the used type of 99 Mo, fission or activation product, during the gels synthesis, as well as the used air flow for the agitation in the gels preparation and its influence in the quality of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. When diminishing the agitation air flow the efficiency it increases and in the radionuclide purity of the eluates and when using 99 Mo of fission for the gels production it increases in an important way the elution efficiency, the radiochemical purity and radionuclide of the eluates of 99m Tc. (Author)

  15. Gfr estimation using 99mTc DTPA gates method for assessment of early diabetic nephropathy - a comparison with 24-hour creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, S.; Ali, M.K.; Khan, G.

    2014-01-01

    To correlate Gates glomerular filtration rate (GGFR) using technetium-99m diethylene triaminepentacetic acid (99mTc DTPA) with 24-hour creatinine clearance (CRCL) and to establish relationship with duration of diabetes in patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Study Design: A cross-sectional comparative study carried out in Nuclear Medical Centre from Aug 2009 to Jan 2010 at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of eighty three subjects were enrolled, who were divided into three groups; group 1 comprised 31 normotensive diabetics, group 2 had 37 hypertensive diabetics while group 3 had 15 normal subjects. The DTPA GFR and creatinine clearance in healthy subjects as well as diabetic patients were compared using the unpaired student's t-test. The linear association between GFR, creatinine clearance and disease duration was expressed by Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r' along with their significance levels. Results: Gates GFR showed hyperfiltration in normotensive diabetics (96.6 +- 3.3 ml/min/1.73 m/sub 2/), significantly (p<0.05) higher than controls (85.5 +- 5 ml/min/1.73 m/sub 2/), whereas hypertensive diabetics had a significantly lower (p<0.05) Gates GFR (76.8 +- 3.7) than that of controls. Significant degree of correlation existed between GGFR and CRCL in hypertensive diabetics (p<0.05, r=0.716) and controls (r=0.546). Gates GFR also showed good correlation with duration of diabetes in both diabetic groups as compared to that of CRCL. GGFR also correlated well with duration of hypertension 0.37 (0.31-0.43) as compared to CRCL 0.155 (0.15-0.16) in all groups. Conclusions: The 99mTc-DTPA clearance correlates significantly with 24-hour creatinine clearance as well as with disease duration and can provide a simple and convenient index of kidney function in patients of early diabetic nephropathy. (author)

  16. {sup 99m}Tc Hynic-rh-Annexin V scintigraphy for in vivo imaging of apoptosis in patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebers, Frank J.P.; Bois, Josien de; Herk, Marcel van; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Verheij, Marcel [The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kartachova, Marina; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brekel, Michiel W.M. van den [The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital and Academic Medical Center, Department of Head and Neck Oncology and Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tinteren, Harm van [The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Biometrics Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of {sup 99m}Tc Hynic-rh-Annexin-V-Scintigraphy (TAVS), a non-invasive in vivo technique to demonstrate apoptosis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. TAVS were performed before and within 48 h after the first course of cisplatin-based chemoradiation. Radiation dose given to the tumour at the time of post-treatment TAVS was 6-8 Gy. Single-photon emission tomography data were co-registered to planning CT scan. Complete sets of these data were available for 13 patients. The radiation dose at post-treatment TAVS was calculated for several regions of interest (ROI): primary tumour, involved lymph nodes and salivary glands. Annexin uptake was determined in each ROI, and the difference between post-treatment and baseline TAVS represented the absolute Annexin uptake: Delta uptake ({delta}U). In 24 of 26 parotid glands, treatment-induced Annexin uptake was observed. Mean {delta}U was significantly correlated with the mean radiation dose given to the parotid glands (r = 0.59, p = 0.002): Glands that received higher doses showed more Annexin uptake. {delta}U in primary tumour and pathological lymph nodes showed large inter-patient differences. A high correlation was observed on an inter-patient level (r = 0.71, p = 0.006) between the maximum {delta}U in primary tumour and in the lymph nodes. Within the dose range of 0-8 Gy, Annexin-V-scintigraphy showed a radiation-dose-dependent uptake in parotid glands, indicative of early apoptosis during treatment. The inter-individual spread in Annexin uptake in primary tumours could not be related to differences in dose or tumour volume, but the Annexin uptake in tumour and lymph nodes were closely correlated. This effect might represent a tumour-specific apoptotic response. (orig.)

  17. Clinical comparison of 99mTc exametazime and 123I Ioflupane SPECT in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Newberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinical interpretations of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using a cerebral blood flow and a dopamine transporter tracer in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. The goal was to determine how these two different scan might be used and compared to each other in this patient population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-five patients with persistent symptoms after a mild TBI underwent SPECT with both (99mTc exametazime to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF and (123I ioflupane to measure dopamine transporter (DAT binding. The scans were interpreted by two expert readers blinded to any case information and were assessed for abnormal findings in comparison to 10 controls for each type of scan. Qualitative CBF scores for each cortical and subcortical region along with DAT binding scores for the striatum were compared to each other across subjects and to controls. In addition, symptoms were compared to brain scan findings. TBI patients had an average of 6 brain regions with abnormal perfusion compared to controls who had an average of 2 abnormal regions (p<0.001. Patient with headaches had lower CBF in the right frontal lobe, and higher CBF in the left parietal lobe compared to patients without headaches. Lower CBF in the right temporal lobe correlated with poorer reported physical health. Higher DAT binding was associated with more depressive symptoms and overall poorer reported mental health. There was no clear association between CBF and DAT binding in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, both scans detected abnormalities in brain function, but appear to reflect different types of physiological processes associated with chronic mild TBI symptoms. Both types of scans might have distinct uses in the evaluation of chronic TBI patients depending on the clinical scenario.

  18. The new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents: 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-teboroxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The two new 99m (99mTc) labeled myocardial perfusion agents, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Teboroxime, are now available for routine clinical application. Both agents allow assessment of ejection fraction by the first-pass technique at rest or during exercise, thus providing additional information not available with thallium-201. 99mTc-Sestamibi has long myocardial residence time, as well as adequate myocardial extraction, providing images of higher count density and superior quality compared with thallium-201. 99mTc-Teboroxime has excellent myocardial uptake characteristics but is cleared very rapidly from the myocardium. Both tracers have shown results similar to those obtained with thallium-201 for detection of coronary artery disease and the assessment of defect reversibility. 99mTc-Sestamibi studies using the rest/stress imaging sequence can be accomplished in approximately 5 hours; studies using dual-isotope imaging (rest thallium-201 and stress 99mTc-Sestamibi injection) can be completed in 1 to 2 hours. Gated stress images can be performed with 99mTc-Sestamibi, providing simultaneous information of myocardial perfusion at stress and resting wall motion or thickening and allowing rapid differentiation of ischemic from infarcted tissue. Because of its slow myocardial clearance and absence of redistribution, 99mTc-Sestamibi allows uncoupling of the time of injection from the time of imaging and thus can be valuable in the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic therapy. With 99mTc-Teboroxime, rapid serial studies are feasible. Pharmacologic stress and rest studies with 99mTc-Teboroxime single photon emission computed tomography potentially can be completed in under 30 minutes. 73 references

  19. Reusable platform concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparby, B.K.; Stead, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing need to reduce costs of offshore production facilities in order to make development of offshore fields profitable. For small fields with short production time there is in particular a need to investigate ways to reduce costs. The idea of platform reuse is for such fields particularly attractive. This paper will review reusable platform concepts and will discuss their range of application. Particular emphasis will be placed on technical limitations. Traditional concepts as jackups and floating production facilities will be discussed by major attention will be given to newly developed ideas for reuse of steel jackets and concrete structures. It will be shown how the operator for several fields can obtain considerable savings by applying such reusable platform concepts

  20. Outsourcing. The Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor-Adrian TROACĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, an economic phenomenon took place, phenomenon characterized by the transfer of manufacturing activity from the developed countries to those in developing process. This practice can be considered as the response found by the large companies to the problem of production costs that were in a continuous rising, concomitant with the rising of living standards and remuneration.This paper aims to analyze the concept of outsourcing in terms of its evolution, but also in terms of incentives, ups and downs associated with the concept. On the other hand, this paper seeks to capture the fundamentals of this concept veracity and whether it could be implemented in the public service.

  1. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    , that new developments often employ very modest research on the subject and often very little has been done in order to challenge traditional concepts and to invent new sustainable concepts for redevelopment. In order to avoid mistakes in urban redevelopment we need to learn from research and evaluation...... of the best planning practice. But what might be just as important is to learn from concept development practice, which can give us a comprehensive understanding of our complex cities and make us develop a way of experiencing the unique qualities of the architectural typologies at the site. Finally...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  3. The hue of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Malfatti, Michela; Micciolo, Rocco

    2013-01-01

    The study shows a systematic naturally biased association between percepts and concepts. Specifically, it shows that a series of terms pertaining to an abstract semantic field (related to the frame of ethics in social behaviour) has a nonrandom, highly significant, association with colours (hues). This is the first time that consistent associations between abstract terms and colours have been reported in the general population. The main hypothesis, ie that there appear to be 'hues of concepts', was borne out by the results: the abstract terms considered were coloured with blue/green (ie cool) colours as well as their synonyms, while their antonyms were coloured with red/yellow (ie warm) colours. The association provides information about the nature of abstract concepts and their relationship with perception. It also sheds light on the interrelations among words in semantic domains that, to date, have been studied from only a computational viewpoint.

  4. Concepts in catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudart, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on concept in catalysis which are very important in heterogeneous catalysis, even today, when in spite of surface science, the complexity of events at a real catalytic surface is still evading the understanding necessary for design. In this paper the authors will attempt to give an update on evolving concepts in heterogeneous catalysis. The topics include: counting active centers on metal surfaces; the notion of turnover frequency for a catalytic cycle; the concept of structure (in) sensitive reactions; the ensemble (geometric) vs. The ligand (electronic) effect following Sachtler's school; the idea of a rate determining step and of a most abundant reactive intermediate; the effect of surface non-uniformity on catalytic kinetics; what makes catalytic cycles turnover

  5. Systemizing the Pedagogic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Serikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the necessity of systemizing the pedagogic concepts to complement the pluralism principle dominating in pedagogy over the recent years. The author recommends the person oriented systematic synergetic methodology combining various research data into a holistic scientific approach. The paper regards education as the core pedagogic concept - including training, upbringing, self-education, their respective subcomponents, and generated personal resource. The elements of personal resource combine the acquired knowledge, skills and values, developed subjective attitudes and individual health data. The key pedagogic terms describing the educational process are represented by a three-level system; the first level involves the educational form concepts, the second – generated personal resource, the third – summarized notion system combining the previous levels and reflecting their binary relations. The given construct systemizes the pedagogic conceptual apparatus and clarifies the theoretical notion of personal education. 

  6. (99m)Tc-3PRGD 2 SPECT/CT predicts the outcome of advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy plus bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingjie; Min, Kaiyin; Wang, Ting; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Fan; Ji, Tiefeng; Gao, Shi

    2015-07-01

    Functional imaging can help clinicians assess the individual response of advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to chemoradiation therapy plus bevacizumab. Our purpose is to investigate the ability of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in predicting the early response to treatment. Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC diagnosed by histological or cytological examination were imaged with (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SPECT/CT at 3 time points: 1-3 days before the start of treatment (SPECT1), 40 Gy radiotherapy with 2 cycles of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (SPECT2) and 4 weeks after chemoradiotherapy plus bevacizumab (SPECT3). The images were evaluated semiquantitatively by measuring the tumor to non-tumor ratio (T/N) and calculating the percentage change in T/N ratio. Short-term outcome was assessed by the treatment response evaluation according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria as: complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Patients were divided two groups: responders (CR and PR) and nonresponders (SD and PD). To determine a threshold for percent reduction in T/N ratios, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used. Patients were grouped again based on the threshold of P1 (the change percentage from SPECT1 to SPECT2) and P2 (the change percentage from SPECT1 to SPECT3): P1 responders and P1 nonresponders; P2 responders and P2 nonresponders. Patients were followed up starting 4 weeks after completion of therapy and then every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months after 2 years. OS of P1 responders, P1 nonresponders, P2 responders and P2 nonresponders was estimated and graphically illustrated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses of equal OS in subgroups of patients. A total of 28 patients completed all imaging and treatment. All primary

  7. [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marco Antônio Condé de; Maeda, Sérgio Setsuo; Dreyer, Patrícia; Lobo, Alberto; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Hoff, Ana O; Biscolla, Rosa Paula Mello; Smanio, Paola; Brandão, Cynthia M A; Vieira, José G

    2010-06-01

    In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, candidates for surgical intervention, the parathyroid pre-operative localization is of fundamental importance in planning the appropriate surgical approach. The additional acquisition of SPECT and Technetium-99m images, during parathyroid scintigraphy with Sestamibi, is not common practice. Usually, only planar image acquisition, 15 minutes prior and 2 hours after radiopharmaceutical administration, is performed. In our experience, the complete protocol in parathyroid scintigraphy increases the accuracy of pre-operative parathyroid localization. The complete utilization of all available nuclear medicine methods (SPECT e 99mTc) and image interpretation in a multidisciplinary context can improve the accuracy of parathyroid scintigraphy.

  8. Simultaneous 99mTC and 123I Dual-Isotope Brain Striatal Phantom Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: Validation of 99mTC-Trodat-1 and 123I-IBZM Simultaneous Dopamine System Brain Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pan-Fu Kao; Shiaw-Pyng Wey; An-Shoei Yang

    2009-01-01

    [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2′,S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo)])-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1) and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) are radiotracers for brain dopamine preand postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 99mTc and 123I data acquisition...

  9. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  10. CONCEPT-5 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1979-01-01

    The CONCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital cost estimates for nuclear-fueled and fossil-fired power plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of plant type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs similar to the accounting system described in document NUS--531. Cost models are currently provided in CONCEPT 5 for single- and multiunit pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and cost-fired plants with and without flue gas desulfurization equipment

  11. Concepts of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, P L

    1983-01-01

    Concepts of Quantum Optics is a coherent and sequential coverage of some real insight into quantum physics. This book is divided into six chapters, and begins with an overview of the principles and concepts of radiation and quanta, with an emphasis on the significance of the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. The next chapter describes first the properties of the radiation field in a bounded cavity, showing how each cavity field mode has the characteristics of a simple harmonic oscillator and how each can be quantized using known results for the quantum harmonic oscillator. This chapte

  12. Loneliness: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Nakhla, Wagdy E

    2008-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal human experience recognized since the dawn of time, yet it is unique for every individual. Loneliness can lead to both depression and low self-esteem. This article explicates the concept of loneliness through the examination of its conceptual definition and uses, defining attributes, related concepts, and empirical referents. Literature review using hand search and database were used as sources of information. Because loneliness is commonly encountered in nursing situations, the information provided will serve as a framework for assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation of clients.

  13. Stress: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnite, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the concept of stress and provide an operational definition of stress. Literature review revealed that stress is a commonly used, but often ambiguous, term. Findings supported a definition of stress entailing an individual's perception of a stimulus as overwhelming, which in turn elicits a measurable response resulting in a transformed state. This analysis adopts a dynamic definition of stress that may serve to encourage communication, promote reflection, and enhance concept understanding. This definition may provide direction for future work, as well as enhance efforts to serve patients affected by stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tokamak concept innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This document contains the results of the IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Tokamak Concept Innovations held 13-17 January 1986 in Vienna. Although it is the most advanced fusion reactor concept the tokamak is not without its problems. Most of these problems should be solved within the ongoing R and D studies for the next generation of tokamaks. Emphasis for this meeting was placed on innovations that would lead to substantial improvements in a tokamak reactor, even if they involved a radical departure from present thinking

  15. Application of photoactivation in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. 3. Human serum albumin labelled with technetium (99mTc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Kleisner, I.; Konopkova, M.; Komarkova, I.

    1997-01-01

    Human serum albumin was photoactivated with UV light at 254 nm and labelled with technetium ( 99m Tc) by reducing pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) with stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity was determined by using paper chromatography, columns and electrophoresis. The biodistribution of labelled albumin in rats was assessed by activity counting in isolated organs 15 and 60 minutes after administration. Photoactivation increases the number of free SH groups, which affect favourably the labelling efficiency. Irradiated albumin exhibits a higher labelling efficiency (99%) than non-irradiated albumin (96%). The structural changes depend on the UV radiation dose, concentration of irradiated substances, and metal ion content (Sn 2+ ). The results obtained suggest that the elimination from blood of albumin whose structure has been altered by photoactivation can be accelerated, thereby creating favourable conditions for its application in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases. (author)

  16. Labeling bombesin-like peptide with 99mTc via hydrazinonicotinamide. Description of optimized radiolabeling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Durkan, K.; Bayrak, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bombesin (BNN)-like peptides have very high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor. The goal of the current study was to optimize the labeling conditions of a new 99m Tc-radiolabeled BNN-like peptide based on the bifunctional chelating ligand HYNIC using different co-ligands (EDDA and tricine). The radiolabeling conditions (pH, amount of co-ligand, amount of stannous chloride, temperature and reaction time) for newly-formed 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were optimized and evaluated by RHPLC and RTLC. Radiochemical yields for 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were 98.0 ± 1.7 and 97.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. When EDDA was used as co-ligand, the labeling of 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin was optimal in the following reaction mixture: HYNIC-peptide: EDDA: 10 μg/5 mg, pH 3, SnCl 2 concentration: 12 μg/0.1 mL, reaction temperature: 100 deg C, reaction time: 15 min. Besides, the optimum conditions were HYNIC-peptide:tricine: 10 μg/50 mg, pH 5, SnCl 2 concentration: 12 μg/0.1 mL, reaction temperature: 100 deg C, reaction time: 15 min for preparing 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin. The manufactured 99m Tc-HYNIC-Q-Litorin conjugates may offer new possibilities for imaging cancer cells expressing bombesin receptors. (author)

  17. Influence of Momordica charantia L. on the red and white blood cells labeling with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Jose Odinilson de Caldas; Souza, Grace M. Lima de; Catanho, Maria T. Jansem de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Momordica charantia L. is popularly known in Brazil as bitter melon and it's commonly used to treat several diseases as cancer, diabetes and to heal skin injuries. Many papers have been published showing the potential radio pharmacological activity of this plant due to its linkage with 99m Tc through some protein fractions of the extract. In this study, it was evaluated the influence of Momordica charantia L extract , labeling ( in vitro) of blood elements with sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ). In the labeling of red blood cells (in vitro), blood samples were obtained from Wistar rats and incubated with different concentrations of M. charantia, for control group was used NaCl 0.9% and added stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) and 99m Tc. The plasma fractions (P) and the cells (C) were separated and, also, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid at 5%, obtaining the soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The radioactivity rate (%ATl) of each fraction was calculated. The same methodology was applied for white blood cells but these cells were separated in advance by centrifugation at 1800 rpm during 15 minutes. There weren't alterations in the labeling of red blood cells in the concentrations tested of the extract when compared with the rate of the control group neither in the insoluble fractions. However, on the white blood cells it was noticed an increase in 99m Tc uptake in the presence of M. charantia extract. So its possible to conclude, based on previous results obtained by our group, that the M. charantia L. could be used to evaluate inflammatory processes. (author)

  18. Developmental toward achieving the routine production of poly-zirconium chloride (PZC) 99mTC generator for domestic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim; Wan Anuar Wan Awang

    2007-01-01

    Radioisotope 99m Tc still dominates about 80% applications of nuclear technology in nuclear medicine field, and mainly used when labeled with pharmaceutical ligands to diagnose various types of cancerous diseases. This radioisotope now a day is obtained routinely from a radionuclide alumina types chromatographic column generator using a parent molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) radionuclide produced by (n,γ) or (n, fission) nuclear reaction. But recently, newly developed polymer of poly-zirconium chloride (PZC) has been proposed to be used as an alternative adsorbent column for the production of technetium generator. A PZC chromatographic column 99m Tc generator uses 99 Mo radioisotope obtained from 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo method instead of 235 U(n,fission) 99 Mo method. The feasibility and practical studies of such generator has been extensively performed by the collaboration research between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), KAKEN Co., and Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) member state countries. The production procedure has been established and the conception design of the generator has been proposed at the previous series of FNCA workshop, and furthermore, a series of clinical test has been performed in a participating country. Prior to commercialization, a test run for routine production should be started immediately in a least one or two selected FNCA member countries. At a later stage, the PZC technetium generator is produced in a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) production laboratory for the purpose of data compilation and registration with the local drug control authority. In this paper, we propose to cooperate with participating organizations to perform the trial production of the generator by utilizing our present radioisotope production facilities and set-up. If this step is successful, then commercialize and marketing of PZC- 99m Tc-generator for domestic use looks more promising. (author)

  19. Synthesis characterization and biological evaluation of a novel mixed ligand 99mTc complex as potential brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Manta, E.; Leon, A.; Papadopoulos, M.; Pirmettis, Y.; Raptopoulou, C.; Chiotellis, E.; Leon, E.; Mallo, L.

    1998-01-01

    One approach in the design of neutral oxotechnetium complexes is based on the simultaneous substitution of a tridentate dianionic ligand and a monodentate monoanionic coligand on a [Tc(V)O] +3 precursor. Following this ''mixed ligand'' concept, a novel 99m Tc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethylethylenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand is prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation of the complex at tracer level was accomplished by using 99m Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor. The substitution was optimized and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5 was selected. Under this conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product (with radiochemical purity > 80%) was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium complex as structural model. The Re complex was also prepared by substitution method and isolated as a crystalline product. The crystals were characterized by UV-vis and IR spectra and elemental analysis. Results were consistent with the expected ReOLC structure. X ray crystallographic study demonstrated that the complex adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The basal plane is defined by the SS atoms of the ligand and the oxo group, while the N of the ligand and the S of the colligand occupy the two apical positions. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. 99 Tc complex was also prepared. Although it was not isolated due to the small amount of reagents employed, the HPLC profile was identical to the one observed for the rhenium complex suggesting the same chemical structure. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance, excretion through hepatobiliary system and a brain/blood ratio that increased significantly with time. (author)

  20. Semi-quantitative analysis of post-transarterial radioembolization 90Y Microsphere position emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) images in advance liver malignancy: Comparison with 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Seung Hong; Kim, Sung Eun; Cho, Jae Hyuk; Park, Ju Kyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Choe, Jae Gol; Eo, Jae Seon; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Eun Sub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment planning technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT images and posttreatment transarterial radioembolization (TARE) yttirum-90 ( 90 Y) PET/CT images by comparing the ratios of tumor-to-normal liver counts. Fifty-two patients with advanced hepatic malignancy who underwent 90 Y microsphere radioembolization from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had undergone 99 mTc MAA intraarterial injection SPECT for a pretreatment evaluation of microsphere distribution and therapy planning. After the administration of 90 Y microspheres, the patients underwent posttreatment 90 Y PET/CT within 24 h. For semiquantitative analysis, the tumor-to-normal uptake ratios in 90 Y PET/CT (TNR-yp) and 99 mTc MAA SPECT (TNR-ms) as well as the tumor volumes measured in angiographic CT were obtained and analyzed. The relationship of TNR-yp and TNR-ms was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. In a total of 79 lesions of 52 patients, the distribution of microspheres was well demonstrated in both the SPECT and PET/CT images. A good correlation was observed of between TNR-ms and TNR-yp (rho value = 0.648, p < 0.001). The TNR-yp (median 2.78, interquartile range 2.43) tend to show significantly higher values than TNR-ms (median 2.49, interquartile range of 1.55) (p = 0.012). The TNR-yp showed weak correlation with tumor volume (rho = 0.230, p = 0.041). The 99mTc MAA SPECT showed a good correlation with 90 Y PET/CT in TNR values, suggesting that 99 mTc MAA can be used as an adequate pretreatment evaluation method. However, the 99 mTc MAA SPECT image consistently shows lower TNR values compared to 90Y PET/CT, which means the possibility of underestimation of tumorous uptake in the partition dosimetry model using 99 mTc MAA SPECT. Considering that 99 mTc MAA is the only clinically available surrogate marker

  1. Identificación y caracterización sindromológica desde la medicina tradicional china (MTC) del cuadro clínico de mujeres ingresadas al Hospital Gíneco-Obstétrico Isidro Ayora (HGOIA) y al Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín (HCAM) con diagnóstico biomédico de preeclampsia CIE10 O14

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Echeverría, Fabián Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Se estudiaron 30 casos de mujeres ingresadas con diagnóstico de preeclampsia en los hospitales Gíneco Obstétrico Isidro Ayora (HGOIA) y Carlos Andrade Marín (HCAM) de Quito, entre los meses de junio y septiembre de 2016, aplicando la historia clínica de medicina tradicional china ACUMOX, con el fin de identificar los síndromes de la medicina tradicional china (MTC) en estas 30 mujeres. El cuadro clínico de estas mujeres corresponde a 12 síndromes diferentes, desde la óptica de la MTC, de los ...

  2. Semi-quantitative analysis of post-transarterial radioembolization {sup 90}Y Microsphere position emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) images in advance liver malignancy: Comparison with {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Seung Hong; Kim, Sung Eun; Cho, Jae Hyuk; Park, Ju Kyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Eun Sub [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment planning technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT images and posttreatment transarterial radioembolization (TARE) yttirum-90 ({sup 90}Y) PET/CT images by comparing the ratios of tumor-to-normal liver counts. Fifty-two patients with advanced hepatic malignancy who underwent {sup 90}Y microsphere radioembolization from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had undergone {sup 99}mTc MAA intraarterial injection SPECT for a pretreatment evaluation of microsphere distribution and therapy planning. After the administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres, the patients underwent posttreatment {sup 90}Y PET/CT within 24 h. For semiquantitative analysis, the tumor-to-normal uptake ratios in {sup 90}Y PET/CT (TNR-yp) and {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT (TNR-ms) as well as the tumor volumes measured in angiographic CT were obtained and analyzed. The relationship of TNR-yp and TNR-ms was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. In a total of 79 lesions of 52 patients, the distribution of microspheres was well demonstrated in both the SPECT and PET/CT images. A good correlation was observed of between TNR-ms and TNR-yp (rho value = 0.648, p < 0.001). The TNR-yp (median 2.78, interquartile range 2.43) tend to show significantly higher values than TNR-ms (median 2.49, interquartile range of 1.55) (p = 0.012). The TNR-yp showed weak correlation with tumor volume (rho = 0.230, p = 0.041). The 99mTc MAA SPECT showed a good correlation with {sup 90}Y PET/CT in TNR values, suggesting that {sup 99}mTc MAA can be used as an adequate pretreatment evaluation method. However, the {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT image consistently shows lower TNR values compared to 90Y PET/CT, which means the possibility of underestimation of tumorous uptake in the partition dosimetry model using {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT. Considering that

  3. Design and setup of a portable stirring device for transfer and dissolution of {sup 99}Mo applied to the use of a {sup 99m}Tc generator; Diseno e implementacion de un modulo portatil para el traslado y disolucion de Mo-99 aplicado al empleo de un generador de Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Yon [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica; Urquizo, Rafael [Universidad Tecnologica del Peru, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Electronica; Mendoza, Pablo [Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Rojas, Jorge [Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the design and implementation of a portable magnetic stirring device for transfer and efficient dissolution of Mo{sub O}3 coupled to a {sup 99m}Tc generator prototype. The development of this equipment will enable an efficient and safe transfer of {sup 99}Mo at a 2 Ci of maximum activity from the nuclear reactor Huarangal to the point of operation of the {sup 99m}Tc generator equipment. This article describes the mechanical design, volume and shielding calculation, the electronics design and the programmable speed control of the stirring system for radioactive samples. (authors).

  4. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  5. Biodistribution dosimetric study of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99mT}c Ixolaris in mice for melanoma diagnosis by molecular image and translational model for human beings; Estudo dosimetrico da biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco Ixolaris-{sup 99m}Tc em camundongos para diagnostico de melanoma atraves de imagem molecular e modelo translacional para humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Sarah Canuto Silva

    2015-07-01

    The labeling of Ixolaris with {sup 99m}Tc was developed by Barboza et.al. (2013) aiming its use primarily in glioblastoma and after in melanoma diagnosis, a less common but very aggressive cancer and with high mortality rate. Preliminary tests on animals have proven its effectiveness of labeling but a dosimetric study to human clinical trials should be performed. This study aimed to: (1) determine the biokinetic model for the radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc-Ixolaris in mice by imaging dosimetry method; and (2) estimate the absorbed and effective dose resulting from the use of a new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma and metastases diagnosis in human beings, since a dosimetric study of new radiopharmaceuticals in animals is necessary to test them subsequently in humans and apply for registration in ANVISA. According to SPECT images, was found a latency period of 15 to 21 days for the development of lung metastasis in mice. Three C57BL6 mice, one control animal, and two animals with induced cell line B16-F10 murine melanoma were tested. The {sup 99m}Tc-Ixolaris radiopharmaceutical was administered intravenously in a caudal vein, and SPECT images were acquired 0.5 h, 1.5 h, 2.5 h, 3.5 h and 24 h post-administration for analysis and biodistribution quantification. The biokinetic model was determined and thus, obtained cumulative activity in order to estimate the absorbed dose in each organ. The mass and metabolic differences between mice and humans were considered and used to extrapolate the data acquired at different scales. Based on dose factors provided by the software MIRDOSE and Olinda (S factor), absorbed doses in irradiated target organs were calculated for the source organs, and finally the effective dose was estimated. The results indicate that for diagnostic exams conducted in human melanoma patients by administering approximately 25.7 MBq the estimated effective dose was 4.3 mSv. Comparing with effective doses obtained in other diagnostic techniques with {sup 99m}Tc

  6. THE EFFECT OF CONCEPT MAPPING ON CONCEPT LEARNING IN SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    岡, 直樹; 今永, 久美子

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of concept map completion tasks on concept learning in the primary schoolchildren. The participants were to insert some of the suitable concepts (concept group) or link labeles (link label group) or both of them (concept/link label group) into the blanks to make up the map wholly. It was revealed that the results of the concept group and the concept/link label group were better than the link label group. These results were discussed in te...

  7. Determination of particle concentrations in multitemperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richley, E.; Tuma, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the multitemperature Saha equation (MSE) of Prigogine 1 and Patapov 2 for calculating particle concentrations in plasmas is shown to be an invalid procedure. Errors greater than one order of magnitude in the electron density in high-pressure argon and nitrogen electric arc plasmas can be easily incurred by using the multitemperature Saha equation. The alternative kinetic method for calculating concentrations is shown to be based on firm concepts. Simpliying procedures and computational techniques for calculating concentrations with the kinetic method are illustrated with examples

  8. Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Karwowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called "black American feminism" the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all - both biological and socially constructed - human fates cross.

  9. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  10. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  11. CONCEPT OF MOBILE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г О Дуйсеева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the definition and the description of mobile learning. Ten years’ experience of the latest mobile technologies use and devices in educational process abroad is analyzed. Prospects and the possibilities of application of these technologies are considered. The basic concepts and development of mobile learning which proposed by scientists for the last years have been given.

  12. [Self esteem : concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an inner attitude at the base of the construction of personality and psychic balance in addition to be responsible of adaptive processes over the course of life. The concept of self-esteem is commonly used in several disciplines however, it seems that the consensus on its conceptualization and its operationalization is not yet reached. In this context, the concept analysis allows to address a phenomenon and to understand its use and its evolution from a unique disciplinary perspective. The aim of this article is therefore to analyze the concept of self esteem from a nursing perspective to identify : definitions of the term and related terms, attributes, model and limit cases proposed here within the community of mental health nurses, antecedents and consequents as well as the empirical references using the Walker and Avant method. The attributes identified allowing a deeper understanding of the concept are : the self-value, the self-acceptance, the self-efficacy, attitude towards oneself and finally, self-respect.

  13. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  14. Thirdness and psychoanalytic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, André

    2004-01-01

    Many psychoanalytic concepts lend themselves to the notion of thirdness. Starting from a basis of Freudian thought, the author discusses some of the elaborative contributions of Winnicott, Lacan, and Bion, as well as the ideas of Saussure and Peirce, noting how all these incorporate an appreciation of the value and relevance of thirdness in both the theory and practice of psychoanalysis.

  15. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  16. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  17. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  18. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  19. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  20. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour