WorldWideScience

Sample records for concentrated solar thermal

  1. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  2. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  3. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  4. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  5. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  6. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2 . The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  7. Nonimaging concentrators for solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1980-03-01

    A small experimental solar collector test facility was used to explore applications of nonimaging optics for solar thermal concentration in three substantially different configurations: a single stage system with moderate concentration on an evacuated absorber (a 5.25X evacuated tube Compound Parabolic Concentrator or CPC), a two stage system with high concentration and a non-evacuated absorber (a 16X Fresnel lens/CPC type mirror) and moderate concentration single stage systems with non-evacuated absorbers for lower temperature (a 3X and a 6.5X CPC). Prototypes of each of these systems were designed, built and tested. The performance characteristics are presented.

  8. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  9. Essential oil extraction with concentrating solar thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Veynandt, François

    2015-01-01

    Material complementari del cas estudi "Essential oil extraction with concentrating solar thermal energy”, part component del llibre "Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers" Peer Reviewed

  10. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  11. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  12. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  13. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  14. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  15. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Peter H [Glendale, CA; Brandt, Randolph J [Palmdale, CA

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  16. Thermal behaviour of solar air heater with compound parabolic concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchinda, Rene

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for computing the thermal performance of an air heater with a truncated compound parabolic concentrator having a flat one-sided absorber is presented. A computer code that employs an iterative solution procedure is constructed to solve the governing energy equations and to estimate the performance parameters of the collector. The effects of the air mass flow rate, the wind speed and the collector length on the thermal performance of the present air heater are investigated. Predictions for the performance of the solar heater also exhibit reasonable agreement, with experimental data with an average error of 7%

  17. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    27545 MWth: the EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2011. After two years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObserv'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m 2 . The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe

  18. Performance investigation of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A common design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator was presented. • The gallium arsenide high concentrated solar was used as the receiver. • High efficiency of electric generating could be achieved at noon. • Fresnel solar concentrator was studied and compared in hazy weather and clear weather. - Abstract: A design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator which can provide a certain width focal line was presented in this study. Based on the optical principle of refraction, the dimensions of each wedge-shaped element of Fresnel lens are calculated. An optical simulation has been done to obtain the optical efficiency of the concentrator for different tracking error and axial incidence angle. It has been found that about 80% of the incident sunlight can still be gathered by the absorber when the tracking error is within 0.7°. When the axial angle of incidence is within 10°, it almost has no influence to the receiving rate. The concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator has been designed in this paper. Take the gallium arsenide high concentrated battery as the receiver, experimental research about cylindrical Fresnel concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is undertaken in the real sky. Main parameters are tested such as the temperature distribution on receiver, electric energy and thermal energy outputs of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system, the efficiency of multipurpose utilization of electric and heat, and so on. The test results in clear weather show that maximum electric generating efficiency is about 18% at noon, the maximum heat receiving rate of cooling water is about 45%. At noon time (11:00–13:00), the total efficiency of thermal and electricity can reach more than 55%. Performance of this concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator is studied and compared in two types typical weather, hazy

  19. Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

  20. Thermal Recycling of Waelz Oxide Using Concentrated Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouganatos, N.; Matter, R.; Wieckert, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.; Gamroth, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dominating Zn recycling process is the so-called Waelz process. Waelz oxide (WOX), containing 55-65% Zn in oxidic form, is mainly derived from electric arc furnace dust produced during recycling of galvanized steel. After its wash treatment to separate off chlorides, WOX is used as feedstock along with ZnS concentrates for the electrolytic production of high-grade zinc. Novel and environmentally cleaner routes for the purification of WOX and the production of Zn are investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The solar-driven clinkering of WOX and its carbothermal reduction were experimentally demonstrated using a 10 kWth packed-bed solar reactor. Solar clinkering at above 1265°C reduced the amount of impurities below 0.1 wt.%. Solar carbothermal reduction using biocharcoal as reducing agent in the 1170-1320°C range yielded 90 wt.% Zn.

  1. A novel application of concentrated solar thermal energy in foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, J; Harikesavan, V; Eshwanth, A

    2016-05-01

    Scrap preheating in foundries is a technology that saves melting energy, leading to economic and environmental benefits. The proposed method in this paper utilizes solar thermal energy for preheating scrap, effected through a parabolic trough concentrator that focuses sunlight onto a receiver which carries the metallic scrap. Scraps of various thicknesses were placed on the receiver to study the heat absorption by them. Experimental results revealed the pattern with which heat is gained by the scrap, the efficiency of the process and how it is affected as the scrap gains heat. The inferences from them gave practical guidelines on handling scraps for best possible energy savings. Based on the experiments conducted, preheat of up to 160 °C and a maximum efficiency of 70 % and a minimum efficiency of 40 % could be achieved across the time elapsed and heat gained by the scrap. Calculations show that this technology has the potential to save around 8 % of the energy consumption in foundries. Cumulative benefits are very encouraging: 180.45 million kWh of energy savings and 203,905 t of carbon emissions cut per year across the globe. This research reveals immense scope for this technology to be adopted by foundries throughout the world.

  2. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging. EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2

  3. concentrated solar power and solar thermal Barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    European concentrated solar power capacity remained stable in 2014 and will probably post a negligible increase in 2015. Construction work on a number of new facilities in Italy that are scheduled for commissioning in 2016 and 2017 could commence in the second half of the year. The European solar thermal market for producing heat, domestic hot water and heating has not found the recipe for recovery. According to EurObserv'ER, the market contracted by a further 3.7% from its 2013 level which is the sixth decrease in a row

  4. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neti, Sudhakar [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Oztekin, Alparslan [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Chen, John [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Tuzla, Kemal [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Misiolek, Wojciech [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300°C and 850°C using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  5. Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (α-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process.

  6. Biaxial-Type Concentrated Solar Tracking System with a Fresnel Lens for Solar-Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Chieh Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromechanical, biaxial-type concentrated solar tracking system was designed for solar-thermal applications. In our tracking system, the sunlight was concentrated by the microstructure of Fresnel lens to the heating head of the Stirling engine and two solar cells were installed to provide the power for tracking system operation. In order to obtain the maximum sun power, the tracking system traces the sun with the altitude-azimuth biaxial tracing method and accurately maintains the sun’s radiation perpendicular to the plane of the heating head. The results indicated that the position of heating head is an important factor for power collection. If the sunlight can be concentrated to completely cover the heating head with small heat loss, we can obtain the maximum temperature of the heating head of the Stirling engine. Therefore, the temperature of heating head can be higher than 1000 °C in our experiment on a sunny day. Moreover, the results also revealed that the temperature decrease of the heating head is less than the power decrease of solar irradiation because of the latent heat of copper and the small heat loss from the heating head.

  7. Optical and mechanical tolerances in hybrid concentrated thermal-PV solar trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liliana Ruiz; Cocilovo, Byron; Miles, Alexander; Pan, Wei; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Norwood, Robert A

    2018-05-14

    Hybrid thermal-PV solar trough collectors combine concentrated photovoltaics and concentrated solar power technology to harvest and store solar energy. In this work, the optical and mechanical requirements for optimal efficiency are analyzed using non-sequential ray tracing techniques. The results are used to generate opto-mechanical tolerances that can be compared to those of traditional solar collectors. We also explore ideas on how to relieve tracking tolerances for single-axis solar collectors. The objective is to establish a basis for tolerances required for the fabrication and manufacturing of hybrid solar trough collectors.

  8. Dynamic Characterization of an Inflatable Concentrator for Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Larry; Hamidzadeh, Hamid; Tinker, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Pedro I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable structural system that is a technology demonstrator for solar thermal propulsion and other applications is characterized for structural dynamic behavior both experimentally and computationally. The inflatable structure is a pressurized assembly developed for use in orbit to support a Fresnel lens or inflatable lenticular element for focusing sunlight into a solar thermal rocket engine. When the engine temperature reaches a pre-set level, the propellant is injected into the engine, absorbs heat from an exchanger, and is expanded through the nozzle to produce thrust. The inflatable structure is a passively adaptive system in that a regulator and relief valve are utilized to maintain pressure within design limits during the full range of orbital conditions. Modeling and test activities are complicated by the fact that the polyimide film material used for construction of the inflatable is nonlinear, with modulus varying as a function of frequency, temperature, and level of excitation. Modal vibration testing and finite element modeling are described in detail in this paper. The test database is used for validation and modification of the model. This work is highly significant because of the current interest in inflatable structures for space application, and because of the difficulty in accurately modeling such systems.

  9. Thermal characteristics of tubular receivers of solar radiation line concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh.I.; Zakhidov, R.A.; Khuzhanov, R. et al.

    2013-01-01

    A stationary thermal model of an LCS-HR system is considered, taking into account the basic parameters of the problem: availability of a transparent screen, selectivity of the receiver, characteristics of the heat carrier and average concentration on the surface of the tubular receiver C"". Based on this model, an algorithm and program of numerical research of the thermal characteristics of the HR-temperature of heating and local and average coefficients of efficiency are developed. For possible concentrations, the selectivity of the receiver and the transparency of the screen in linear concentrators, the potential stationary heating temperatures, and the coefficients of efficiency for main three types of heat carriers - air, water, and liquid metal coolant are studied. The time of achieving stationary values by the temperatures of the heat carrier is estimated. (author)

  10. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The European concentrated solar plant market is set to mark time for a year following efforts to complete construction on 350 MW of CSP capacity in Spain in 2013. The spotlight has switched to Italy which could re-launch the European market within a couple of years. The European solar thermal market for heat and hot water production and space heating, is shrinking all the time. EurObserv'ER reports that the market is in its fifth successive year of contraction in the European Union. It now posts a 10.5% decline on its 2012 performance having struggled to install just over 3 million m 2 of collectors in 2013

  11. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanuki, K.; Nakajima, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  12. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J. Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-07-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m-2) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity.

  13. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-05-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  14. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  15. Integrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1982-09-01

    A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 sq m panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200 C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100 to 300 C range including industrial progress heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

  16. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  17. Towards standardized testing methodologies for optical properties of components in concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Morales, Angel; Vicente, Gema San; Sutter, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Precise knowledge of the optical properties of the components used in the solar field of concentrating solar thermal power plants is primordial to ensure their optimum power production. Those properties are measured and evaluated by different techniques and equipment, in laboratory conditions and/or in the field. Standards for such measurements and international consensus for the appropriate techniques are in preparation. The reference materials used as a standard for the calibration of the equipment are under discussion. This paper summarizes current testing methodologies and guidelines for the characterization of optical properties of solar mirrors and absorbers.

  18. Thermal performance of a linear Fresnel reflector solar concentrator PV/T energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Mohamed R. [State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia)], E-Mail: Dmoh_elbehary@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on an investigation of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. Solar energy conversion efficiency was increased by taking advantage of PV/T collectors and low solar concentration technologies, combined into a PV/T system operated at elevated temperature. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel mirror reflecting concentrator with a channel PV/T collector. Concentrator PV/T collectors can function at temperatures over 100 degrees celsius, and thus thermal energy can be made to drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. Solar system analytical thermal performance gives efficiency values over 60%. Combined electric and thermal (CET) efficiency is high. A combined electric and heat power for the linear fresnel reflector approach that employs high performance CPV technology to produce both electricity and thermal energy at low to medium temperatures is presented. A well-functioning PV/T system can be designed and constructed with low concentration and a total efficiency of nearly 80% can be attained.

  19. Test results on parabolic dish concentrators for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish concentrators. The concentrators were mostly designed for the production of electric power using dish-mounted Rankine, Brayton or Stirling cycle engines, intended to be produced at low cost. Measured performance for various dishes included optical efficiencies ranging from 0.32 to 0.86 at a geometric concentration ratio of 500, and from about 0.09 to 0.85 at a geometric concentration ratio of 3000. Some malfunctions were observed. The tests should provide operating information of value in developing concentrators with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  20. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  1. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  2. Thermal Modeling of a Hybrid Thermoelectric Solar Collector with a Compound Parabolic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this study radiant light from the sun is used by a hybrid thermoelectric (TE) solar collector and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to generate electricity and thermal energy. The hybrid TE solar collector system described in this report is composed of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate, TE modules, a heat sink to cool the water, and a storage tank. Incident solar radiation falls on the CPC, which directs and reflects the radiation to heat up the absorber plate, creating a temperature difference across the TE modules. The water, which absorbs heat from the hot TE modules, flows through the heat sink to release its heat. The results show that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depend on the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the TE modules. A maximum power output of 1.03 W and a conversion efficiency of 0.6% were obtained when the temperature difference was 12°C. The thermal efficiency increased as the water flow rate increased. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved was 43.3%, corresponding to a water flow rate of 0.24 kg/s. These experimental results verify that using a TE solar collector with a CPC to produce both electrical power and thermal energy seems to be feasible. The thermal model and calculation method can be applied for performance prediction.

  3. Effects of Nonuniform Incident Illumination on the Thermal Performance of a Concentrating Triple Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Amri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical heat transfer model was developed to investigate the temperature of a triple junction solar cell and the thermal characteristics of the airflow in a channel behind the solar cell assembly using nonuniform incident illumination. The effects of nonuniformity parameters, emissivity of the two channel walls, and Reynolds number were studied. The maximum solar cell temperature sharply increased in the presence of nonuniform light profiles, causing a drastic reduction in overall efficiency. This resulted in two possible solutions for solar cells to operate in optimum efficiency level: (i adding new receiver plate with higher surface area or (ii using forced cooling techniques to reduce the solar cell temperature. Thus, surface radiation exchanges inside the duct and Re significantly reduced the maximum solar cell temperature, but a conventional plain channel cooling system was inefficient for cooling the solar cell at medium concentrations when the system was subjected to a nonuniform light distribution. Nonuniformity of the incident light and surface radiation in the duct had negligible effects on the collected thermal energy.

  4. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  5. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  6. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    638,4 MWe The CSP plant electrical generating capacity in the EU at the end of 2010 As could be expected, the recession cast long shadows over the European solar thermal market throughout 2010. For the second year running, new installations for hot water production and space heating (collectors) decreased. According to the EurObserv'ER survey the newly-assigned surface area was 3.8 million m2 in 2010, down from 4.2 million m2 in 2009 and 4.6 million m2 in 2008. At the same time, the European high-temperature solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing applications, with 638.4 MW already installed. Spain accounts for almost all of this capacity, and a further five EU countries, mostly Mediterranean, intend to develop the sector

  7. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: liming@ynnu.edu.c [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China); Li, G.L. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. {yields} Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. {yields} The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating

  8. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  9. Thermal behaviour of a solar air heater with a compound parabolic concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchinda, R.

    2005-11-01

    A mathematical model for computing the thermal performance of an air heater with a truncated compound parabolic concentrator having a flat one-sided absorber is presented. A computed code that employs an iterative solution procedure is constructed to solve the governing energy equations and to estimate the performance parameters of the collector. The effects of the air mass flow rate, the wind speed and the collector length on the thermal performance of the present air heater are investigated. Prediction for the performance of the solar heater also exhibits reasonable agreement with experimental data with an average error of 7%. (author)

  10. Cost and performance analysis of concentrating solar power systems with integrated latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyanandam, K.; Pitchumani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating TES (thermal energy storage) in a CSP (concentrating solar power) plant allows for continuous operation even during times when solar irradiation is not available, thus providing a reliable output to the grid. In the present study, the cost and performance models of an EPCM-TES (encapsulated phase change material thermal energy storage) system and HP-TES (latent thermal storage system with embedded heat pipes) are integrated with a CSP power tower system model utilizing Rankine and s-CO 2 (supercritical carbon-dioxide) power conversion cycles, to investigate the dynamic TES-integrated plant performance. The influence of design parameters of the storage system on the performance of a 200 MW e capacity power tower CSP plant is studied to establish design envelopes that satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requirements, which include a round-trip annualized exergetic efficiency greater than 95%, storage cost less than $15/kWh t and LCE (levelized cost of electricity) less than 6 ¢/kWh. From the design windows, optimum designs of the storage system based on minimum LCE, maximum exergetic efficiency, and maximum capacity factor are reported and compared with the results of two-tank molten salt storage system. Overall, the study presents the first effort to construct and analyze LTES (latent thermal energy storage) integrated CSP plant performance that can help assess the impact, cost and performance of LTES systems on power generation from molten salt power tower CSP plant. - Highlights: • Presents technoeconomic analysis of thermal energy storage integrated concentrating solar power plants. • Presents a comparison of different storage options. • Presents optimum design of thermal energy storage system for steam Rankine and supercritical carbon dioxide cycles. • Presents designs for maximizing exergetic efficiency while minimizing storage cost and levelized cost of energy

  11. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a preliminary optical assessment of the external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC) component in three concentrating solar thermal units. Each solar thermal unit consists an optical element (the non-imaging concentrating reflector) and a thermal element (the evacuated glass tube solar absorber). The three concentrating solar thermal units discussed in this work are DEWAR 58, a direct flow all-glass dewar, DEWAR 47 an indirect flow ...

  12. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  13. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation sensors, a differential amplifier, and two servomotors. The hot side of the TEGs at midday has a temperature of around 200°C, and the cold side is approximately 50°C. The thermosiphon cooling system was designed to absorb the heat passing through the TEGs and provide optimal working conditions. The system generates 20 W of electrical energy and 200 W of thermal energy stored in water with a temperature of around 50°C. The hybrid system studied can be considered as an alternative to photovoltaic/thermal systems, especially in countries with abundant solar radiation, such as Mexico, China, and India.

  14. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  15. Carbon dioxide as working fluid for medium and high-temperature concentrated solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the benefits and drawbacks of using carbon dioxide in solar thermal systems at medium and high operating temperatures. For medium temperatures, application of CO2 in non-imaging-optics based compound parabolic concentrators (CPC combined with evacuated-tube collectors is studied. These collectors have been shown to obtain efficiencies higher than 40% operating at around 200℃ without the need of tracking. Validated numerical models of external compound parabolic concentrators (XCPCs are used to simulate their performance using CO2 as working fluid. For higher temperatures, a mathematical model is implemented to analyze the operating performance of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTC using CO2 at temperatures between 100℃ and 600℃.

  16. Computational Analysis of Nanoparticles-Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-05-05

    High fidelity computational models of thermocline-based thermal energy storage (TES) were developed. The research goal was to advance the understanding of a single tank nanofludized molten salt based thermocline TES system under various concentration and sizes of the particles suspension. Our objectives were to utilize sensible-heat that operates with least irreversibility by using nanoscale physics. This was achieved by performing computational analysis of several storage designs, analyzing storage efficiency and estimating cost effectiveness for the TES systems under a concentrating solar power (CSP) scheme using molten salt as the storage medium. Since TES is one of the most costly but important components of a CSP plant, an efficient TES system has potential to make the electricity generated from solar technologies cost competitive with conventional sources of electricity.

  17. A review of concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems with waste heat recovery (WHR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Ju; Chao Xu; Zhirong Liao; Xiaoze Du; Gaosheng Wei; Zhifeng Wang; Yongping Yang

    2017-01-01

    In conventional photovoltaic (PV) systems,a large portion of solar energy is dissipated as waste heat since the generating efficiency is usually less than 30%.As the dissipated heat can be recovered for various applications,the wasted heat recovery concentrator PV/thermal (WHR CPVT) hybrid systems have been developed.They can provide both electricity and usable heat by combining thermal systems with concentrator PV (CPV) module,which dramatically improves the overall conversion efficiency of solar energy.This paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the research and development ofWHR CPVT systems.WHR CPVT systems with innovative design configurations,different theoretical evaluation models and experimental test processes for several implementations are presented in an integrated manner.We aim to provide a global point of view on the research trends,market potential,technical obstacles,and the future work which is required in the development of WHR CPVT technology.Possibly,it will offer a generic guide to the investigators who are interested in the study of WHR CPVT systems.

  18. High performance and thermally stable tandem solar selective absorber coating for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. Shiva; Kumar, K. K. Phani; Atchuta, S. R.; Sobha, B.; Sakthivel, S.

    2018-05-01

    A novel tandem absorber system (Mn-Cu-Co-Ox-ZrO2/SiO2) developed on an austenitic stainless steel (SS-304) substrate to show an excellent optical performance (αsol: 0.96; ɛ: 0.23@500 °C). In order to achieve this durable tandem, we experimented with two antireflective layers such as ZrO2-SiO2 and nano SiO2 layer on top of Mn-Cu-Co-Ox-ZrO2 layer. We optimized the thickness of antireflective layers to get good tandem system in terms of solar absorptance and emittance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis-NIR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the developed coatings. Finally, the Mn-Cu-Co-Ox-ZrO2/SiO2 exhibits high temperature resistance up to 800 °C, thus allow an increase in the operating temperature of CSP which may lead to high efficiency. We successfully developed a high temperature resistant tandem layer with easy manufacturability at low cost which is an attractive candidate for concentrated solar power generation (CSP).

  19. Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-Ling Chien, John; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it a good utility-scale power option, especially in the economically underdeveloped Western regions, (3) while CST power is currently more expensive than coal-fired electricity on a nominal basis, when costs of externalities are accounted for, CST, at 11.4 US cents/kWh, can become 57% cheaper than scrubbed coal and 29% cheaper than nuclear power, (4) CST power continues dropping in cost due to economies of scale and technological improvements and can potentially realize a levelized electricity cost of around 4 cents/kWh within ten years, (5) it would significantly rise in competitiveness if and when China completes the extensive smart grid for connecting its solar-abundant western regions with the high-demand eastern regions, (6) CST has the potential to positively impact Western China's economy, but proper policy and deal structure must be in place to ensure that the local community shares the benefit. - Highlights: ► We analyze inclusion of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power in China. ► We find that CST needs emphasis in China's renewable energy plan. ► The analysis shows that CST is competitive with coal if externalities are considered. ► We recommend a policy that would develop CST power generation in western regions. ► This would be of significant benefit to Western China's economy and to China.

  20. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Caixia [State Grid Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  1. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  2. Analysis of a Concentrated Solar Thermophotovoltaic System with Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a high temperature concentrated solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with thermal energy storage (TES), which is enabled by the potential usage of liquid metal as a high temperature heat transfer fluid. The system concept combines the great advantages of TES with the potential for low cost and high performance derived from photovoltaic cells fabricated on reusable substrates, with a high reflectivity back reflector for photon recycling. The TES makes the electricity produced dispatchable, and thus the system studied should be compared to technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) with TES (e.g., using a turbine) or PV with electrochemical batteries, instead of direct and intermittent electricity generation from flat plate PV alone. Thus, the addition of TES places the system in a different class than has previously been considered and based on the model results, appears worthy of increased attention. The system level analysis presented identifies important cell level parameters that have the greatest impact on the overall system performance, and as a result can help to set the priorities for future TPV cell development.

  3. Review of concentrating solar thermal power industry in China: Status quo, problems, trend and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiajun

    2018-01-01

    Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) industry is a strategic emerging industry in China. Its further development is of great significance for promoting the energy revolution, achieving energy saving and emission reduction. In this paper, China’s CSP industry is systematically analysed. First of all, the status quo is elaborated from the perspectives of relevant policies and regulations, market and generation technology development. Secondly, the problems and the underlying reasons of China’s CSP industry are deeply studied. On this basis, the future trends of CSP are expounded on the three levels of policy, market and power generation technology. Finally, a series of feasible countermeasures are put forward, designed to promote the development of CSP industry and the transformation of energy structure.

  4. Photo-thermal characteristics of hybrid nanofluids based on Therminol-55 oil for concentrating solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Ovais; Qayoum, Adnan; Gupta, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid nanofluids are the new generation efficient heat transfer fluids allowing greater control over the properties of base fluid as compared to mono-nanofluids. In this study, attempt has been made for increasing the efficiency for photo-thermal conversion by heat transfer fluid for high temperature solar collectors. Therminol-55, a high temperature heat transfer fluid is doped with Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles with an aim to improve the thermal and optical properties. Effects of concentration and type of nanoparticle on photo-thermal conversion properties and absorbance in Therminol-55 have been studied. Spectrophotometric analysis has been carried for all nanofluids, namely, Al2O3-Therminol-55, TiO2-Therminol-55 and hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2)-Therminol-55 nanofluids with varying concentrations of 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 wt%. It was found that TiO2 nanofluids possess the maximum absorbance with minimal effect of nanoparticle concentration above 0.1 wt% followed by hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2) nanofluid (HNF) with strong dependence of concentration. Al2O3-Therminol-55 nanofluids exhibited least absorbance. The peak values of absorbance are 0.47, 2.15 and 2.144 in the visible region for Al2O3-Therminol-55, TiO2-Therminol-55 and hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2)-Therminol-55 nanofluids, respectively. It was observed that hybrid nanofluids show both bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts. Further, performance testing has been carried out using artificial source of light and it has been observed that hybrid nanofluids provide efficient photo-thermal conversion as compared to TiO2 and Al2O3-Therminol-55 nanofluids. Maximum temperatures of 152.9, 149.6, 158.6 °C were observed for 0.5 wt% Al2O3-Therminol-55, 0.1 wt% TiO2-Therminol-55, and 0.5 wt% hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2) nanofluid, respectively, against 125.8 °C of Therminol-55. Hybrid nanofluids based on Therminol-55 could be a potential candidate for high temperature concentrating collectors based on the superior properties over mono-nanofluids and

  5. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  6. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  7. Optical, geometric and thermal study for solar parabolic concentrator efficiency improvement under Tunisia environment: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouri, Safa; Ben Salah, Mohieddine; Bouadila, Salwa; Balghouthi, Moncef; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and construction of solar parabolic concentrator. • Photogrammetry study of SPC. • Slope error and optical efficiency of SPC. • Reflector materials of SPC. • Programmed tracking solar system. - Abstract: Renewable energy generation is becoming more prevalent today. It is relevant to consider that solar concentration technologies contribute to provide a real alternative to the consumption of fossil fuels. The purpose of this work is the characterization of a solar parabolic solar concentrator (SPC) designed, constructed and tested in the Research and Technologies Centre of Energy in Tunisia (CRTEn) in order to improve the performance of the system. Photogrammetry measurement used to analyze the slope errors and to determine hence determining the geometric deformation of the SPC system, which presents an average slope error around 0.0002 and 0.0073 mrad respectively in the center and in the extremities. An optimization of the most performed reflector material has been done by an experimental study of three types of reflectors. A two axes programmed tracking system realized, used and tested in this study. An experimental study is carried out to evaluate the solar parabolic concentrator thermal efficiency after the mechanical and the optical SPC optimization. The thermal energy efficiency varies from 40% to 77%, the concentrating system reaches an average concentration factor around 178

  8. Evaluation of power block arrangements for 100MW scale concentrated solar thermal power generation using top-down design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Alexander; Beath, Andrew; Sauret, Emilie; Persky, Rodney

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power generation poses a unique situation for power block selection, in which a capital intensive heat source is subject to daily and seasonal fluctuations in intensity. In this study, a method is developed to easily evaluate the favourability of different power blocks for converting the heat supplied by a concentrated solar thermal plant into power at the 100MWe scale based on several key parameters. The method is then applied to a range of commercially available power cycles that operate over different temperatures and efficiencies, and with differing capital costs, each with performance and economic parameters selected to be typical of their technology type, as reported in literature. Using this method, the power cycle is identified among those examined that is most likely to result in a minimum levelised cost of energy of a solar thermal plant.

  9. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  10. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis of concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage and dry cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sharon J W

    2013-12-17

    Decisions about energy backup and cooling options for parabolic trough (PT) concentrated solar power have technical, economic, and environmental implications. Although PT development has increased rapidly in recent years, energy policies do not address backup or cooling option requirements, and very few studies directly compare the diverse implications of these options. This is the first study to compare the annual capacity factor, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), water consumption, land use, and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of PT with different backup options (minimal backup (MB), thermal energy storage (TES), and fossil fuel backup (FF)) and different cooling options (wet (WC) and dry (DC). Multicriteria decision analysis was used with five preference scenarios to identify the highest-scoring energy backup-cooling combination for each preference scenario. MB-WC had the highest score in the Economic and Climate Change-Economy scenarios, while FF-DC and FF-WC had the highest scores in the Equal and Availability scenarios, respectively. TES-DC had the highest score for the Environmental scenario. DC was ranked 1-3 in all preference scenarios. Direct comparisons between GHG emissions and LCOE and between GHG emissions and land use suggest a preference for TES if backup is require for PT plants to compete with baseload generators.

  12. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  13. Less is more: Strategic scale site suitability for concentrated solar thermal power in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Lucas; Schlyter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Thermal Power (CSP) represents a technology with a great deal of promise for low-emissions electricity generation. Several recent studies have identified large swathes of the world’s ‘sunbelt’ as technically suitable for the technology, but current estimates grossly overestimate site suitability for CSP. There is a need for more realistic suitability estimations in order to provide a more accurate basis for policy and investment decisions. This paper establishes a generally applicable GIS-based methodology to better enable identification of CSP-suitable sites at the continental scale. We test the methodology, identifying a large number of CSP suitable sites in Western Australia (WA). Our results indicate a 99.4% reduction from technically suitable areas to areas showing medium-to-very-high suitability in the current and near term in WA. The availability of infrastructure is critical to site suitability and the introduction of new major loads and infrastructure in currently under-developed regions is likely to open up further areas with medium to very high suitability. Despite the fact that current global/continental scale estimates of CSP potentials are likely overestimated by at least two orders of magnitude, truly CSP-suitable areas remain more than sufficient to motivate investment in utility-scale CSP and power potentials from this technology remain enormous. - Highlights: ► 1.78 million km 2 of Western Australia is identified as technically suitable. ► Hypothetical production potential of technically suitable area ≈908,000 TW h/year. ► Only 0.6% of technically suitable areas considered to be medium-very highly suitable. ► Site suitability highly dependent on availability of infrastructure and load. ► Suitable areas still more than sufficient to motivate CSP production.

  14. Solar concentrators. Concentradores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Valdes, A.; Lopez, S.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents different types of geometries used in concentrators. Some comments are made on the theoretical and experimental analysis necessary to evaluate the geometries and on the type of laboratory equipment needed to obtain experimental data. At the end of the report a description of how to build parabolic trough mirrors is made. The experience gained by the authors, who have been working in this subject for the past five years, is summarized, showing some of the problems related with such concentrators.

  15. Estimate of thermal fatigue lifetime for the INCONEL 625lCF plate while exposed to concentrated solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Morín, A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A system for testing the thermal cycling of materials and components has been developed and installed at the DISTAL-I parabolic dish facility located at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA in Spain. This system allows us to perform abrupt heating/cooling tests by exposing central solar receiver materials to concentrated solar radiation. These tests are performed to simulate both the normal and critical operational conditions of the central solar receiver. The thermal fatigue life for the INCONEL 625LCF® plate when subjected to concentrated solar radiation has been estimated with this system. We have also developed a numerical model that evaluates the thermal behavior of the plate material; additionally, the model yields the tensile-compressive stresses on the plate, which allow the estimation of the Stress-Life (S-N fatigue curves. These curves show that the lifetime of the plate is within the High Cycle Fatigue (HCF region at the operational temperatures of both 650 °C and 900 °C.

    En el concentrador solar de disco parabólico DISTAL-I, situado en la Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA, en España, se ha instalado un sistema para pruebas de ciclado térmico de materiales. Este sistema permite realizar pruebas abruptas de calentamiento y enfriamiento, en materiales para receptores solares de torre central, al exponerlos a radiación solar concentrada. Estas pruebas se realizan para simular las condiciones de operación de un receptor solar, las condiciones críticas y las condiciones normales. Con este sistema se ha estimado el tiempo de vida bajo fatiga térmica, en una placa de INCONEL 626LCF®, cuando es sometida a radiación solar concentrada. Asimismo, hemos desarrollado un modelo numérico que evalúa el desarrollo térmico en el material de la placa: adicionalmente, el modelo obtiene los esfuerzos de tensión-compresión en la placa, los cuales permiten la estimaciónde las curvas de fatiga vidaesfuerzo (S-N. Estas curvas

  16. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  17. A thermal-optical analysis comparison between symmetric tubular absorber compound parabolic concentrating solar collector with and without envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchinda, R.

    2005-11-01

    Equations describing the heat transfer in symmetric, compound parabolic concentrating solar collectors (CPCs) with and without envelope have been established. The model takes into account the non linear behavior of these two systems. A theoretical numerical model has been developed to outline the effect of the envelope on the thermal and optical performance of CPCs. The effects of the flow rate, the plate length, the selective coating, etc. are studied. The over-all thermal loss coefficient and the enclosure absorption factor for both types are defined. It is found that the efficient configuration has an envelope. Theoretical computed values are in good agreement with the experimental values published in the literature. (author)

  18. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  19. Performance evaluation and simulation of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico under solar transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano-Cruz, Luisa I.

    The increasing fossil fuel costs as well as the need to move in a somewhat sustainable future has led the world in a quest for exploiting the free and naturally available energy from the Sun to produce electric power, and Puerto Rico is no exception. This thesis proposes the design of a simulation model for the analysis and performance evaluation of a Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico and suggests the use of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator as the solar collector of choice. Optical and thermal analysis of such collectors will be made using local solar radiation data for determining the viability of this proposed project in terms of the electric power produced and its cost.

  20. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  1. Thermal solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  2. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  3. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    After the bad year of 2002, the european solar thermal market returned to double-digit growth rate in 2003: 22%. Nevertheless, the sector still has not recovered the growth rate it had in the early 2000 and European Commission targets are still far from being reached. This paper presents the thermal solar industry barometer. Data on the evolution of annually installed surfaces in the european union since 1993, the cumulated capacity of thermal collectors installed in the European Union, the estimation of the annual energy production associated to european solar thermal capacities and the main companies of the European Union thermal solar sector are presented and discussed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  6. Full scale experimental study of a small natural draft dry cooling tower for concentrating solar thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Duniam, Sam; Gurgenci, Hal; Guan, Zhiqiang; Veeraragavan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 20 m high natural draft dry cooling tower is designed and tested. • The cooling tower model is refined and validated with the experimental data. • The performance of the cooling tower utilized in a CST power plant is investigated. • Ambient temperature effect on Rankine cycle and Brayton cycle is discussed. - Abstract: Concentrating solar thermal power system can provide low carbon, renewable energy resources in countries or regions with strong solar irradiation. For this kind of power plant which is likely to be located in the arid area, natural draft dry cooling tower is a promising choice. To develop the experimental studies on small cooling tower, a 20 m high natural draft dry cooling tower with fully instrumented measurement system was established by the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence. The performance of this cooling tower was measured with the constant heat input of 600 kW and 840 kW and with ambient temperature ranging from 20 °C to 32 °C. The cooling tower numerical model was refined and validated with the experimental data. The model of 1 MW concentrating solar thermal supercritical CO_2 power cycle was developed and integrated with the cooling tower model. The influences of changing ambient temperature and the performance of the cooling tower on efficiency of the power system were simulated. The differences of the mechanism of the ambient temperature effect on Rankine cycle and supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycle were analysed and discussed.

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of latent heat thermal energy storage systems assisted by heat pipes for concentrated solar power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiari, Saeed

    A desirable feature of concentrated solar power (CSP) with integrated thermal energy storage (TES) unit is to provide electricity in a dispatchable manner during cloud transient and non-daylight hours. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) offers many advantages such as higher energy storage density, wider range of operating temperature and nearly isothermal heat transfer relative to sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES), which is the current standard for trough and tower CSP systems. Despite the advantages mentioned above, LHTES systems performance is often limited by low thermal conductivity of commonly used, low cost phase change materials (PCMs). Research and development of passive heat transfer devices, such as heat pipes (HPs) to enhance the heat transfer in the PCM has received considerable attention. Due to its high effective thermal conductivity, heat pipe can transport large amounts of heat with relatively small temperature difference. The objective of this research is to study the charging and discharging processes of heat pipe-assisted LHTES systems using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental testing to develop a method for more efficient energy storage system design. The results revealed that the heat pipe network configurations and the quantities of heat pipes integrated in a thermal energy storage system have a profound effect on the thermal response of the system. The optimal placement of heat pipes in the system can significantly enhance the thermal performance. It was also found that the inclusion of natural convection heat transfer in the CFD simulation of the system is necessary to have a realistic prediction of a latent heat thermal storage system performance. In addition, the effects of geometrical features and quantity of fins attached to the HPs have been studied.

  9. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  10. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging secondary concentrators used in point-focus dish solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1987-09-01

    Using nonimaging secondary concentrators in point-focus applications may permit the development of more cost-effective concentrator systems by either improving performance or reducing costs. Secondaries may also increase design flexibility. The major objective of this study was to develop as complete an understanding as possible of the quantitative performance and cost effects associated with deploying nonimaging secondary concentrators at the focal zone of point-focus solar thermal concentrators. A performance model was developed that uses a Monte Carlo ray-trace procedure to determine the focal plane distribution of a paraboloidal primary as a function of optical parameters. It then calculates the corresponding optimized concentration and thermal efficiency as a function of temperature with and without the secondary. To examine the potential cost benefits associated with secondaries, a preliminary model for the rational optimization of performance versus cost trade-offs was developed. This model suggests a possible 10 to 20 percent reduction in the cost of delivered energy when secondaries are used. This is a lower limit, and the benefits may even be greater if using a secondary permits the development of inexpensive primary technologies for which the performance would not otherwise be viable.

  11. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  12. Controlling thermal properties of dense gas fluidized beds for concentrated solar power by internal and external solids circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Paola; Bareschino, Piero; Chirone, Riccardo; Salatino, Piero; Solimene, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Fluidization technology displays a long record of success stories, mostly related to applications to thermal and thermochemical processes, which are fostering extension to novel and relatively unexplored fields. Application of fluidized beds to collection and thermal storage of solar radiation in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising, a field which poses challenging issues and great opportunities to fluidization scientists and technologists. The potential of this growing field calls for reconsideration of some of the typical design and operation guidelines and criteria, with the goal of exploiting the inherently good thermal performances of gas-fluidized beds at their best. "Creative" and non-conventional design and operation of fluidized beds, like those based on internal and external solids circulation, may be beneficial to the enhancement of thermal diffusivity and surface-to-bed heat transfer, improving the potential for application in the very demanding context of CSP with thermal energy storage. This paper investigated: i) a fluidized bed configuration with an uneven distribution of the fluidizing gas to promote vortices in the scale of bed height (internal solids circulation); ii) a dual fluidized bed configuration characterized by an external solids circulation achieved by the operation of a riser and a bubbling fluidized bed. CFD simulations showed the hydrodynamics conditions under which the internal solids circulation was established. The hydrodynamic characterization of the external solids circulation was achieved by an experimental study carried out with different cold models. The dual fluidized bed system was optimized in terms of operating conditions and geometrical features of the connections between two fluidized beds.

  13. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  14. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  15. Solar Thermal Utilization: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    SO•C NON-FOCUSSING FLAT PLATE / (FPC) 100- 150•C For low temperature 50- 200•C COMPOUND applications PARABOLIC EVACUATED CONCENTRATOR ~ (ETC...2030 Ø 200GW BY 2050 Ø 20 MILLION SQ.METER SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS (20GW power) Ø 20 MILLION SOLAR LIGHTS LAUNCHING OF SOLAR INDIA SOLAR THERMAL...Temperature (20oC- 80oC) NALSUN ApplicationsThermal Conversion range SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTORS 40- GO•C UNGLAZED COLLECTORS 60- 90•C SOLAR POND 60

  16. Solar thermal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives details of Plan Soleil established in 2000 by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management and its identification of solar hot water systems and combined domestic solar hot water and space heating as promising sectors for development. The setting up of a support scheme for investment by Plan Soleil is discussed along with subsidies and grants, manufacturers and importers, the guarantee of solar results, and the quality of plants, components, and installers. The costs of thermal solar equipment, and results of the French assessment programme are considered. The need for quality standards is stressed

  17. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  18. The solarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, G.D.; Grasse, W.

    1997-01-01

    IEA(International Energy Agency)/SolarPACES(Solar Power and Chemical Energy systems)represents a world wide coalition for information sharing and collaboration on applications of concentrated solar energy. The current SolarPACES community has built up solar thermal system know-how over 15 years, is operating the three main solar test centres in the world. Its main activities are in the following four fields: solar thermal electric power systems, solar chemistry, solar technology and advanced applications and non-technical activities. The article presents the talk on the strategy of solarPACES given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. (A.A.D.)

  19. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hardy, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Corgnale, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ward, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Motyka, Ted [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate a metal hydride-based TES system for use with a CSP system. A unique approach has been applied to this project that combines our modeling experience with the extensive material knowledge and expertise at both SRNL and Curtin University (CU). Because of their high energy capacity and reasonable kinetics many metal hydride systems can be charged rapidly. Metal hydrides for vehicle applications have demonstrated charging rates in minutes and tens of minutes as opposed to hours. This coupled with high heat of reaction allows metal hydride TES systems to produce very high thermal power rates (approx. 1kW per 6-8 kg of material). A major objective of this work is to evaluate some of the new metal hydride materials that have recently become available. A problem with metal hydride TES systems in the past has been selecting a suitable high capacity low temperature metal hydride material to pair with the high temperature material. A unique aspect of metal hydride TES systems is that many of these systems can be located on or near dish/engine collectors due to their high thermal capacity and small size. The primary objective of this work is to develop a high enthalpy metal hydride that is capable of reversibly storing hydrogen at high temperatures (> 650 °C) and that can be paired with a suitable low enthalpy metal hydride with low cost materials. Furthermore, a demonstration of hydrogen cycling between the two hydride beds is desired.

  20. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  1. Using Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Concentrating Solar Power (EPCM-TES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Technologies LLC, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Terrafore successfully demonstrated and optimized the manufacturing of capsules containing phase-changing inorganic salts. The phase change was used to store thermal energy collected from a concentrating solar-power plant as latent heat. This latent heat, in addition to sensible heat increased the energy density (energy stored per unit weight of salt) by over 50%, thus requiring 40% less salt and over 60% less capsule container. Therefore, the cost to store high-temperature thermal energy collected in a concentrating solar power plant will be reduced by almost 40% or more, as compared to conventional two-tank, sensible-only storage systems. The cost for thermal energy storage (TES) system is expected to achieve the Sun Shot goal of $15 per kWh(t). Costs associated with poor heat-transfer in phase change materials (PCM) were also eliminated. Although thermal energy storage that relies on the latent heat of fusion of PCM improves energy density by as much as 50%, upon energy discharge the salt freezes and builds on the heat transfer surfaces. Since these salts have low thermal conductivity, large heat-transfer areas, or larger conventional heat-exchangers are needed, which increases costs. By encapsulating PCM in small capsules we have increased the heat transfer area per unit volume of salt and brought the heat transfer fluid in direct contact with the capsules. These two improvements have increased the heat transfer coefficient and boosted heat transfer. The program was successful in overcoming the phenomenon of melt expansion in the capsules, which requires the creation of open volume in the capsules or shell to allow for expansion of the molten salt on melting and is heated above its melting point to 550°C. Under contract with the Department of Energy, Terrafore Inc. and Southwest Research Institute, developed innovative method(s) to economically create the open volume or void in the capsule. One method consists of using a sacrificial polymer coating as the

  2. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 450000 m 2 less year-on-year. The main reasons of the decrease is the financial crisis and the low oil price, other reasons more specific to the country exist, for instance the property crisis has dragged the Spanish market down. In 2009, the solar thermal collector surface area in service in the European Union is of the magnitude of 32.6 million m 2 , equivalent to a capacity of 22.8 GWTh. The solar thermal sector is one of the renewable sectors that creates the highest number of jobs and wealth, partly because the vast majority of the system components sold in Europe are produced in Europe and partly because the sale, installation fitting and maintenance are labour-intensive. In 2009, there were 50000 direct or indirect jobs in the European solar thermal sector. The main European actors in this sector are GREENoneTEC, Bosch-Thermotechnik, Viessmann, Vaillant and Solvis. No clear recovery is expected before 2011. (A.C.)

  3. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  4. Integration of photovoltaic and concentrated solar thermal technologies for H2 production by the hybrid sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Ferrara, Mariarosaria; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-06-01

    It is widely agreed that hydrogen used as energy carrier and/or storage media may significantly contribute in the reduction of emissions, especially if produced by renewable energy sources. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle is considered as one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen through the water-splitting process. The FP7 project SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) investigates innovative material and process solutions for the use of solar heat and power in the HyS process. A significant part of the SOL2HY2 project is devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar and chemical (hydrogen production) plants. In this context, this work investigates the possibility to integrate different solar technologies, namely photovoltaic, solar central receiver and solar troughs, to optimize their use in the HyS cycle for a green hydrogen production, both in the open and closed process configurations. The analysis carried out accounts for different combinations of geographical location and plant sizing criteria. The use of a sulfur burner, which can serve both as thermal backup and SO2 source for the open cycle, is also considered.

  5. Parabolic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.

  6. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  7. Solar engineering of thermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duffie, John A

    2013-01-01

    The updated fourth edition of the ""bible"" of solar energy theory and applications Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice. An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well

  8. A comparative Thermal Analysis of conventional parabolic receiver tube and Cavity model tube in a Solar Parabolic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Ramakrishna, P.; Sangavi, S.

    2018-02-01

    Improvements in heating technology with solar energy is gaining focus, especially solar parabolic collectors. Solar heating in conventional parabolic collectors is done with the help of radiation concentration on receiver tubes. Conventional receiver tubes are open to atmosphere and loose heat by ambient air currents. In order to reduce the convection losses and also to improve the aperture area, we designed a tube with cavity. This study is a comparative performance behaviour of conventional tube and cavity model tube. The performance formulae were derived for the cavity model based on conventional model. Reduction in overall heat loss coefficient was observed for cavity model, though collector heat removal factor and collector efficiency were nearly same for both models. Improvement in efficiency was also observed in the cavity model’s performance. The approach towards the design of a cavity model tube as the receiver tube in solar parabolic collectors gave improved results and proved as a good consideration.

  9. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  11. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The european solar thermal system market grew spectacularly in 2008 with over 4,6 million m 2 installed as against less than 3,1 million in 2007. This was largely due to the doubling of the German market, bu strong growth in Southern Europe also played a vital part. While 2009 is looking uncertain, the medium and long term growth prospects are still very exciting. This barometer provides statistical data on the production, market, capacity and enterprises. (A.L.B.)

  12. Thermocline thermal storage systems for concentrated solar power plants: One-dimensional numerical model and comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers and governments all over the world in recent years. An important part of these plants is the storage system which improves dispatchability and makes the plant more reliable. In this paper, a one-dimensional transi...

  13. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  14. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  15. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  16. Solar Thermal Barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; Mozaffarian, M.

    2008-09-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market (taking all technologies including unglazed flexible collectors into account) marked time in 2007 with 6.9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end, this market reached 2.9 million m 2 vs. 3.1 million m 2 in 2006, i.e. an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the German market, the largest market of the European Union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates

  17. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market marked time in 2007 with 6,9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end this market reached 2,9 million m 2 facing 3,1 million m 2 in 2006, an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the german market, the largest market of the european union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates. (A.L.B.)

  18. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  19. Techno-economic optimization of a scaled-up solar concentrator combined with CSPonD thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Richard; Grange, Benjamin; Diago, Miguel; Topel, Monika; Armstrong, Peter; Slocum, Alexander; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    A molten salt direct absorption receiver, CSPonD, used to simultaneously collect and store thermal energy is being tested by Masdar Institute and MIT in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Whilst a research-scale prototype has been combined with a beam-down tower in Abu Dhabi, the original design coupled the receiver with a hillside heliostat field. With respect to a conventional power-tower setup, a hillside solar field presents the advantages of eliminating tower costs, heat tracing equipment, and high-pressure pumps. This analysis considers the industrial viability of the CSPonD concept by modeling a 10 MWe up-scaled version of a molten salt direct absorption receiver combined with a hillside heliostat field. Five different slope angles are initially simulated to determine the optimum choice using a combination of lowest LCOE and highest IRR, and sensitivity analyses are carried out based on thermal energy storage duration, power output, and feed-in tariff price. Finally, multi-objective optimization is undertaken to determine a Pareto front representing optimum cases. The study indicates that a 40° slope and a combination of 14 h thermal energy storage with a 40-50 MWe power output provide the best techno-economic results. By selecting one simulated result and using a feed-in tariff of 0.25 /kWh, a competitive IRR of 15.01 % can be achieved.

  20. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  1. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  2. A theoretical analysis of the impact of atmospheric parameters on the spectral, electrical and thermal performance of a concentrating III–V triple-junction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Stark, Cameron; O’Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated spectral dependent electrical–thermal model has been developed. • The effect of atmospheric parameters on system’s performance is evaluated. • The HCPV cooling requirements under “hot & dry” conditions are quantified. • Case studies show the impact of heat transfer coefficient on annual energy yield. • The integrated modelling allows the system’s optimisation. - Abstract: The spectral sensitivity of a concentrating triple-junction (3J) solar cell has been investigated. The atmospheric parameters such as the air mass (AM), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water (PW) change the distribution of the solar spectrum in a way that the spectral, electrical and thermal performance of a 3J solar cell is affected. In this paper, the influence of the spectral changes on the performance of each subcell and whole cell has been analysed. It has been shown that increasing the AM and AOD have a negative impact on the spectral and electrical performance of 3J solar cells while increasing the PW has a positive effect, although, to a lesser degree. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model is used to quantify the effect of each atmospheric parameter on the thermal performance for a range of heat transfer coefficients from the back-plate to the ambient air and also ambient temperature. It is shown that a heat transfer coefficient greater than 1300 W/(m"2 K) is required to keep the solar cell under 100 °C at all times. In order to get a more realistic assessment and also to investigate the effect of heat transfer coefficient on the annual energy yield, the methodology is applied for four US locations using data from a typical meteorological year (TMY3).

  3. Solar thermal - the new dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This booklet is intended to engineering consultants and construction professionals and aims at showing them the real interest of solar thermal energy. It notably highlights the very high efficiency which can be reached, the high performance value compared to gas, the high rank of solar thermal energy in terms of profitability over a 20-year period, the fact that solar thermal energy is almost always the most economic solution for buildings and the less expensive in comparison with non renewable energies. It outlines that, as far as purchase is concerned, solar thermal energy is more than competitive, is also a leader as far as financing issues are concerned. It finally briefly describes how the SOCOL initiative can be a support at any step of a solar thermal project

  4. Solar-Thermal Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen; Salvail, Pat; Haynes, Davy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle. collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (I(sub sp)). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemical vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine 'module' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to Supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine I(sub sp). In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational

  5. Outdoor performance analysis of a 1090× point-focus Fresnel high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal system with triple-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Ji, Jie; Sun, Wei; Han, Lisheng; Chen, Haifei; Jin, Zhuling

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, respectively. Experimental results show that direct irradiation affects the electrical performance of the system dominantly. Fitting results of electrical performance offer simple and reliable methods to analyze the system performance. - Highlights: • A point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic/thermal system is proposed and studied. • The system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28%. • The system has a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%. • Direct irradiation has the dominant effect on the electrical performance. • Fitting results offer simple and reliable methods to analyze system performances. - Abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, which means the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80%. A mathematical model for calculating cell temperature is proposed to solve difficult measurement of cell temperature in a system. Moreover, characteristics of electrical performance under various direct

  6. Solar Thermal | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    building can still be designed and constructed to be solar ready with roof exposures and slopes that accept Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar thermal applications can be simple, cost effective, and diverse for research campuses. The following links go to sections that describe when and where solar thermal

  7. Techno-economic analysis of a concentrating solar collector with built-in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiyuan; Tehrani, S. Saeed Mostafavi; Taylor, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of a medium temperature, low profile concentrated solar thermal collector integrated with latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) is investigated. The proposed modular integrated collector storage (ICS) system consists of six solar receiver units and seven cylindrical shell and tube LHTES tanks. By implementing an innovative optical concentration assembly and an internal linear tracking mechanism, the collector can concentrate beam radiation to the tube receivers during the highest flux hours of a day without any external or rotational motion. The collector's efficiency correlations were obtained experimentally and its integrated performance – with the LHTES units – was evaluated numerically. To demonstrate the potential of this proposed ICS system, an annual analysis was carried out for a characteristic industrial application – a dairy dehydration process that requires a constant 50 kW th of heat in the 120–150 °C temperature range. It was found that adding the storage units will increase the capital costs by ∼10%, but it can increase the annual thermal output of the system by up to ∼20%. A solar fraction of 65% was achievable with some design alternatives, but the optimum techno-economic design had a solar fraction of ∼35% and an annual charging efficiency of nearly 100%. It was also found that if the capital cost of the ICS (collector and LHTES tank) system could be reduced by 50% from an estimated ∼1000 US$/m 2 to ∼500 US$/m 2 through mass production and/or further design optimizations, this system could provide industrial process heat with a levelized cost of heating (LCOH) of ∼0.065 US$/kWh th . - Highlights: • An innovative ICS system was proposed and analyzed for industrial heat applications. • The optimum design can achieve a ∼35% solar fraction with ∼100% charging efficiency. • A 0.12 US$/kWh LCOH was found, but further reductions could result in 0.065 US$/kWh. • Costs reductions of

  8. Concentrating Solar Power. Report April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Erik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Enery and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies offer ways to utilise solar radiation by concentrating the light. In a concentrated form, the light can be utilised more cost efficiently. It is focused with mirrors or lenses and used either as a heat source in thermal power cycles (thermal CSP) or as a light source for high efficiency photovoltaic cells (concentrating photovoltaics, CPV). All concentrating systems use tracking to follow the movement of the sun, in two or three dimensions, and require direct sunlight (no diffusing clouds). CSP plants are often more complex, component wise than those based on flat PV. The extra cost of complexity is generally more than offset by the larger scales, the less need for expensive materials such as purified silicon and a better fit with the current energy infrastructure. Some thermal CSP plants offer great possibilities to deal with the intermittency of solar energy, as the heat generated can be stored in the form of a heated liquid in large tanks for many hours with little additional cost, and drive the thermal power generation also during cloudy periods or at night. CSP is growing rapidly and can be an important portion of future low-carbon energy systems. A prerequisite is that expected cost reductions are, at least largely, realised. In regions with good solar conditions (Mediterranean countries, US Southwest, Middle East, Australia etc), CSP systems already in the short-term future can satisfy significant shares of the power demand, to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Less solar-intensive regions (Northern Europe, much of North America etc) can be supplied with CSP power from solar-rich regions by using long distance power grids, for instance the high voltage DC cables being deployed and developed today

  9. Concentrating solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelli, Enzo; Vignolini, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy can be used instead of fossil fuels to produce high-temperature heat for use in many industrial processes and in electricity generation. If carried out on a large scale, the replacement would make it possible to reduce harmful emissions and stabilise the global climate over the long term. ENEA has an innovative project in this sector [it

  10. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  11. Solar thermal technology report, FY 1981. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program are discussed. Highlights of technical activities and brief descriptions of each technology are given. Solar thermal conversion concepts are discussed in detail, particularily concentrating collectors and salt-gradient solar ponds.

  12. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Williams, Tom; Wendelin, Tim

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development at the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  13. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility in the United States of its type. This unique facility provides experimental engineering...

  14. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Wang Liuling; Lin Wenxian; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    tage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system.

  15. High-temperature stable absorber coatings for linear concentrating solar thermal power plants; Hochtemperaturstabile Absorberschichten fuer linear konzentrierende solarthermische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Christina

    2009-03-23

    This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at

  16. Solar thermal production of zinc: Program strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, A; Weidenkaff, A; Moeller, S; Palumbo, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The solar thermal production of zinc is considered for the conversion of solar energy into storable and transportable chemical fuels. The ultimate objective is to develop a technically and economically viable technology that can produce solar zinc. The program strategy for achieving such a goal involves research on two paths: a direct path via the solar thermal splitting of ZnO in the absence of fossil fuels, and an indirect path via the solar carbothermal/CH{sub 4}-thermal reduction of Zn O, with fossil fuels (coke or natural gas) as chemical reducing agents. Both paths make use of concentrated solar energy for high-temperature process heat. The direct path brings us to the complete substitution of fossil fuels with solar fuels for a sustainable energy supply system. The indirect path creates a link between today`s fossil-fuel-based technology and tomorrow`s solar chemical technology and builds bridges between present and future energy economies. (author) 1 fig., 15 refs.

  17. New Packing Structure of Concentration Solar Receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shang-Yu; Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the temperature issue in High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) module device by using different thermal conductive material and packing structure. In general, the open-circuited voltage of a device reduces with the increase of temperature and therefore degrades its efficiency. The thermal conductive material we use in this paper, silicon, has a high thermal conductive coefficient (149 W/m·K) and steady semiconductor properties which are suitable for the application of solar receiver in HCPV module. Solar cell was soldered on a metal-plated Si substrate with a thicker SiO 2 film which acts as an insulating layer. Then it was mounted on an Al-based plate to obtain a better heat dissipating result.

  18. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  19. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  20. Concentrator-solar-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L.

    1982-07-01

    A program is described which is a continuation of earlier programs for the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, silicon concentrator solar cells. The base-line process steps and process sequences identified in these earlier contracts were evaluated and specific processes reviewed. In particular, emphasis on the use of Czochralski-grown silicon wafers rather than float-zone wafers were examined. Additionally, a study of the trade-offs between textured and nontextured cells was initiated, and the limits within which the low-cost plated nickel copper metallization can be used in concentrator solar cell applications was identified.

  1. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  2. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  3. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing; Solaire a concentration et solaire photovoltaique: la main dans la main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-11-15

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  4. The thermal solar energy - September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2010-01-01

    The author first notices that the use of solar heat to produce electricity is much lesser known than the production of electricity by photovoltaic effect. He also notices that few efforts have been made in France to develop this technology (thermal solar energy, also called helio-thermodynamics). He evokes the Themis project and also some initiatives in Spain and in California. He recalls some data about solar heat, presents the solar concentration technique which either uses a parabolic configuration (point focus concentration) or a cylindrical and parabolic configuration (line concentration system). He briefly presents the different techniques used to transform solar heat into electricity and to store the electricity. He briefly presents different solutions which have been tested over the past years in France, Germany, Spain, California and Israel (tower and air, gas and Stirling cycle, tower and direct vapour production, cylindrical-parabolic collector). He discusses the effect of intermittency and the French context, and questions and discusses the choice between thermal and photovoltaic solar energy (advantages and drawbacks)

  5. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Abhishek; Goel, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has be...

  6. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity;Le Photovoltaique. Le solaire thermique. L'heliothermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  7. Drainback solar thermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botpaev, R.; Louvet, Y.; Perers, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Although solar drainback systems have been used for a long time, they are still generating questions regarding smooth functioning. This paper summarises publications on drainback systems and compiles the current knowledge, experiences, and ideas on the technology. The collective research exhibits...... of this technology has been developed, with a brief description of each hydraulic typology. The operating modes have been split into three stages: filling, operation, and draining, which have been studied separately. A difference in the minimal filling velocities for a siphon development in the solar loop has been...

  8. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - KaXu Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL KaXu Solar One This page provides information on KaXu Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: April 14, 2015 Project Overview Project Name: KaXu Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  10. Solids-based concentrated solar power receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2018-04-10

    A concentrated solar power (CSP) system includes channels arranged to convey a flowing solids medium descending under gravity. The channels form a light-absorbing surface configured to absorb solar flux from a heliostat field. The channels may be independently supported, for example by suspension, and gaps between the channels are sized to accommodate thermal expansion. The light absorbing surface may be sloped so that the inside surfaces of the channels proximate to the light absorbing surface define downward-slanting channel floors, and the flowing solids medium flows along these floors. Baffles may be disposed inside the channels and oriented across the direction of descent of the flowing solids medium. The channels may include wedge-shaped walls forming the light-absorbing surface and defining multiple-reflection light paths for solar flux from the heliostat field incident on the light-absorbing surface.

  11. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  12. Optical properties of Pyromark 2500 coatings of variable thicknesses on a range of materials for concentrating solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Joe; Burge, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of solar absorptance measurements of four metallic substrate materials, either coated with Pyromark 2500 at various thicknesses, or uncoated and oxidised. Absorptance is measured prior to aging, and during and after aging at three elevated temperatures. In many cases, thin coatings perform as well, or better than thick coatings and do not appear to have a higher rate of failure. However, a thicker coating did show an advantage after aging at the highest temperature tested (850°C), and it is expected that with longer exposure, similar trends may emerge for the 600°C and 750°C aging cases. Another finding is that the two nickel-based alloys tested, Haynes 230 and Inconel 625, both formed an oxide with very good absorptance, although durability requires further testing.

  13. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  14. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  15. Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  16. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency.

  17. Development of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Johnston, Bruce; Balkowski, Kevin

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this research is to develop high temperature solar thermal collectors that do not require complex solar tracking devices to maintain optimal performance. The collector technology developed through these efforts uses non-imaging optics and is referred to as an external compound parabolic concentrator. It is able to operate with a solar thermal efficiency of approximately 50% at a temperature of 200 ° C and can be readily manufactured at a cost between 15 and 18 per square foot.

  18. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deming; Xu Gang

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  19. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  20. Utilização de sistemas fototérmicos com concentradores para higienização de salas de ordenha Use of the thermal solar systems with concentrators for the hygiene of milking parlor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Altoé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analisou-se a viabilidade do uso de concentradores de radiação solar em sistemas fototérmicos para higienização de salas de ordenha. Foram analisadas três opções para aquecimento de água com reservatório de acumulação: sistema com resistência elétrica, sistema solar com concentrador e sistema solar sem concentrador. Calculou-se o custo total dessas alternativas e o valor presente líquido do sistema solar suplementado por lenha de eucalipto comprada, lenha de eucalipto produzida na propriedade rural, energia elétrica e gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP. Realizou-se uma análise de sensibilidade do sistema fototérmico variando o número de vacas lactantes, o custo da energia elétrica e da lenha, a taxa de juros, o custo dos componentes do sistema, a vida útil e o subsídio no valor do equipamento. O sistema fototérmico com concentrador suplementado por lenha produzida na propriedade foi a alternativa de aquecimento mais viável economicamente. O uso dos concentradores gera uma redução de cerca de 10% no custo de aquisição do sistema de aquecimento solar.In this study, we analyzed the feasibility of using radiation concentrators in thermal solar systems for the hygiene of milking parlors. We analyzed three options for water heating with tank accumulation: system with electric resistance, the solar system with concentrator and the solar system without concentrator. It was calculated the total cost of these alternatives and the net present value of the solar system supplemented by purchased eucalyptus wood, eucalyptus wood produced on the farm, electricity and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. A sensitivity analysis of the thermal solar system varying the number of dairy cows, the electricity and the firewood costs, the interest rate, the system's components cost, the life expectancy and the subsidy on the equipment value. The thermal solar system with concentrator supplemented by firewood produced on the property

  1. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  2. Thermal Analysis of Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Nicolas; de Correia, João Pedro Magalhães; Ahzi, Saïd; Khaleel, Mohammad Ahmed

    In this work, we propose to analyze the thermal behavior of PV panels using finite element simulations (FEM). We applied this analysis to compute the temperature distribution in a PV panel BP 350 subjected to different atmospheric conditions. This analysis takes into account existing formulations in the literature and, based on NOCT conditions, meteorological data was used to validate our approach for different wind speed and solar irradiance. The electrical performance of the PV panel was also studied. The proposed 2D FEM analysis is applied to different region's climates and was also used to consider the role of thermal inertia on the optimization of the PV device efficiency.

  3. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  4. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  5. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  6. Analysis of regenerative thermal storage geometries for solar gas turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic heat regenerators are suited to providing thermal storage for concentrating solar power stations based on a recuperated gas turbine cycle. Randomly packed beds of spheres and saddles; honeycombs and checker bricks were identified...

  7. Concentrated solar power in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenon, Alaric C.; Fylaktos, Nestor; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Papanicolas, Costas N.

    2017-06-01

    Solar concentration systems are usually deployed in large open spaces for electricity generation; they are rarely used to address the pressing energy needs of the built environment sector. Fresnel technology offers interesting and challenging CSP energy pathways suitable for the built environment, due to its relatively light weight (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system of a recently constructed office & laboratory building, the Novel Technologies Laboratory (NTL). The multi-generative system will support cooling, heating and hot water production feeding the system of the NTL building, as a demonstration project, part of the STS-MED program (Small Scale Thermal Solar District Units for Mediterranean Communities) financed by the European Commission under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), CBCMED program.

  8. Survey of solar thermal test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masterson, K.

    1979-08-01

    The facilities that are presently available for testing solar thermal energy collection and conversion systems are briefly described. Facilities that are known to meet ASHRAE standard 93-77 for testing flat-plate collectors are listed. The DOE programs and test needs for distributed concentrating collectors are identified. Existing and planned facilities that meet these needs are described and continued support for most of them is recommended. The needs and facilities that are suitable for testing components of central receiver systems, several of which are located overseas, are identified. The central contact point for obtaining additional details and test procedures for these facilities is the Solar Thermal Test Facilities Users' Association in Albuquerque, N.M. The appendices contain data sheets and tables which give additional details on the technical capabilities of each facility. Also included is the 1975 Aerospace Corporation report on test facilities that is frequently referenced in the present work.

  9. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bates, John K.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  10. Theoretical modelling of solar dish concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaaseen Rafeeu; Mohd Zainal Abidin Abdul Kadir; Senan Mohamed Abdulla; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies could be one of the major contributor to worlds future energy needs and which would be cheap and clean sources of energy. This would improve energy utilization, higher conversion efficiency with reliable and affordable supply of electricity to the public. The proposed approach is using different size and depth of solar dish concentrators to improve solar fraction using the aluminium foil as reflector. In this paper, different measurement of solar concentrators is investigated and aims to aims to introducing an improved methodology for solar fraction on incoming solar energy in wet climate. (author)

  11. Advances in solar thermal energy in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Noceto, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the law 18585 which declared de solar thermal energy as national interest. This law establishes the obligation to incorporate solar heating systems in health care centers, hotels and sports clubs.

  12. Optically Transparent Thermally Insulating Silica Aerogels for Solar Thermal Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Kim, Hannah; Nagarajan, Naveen; Lopez, Mateusz; Kantharaj, Rajath; Alsaati, Albraa; Marconnet, Amy; Lenert, Andrej; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2018-04-18

    Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance (i.e., 1 sun). The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses. Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize reradiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces. Silica based aerogels coated on black surfaces have the potential to act as simple and inexpensive solar thermal collectors because of their high transmission to solar radiation and low transmission to thermal radiation. To demonstrate their heat-trapping properties, we fabricated tetramethyl orthosilicate-based silica aerogels. A hydrophilic aerogel with a thickness of 1 cm exhibited a solar-averaged transmission of 76% and thermally averaged transmission of ≈1% (at 100 °C). To minimize unwanted solar absorption by O-H groups, we functionalized the aerogel to be hydrophobic, resulting in a solar-averaged transmission of 88%. To provide a deeper understanding of the link between aerogel properties and overall efficiency, we developed a coupled radiative-conductive heat transfer model and used it to predict solar thermal performance. Instantaneous solar thermal efficiencies approaching 55% at 1 sun and 80 °C were predicted. This study sheds light on the applicability of silica aerogels on black coatings for solar thermal collectors and offers design priorities for next-generation solar thermal aerogels.

  13. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - ISCC Duba 1 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Break Ground: 2016 Start Production: 2017 Participants Developer(s): Saudi Electricity Co. Owner(s ) (%): Saudi Electricity Co. EPC Contractor: Initec Energia Generation Offtaker(s): Saudi Electricity Co. Plant Configuration Solar Field SCA Manufacturer (Model): Flabeg (Ultimate Trough) HCE Manufacturer: Archimede Solar

  15. Polymeric materials for solar thermal applications

    CERN Document Server

    Köhl, Michael; Papillon, Philippe; Wallner, Gernot M; Saile, Sandrin

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications.Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, dis

  16. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.

  17. Transparent Solar Concentrator for Flat Panel Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Young, Hong-Tsu; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chia-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    A new concept of the transparent solar concentrator for flat panel display is experimentally demonstrated without adversely affecting the visual effects. The solar concentrator is based on a solar light-guide plate with micro prisms, not only increasing the absorption area of solar energy but also enhancing the conversion efficiency. The incident light is guided by the designed solar light-guide plate according to the total internal reflection (TIR), and converted into electrical power by photovoltaic solar cells. The designed transparent solar concentrator was made and measured with high transparency, namely 94.8%. The developed solar energy system for display can store energy and supply the bias voltage to light on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) successfully.

  18. Thermal performance of solar district heating plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Bava, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The market for solar heating plants connected to district heating systems is expanding rapidly in Denmark. It is expected that by the end of 2014 the 10 largest solar heating plants in Europe will be located in Denmark. Measurements from 23 Danish solar heating plants, all based on flat plate solar...... collectors mounted on the ground, shows measured yearly thermal performances of the solar heating plants placed in the interval from 313 kWh/m² collector to 493 kWh/m² collector with averages for all plants of 411 kWh/m² collector for 2012 and 450 kWh/m² collector for 2013. Theoretical calculations show...... of the cost/performance ratio for solar collector fields, both with flat plate collectors and with concentrating tracking solar collectors. It is recommended to continue monitoring and analysis of all large solar heating plants to document the reliability of the solar heating plants. It is also recommended...

  19. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  20. Applications of maximally concentrating optics for solar energy collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1985-11-01

    A new family of optical concentrators based on a general nonimaging design principle for maximizing the geometric concentration, C, for radiation within a given acceptance half angle ±θα has been developed. The maximum limit exceeds by factors of 2 to 10 that attainable by systems using focusing optics. The wide acceptance angles permitted using these techniques have several unique advantages for solar concentrators including the elimination of the diurnal tracking requirement at intermediate concentrations (up to ˜10x), collection of circumsolar and some diffuse radiation, and relaxed tolerances. Because of these advantages, these types of concentrators have applications in solar energy wherever concentration is desired, e.g. for a wide variety of both thermal and photovoltaic uses. The basic principles of nonimaging optical design are reviewed. Selected configurations for thermal collector applications are discussed and the use of nonimaging elements as secondary concentrators is illustrated in the context of higher concentration applications.

  1. Influence of reflectance from flat aluminum concentrators on energy efficiency of PV/Thermal collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Ljiljana T.; Pavlovic, Tomislav M.; Pavlovic, Zoran T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the results of the influence of reflectance from flat plate solar radiation concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil on energy efficiency of PV/Thermal collector are presented. The total reflectance from concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil is almost the same, but specular reflectance which is bigger in concentrators made of Al foil results in increase of solar radiation intensity concentration factor. With the increase of solar radiation intensity concentration factor, total daily thermal and electrical energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators increase. In this work also optimal position of solar radiation concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil and appropriate thermal and electrical efficiency of PV/Thermal collector have been determined. Total energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators made of Al foil in optimal position is higher than total energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators made of Al sheet.

  2. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  3. Concentrating solar power: a sustainable and renewable way to get energy from solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Solar light irradiating the Earth is a great sustainable and renewable power source. In concentrating solar power plants, mirrors are used to redirect the solar light toward a small area where a receiver captures and converts it into thermal-energy which can be stored. ENEA has been developing the parabolic-trough Italian technology, as well as several facilities for the component characterization. The paper reports on some of those which are purely optical instruments [it

  4. Comparison of thermal solar collector technologies and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Villamil, Alexander; Hortúa, Jairo Eduardo; López, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the operation of different thermal solar collector technologies and their main characteristics. It starts by providing a brief description of the importance of using solar collectors as an alternative to reduce the environmental impact caused by the production of non-renewable sources like coal and oil. Subsequently, it focuses on each solar concentrator technology and finishes with a theoretical analysis hub application in different industrial processes. En este artícu...

  5. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  7. Optical losses due to tracking on solar thermal collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Pujol-Nadal, Ramn; Peres, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    For a wide range of operational temperatures, the solar thermal collectors can use optical concentration systems to optimize their efficiency. However, as optical concentration relies on direct solar radiation, it is necessary to use a solar tracker following the sun direction to maximize...... the amount of useful solar radiation received. The selection of the appropriate tracking systems matching the optical concentration factor is essential to achieve optimal collector efficiency. Otherwise, the concentrator would experience high optical losses due to the inadequate focusing of the direct solar...... radiation onto its receiver, regardless of its quality. This paper gives the state-of-the-art of the methodologies available to characterize the tracking error of a concentrating collector, a summary of different previous studies done in this subject and of the standardization regarding the tracking...

  8. Perspectives for solar thermal applications in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan has long depended on imported fossil energy. The government is thus actively promoting the use of renewable energy. Since 2000, domestic installations of solar water heaters have increased substantially because of the long-term subsidies provided for such systems. However, data on the annual installation area of solar collectors in recent years indicated that the solar thermal industry in Taiwan has reached a bottleneck. The long-term policy providing subsidies must thus be revised. It is proposed that future thermal applications in Taiwan should focus on building-integrated solar thermal, photovoltaic/thermal, and industrial heating processes. Regarding building-integrated solar thermal systems, the current subsidy model can be continued (according to area of solar collectors); nevertheless, the application of photovoltaic/thermal and industrial heating systems must be determined according to the thermal output of such systems. - Highlights: •The long-term subsidization for solar water heaters has lost effectiveness. •Solar thermal applications include BIST, PV/T and industrial heating process. •A performance-based subsidy policy should be implemented.

  9. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  10. Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-06-01

    This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.

  11. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  12. Nonimaging solar concentrator with uniform irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Gee, Randy C.

    2004-09-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken under NREL/DOE auspices to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators.

  13. Design and simulation of a low concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, J.I.; Vallverdu, X.; Lechon, M.A.; Ibanez, M.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and low solar concentration technologies are combined into a photovoltaic/thermal system to increase the solar energy conversion efficiency. This paper presents a prototype 11X concentration rate and two axis tracking system. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel concentrator with a channel photovoltaic/thermal collector. An analytical model to simulate the thermal behaviour of the prototype is proposed and validated. Measured thermal performance of the solar system gives values above 60%. Theoretical analysis confirms that thermal conduction between the PV cells and the absorber plate is a critical parameter

  14. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  15. Photovoltaic Thermal panels in collective thermal solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.; De Lange, E.T.N.; Smit, W.F.

    2003-12-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to assess the options to apply photovoltaic/thermal panels (PVT-panels) in collective solar thermal systems in urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was focused on the technical (architecture and installations) and the economical feasibility of collective PVT-systems in comparison with conventional solar thermal systems and combinations of photovoltaic (PV) panels and solar collectors. The results of the study also give insight into cost and the market for PVT-panels. Three case studies in which collective solar collector systems were applied are analyzed again by simulating the installation of a PVT-panels system and a separate solar thermal PV system [nl

  16. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Abreu, S.L.; Pereira, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m 2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m 2 /day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ► Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ► Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ► Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ► The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  17. Optimal offering strategy for a concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are becoming economically viable. ► CSP production is positively correlated with the demand. ► CSP plants can be made dispatchable by using molten salt storage facilities. ► Integrating CSP plants in a market constitutes a relevant challenge. -- Abstract: This paper provides a methodology to build offering curves for a concentrating solar power plant. This methodology takes into account the uncertainty in the thermal production from the solar field and the volatility of market prices. The solar plant owner is a price-taker producer that participates in a pool-based electricity market with the aim of maximizing its expected profit. To enhance the value of the concentrating solar power plant, a molten salt heat storage is considered, which allows producing electricity during periods without availability of the solar resource. To derive offering curves, a mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed, which is robust from the point of view of the uncertainty associated with the thermal production of the solar field and stochastic from the point of view of the uncertain market prices.

  18. PSA Solar furnace: A facility for testing PV cells under concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Reche, J.; Canadas, I.; Sanchez, M.; Ballestrin, J.; Yebra, L.; Monterreal, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Garcia, G. [Concentration Solar Technologies, Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT P.O. Box 22, Tabernas, E-04200 (Almeria) (Spain); Alonso, M.; Chenlo, F. [Photovoltaic Components and Systems, Renewable Energies Department-CIEMAT Avda. Complutense, 22, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), the largest centre for research, development and testing of concentration solar thermal technologies in Europe, has started to apply its knowledge, facilities and resources to development of the Concentration PV technology in an EU-funded project HiConPV. A facility for testing PV cells under solar radiation concentrated up to 2000x has recently been completed. The advantages of this facility are that, since it is illuminated by solar radiation, it is possible to obtain the appropriate cell spectral response directly, and the flash tests can be combined with prolonged PV-cell irradiation on large surfaces (up to 150cm{sup 2}), so the thermal response of the PV cell can be evaluated simultaneously. (author)

  19. Innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...

  20. Miniaturization of Fresnel lenses for solar concentration: a quantitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-04-20

    Sizing down the dimensions of solar concentrators for photovoltaic applications offers a number of promising advantages. It provides thinner modules and smaller solar cells, which reduces thermal issues. In this work a plane Fresnel lens design is introduced that is first analyzed with geometrical optics. Because of miniaturization, pure ray tracing may no longer be valid to determine the concentration performance. Therefore, a quantitative wave optical analysis of the miniaturization's influence on the obtained concentration performance is presented. This better quantitative understanding of the impact of diffraction in microstructured Fresnel lenses might help to optimize the design of several applications in nonimaging optics.

  1. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  2. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  3. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  4. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...... were degraded resulting in acceleration factors in the range of 19-55. This shows that concentrated sunlight can be used as qualitatively to determine the lifetime of polymers under highly accelerated conditions....

  5. Solar water disinfecting system using compound parabolic concentrating collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghetany, H.H.; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2000-05-31

    Solar water disinfection is an alternative technology using solar radiation and thermal treatment to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in water. The Compound Parabolic Concentrating, (CPC) collector can be used as an efficient key component for solar disinfectanting system. Two types of the CPC collectors are studied, namely the transparent-tube and the Copper-tube CPC collector. It is found that after 30 minutes of exposing the water sample to solar radiation or heating it up to 65 degree C for a few minuets all the coliform bacterial present in the contaminated water sample were completely eliminated. In this article, the effect of water temperature on the disinfecting process was presented. Thermal and micro-biological measurements were also made to evaluate the system performance. (author)

  6. The SolarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, G.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our national solar thermal research programs and our combined efforts conducted through IEA/SolarPACES have brought about many breakthroughs in the development of solar thermal technology. We have components and systems that are much more efficient, much more reliable, and can be built much more cost-efficiently than just a few years ago. As our technology development proceeds, we undoubtedly will continue to make significant progress, breakthroughs in fact, in all these areas - progress that will bring us even closer to economic parity with more conventional forms of energy. And while this progress is absolutely necessary, the question is whether it will be enough to allow solar thermal to break into the mainstream of global energy supply. Our new IEA/SolarPACES strategy, crafted and approved over the course of the past year, has recognized the changes we must face and given us license to begin to make those changes. We must begin addressing financial hurdles, work to create a more favorable regulatory and tax environment, support development of international partnerships, and expand the visibility and excitement of solar thermal technology to achieve the final breakthroughs we need to allow solar thermal energy to live up to its vast potential. (orig./AKF)

  7. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyen, Richard; Gibert, Francois; Porcheyre, Edwige; Laplagne, Valerie; Lambertucci, Stefano; Hauser, Eva; Delmas, Pierre; Mozas, Kevin; Servier, Gerard; Girard, Jean-Paul; Haim, Philippe; Gendron, Marc; Haas, Benjamin; Leclech, Rodrigue; Eberhardt, Mathieu; Bettwy, Fabrice; Berthomieu, Nadine; Barais, Claire; Mingant, Sylvie; Daniel, Charles; GODIN, Olivier; PELe, Charles; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Cholin, Xavier; Mugnier, Daniel; Marchal, David; Khebchache, Bouzid

    2017-10-01

    The contributions of this conference first proposed an overview of the status and perspectives of the solar thermal energy sector with a presentation of the present situation and perspectives for the French market, and an overview of situations and initiatives in neighbouring European countries. A second session addressed the possible new economical and marketing models able to face challenges of solar thermal energy in 2018 with focuses on heat kWh purchase, on supply portage through a global operator contract (design-realisation-exploitation-maintenance contracts or CREM contracts, energy performance contracts or CPE), and on issues related to building renovation (solar-gas synergy) and to new buildings (regulatory evolution, E+C label). The third session proposed examples of local good practices: development of solar thermal networks in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes with the development of these networks and a support to commissioners, ADEME's support with patrimony-rehabilitation contracts, and the solar policy implemented by the Brest metropole. A technological focus was then proposed. It addressed communications about the SOCOL approach, concentration-based solar technology (technology, applications, realisations), and solar heating (assets in new and renovated buildings). Before a synthesis, two interventions addressed the production of solar electron and calories, and works performed on the increase of the solar coverage rate

  8. Luminescent solar concentrators: Semiconductor solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    There are increasing public and private pressures for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, of which solar is anticipated to be a prime player1. As it becomes increasingly desirable to generate energy nearer the point of demand (such as within a city centre) it is also more apparent that

  9. Ultrafast Thermal Cycling of Solar Panels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, T

    1998-01-01

    Two new cyclers that utilize a novel hybrid approach to perform fast thermal cycling of solar panels have been built and are now operational in the Mechanics and Materials Technology Center at The Aerospace Corporation...

  10. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  11. Color corrected Fresnel lens for solar concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new linear convex Fresnel lens with its groove side down is described. The design philosophy is similar to the highly concentrating two focal Fresnel lens but including a correction for chromatic aberration. A solar concentration ratio as high as 80 is achieved. For wide acceptance angles the concentration nears the theoretical maximum. (author)

  12. Cheap effective thermal solar-energy collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highgate, D.J.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1996-04-01

    A light-weight flexible solar-collector, with a wavelength-selective absorption surface and an insolation-transparent thermal-insulation protecter for its aperture, was built and tested. Its cheapness and high performance, relative to a conventional flat-plate solar-collector, provide a prima-facie case for the more widespread adoption of its design. (author)

  13. Two Fixed, Evacuated, Glass, Solar Collectors Using Nonimaging Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, John D.; Winston, Roland; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Ford, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Two fixed, evacuated, glass solar thermal collectors have been designed. The incorporation of nonimaging concentration, selective absorption and vacuum insulation into their design is essential for obtaining high efficiency through low heat loss, while operating at high temperatures. Nonimaging, approximately ideal concentration with wide acceptance angle permits solar radiation collection without tracking the sun, and insures collection of much of the diffuse radiation. It also minimizes the area of the absorbing surface, thereby reducing the radiation heat loss. Functional integration, where different parts of these two collectors serve more than one function, is also important in achieving high efficiency, and it reduces cost.

  14. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  15. Thermal solar energy, towards a sunny interval?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    While its market results are continuously decreasing, the thermal solar sector regains confidence with the perspectives of a new thermal legislation in France, a higher carbon tax and the growing volume of installed equipment. This document contains 5 articles, which themes are: The renewal of the thermal solar energy sector in France, notably for the building market, due to a new regulation and a reduction in costs; Several companies are developing large capacity thermal solar plant for industrial facilities (one of them covers 10000 m 2 ) while another company is developing an all-in-one containerised system (less than 1 MW); Another example is given with a Caribbean chemical company which use thermal solar energy for its processes, with a reduction of the fuel consumption by a 2.5 factor; The return of experience show that hybrid solar panels present some limitations, especially in terms of performances and sizing; A collective building (35 apartments) in the West of France has 100 pc of its heating needs (hot water production and space heating) satisfied with solar energy

  16. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  17. Comparison of selective transmitters for solar thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha; DeJarnette, Drew; Otanicar, Todd P

    2016-05-10

    Solar thermal collectors are radiative heat exchangers. Their efficacy is dictated predominantly by their absorption of short wavelength solar radiation and, importantly, by their emission of long wavelength thermal radiation. In conventional collector designs, the receiver is coated with a selectively absorbing surface (Black Chrome, TiNOx, etc.), which serves both of these aims. As the leading commercial absorber, TiNOx consists of several thin, vapor deposited layers (of metals and ceramics) on a metal substrate. In this technology, the solar absorption to thermal emission ratio can exceed 20. If a solar system requires an analogous transparent component-one which transmits the full AM1.5 solar spectrum, but reflects long wavelength thermal emission-the technology is much less developed. Bespoke "heat mirrors" are available from optics suppliers at high cost, but the closest mass-produced commercial technology is low-e glass. Low-e glasses are designed for visible light transmission and, as such, they reflect up to 50% of available solar energy. To address this technical gap, this study investigated selected combinations of thin films that could be deposited to serve as transparent, selective solar covers. A comparative numerical analysis of feasible materials and configurations was investigated using a nondimensional metric termed the efficiency factor for selectivity (EFS). This metric is dependent on the operation temperature and solar concentration ratio of the system, so our analysis covered the practical range for these parameters. It was found that thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) and ZnS-Ag-ZnS provided the highest EFS. Of these, ITO represents the more commercially viable solution for large-scale development. Based on these optimized designs, proof-of-concept ITO depositions were fabricated and compared to commercial depositions. Overall, this study presents a systematic guide for creating a new class of selective, transparent optics for solar

  18. Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Fibre Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.; Fisher, M.; Patrignani, L.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Chatten, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a fibre luminescent solar concentrator has been explored by means of both analytical and ray-tracing techniques. Coated fibres have been found to be more efficient than homogeneously doped fibres, at low absorption. For practical fibres concentration is predicted to be linear

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Gen3 Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andraka, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Today's power-tower concentrating solar power (CSP) technology exists in large part as a result of Department of Energy (DOE) and utility industry funding of demonstration systems in the 1980s and 1990s. Today's most advanced towers are integrated with molten-salt thermal energy storage, delivering thermal energy at 565 degrees C for integration with conventional steam-Rankine cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been identified as a likely successor to the steam-Rankine power cycle due to its potential for high efficiency when operating at elevated temperatures of 700 degrees C or greater. Over the course of the SunShot Initiative, DOE has supported a number of technology pathways that can operate efficiently at these temperatures and that hold promise to be reliable and cost effective. Three pathways - molten salt, particle, and gaseous - were selected for further investigation based on a two-day workshop held in August of 2016. The information contained in this roadmap identifies research and development challenges and lays out recommended research activities for each of the three pathways. DOE foresees that by successfully addressing the challenges identified in this roadmap, one or more technology pathways will be positioned for demonstration and subsequent commercialization within the next ten years. Based on current knowledge of the three power tower technologies, all three have the potential to achieve the SunShot goal of 6 cents/kilowatt-hour. Further development, modeling, and testing are now required to bring one or more of the technologies to a stage where integrated system tests and pilot demonstrations are feasible.

  20. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  1. Building a parabolic solar concentrator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Romero, J F M; Montiel, S Vazquez y; Granados-AgustIn, F; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Martinez-Yanez, L; Cruz-Martinez, V M

    2011-01-01

    In order to not further degrade the environment, people have been seeking to replace non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels by developing technologies that are based on renewable resources. An example of these technologies is solar energy. In this paper, we show the building and test of a solar parabolic concentrator as a prototype for the production of steam that can be coupled to a turbine to generate electricity or a steam engine in any particular industrial process.

  2. Dielectric compound parabolic concentrating solar collector with frustrated total internal reflection absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    Since its introduction, the concept of nonimaging solar concentrators, as exemplified by the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) design, has greatly enhanced the ability to collect solar energy efficiently in thermal and photovoltaic devices. When used as a primary concentrator, a CPC can provide significant concentration without the complication of a tracking mechanism and its associated maintenance problems. When used as a secondary, a CPC provides higher total concentration, or for a fixed concentration, tolerates greater tracking error in the primary.

  3. Solar thermal market in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The long-duration of national programs has been the driving force behind the expansion of the local market of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan in the last two decades. This study examines the potential market for SWHs using the statistical data from end users and the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The current effective utilization rate of residential SWHs in terms of potential number of systems installed is estimated to be 11.8%. The analyses also show that the current national subsidy program has recently lost its momentum in expanding the market. Therefore, regional subsidy programs should become the main force in influencing the growth in sales. In addition, SWHs of larger scale would be particularly effective in industries. To promote such applications, a combination of performance-based and direct subsidy schemes or tax deductions can be offered to end users to promote the applications of SWHs in the commercial sector. Solar-assisted cooling systems are considered to be another potential application of solar energy, which is associated with energy saving and power consumption in commercial and residential buildings. A short review of the R and D activities is also given in this paper. - Highlights: ► Regional subsidy programs will be the main force in influencing the growth in sales. ► A revised program is needed to promote solar water heaters for industry applications. ► Solar-assisted cooling systems are potential applications of solar energy in Taiwan

  4. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  5. Medium level of direct solar radiation and energetic potential of solar concentrator in Minas Gerais State, Brazil; Niveis medios de radiacao solar direta e potencial energetico dos concentradores solares em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    Basic concepts of solar energy, technical description of solar concentrators, its orientation and methodology of direct solar radiation measurement are discussed. An comparison of different solar radiation measurements methods, its methodology and its calculation steps are reported. Calculus and tables of the electric and thermal energy generation potential, through solar concentrators, on the state of Minas Gerais are also presented. 18 figs., 90 tabs., 12 refs.

  6. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  7. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  8. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Being Designed and Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macosko, Robert P.; Donovan, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    As the need for achieving super high temperatures (2000 K and above) in solar heat receivers has developed so has the need for secondary concentrators. These concentrators refocus the already highly concentrated solar energy provided by a primary solar collector, thereby significantly reducing the light entrance aperture of the heat receiver and the resulting infrared radiation heat loss from the receiver cavity. Although a significant amount of research and development has been done on nonimaging hollow reflective concentrators, there has been no other research or development to date on solid, single crystal, refractive concentrators that can operate at temperatures above 2000 K. The NASA Lewis Research Center recently initiated the development of single-crystal, optically clear, refractive secondary concentrators that, combined with a flux extractor, offer a number of significant advantages over the more conventional, hollow, reflective concentrators at elevated temperatures. Such concentrators could potentially provide higher throughput (efficiency), require no special cooling device, block heat receiver material boiloff from the receiver cavity, provide for flux tailoring in the cavity via the extractor, and potentially reduce infrared heat loss via an infrared block coating.The many technical challenges of designing and fabricating high-temperature refractive secondary concentrators and flux extractors include identifying optical materials that can survive the environment (high-temperature, vacuum and/or hydrogen atmosphere), developing coatings for enhanced optical and thermal performance, and developing crystal joining techniques and hardware that can survive launch loads.

  9. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2018-01-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  10. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  11. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  12. Rapid solar-thermal decarbonization of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jaimee Kristen

    Due to the ever-increasing demand for energy and the concern over the environmental impact of continuing to produce energy using current methods, there is interest in developing a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a desirable energy source because it is abundant in nature and burns cleanly. One method for producing hydrogen is to utilize a renewable energy source to obtain high enough temperatures to decompose a fossil fuel into its elements. This thesis work is directed at developing a solar-thermal aerosol flow reactor to dissociate methane to carbon black and hydrogen. The technology is intended as a "bridge" between current hydrogen production methods, such as conventional steam-methane reformers, and future "zero emission" technology for producing hydrogen, such as dissociating water using a renewable heating source. A solar furnace is used to heat a reactor to temperatures in excess of 2000 K. The final reactor design studied consists of three concentric vertical tubes---an outer quartz protection tube, a middle solid graphite heating tube, and an inner porous graphite reaction tube. A "fluid-wall" is created on the inside wall of the porous reaction tube in order to prevent deposition of the carbon black co-product on the reactor tube wall. The amorphous carbon black produced aids in heating the gas stream by absorbing radiation from the reactor wall. Conversions of 90% are obtained at a reactor wall temperature of 2100 K and an average residence time of 0.01 s. Computer modeling is also performed to study the gas flow and temperature profiles in the reactor as well as the kinetics of the methane dissociation reaction. The simulations indicate that there is little flow of the fluid-wall gas through the porous wall in the hot zone region, but this can be remedied by increasing the inlet temperature of the fluid-wall gas and/or increasing the tube permeability only in the hot zone region of the wall. The following expression describes the kinetics of methane

  13. Development of compound parabolic concentrators for solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1983-10-01

    The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is not a specific collector, but a family of collectors based on a general design principle for maximizing the geometric concentration, C, for radiation within a given acceptance half angle = thetac. This maximum limit exceeds by a factor of 2 to 4 that attainable by systems using focussing optics. The wide acceptance angles permitted using these techniques have several unique advantages for solar concentrators including the elimination of the diurnal tracking requirement at intermediate concentrations (up to about 10x), collection of circumsolar and some diffuse radiation and relaxed tolerances. Because of these advantages, CPC type concentrators have applications in solar energy wherever concentration is desired, e.g., for a wide variety of both thermal and photovoltaic uses. The basic principles of nonimaging optical design are reviewed. Selected configurations for both non-evacuated and evacuated thermal collector applications are discussed with particular emphasis on the most recent advances. The use of CPC type elements as secondary concentrators is illustrated in the context of higher concentration photovoltaic applications.

  14. Recent developments in luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

    2014-10-01

    High efficiency photovoltaic devices combine full solar spectrum absorption and effective generation and collection of charge carriers, while commercial success depends on cost effectiveness in manufacturing. Spectrum modification using down shifting has been demonstrated in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) since the 1970s, as a cheap alternative for standard c-Si technology. LSCs consist of a highly transparent plastic plate, in which luminescent species are dispersed, which absorb incident light and emit light at a red-shifted wavelength, with high quantum efficiency. Material issues have hampered efficiency improvements, in particular re-absorption of light emitted by luminescent species and stability of these species. In this contribution, approaches are reviewed on minimizing re-absorption, which should allow surpassing the 10% luminescent solar concentrator efficiency barrier.

  15. Solar thermal electric power generation - an attractive option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A

    1999-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy is being successfully used for production of electricity in few developed countries for more than 10 years. In solar Electric Generating Systems high temperature is generated by concentrating solar energy on black absorber pipe in evacuated glass tubes. This heat is absorbed and transported with the help of high temperature oil in to highly insulated heat exchanger storage tanks. They are subsequently used to produce steam that generates power through steam turbines as in standard thermal power plants. Various components involved in Solar thermal field have been developed at the Solar Systems Laboratory of College of EME, NUST Rawalpindi. It is considered as a cost effective alternate for power generation. The research has been partially sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology under its Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) in (1996-1998). Parabolic mirror design, fabrication, polishing, installation, solar tracking, absorber pipe, glass tubes, steam generation al have been developed. This paper will cover the details of indigenous technological break through made in this direction. (author)

  16. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  17. Comparison of Different Technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles: Analysis of Concentrating Technology and Solar Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rovira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the annual performance of Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs using different solar concentration technologies: parabolic trough collectors (PTC, linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR and central tower receiver (CT. Each solar technology (i.e. PTC, LFR and CT is proposed to integrate solar energy into the combined cycle in two different ways. The first one is based on the use of solar energy to evaporate water of the steam cycle by means of direct steam generation (DSG, increasing the steam production of the high pressure level of the steam generator. The other one is based on the use of solar energy to preheat the pressurized air at the exit of the gas turbine compressor before it is introduced in the combustion chamber, reducing the fuel consumption. Results show that ISCC with DSG increases the yearly production while solar air heating reduces it due to the incremental pressure drop. However, air heating allows significantly higher solar-to-electricity efficiencies and lower heat rates. Regarding the solar technologies, PTC provides the best thermal results.

  18. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  19. Multiple-Panel Cylindrical Solar Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Trough composed of many panels concentrates Sun's energy on solar cells, even when trough is not pointed directly at Sun. Tolerates deviation as great as 5 degrees from direction of sun. For terrestrial applications, multiple-flat-plate design offers potential cost reduction and ease of fabrication.

  20. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  1. Performance Feedback & Control of Solar Concentrators Using Wave Front Sensing Techniques (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, Jason N

    2007-01-01

    The major requirement for using concentrating Solar Thermal devices is the proper placement of the focal spot on the absorber to provide heating of the working fluid to produce thrust or to generate electricity...

  2. Luminescent solar concentrators with fiber geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelenbosch, Oreane Y; Fisher, Martyn; Patrignani, Luca; van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Chatten, Amanda J

    2013-05-06

    The potential of a fibre luminescent solar concentrator has been explored by means of both analytical and ray-tracing techniques. Coated fibres have been found to be more efficient than homogeneously doped fibres, at low absorption. For practical fibres concentration is predicted to be linear with fibre length. A 1 m long, radius 1 mm, fibre LSC doped with Lumogen Red 305 is predicted to concentrate the AM1.5 g spectrum up to 1100 nm at normal incidence by ~35 x. The collection efficiency under diffuse and direct irradiance in London has been analysed showing that, even under clear sky conditions, in winter the diffuse contribution equals the direct.

  3. Solar thermal technology and market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabba, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solar heating industry in Europe has reached maturity after more than two decades of technical development. High quality systems are now available with reliability and durability of the products being assured. The European solar market, now the world's largest, has been growing since the late 1980s, despite the fact that conventional energy sources are usually available and inexpensive. This is a new phenomenon and marks the beginning of changes in energy supply and consumption that will be experienced throughout the world in this new century. Almost 10 million square metres of solar thermal collectors now exist in Europe saving more than 1.5 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions and about 500,000 tonnes of oil. The solar heating industry has created some 10,000 jobs. (author)

  4. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABET I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical and experimental studyof flat platesolar water collector with reflectors.A mathematical model based on energy balance equations saw the thermal behavior of the collector is investigated. The experimental test was made at the unit research applies in renewable energy (URAER located in southern Algeria.An increase of 23% for solar radiation incident on the collector surface with the addition of the planers reflectors in the day of May, this increase causes an improvement of the performance of the collector,the fluid temperature increases with an average of 5%. Thetests conducted on the flat plate solar water collector in open circuit enabled the determination of thermal performance of the collector by estimating the daily output The thermal efficiency of the collector ranges from 1% -63% during the day, a mean value of 36%obtained.

  5. Market potential of solar thermal system in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, M.Y.H.; Sopian, K.; Dalimin, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the market potential for solar thermal systems in Malaysia. Our study indicates that solar thermal systems such as solar drying, solar water heating and process heating have a good potential for commercialization. The primary obstacle facing the utilization of these technologies is the financial aspects. (author)

  6. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  7. Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-09-20

    A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.

  8. Material for a luminescent solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

  9. Multi-Use Solar Thermal System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith [7227-570], Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative solar thermal system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator...

  10. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Francois; Loyen, Richard; Khebchache, Bouzid; Cholin, Xavier; Leicher, David; Mozas, Kevin; Leclercq, Martine; Laugier, Patrick; Dias, Pedro; Kuczer, Eric; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Soussana, Max; Cheze, David; Mugnier, Daniel; Laplagne, Valerie; Mykieta, Frederic; Ducloux, Antoine; Egret, Dominique; Noisette, Nadege; Peneau, Yvan; Seguis, Anne-Sophie; Gerard, Roland

    2017-10-01

    After an introducing contribution which discussed the difficult evolution of the solar thermal energy sector in 2015, contributions addressed development plans for SOCOL (a plan for collective solar thermal and solar heat) which aims at reviving the market and at opening new markets. A next set of contributions discussed how solar thermal energy can be at the service of energy transition. Following sessions addressed issues like innovation at the service of solar thermal energy, energetic display of solar systems and application of the Ecodesign and Labelling directives, and the reduction of carbon footprint and the energy dependence of territories

  11. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The Northrup concentrating solar collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, fiber glass insulation and weighs 98 pounds. The gross collector area is about 29.4/sup 2/ per collector. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  12. Thermal analysis of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink for cooling concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyabi, Idris Al; Shanks, Katie; Mallick, Tapas; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2017-09-01

    Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) technology is increasingly being considered as an alternative option for solar electricity generation. However, increasing the light concentration ratio could decrease the system output power due to the increase in the temperature of the cells. The performance of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink configuration was evaluated using numerical analysis. In this analysis, three dimensional incompressible laminar steady flow model was solved numerically. An electrical and thermal solar cell model was coupled for solar cell temperature and efficiency calculations. Thermal resistance, solar cell temperature and pumping power were used for the system efficiency evaluation. An increase in the number of microchannel layers exhibited the best overall performance in terms of the thermal resistance, solar cell temperature uniformity and pressure drop. The channel height and width has no effect on the solar cell maximum temperature. However, increasing channel height leads to a reduction in the pressure drop and hence less fluid pumping power.

  13. Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via photonic nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglei; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-10-12

    Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i.e., Janus nanoparticles. The solar thermal conversion efficiency can be improved by 10.8% compared with core-shell nanofluids. The extinction coefficient of Janus dimers with various configurations is also investigated to unveil the effects of particle couplings. This work provides the possibility to achieve full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion, and may have potential applications in efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization.

  14. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  15. Directory of the French thermal solar sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demangeon, Elsa; Simmonet, Raphael; Canals, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    After an overview of what is at stake for the thermal solar sector in terms of employment and industrial development, a discussion of the huge energy and industrial potential of this sector, and the proposition of a road map for the development of this sector in France, this publication proposes a directory of actors of the different activity sectors: research and development, engineering, electric and electronic hardware manufacturing, thermal equipment manufacturing, fluid manufacturing, reflector manufacturing, thermodynamic machine manufacturer, structure component manufacturer, control-command system, energy storage, developers, and so on

  16. A miniature concentrating photovoltaic and thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Kaftori, Daniel; Mittelman, Gur; Hirshfeld, Amir; Flitsanov, Yuri; Dayan, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    A novel miniature concentrating PV (MCPV) system is presented and analyzed. The system is producing both electrical and thermal energy, which is supplied to a nearby consumer. In contrast to PV/thermal (PV/T) flat collectors, the heat from an MCPV collector is not limited to low-temperature applications. The work reported here refers to the evaluation and preliminary design of the MCPV approach. The heat transport system, the electric and thermal performance, the manufacturing cost, and the resulting cost of energy in case of domestic water heating have been analyzed. The results show that the new approach has promising prospects

  17. Market: why is thermal solar power down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2010-01-01

    After a 10 year period of steady growth the French market of the thermal solar power dropped by 15% in 2009. Only 265.000 m 2 were installed instead of 313.000 m 2 in 2008. The main reason of this decrease is the economic crisis: the European market for thermal solar energy dropped by 10%. The second reason is the unfair competition of the photovoltaic power that benefits from very favourable electricity purchase prices, from higher subsidies and from a better image in the public's eye. Another competitor on the market is the new equipment called 'thermodynamic water heater' that involves a heat pump, this equipment is cheaper but only on a short term basis. (A.C.)

  18. Thermal Testing Methods for Solar Dryers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Solar food drying is a complex heat and mass transfer phenomena which depend on a number of drying process-dependent parameters such as operating conditions and characteristics of the food product to be dried. The variation in these parameters significantly affects the overall performance...... of the dryer system. Since commercial growth and acceptance of any solar dryer system momentously depend on its performance guarantee, the development of a standard methodology for their thermal testing has become necessary. The standard testing method not only provides better performance management...... of the dryer system but allows the manufacturers to achieve competitive efficiency and good product quality by comparing the available designs. In this chapter, an extensive review of solar dryer performance evaluation has been carried out. Furthermore, the chapter describes the existing testing procedures...

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  20. Luminescent solar concentrators utilizing stimulated emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Fleming, Simon; MacQueen, Rowan W; Schmidt, Timothy W; Argyros, Alexander

    2016-03-21

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are an emerging technology that aims primarily to reduce the cost of solar energy, with great potential for building integrated photovoltaic (PV) structures. However, realizing LSCs with commercially viable efficiency is currently hindered by reabsorption losses. Here, we introduce an approach to reducing reabsorption as well as improving directional emission in LSCs by using stimulated emission. Light from a seed laser (potentially an inexpensive laser diode) passes through the entire area of the LSC panel, modifying the emission spectrum of excited dye molecules such that it is spectrally narrower, at wavelengths that minimize reabsorption to allow net gain in the system, and directed towards a small PV cell. A mathematical model, taking into account thermodynamic considerations, of such a system is presented which identifies key parameters and allows evaluation in terms of net effective output power.

  1. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  2. Design and Development of a Solar Thermal Collector with Single Axis Solar Tracking Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theebhan Mogana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is a source of energy that is abundant in Malaysia and can be easily harvested. However, because of the rotation of the Earth about its axis, it is impossible to harvest the solar energy to the maximum capacity if the solar thermal collector is placed fix to a certain angle. In this research, a solar thermal dish with single axis solar tracking mechanism that will rotate the dish according to the position of the sun in the sky is designed and developed, so that more solar rays can be reflected to a focal point and solar thermal energy can be harvested from the focal point. Data were collected for different weather conditions and performance of the solar thermal collector with a solar tracker were studied and compared with stationary solar thermal collector.

  3. Analytical analysis of solar thermal collector with glass and Fresnel lens glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifle, Idris; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz Hj; Othman, Mohd Yusof Hj; Ibarahim, Zahari

    2018-04-01

    Solar thermal collector is a system that converts solar radiation to heat. The heat will raise the temperature higher than the ambient temperature. Absorber and glazing are two important components in order to increase the temperature of the collector. The thermal absorber will release heat by convection and as radiation to the surrounding. These losses will be reduced by glazing. Other than that, glazing is beneficial for protecting the collector from dust and water. This study discusses about modelling of solar thermal collector effects of different mass flow rates with different glazing for V-groove flat plate solar collectors. The glazing used was the glass and linear Fresnel lens. Concentration ratio in this modelling was 1.3 for 0.1m solar collector thickness. Results show that solar collectors with linear Fresnel lens has the highest efficiency value of 71.18% compared to solar collectors with glass which has efficiency 54.10% with same operation conditions.

  4. Dynamic thermal analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, John T., II; Cain, Stephen C.; Pochet, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (PV) technology represents a growing market in the field of terrestrial solar energy production. As the demand for renewable energy technologies increases, further importance is placed upon the modeling, design, and simulation of these systems. Given the U.S. Air Force cultural shift towards energy awareness and conservation, several concentrated PV systems have been installed on Air Force installations across the country. However, there has been a dearth of research within the Air Force devoted to understanding these systems in order to possibly improve the existing technologies. This research presents a new model for a simple concentrated PV system. This model accurately determines the steady state operating temperature as a function of the concentration factor for the optical part of the concentrated PV system, in order to calculate the optimum concentration that maximizes power output and efficiency. The dynamic thermal model derived is validated experimentally using a commercial polysilicon solar cell, and is shown to accurately predict the steady state temperature and ideal concentration factor.

  5. Parabolic trough solar concentrators: a technology which can contribute towards pakistan's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, R.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)

  6. Solar thermal power: the seamless solar link to the conventional power world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, Michael; Quaschning, Volker

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on solar thermal power generation and describes two solar thermal power concepts, namely, the parabolic trough or solar farm, and the solar central receiver or power tower. Details are given of grid-connected parabolic trough power plants in California and recent developments in collector design and absorber tubes, and the operation of power tower plants with different heat transfer media. Market issues are discussed, and solar thermal power projects under development, and application for support for solar thermal power projects under the Global Environment Facility's Operational Programme by Egypt, India, Iran, Mexico and Morocco are reported

  7. Numerical and experimental investigation on a new type of compound parabolic concentrator solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wandong; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Huan; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A serpentine compound parabolic concentrator solar collector is proposed. • A mathematical model for the new collector is developed and verified by experiments. • The thermal efficiency of the collector can be up to 60.5% during the experiments. • The effects of key parameters on the thermal performance are mathematically studied. - Abstract: In order to improve the thermal efficiency, reduce the heat losses and achieve high freezing resistance of the solar device for space heating in cold regions, a new type of serpentine compound parabolic concentrator solar collector is presented in this paper, which is a combination of a compound parabolic concentrator solar collector and a flat plate solar collector. A detailed mathematical model for the new collector based on the analysis of heat transfer is developed and then solved by the software tool Matlab. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data and the maximum deviation is 8.07%, which shows a good agreement with each other. The experimental results show that the thermal efficiency of the collector can be as high as 60.5%. The model is used to predict the thermal performance of the new collector. The effects of structure and operating parameters on the thermal performance are mathematically discussed. The numerical and experimental results show that the new collector is more suitable to provide low temperature hot water for space heating in cold regions and the mathematical model will be much helpful in the designing and optimizing of the solar collectors.

  8. Nonimaging optics in luminescent solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, B D; Ranade, R R; Giebink, N C

    2012-09-10

    Light trapped within luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is naturally limited in angular extent by the total internal reflection critical angle, θcrit, and hence the principles of nonimaging optics can be leveraged to increase LSC concentration ratio by appropriately reshaping the edges. Here, we use rigorous ray-tracing simulations to explore the potential of this concept for realistic LSCs with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC)-tapered edges and show that, when applied to a single edge, the concentration ratio is increased by 23% while maintaining >90% of the original LSC optical efficiency. Importantly, we find that CPC-tapering all of the edges enables a significantly greater intensity enhancement up to 35% at >90% of the original optical efficiency, effectively enabling two-dimensional concentration through a cooperative, ray-recycling effect in which rays rejected by one CPC are accepted by another. These results open up a significant opportunity to improve LSC performance at virtually no added manufacturing cost by incorporating nonimaging optics into their design.

  9. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work. Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal collectors, Electrical performance, Thermal performance, Compound parabolic concentrator, Jet impingement

  10. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy

  11. Solar applications of thermal energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Taylor, L.; DeVries, J.; Heibein, S.

    1979-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on solar energy systems which use thermal energy storage. The study includes characterization of the current state-of-the-art of thermal energy storage, an assessment of the energy storage needs of solar energy systems, and the synthesis of this information into preliminary design criteria which would form the basis for detailed designs of thermal energy storage. (MHR)

  12. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  13. Solar thermal energy. Solar pasteurization of dairy products; Energia solar termica. Pasteurizacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, J.; Chemisana, D.

    2009-07-01

    Nicaragua is one of the south America countries with biggest cattle figures; however, it is at the bottom of the list of milk consumers. The cause which explains this is a twofold trouble. First of all, they have not the adequate milk treatment methods to guarantee a proper hygienic and conservation conditions. By the other side, production is distributed in small production centers to serve local consumers. this article proposal is to get a pasteurization treatment with thermal processes arranged by means of the solar energy. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Solar Thermal System Evaluation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 581 solar thermal systems (STSs, 98 counties, and 47 renewable application demonstration cites in China need to be inspected by the end of 2015. In this study, the baseline for performance and economic evaluation of STSs are presented based on the site test data and related references. An index used to evaluate STSs was selected, and methods to acquire the parameters used to calculate the related index were set. The requirements for sensors for testing were specified. The evaluation method was applied to three systems and the result shows that the evaluation method is suitable for the evaluation of STSs in China.

  15. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  16. Thermal analysis and design of passive solar buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, AK

    2013-01-01

    Passive solar design techniques are becoming increasingly important in building design. This design reference book takes the building engineer or physicist step-by-step through the thermal analysis and design of passive solar buildings. In particular it emphasises two important topics: the maximum utilization of available solar energy and thermal storage, and the sizing of an appropriate auxiliary heating/cooling system in conjunction with good thermal control.Thermal Analysis and Design of Passive Solar Buildings is an important contribution towards the optimization of buildings as systems th

  17. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  18. High-flux solar concentration with imaging designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuermann, D. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ries, H. [Ries and Partners, Munich (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Most large solar concentrators designed for high flux concentration at high collection efficiency are based on imaging primary mirrors and nonimaging secondary concentrators. In this paper, we offer an alternative purely imaging two-stage solar concentrator that can attain high flux concentration at high collection efficiency. Possible practical virtues include: (1) an inherent large gap between absorber and secondary mirror; (2) a restricted angular range on the absorber; and (3) an upward-facing receiver where collected energy can be extracted via the (shaded) apex of the parabola. We use efficiency-concentration plots to characterize the solar concentrators considered, and to evaluate the potential improvements with secondary concentrators. (author)

  19. Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imadojemu, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive

  20. Design and modeling of low temperature solar thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Ganesh, N.; Srinivas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimum conditions are different for efficiency and power conditions. ► The current model works up to a maximum separator temperature of 150 °C. ► The turbine concentration influences the high pressure. ► High solar beam radiation and optimized cycle conditions give low collector cost. -- Abstract: During the heat recovery in a Kalina cycle, a binary aqua–ammonia mixture changes its state from liquid to vapor, the more volatile ammonia vaporizes first and then the water starts vaporization to match temperature profile of the hot fluid. In the present work, a low temperature Kalina cycle has been investigated to optimize the heat recovery from solar thermal collectors. Hot fluid coming from solar parabolic trough collector with vacuum tubes is used to generate ammonia rich vapor in a boiler for power generation. The turbine inlet conditions are optimized to match the variable hot fluid temperature with the intermittent nature of the solar radiation. The key parameters discussed in this study are strong solution concentration, separator temperature which affects the hot fluid inlet temperature and turbine ammonia concentration. Solar parabolic collector system with vacuum tubes has been designed at the optimized power plant conditions. This work can be used in the selection of boiler, separator and turbine conditions to maximize the power output as well as efficiency of power generation system. The current model results a maximum limit temperature for separator as 150 °C at the Indian climatic conditions. A maximum specific power of 105 kW per kg/s of working fluid can be obtained at 80% of strong solution concentration with 140 °C separator temperature. The corresponding plant and cycle efficiencies are 5.25% and 13% respectively. But the maximum efficiencies of 6% and 15% can be obtained respectively for plant and Kalina cycle at 150 °C of separator temperature.

  1. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  2. Solar thermal collectors at design and technology activity days

    OpenAIRE

    Petrina, Darinka

    2016-01-01

    Thesis encompases usage of renewable resources of energy, especially solar energy, which is essential for our future. On one hand, certain ways of exploiting solar energy (with solar cells) have been well established and is included in the Design and technology curriculum, on the other hand however, solar thermal collectors have not been recognized enough in spite of their distribution, applicability and environmentally friendly technology. Consequently thesis emphasizes the usage of solar en...

  3. Design optimization studies for nonimaging concentrating solar collector tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentrator or ISEC solar collector panel which achieved the best high temperature performance ever measured with a stationary collector was examined. A development effort review and optimize the initial proof of concept design was completed. Changes in the optical design to improve the angular response function and increase the optical efficiency were determined. A recommended profile design with a concentration ratio of 1.55x and an acceptance angle of + - 35(0) was identified. Two alternative panel/module configurations are recommended based on the preferred double ended flow through design. Parasitic thermal and pumping losses show to be reducible to acceptable levels, and two passive approaches to the problem of ensuring stagnation survival are identified.

  4. Review and summary of Solar Thermal Conversion Program planning assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Conversion Program comprises a major part of the national solar energy program which must be continuously reviewed and modified where necessary. Modifications are typically required to reflect technical achievements and uncertainties which arise from within the program or from other technical programs, changes in budgets available for supporting the program as well as internal program funding priorities, changing goals such as through acceleration or stretch-out of the program schedule, significant organizational changes involving responsible governmental agencies, the introduction of new project management support contractors, and required budget or schedule changes occurring within individual projects that make up the Solar Thermal Conversion Program. The Aerospace Corporation has provided data to assist in planning, review, coordination, and documentation of the overall Solar Thermal Conversion Program. The Solar Thermal Conversion Program Plan is described in detail. Sections 2.0 through 5.0 cover the discussion and detail planning covering the objectives, justification, basic and alternative plans, budgets, and schedules for the Solar Thermal sub-unit portion of the Solar Electric Applications effort. Appendices B1, B2, and B3 include the March 21, March 28, and April 5, 1975, Program Plan submissions of the complete Solar Electric Applications effort. In Appendix B the Solar Thermal, Solar Photovoltaic, Wind Energy, and Ocean Thermal sub-unit texts have been condensed and formatted for integration in the overall ERDA budget package. (WHK)

  5. Near-Field Thermal Radiation for Solar Thermophotovoltaics and High Temperature Thermal Logic and Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud

    This dissertation investigates Near-Field Thermal Radiation (NFTR) applied to MEMS-based concentrated solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) energy conversion and thermal memory and logics. NFTR is the exchange of thermal radiation energy at nano/microscale; when separation between the hot and cold objects is less than dominant radiation wavelength (˜1 mum). NFTR is particularly of interest to the above applications due to its high rate of energy transfer, exceeding the blackbody limit by orders of magnitude, and its strong dependence on separation gap size, surface nano/microstructure and material properties. Concentrated STPV system converts solar radiation to electricity using heat as an intermediary through a thermally coupled absorber/emitter, which causes STPV to have one of the highest solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency limits (85.4%). Modeling of a near-field concentrated STPV microsystem is carried out to investigate the use of STPV based solid-state energy conversion as high power density MEMS power generator. Numerical results for In 0.18Ga0.82Sb PV cell illuminated with tungsten emitter showed significant enhancement in energy transfer, resulting in output power densities as high as 60 W/cm2; 30 times higher than the equivalent far-field power density. On thermal computing, this dissertation demonstrates near-field heat transfer enabled high temperature NanoThermoMechanical memory and logics. Unlike electronics, NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices use heat instead of electricity to record and process data; hence they can operate in harsh environments where electronics typically fail. NanoThermoMechanical devices achieve memory and thermal rectification functions through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion in microstructures, resulting in nonlinear heat transfer between two temperature terminals. Numerical modeling of a conceptual NanoThermoMechanical is carried out; results include the dynamic response under

  6. Solar production of catalytic filamentous carbon by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V A; Kuvshinov, G G; Mogilnykh, Yu I [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Reller, A [University of Hamburg (Germany); Steinfeld, A; Weidenkaff, A; Meier, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Concentrated solar radiation was used as the clean source of process heat for the production of Catalytic Filamentous Carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nano tubes and nano fibers, were obtained in solar experiments at the PSI solar furnace. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  7. Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for Fresnel linear concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, D.; Ibanez, M.; Rosell, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A combined domed Fresnel lens - CPC PVT system is designed and characterized. → Electrical and thermal experiments have been performed. → CFD analysis has been used to determine thermal characteristic dimensionless numbers. - Abstract: An advanced solar unit is designed to match the needs of building integration and concentrating photovoltaic/thermal generation. The unit proposed accurately combines three elements: a domed linear Fresnel lens as primary concentrator, a compound parabolic reflector as secondary concentrator and a photovoltaic-thermal module. In this work the photovoltaic-thermal generator is built, analysed and characterized. Models for the electrical and thermal behaviour of the module are developed and validated experimentally. Applying a thermal resistances approach the results from both models are combined. Finally, efficiency electrical and thermal curves are derived from theoretical analysis showing good agreement with experimental measurements.

  8. Experimental characterization of a solar cooker with thermal energy storage based on solar salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, G.; Di Nicola, G.; Tomassetti, S.; Gabrielli, G.; Chieruzzi, M.; Pierantozzi, M.

    2017-11-01

    High temperature solar cooking allows to cook food fast and with good efficiency. An unavoidable drawback of this technology is that it requires nearly clear-sky conditions. In addition, evening cooking is difficult to be accomplished, particularly on the winter season during which solar radiation availability is limited to a few hours in the afternoon in most of countries. These restrictions could be overcome using a cooker thermal storage unit (TSU). In this work, a TSU based on solar salt was studied. The unit consists of two metal concentric cylindrical vessels, connected together to form a double-walled vessel. The volume between walls was filled with a certain amount of nitrate based phase change material (solar salt). In order to characterize the TSU, a test bench used to assess solar cooker performance was adopted. Experimental load tests with the TSU were carried out to evaluate the cooker performance. The obtained preliminary results show that the adoption of the solar salt TSU seems to allow both the opportunity of evening cooking and the possibility to better stabilize the cooker temperature when sky conditions are variable.

  9. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  10. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  11. The role of Solar thermal in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth

    This report deals with solar thermal technologies and investigates possible roles for solar thermal in future energy systems for four national energy systems; Germany, Austria, Italy and Denmark. The project period started in January 2014 and finished by October 2017. This report is based...

  12. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  13. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  14. Solar thermal energy utilization in Brazil: a perspective; Utilizacao da energia solar termica no Brasil: uma perspectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although Brazil has a large insolation potential, utilization of solar thermal energy is still limited to few applications, like residential and commercial water heating and drying of grains. However, there are in other countries more intensive applications, like electricity generation, industrial heat and fresh water production. The present work describes which are the other ways of using solar thermal energy that have been developed in the world, approaches the main technical aspects that affect its utilization, the perspective of increasing it in Brazil and its possible barriers and, finally, PETROBRAS' studies in this area, positioning itself as an Energy Company. The main solar thermal technologies currently used in the world are evacuated collectors, that work efficiently at temperatures up to 130 deg C, and concentrating solar technologies, that can reach the temperature of 1200 deg C. Among the latter, solar trough is the technology that is already considered mature, and near to become economically viable. Brazil, at the moment, has two technological challenges: development of national technology to manufacture high performance solar collectors, like evacuated collectors and solar troughs, and the development of thermal equipment to operate at temperatures under 120 deg C, like adsorption and absorption chillers and desalination towers, that can be economically competitive. (author)

  15. Nonimaging fresnel lenses. Design and performance of solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, R. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei-shi (Japan). BASE; Suzuki, A. [UNESCO, Paris (France). Natural Science Sector

    2001-07-01

    This book offers a detailed and comprehensive account of the engineering of the world's first nonimaging Fresnel lens solar concentrator. The book closes a gap in solar concentrator design, and describes nonimaging refractive optics and its numerical mathematics. The contents follow a systems approach that is absent in standard handbooks of optics or solar energy. The reader is introduced to the principles, theories, and advantages of nonimaging optics from the standpoint of concentrating sunlight (the solar concentrator idea). The book shows the reader how to find his or her own optical solution using the rules and methodologies covering the design and the assessment of the nonimaging lens. This novel solar concentrator is developed within the natural constraints presented by the sun and in relation to competitive solutions offered by other concentrators. (orig.)

  16. Graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials for heat removal from photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, M.; Gamalath, D.; Hernandez, E.; Balandin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The increase in the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells affects negatively their power conversion efficiency and decreases their lifetime. The negative effects are particularly pronounced in concentrator solar cells. Therefore, it is crucial to limit the PV cell temperature by effectively removing the excess heat. Conventional thermal phase change materials (PCMs) and thermal interface materials (TIMs) do not possess the thermal conductivity values sufficient for thermal management of the next generation of PV cells. In this paper, we report the results of investigation of the increased efficiency of PV cells with the use of graphene-enhanced TIMs. Graphene reveals the highest values of the intrinsic thermal conductivity. It was also shown that the thermal conductivity of composites can be increased via utilization of graphene fillers. We prepared TIMs with up to 6% of graphene designed specifically for PV cell application. The solar cells were tested using the solar simulation module. It was found that the drop in the output voltage of the solar panel under two-sun concentrated illumination can be reduced from 19% to 6% when grapheneenhanced TIMs are used. The proposed method can recover up to 75% of the power loss in solar cells.

  17. Solar-hydrogen generation and solar concentration (Conference Presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulima, Oleg V.; Chinello, Enrico; Conibeer, Gavin; Modestino, Miquel A.; Schüttauf, Jan-Willem; Lambelet, David; Delfino, Antonio; Domine, Didier; Faes, Antonin; Despeisse, Matthieu; Bailat, Julien; Psaltis, Demetri; Fernandez Rivas, David; Ballif, Christophe; Moser, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We successfully demonstrated and reported the highest solar-to-hydrogen efficiency with crystalline silicon cells and Earth-abundant electrocatalysts under unconcentrated solar radiation. The combination of hetero-junction silicon cells and a 3D printed Platinum/Iridium-Oxide electrolyzer has been

  18. Performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrator with mirror arrangements and receiver shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yong; Ma, Dae Sung; Seo, Tae Beom [Graduate School, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Heack [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrators are numerically investigated. The dish type solar concentrator considered in this paper consists of a receiver and multi-faceted mirrors. In order to investigate the performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrators, six different mirror arrangements and four different receivers are considered. A parabolic-shaped perfect mirror of which diameter is 1.40 m is considered as the reference for the mirror arrangements. The other mirror arrangements consist of twelve identical parabolic-shaped mirror facets of which diameter are 0.405 m. Their total collecting areas, which are 1.545 m{sup 2}, are the same. Four different solar receiver shapes are a conical, a dome, a cylindrical, and a unicorn type. In order to investigate the thermal performance of the dish type solar concentrator, the radiative heat loss in the receiver should be calculated. For calculation, the net radiation method and the Monte-Carlo method are used. Also, because the thermal performance of the dish type solar concentrator can vary as the receiver surface temperature, the various surface temperatures are considered. Based on the calculation, the unicorn type has the best performance in receiver shapes and the STAR has the best performance in mirror arrangements except the perfect mirror. (orig.)

  19. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  20. Standard Practice for Evaluating Solar Absorptive Materials for Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a testing methodology for evaluating absorptive materials used in flat plate or concentrating collectors, with concentrating ratios not to exceed five, for solar thermal applications. This practice is not intended to be used for the evaluation of absorptive surfaces that are (1) used in direct contact with, or suspended in, a heat-transfer liquid, (that is, trickle collectors, direct absorption fluids, etc.); (2) used in evacuated collectors; or (3) used in collectors without cover plate(s). 1.2 Test methods included in this practice are property measurement tests and aging tests. Property measurement tests provide for the determination of various properties of absorptive materials, for example, absorptance, emittance, and appearance. Aging tests provide for exposure of absorptive materials to environments that may induce changes in the properties of test specimens. Measuring properties before and after an aging test provides a means of determining the effect of the exposure. 1.3 Th...

  1. Towards prioritizing flexibility in the design and construction of concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topel, Monika; Lundqvist, Mårten; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    In the operation and maintenance of concentrating solar power plants, high operational flexibility is required in order to withstand the variability from the inherent solar fluctuations. However, during the development phases of a solar thermal plant, this important objective is overlooked...... as a relevant factor for cost reduction in the long term. This paper will show the value of including flexibility aspects in the design of a concentrating solar power plant by breaking down their potential favorable impact on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) calculations. For this, three scenarios...... to include flexibility as a design objective are analyzed and their potential impact on the LCOE is quantified. The scenarios were modeled and analyzed using a techno-economic model of a direct steam generation solar tower power plant. Sensitivity studies were carried out for each scenario, in which...

  2. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-06-01

    The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV) could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT) where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work.

  3. Solar thermal barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, the European Union saw its solar thermal market contract for the seventh year in a row. EurObserv'ER puts sales of solar thermal capacity installed for the heating market (hot water and space heating) at 1861 MWth, equivalent to a 2.7 million m"2 of collectors... a further 8.6% decrease on the previous year's poor performance. Combined solar thermal capacity installed to date in the EU stands at 34.3 GWth, or 49 million m"2 of collectors

  4. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Dish/Engine Projects | Concentrating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Power | NREL Dish/Engine Projects Photo of several flat, octagonal panels arranged together to form a dish-shaped structure. The receiver is supported above the panels by an arm-like of the panels. These dish/Stirling units are being tested at Sandia National Laboratories in

  6. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential...

  7. A new optical concentrator design and analysis for rooftop solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of linear focus, linear-tracking, catadioptric concentrator system is proposed and analysed for roof-integrated solar thermal applications. The optical concentrator designs have a focal distance of less than 10cm and are analysed using optical simulation software (Zemax). The results show that a relatively high concentration ratio (4.5 ~ 5.9 times) can be obtained and that the concentrators are capable of achieving an average optical efficiency around 66 - 69% during the middle 6 hours of a sunny day (i.e. a day with ~1000W/m2 global irradiance). Optical efficiency is analysed for perfect and non-ideal optical components to predict the collector performance under different `practical' circumstances. Overall, we intend for this paper to catalyse the development of rooftop solar thermal concentrators with compact form factors, similar to PV panels.

  8. Optimization of concentrator photovoltaic solar cell performance through photonic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2018-04-04

    The goal of this program was to incorporate two new and innovative design concepts into the design and production of CPV cells that have near zero added cost, yet significantly increase the operational efficiency of CPV modules. The program focused developing luminescent coupling effects and radiative cooling layers to increase efficiency and suppress CPV module power losses due to spectral variations and heating. The major results of the program were: 1) The optics of three commercial refractive (Fresnel) concentrators were characterized and prevent application of radiative cooling concepts due to strong mid-IR absorption (4-12µm) required to effectively radiate blackbody radiation from the cells and provide cooling. Investigation of alternative materials for the concentrator lenses produced only undesirable options—materials with reasonable mid-IR transmission for cooling only had about 30-40 visible transmission, thus reducing incident sunlight by >50%. While our investigation was somewhat limited, our work suggests that the only viable concentrator system that can incorporate radiative cooling utilizes reflective optics. 2) With limited ability to test high concentration CPV cells (requires outdoor testing), we acquired both semi-crystalline and crystalline Si cells and tested them in our outdoor facility and demonstrated 4°C cooling using a simple silica layer coating on the cells. 3) Characterizing Si cells in the IR associated with radiative cooling, we observed very significant near-IR absorption that increases the cell operating temperature by a similar amount, 4-5°C. By appropriate surface layer design, one can produce a layer that is highly reflective in the near-IR (1.5-4µm) and highly emissive in the mid-IR (5-15µm), thus reducing cell operational temperature by 10°C and increasing efficiency by ~1% absolute. The radiative cooling effect in c-Si solar cells might be further improved by providing a higher thermal conductive elastomer for

  9. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  10. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  11. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  12. Concentration of solar radiation by white painted transparent plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1982-04-01

    A simple flat-plate solar concentrator is described in this paper. The device is composed of a white painted transparent plate with a photovoltaic cell fixed to an unpainted area on the bottom of the plate. Light scattering off the white material is either lost or directed to the solar cell. Experimental concentrations of up to 1.9 times the incident solar flux have been achieved using white clays. These values are close to those predicted by theory for the experimental parameters investigated. A theory of the device operation is developed. Using this theory suggestions are made for optimizing the concentrator system. For reasonable choices of cell and plate size and reflectivities of 80% concentrations of over 2x are possible. The concentrator has the advantage over other systems in that the concentration is independent of incidence angle and the concentrator is easy to produce. The device needs no tracking system and will concentrate on a cloudy day.

  13. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  14. Thermal performance analysis of a solar heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Andersen, Ola Lie

    was developed to calculate thermal performances of the plant. In the Trnsys model, three solar collector fields with a total solar collector area of 33,300 m2, a seasonal water pit heat storage of 75,000 m3, a simplified CO2 HP, a simplified ORC unit and a simplified wood chip boiler were included. The energy......Detailed measurements were carried out on a large scale solar heating plant located in southern Denmark in order to evaluate thermal performances of the plant. Based on the measurements, energy flows of the plant were evaluated. A modified Trnsys model of the Marstal solar heating plant...... consumption of the district heating net was modeled by volume flow rate and given forward and return temperatures of the district heating net. Weather data from a weather station at the site of the plant were used in the calculations. The Trnsys calculated yearly thermal performance of the solar heating plant...

  15. Solar panel thermal cycling testing by solar simulation and infrared radiation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    For the solar panels of the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites OTS/MAROTS and ECS/MARECS the thermal cycling tests were performed by using solar simulation methods. The performance data of two different solar simulators used and the thermal test results are described. The solar simulation thermal cycling tests for the ECS/MARECS solar panels were carried out with the aid of a rotatable multipanel test rig by which simultaneous testing of three solar panels was possible. As an alternative thermal test method, the capability of an infrared radiation method was studied and infrared simulation tests for the ultralight panel and the INTELSAT 5 solar panels were performed. The setup and the characteristics of the infrared radiation unit using a quartz lamp array of approx. 15 sq and LN2-cooled shutter and the thermal test results are presented. The irradiation uniformity, the solar panel temperature distribution, temperature changing rates for both test methods are compared. Results indicate the infrared simulation is an effective solar panel thermal testing method.

  16. A new hybrid ocean thermal energy conversion–Offshore solar pond (OTEC–OSP) design: a cost optimization approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatman, P.J.T.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Solar thermal electricity (STE) generation offers an excellent opportunity to supply electricity with a non-CO2 emitting technology. However, present costs hamper widespread deployment and therefore research and development efforts are concentrated on accelerated cost reductions and efficiency

  17. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  18. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  19. Solar thermal energy utilization: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Bibliographic series, which is periodically updated, cites documents published since 1957 relating to practical thermal utilization of solar energy. Bibliography is indexed by author, corporate source, title, and keywords.

  20. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  1. Economic impact of latent heat thermal energy storage systems within direct steam generating solar thermal power plants with parabolic troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.; Johnson, M.; Hübner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of a latent heat thermal energy storage system into a solar direct steam generation power cycle. • Parametric study of solar field and storage size for determination of the optimal layout. • Evaluation of storage impact on the economic performance of the solar thermal power plant. • Economic comparison of new direct steam generation plant layout with state-of-the-art oil plant layout. - Abstract: One possible way to further reduce levelized costs of electricity of concentrated solar thermal energy is to directly use water/steam as the primary heat transfer fluid within a concentrated collector field. This so-called direct steam generation offers the opportunity of higher operating temperatures and better exergy efficiency. A technical challenge of the direct steam generation technology compared to oil-driven power cycles is a competitive storage technology for heat transfer fluids with a phase change. Latent heat thermal energy storages are suitable for storing heat at a constant temperature and can be used for direct steam generation power plants. The calculation of the economic impact of an economically optimized thermal energy storage system, based on a latent heat thermal energy storage system with phase change material, is the main focus of the presented work. To reach that goal, a thermal energy storage system for a direct steam generation power plant with parabolic troughs in the solar field was thermally designed to determine the boundary conditions. This paper discusses the economic impact of the designed thermal energy storage system based on the levelized costs of electricity results, provided via a wide parametric study. A state-of-the-art power cycle with a primary and a secondary heat transfer fluid and a two-tank thermal energy storage is used as a benchmark technology for electricity generation with solar thermal energy. The benchmark and direct steam generation systems are compared to each other, based respectively

  2. Solar radiation transfer and performance analysis of an optimum photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiafei; Song Yongchen; Lam, Wei-Haur; Liu Weiguo; Liu Yu; Zhang Yi; Wang DaYong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design optimization of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system using both non-concentrated and concentrated solar radiation. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) module using silicon solar cell and a thermal unit based on the direct absorption collector (DAC) concept. First, the working fluid of the thermal unit absorbs the solar infrared radiation. Then, the remaining visible light is transmitted and converted into electricity by the solar cell. This arrangement prevents excessive heating of the solar cell which would otherwise negatively affects its electrical efficiency. The optical properties of the working fluid were modeled based on the damped oscillator Lorentz-Drude model satisfying the Kramers-Kroenig relations. The coefficients of the model were retrieved by inverse method based on genetic algorithm, in order to (i) maximize transmission of solar radiation between 200 nm and 800 nm and (ii) maximize absorption in the infrared part of the spectrum from 800 nm to 2000 nm. The results indicate that the optimum system can effectively and separately use the visible and infrared part of solar radiation. The thermal unit absorbs 89% of the infrared radiation for photothermal conversion and transmits 84% of visible light to the solar cell for photoelectric conversion. When reducing the mass flow rate, the outflow temperature of the working fluid reaches 74 o C, the temperature of the PV module remains around 31 o C at a constant electrical efficiency about 9.6%. Furthermore, when the incident solar irradiance increases from 800 W/m 2 to 8000 W/m 2 , the system generates 196 o C working fluid with constant thermal efficiency around 40%, and the exergetic efficiency increases from 12% to 22%.

  3. Thermal performance of a transpired solar collector updraft tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryener, Dogan; Hollick, John; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Transpired solar collector updraft tower has been studied experimentally. • Transpired solar collector updraft tower efficiency ranges from 60 to 80%. • A comparison has been made with other SUT prototypes. • Three times higher efficiency compared to the glazed collectors of conventional solar towers. - Abstract: A novel solar updraft tower prototype, which consists of transpired solar collector, is studied, its function principle is described and its experimental thermal performance is presented for the first time. A test unit of transpired solar collector updraft tower was installed at the campus of Trakya University Engineering Faculty in Edirne-Turkey in 2014. Solar radiation, ambient temperature, collector cavity temperatures, and chimney velocities were monitored during summer and winter period. The results showed that transpired solar collector efficiency ranges from 60% to 80%. The maximum temperature rise in the collector area is found to be 16–18 °C on the typical sunny day. Compared to conventional solar tower glazed collectors, three times higher efficiency is obtained. With increased thermal efficiency, large solar collector areas for solar towers can be reduced in half or less.

  4. Solar thermal barometer. 12 million M2 installed in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    European thermal solar has once again reached its zenith. The difficult times of 1985-1995 are now a thing of the past. The best proof is the very good results of 2001 that show figures in significant progression with respect to those of the year 2000. 1480 320 m 2 . This is now the new record to beat in terms of the annual volume of thermal solar collector installation in the European Union. (author)

  5. Novel concept of nonimaging single reflection solar energy concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovsky, D.

    2004-07-01

    Many solar applications require temperatures higher than those that can be achieved by common flat-plate collectors. Temperatures over 100 C are necessary e.g. for industrial process heat. Such temperatures can be obtained by means of solar energy concentrators. Advantages of concentrating the solar radiation can bring in addition to higher temperatures also decrease in heat losses and material savings due to smaller size of absorber, if taking into account that costs for material absorber per square meter can be possibly higher than costs for e.g. concentrating mirrors. On the other hand, using the concentration, two other kinds of losses will raise: losses of diffuse radiation and optical losses. There exist a variety of solar energy concentrators for different purposes. For lowtemperature applications, inexpensive concentrators of diffuse radiation can be used. For these concentrators, acceptance angle A defines the ability to concentrate the diffuse radiation and also its concentration factor C. To this class of concentrators belongs e.g. nonimaging types like CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), V-trough types, cylindrical concentrators etc. This paper deals with development of a new type of concentrator, novel concept of which is based on functionality of CPC by means of flat mirrors, primarily designed for needs of SME's (Small and Medium Enterprises). The CLON project is being ellaborated under the 5th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig.)

  6. A new design for luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doudart de la Gree, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we explore the opportunity of combining luminescent solar concentrating (LSC) materials and crystalline PV solar cells in a new design for a roof tile by design-driven research on the energy performance of various configurations of the LSC PV device and on the aesthetic appeal in a roof

  7. Survey of EPA facilities for solar thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. V.; Overly, P. T.; Bell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facility combinations were ranked on the basis of greatest cost effectiveness.

  8. Robust optimization of a tandem grating solar thermal absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongin; Kim, Mingeon; Kang, Kyeonghwan; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-04-01

    Ideal solar thermal absorbers need to have a high value of the spectral absorptance in the broad solar spectrum to utilize the solar radiation effectively. Majority of recent studies about solar thermal absorbers focus on achieving nearly perfect absorption using nanostructures, whose characteristic dimension is smaller than the wavelength of sunlight. However, precise fabrication of such nanostructures is not easy in reality; that is, unavoidable errors always occur to some extent in the dimension of fabricated nanostructures, causing an undesirable deviation of the absorption performance between the designed structure and the actually fabricated one. In order to minimize the variation in the solar absorptance due to the fabrication error, the robust optimization can be performed during the design process. However, the optimization of solar thermal absorber considering all design variables often requires tremendous computational costs to find an optimum combination of design variables with the robustness as well as the high performance. To achieve this goal, we apply the robust optimization using the Kriging method and the genetic algorithm for designing a tandem grating solar absorber. By constructing a surrogate model through the Kriging method, computational cost can be substantially reduced because exact calculation of the performance for every combination of variables is not necessary. Using the surrogate model and the genetic algorithm, we successfully design an effective solar thermal absorber exhibiting a low-level of performance degradation due to the fabrication uncertainty of design variables.

  9. Solar Thermal AIR Collector Based on New Type Selective Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiy, R.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the best for optical performance and selective coating solar thermal air collector, which operates by solar power on the principle of simultaneous ventilation and heating facilities, is designed. It can be used for vacation homes, museums, wooden churches, warehouses, garages, houses, greenhouses etc.

  10. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  11. Pathway to 50% Efficient Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Series-connected five (5J) and six junction (6J) concentrator solar cell strategies have the realistic potential to exceed 50% efficiency to enable low-cost CPV systems. We propose three strategies for developing a practical 6J device. We have overcome many of the challenges required to build such concentrator solar cell devices: We have developed 2.1 eV AlGaInP, 1.7 eV AlGaAs, and 1.7 eV GaInAsP junctions with external radiative efficiency greater than 0.1%. We have developed a transparent tunnel junction that absorbs minimal light intended for the second junction yet resists degradation under thermal load. We have developed metamorphic grades from the GaAs to the InP lattice constant that are transparent to sub-GaAs bandgap light. We have grown and compared low bandgap junctions (0.7eV - 1.2 eV) using metamorphic GaInAs, metamorphic GaInAsP, and GaInAsP lattice-matched to InP. And finally, we have demonstrated excellent performance in a high voltage, low current 4 junction inverted metamorphic device using 2.1, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 eV junctions with over 8.7 mA/cm2 one-sun current density that operates up to 1000 suns without tunnel junction failure.

  12. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, S. [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO{sub 2}, which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO{sub 2}-free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industrial age levels in 10 years. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Energy Yield Determination of Concentrator Solar Cells using Laboratory Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; Garcia, Ivan; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-14

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used to predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted. temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  14. Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

  15. Performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under light concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaesha Alnuaimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present 2D simulation of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under high concentration using physics-based TCAD. The performance of planar perovskite heterojunction solar cells is examined up to 1000 suns. We analyze the effect of HTM mobility and band structure, surface recombination velocities at interfaces and the effect of series resistance under concentrated light. The simulation results revealed that the low mobility of HTM material limits the improvement in power conversation efficiency of perovskite solar cells under concentration. In addition, large band offset at perovskite/HTM interface contributes to the high series resistance. Moreover, losses due to high surface recombination at interfaces and the high series resistance deteriorate significantly the performance of perovskite solar cells under concentration.

  16. Solar Thermal energy strategic road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, Bernd; Godin, Olivier; Villier, Dominique; Petit, J.F.; Demangeon, Elsa; Laplagne, Valerie; Loyen, Richard; Mugnier, Daniel; Filloux, Alain; Frichet, Jean-Claude; Aubert, Elisabeth; Cherepanova, Margarita; Guilmin, Audrey; Dicostanzo, Catherine; Papillon, Philippe; Caccavelli, Dominique; Cholin, Xavier; Leger, Emmanuel; Gevaudan, Alain; Coulaud, Celine; Morlot, Rodolphe; Khebchache, Bouzid; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Clement, Daniel; Tonnet, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) manages a fund dedicated to new energy technologies. Since 2008 this fund has funded 'research demonstrators' to implement testing of technologies that are in an experimental stage, between research and industrial deployment. ADEME coordinates a group of experts who are charged with drawing up a strategic road-map prior to each Call for Expressions of Interest. The aims of the solar thermal road-map are: - to highlight the industrial, technological, environmental and societal issues at stake; - to elaborate coherent, consistent and shared visions of the technologies and/or socio-technical systems outlined in the road-map; - to underscore the technological, organisational and socioeconomic barriers and bottlenecks to be overcome in order to achieve these visions; - to link priority research topics to a timetable of goals for technology availability and deployment that is consistent with the stated objectives; - to give priority to research needs and research demonstrators that will serve as the basis for: 1 - calls for expression of interest issued by the Research Demonstrators Fund, 2 - the research programming process at ADEME and more broadly at the Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR) and the Comite strategique national sur la recherche sur l'energie. Research priorities and needs for demonstrators are determined by the intersection of visions and bottlenecks. They also take into account industrial and research capacity in France. The road-maps may also refer to exemplary research demonstrators abroad that are in the forefront of technological progress, and make recommendations regarding industrial policy. These road-maps are the result of collective work by a group of experts appointed by the Steering Committee (Comite de pilotage, COPIL) of the Research Demonstrators Fund for new energy technologies. The members of this group are actors in research, drawn from industry, research bodies and research

  17. Recommendations for the market introduction of solar thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, F.; Nitsch, J.

    1998-01-01

    Until 2010, solar thermal power stations based on parabolic trough concentrating collectors can become a competitive option on the world's electricity market, if the market extension of this mature technology is supported by a concerted, long-term programme capable of bundling the forces of industry, finance, insurance and politics. Technical improvements based on the experience of over ten years of successful operation, series production and economies of scale will lead to a further cost reduction of 50% and to electricity costs of 0.06 - 0.04 US$/kWh for hybrid steam cycles and hybrid combined cycles, respectively. Until 2010, a capacity of 7 GW will be installed, avoiding 16 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. The programme comprises an investment of 16 billion US$ and requires external funding of 6%. (author)

  18. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  19. Fundamentals and techniques of nonimaging optics for solar energy concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallaher, J. J.

    1980-09-01

    Recent progress in basic research into the theoretical understanding of nonimaging optical systems and their application to the design of practical solar concentration was reviewed. Work was done to extend the previously developed geometrical vector flux formalism with the goal of applying it to the analysis of nonideal concentrators. Both phase space and vector flux representation for traditional concentrators were generated. Understanding of the thermodynamically derived relationship between concentration and cavity effects led to the design of new lossless and low loss concentrators for absorbers with gaps. Quantitative measurements of the response of real collector systems and the distribution of diffuse insolation shows that in most cases performance exceeds predictions in solar applications. These developments led to improved nonimaging solar concentrator designs and applications.

  20. Thermal performance of an open thermosyphon using nanofluid for evacuated tubular high temperature air solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Ren-Lin; Lu, Lin; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Hong-shen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel solar air collector with simplified CPC and open thermosyphon is designed and tested. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • Nanofluid effectively improves thermal performance of the above solar air collector. • Solar air collector with open thermosyphon is better than that with concentric tube. - Abstract: A novel evacuated tubular solar air collector integrated with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and special open thermosyphon using water based CuO nanofluid as the working fluid is designed to provide air with high and moderate temperature. The experimental system has two linked panels and each panel includes an evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and an open thermosyphon. Outdoor experimental study has been carried out to investigate the actual solar collecting performance of the designed system. Experimental results show that air outlet temperature and system collecting efficiency of the solar air collector using nanofluid as the open thermosyphon’s working fluid are both higher than that using water. Its maximum air outlet temperature exceeds 170 °C at the air volume rate of 7.6 m 3 /h in winter, even though the experimental system consists of only two collecting panels. The solar collecting performance of the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon is also compared with that integrated with common concentric tube. Experimental results show that the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon has a much better collecting performance

  1. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  2. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    . The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process......Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5–15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine...

  3. Optical design of a solar flux homogenizer for concentrator photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Kathi

    2002-04-01

    An optical solution is described for the redistribution of the light reflected from a 400-m2 paraboloidal solar concentrating dish as uniformly as possible over an approximately 1-m2 plane. Concentrator photovoltaic cells will be mounted at this plane, and they require a uniform light distribution for high efficiency. It is proposed that the solar cells will be mounted at the output of a rectangular receiver box with reflective sidewalls (i.e., a kaleidoscope), which will redistribute the light. I discuss the receiver box properties that influence the light distribution reaching the solar cells.

  4. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-07-11

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  5. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-14

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy the continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances the heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  6. Solar thermal organic rankine cycle for micro-generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahli, N. A.; Abdullah, H.; Darus, A. N.; Jalaludin, A. F.

    2012-06-01

    The conceptual design of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driven by solar thermal energy is developed for the decentralized production of electricity of up to 50 kW. Conventional Rankine Cycle uses water as the working fluid whereas ORC uses organic compound as the working fluid and it is particularly suitable for low temperature applications. The ORC and the solar collector will be sized according to the solar flux distribution in the Republic of Yemen for the required power output of 50 kW. This will be a micro power generation system that consists of two cycles, the solar thermal cycle that harness solar energy and the power cycle, which is the ORC that generates electricity. As for the solar thermal cycle, heat transfer fluid (HTF) circulates the cycle while absorbing thermal energy from the sun through a parabolic trough collector and then storing it in a thermal storage to increase system efficiency and maintains system operation during low radiation. The heat is then transferred to the organic fluid in the ORC via a heat exchanger. The organic fluids to be used and analyzed in the ORC are hydrocarbons R600a and R290.

  7. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  8. Parametric analysis of the curved slats fixed mirror solar concentrator for medium temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol-Nadal, Ramon; Martínez-Moll, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We thermally modeled the Curved Slats Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (CSFMSC). • A parametric analysis for three climates and two axial orientations are given. • The optimum values are determined for a range of the design parameters. • The CSFMSC has been well characterized for medium range temperature operation. - Abstract: The Curved Slats Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (CSFMSC) is a solar concentrator with a static reflector and a moving receiver. An optical analysis using ray-tracing tools was presented in a previous study in function of three design parameters: the number of mirrors N, the ratio of focal length and reflector width F/W, and the aperture concentration C a . However, less is known about the thermal behavior of this geometry. In this communication, the integrated thermal output of the CSFMSC has been determined in order to find the optimal values for the design parameters at a working temperature of 200 °C. The results were obtained for three different climates and two axial orientations (North–South, and East–West). The results show that CSFMSC can produce heat at 200 °C with an annual thermal efficiency of 41, 47, and 51%, dependent of the location considered (Munich, Palma de Mallorca, and Cairo). The best FMSC geometries in function of the design parameters are exhibited for medium temperature applications

  9. Studies of a photovoltaic-thermal solar during system for rural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Y.; Yatim, B.; Bakar, N.A. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Center for Applied Physics Studies; Sopian, K. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Material Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar drying is increasing in areas where the use of abundant, renewable and clean solar energy is advantageous. Particularly in developing countries and in rural areas, the traditional open-air drying methods are being substituted by the more effective and more economic solar drying technologies. Since the air collector is the most important component of a solar food drying system, improvement of the design of collectors would lead to better performance of the system. This paper presented a new design of a photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) solar drying system. In order to achieve an efficient design of an air collector suitable for a solar dryer, the results of an experimental study of PVT solar air collector was conducted and presented. The paper presented the methodology and discussed a series of experiments that were conducted under Malaysian climatic conditions. The paper discussed the design of a double pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and fins. The collector design concept and the collector array were demonstrated. The performance of the collector was examined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the test were then presented and discussed. It was concluded that the performance of the solar collector was satisfactory. The quality attributes such as colour, flavour, and taste were significantly improved since it was protected from rain, dust, and insects, in contrast to sun drying. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  10. The thermal solar at the dawn of a necessary revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebboudj, Idir

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes an overview of the difficult situation which the thermal solar sector is now facing in France (after a constant increase until 2008, its market keeps on shrinking and is not attractive enough). It discusses the implications and possible benefits the new thermal regulation (RT 2012) for new buildings could have for this energy, and whether it will be at the heart of the planned and expected energy transition. A new concept of water heater is presented which associates thermal solar and gas

  11. Volumetric solar thermal receiver principles and technological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagie, D.; Gruntman, S.; Taragan, E.; Danino, M.; Weiss, S.; Mimon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solar energy has received much interest in recent years, being a clean free of pollution or other environmental dotage), and inexhaustible energy source. It is also considered safer than some other non conventional energy sources (like nuclear energy). The interest in solar energy is motivated mainly by the growing awareness of the environmental problems associated with the use of . conventional keels. However, solar energy may become a serious alternative only if it can be used efficiently in major energy consuming industries (like the chemical industry), or be used for electricity generation. Those facilities are nowadays solely depend on fossil fuels as the prime source of energy . The solar energy, reaches file Earth as radiation, can be utilized either by direct quantum conversion using photo-voltaic solar cells, or by converting the radiation into thermal energy, to be used directly for heating, or to feed a thermal to electric converting cycle. Alter three decades of huge spending on the development of photo-voltaic systems those devices are commercially competitive only on very small energy scale, while solar thermal commercial applications are evident. The prominent examples are the domestic heating water receivers (direct thermal), and LUZ International electricity generation plants which are currently operated on a commercial basis, supplying 80 MWe per plant. Direct thermal exploitation of solar energy is naturally more efficient than converting to electricity but is limited to specific applications and locations especially since thermal storage at high temperature is not commercially viable. Efficient electricity production at competitive price is clearly the biggest opportunity for solar energy. (authors)

  12. The development of a volumetric solar thermal receiver: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagie, D.

    1996-01-01

    Solar energy has received much interest in recent years, being a clean (free of pollution or other environmental damage) and inexhaustible energy source. It is also considered safer than some other non conventional energy sources (like nuclear energy). The interest in solar energy is motivated mainly by the growing awareness of the environmental problems associated with the use of conventional fuels. However, solar energy may become a serious alternative only if it can be used efficiently in major energy consuming industries (like the chemical industry), or be used for electricity generation. Those facilities are nowadays solely dependent on fossil fuels as the prime source of energy. The solar energy, reaching the earth in the form of radiation, can be utilized either by direct quantum conversion using photo-voltaic solar cells, or by converting the radiation into thermal energy, to be used directly for heating, or to feed a thermal to electric converting cycle. After three decades of huge spending on the development of photo-voltaic systems those devices are commercially competitive only on a very small energy scale, while solar thermal commercial applications are more attractive. Prominent examples are the domestic heating water receivers (direct thermal), and LUZ International electricity generation plants which are currently operated on a commercial basis, supplying 80 MWe per plant. Direct thermal exploitation of solar energy is naturally more efficient than converting to electricity, but is limited to specific applications and locations especially since thermal storage at high temperature is not commercially viable. Efficient electricity production at a competitive price is clearly the biggest opportunity for solar energy . (author)

  13. Solar radiation and thermal performance of solar collectors for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    This report describes the part of the EUDP project “EUDP 11-l, Solar Resource Assessment in Denmark”, which is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.......This report describes the part of the EUDP project “EUDP 11-l, Solar Resource Assessment in Denmark”, which is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark....

  14. Zero-reabsorption doped-nanocrystal luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christian S; Bradshaw, Liam R; McDowall, Stephen; Gilbertson, John D; Gamelin, Daniel R; Patrick, David L

    2014-04-22

    Optical concentration can lower the cost of solar energy conversion by reducing photovoltaic cell area and increasing photovoltaic efficiency. Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to combined spectral and spatial concentration of both specular and diffuse light without tracking, but they have been plagued by luminophore self-absorption losses when employed on practical size scales. Here, we introduce doped semiconductor nanocrystals as a new class of phosphors for use in luminescent solar concentrators. In proof-of-concept experiments, visibly transparent, ultraviolet-selective luminescent solar concentrators have been prepared using colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe nanocrystals that show no luminescence reabsorption. Optical quantum efficiencies of 37% are measured, yielding a maximum projected energy concentration of ∼6× and flux gain for a-Si photovoltaics of 15.6 in the large-area limit, for the first time bounded not by luminophore self-absorption but by the transparency of the waveguide itself. Future directions in the use of colloidal doped nanocrystals as robust, processable spectrum-shifting phosphors for luminescent solar concentration on the large scales required for practical application of this technology are discussed.

  15. Measurements of thermal parameters of solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, K; Krac, E

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the methods of measuring thermal parameters of photovoltaic panels - transient thermal impedance and the absorption factor of light-radiation are presented. The manner of realising these methods is described and the results of measurements of the considered thermal parameters of selected photovoltaic panels are presented. The influence of such selected factors as a type of the investigated panel and its mounting manner on transient thermal impedance of the considered panels is also discussed. (paper)

  16. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  17. The Potential for Low-Cost Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Carpenter, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Concern over the possibility of global climate change as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere is resulting in increased interest in renewable energy technologies. The World Bank recently sponsored a study to determine whether solar thermal power plants can achieve cost parity with conventional power plants. The paper reviews the conclusions of that study

  18. Fabrication and comparison of selective, transparent optics for concentrating solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A.; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha; DeJarnette, Drew; Otanicar, Todd P.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating optics enable solar thermal energy to be harvested at high temperature (solar) wavelengths, but highly reflective at long (thermal emission) wavelengths. If a solar system requires an analogous transparent, non-absorbing optic - i.e. a cover material which is highly transparent at short wavelengths, but highly reflective at long wavelengths - the technology is simply not available. Low-e glass technology represents a commercially viable option for this sector, but it has only been optimized for visible light transmission. Optically thin metal hole-arrays are another feasible solution, but are often difficult to fabricate. This study investigates combinations of thin film coatings of transparent conductive oxides and nanoparticles as a potential low cost solution for selective solar covers. This paper experimentally compares readily available materials deposited on various substrates and ranks them via an `efficiency factor for selectivity', which represents the efficiency of radiative exchange in a solar collector. Out of the materials studied, indium tin oxide and thin films of ZnS-Ag-ZnS represent the most feasible solutions for concentrated solar systems. Overall, this study provides an engineering design approach and guide for creating scalable, selective, transparent optics which could potentially be imbedded within conventional low-e glass production techniques.

  19. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  20. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  1. Wave Front Sensor for Solar Concentrator Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    terrestrial-based and space-based. Both types of concentrator can be either imaging or nonimaging and they can be rigid or inflatable. Other...and T is the temperature of the absorber and propellant. In (5), Iin is input intensity with effects of the optical path through the concentrator acting...Hartmann in 1900 and was used for checking optical telescopes for aberrations. It was an array of holes in a plate placed in front of the mirror of

  2. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  3. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Song; Kang, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Ningning; Yan, Wenhao; Xie, Wei; Ding, Jianjun; Bao, Jun; Gao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application

  4. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  5. The efficiency of an open-cavity tubular solar receiver for a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results show efficiencies of a low-cost stainless steel tubular cavity receiver. • Optimum ratio of 0.0035 is found for receiver aperture area to concentrator area. • Smaller receiver tube and higher mass flow rate increase receiver efficiency. • Larger tube and smaller mass flow rate increase second law efficiency. • Large-tube receiver performs better in the small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle. - Abstract: The first law and second law efficiencies are determined for a stainless steel closed-tube open rectangular cavity solar receiver. It is to be used in a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle using a micro-turbine with low compressor pressure ratios. There are many different variables at play to model the air temperature increase of the air running through such a receiver. These variables include concentrator shape, concentrator diameter, concentrator rim angle, concentrator reflectivity, concentrator optical error, solar tracking error, receiver aperture area, receiver material, effect of wind, receiver tube diameter, inlet temperature and mass flow rate through the receiver. All these variables are considered in this paper. The Brayton cycle requires very high receiver surface temperatures in order to be successful. These high temperatures, however, have many disadvantages in terms of heat loss from the receiver, especially radiation heat loss. With the help of ray-tracing software, SolTrace, and receiver modelling techniques, an optimum receiver-to-concentrator-area ratio of A′ ≈ 0.0035 was found for a concentrator with 45° rim angle, 10 mrad optical error and 1° tracking error. A method to determine the temperature profile and net heat transfer rate along the length of the receiver tube is presented. Receiver efficiencies are shown in terms of mass flow rate, receiver tube diameter, pressure drop, maximum receiver surface temperature and inlet temperature of the working fluid. For a 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish, the

  6. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz; Husam Abdulrasool Hasan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Abdul Amir H. Kadhum; Tayser Sumer Gaaz; Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar ce...

  7. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  8. Solar thermal power plants simulation using the TRNSYS software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpilrain, E.E. [Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-01

    The paper describes activity directed on the TRNSYS software application for mathematical simulation of solar thermal power plants. First stage of developments has been devoted to simulation and thermodynamic analysis of the Hybrid Solar-Fuel Thermal Power Plants (HSFTPP) with gas turbine installations. Three schemes of HSFTPP, namely: Gas Turbine Regenerative Cycle, Brayton Cycle with Steam Injection and Combined Brayton-Rankine Cycle,- have been assembled and tested under the TRNSYS. For this purpose 18 new models of the schemes components (gas and steam turbines, compressor, heat-exchangers, steam generator, solar receiver, condenser, controllers, etc) have been elaborated and incorporated into the TRNSYS library of 'standard' components. The authors do expect that this initiative and received results will stimulate experts involved in the mathematical simulation of solar thermal power plants to join the described activity to contribute to acceleration of development and expansion of 'Solar Thermal Power Plants' branch of the TRNSYS. The proposed approach could provide an appropriate basis for standardization of analysis, models and assumptions for well-founded comparison of different schemes of advanced solar power plants. (authors)

  9. Feasibility Study on the Use of a Solar Thermoelectric Cogenerator Comprising a Thermoelectric Module and Evacuated Tubular Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L.; Zhang, M.; Tanemura, S.; Tanaka, T.; Kang, Y. P.; Xu, G.

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a new solar thermoelectric cogeneration system consisting of an evacuated tubular solar collector (ETSC) with a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) and thermoelectric modules (TEMs) to supply both thermal energy and electricity. The main design concepts are (1) the hot side of the TEM is bonded to the solar selective absorber installed in an evacuated glass tube, (2) the cold side of the TEM is also bonded to the heat sink, and (3) the outer circulated water is heated by residual solar energy after TEM generation. We present an example solar thermal simulation based on energy balance and heat transfer as used in solar engineering to predict the electrical conversion efficiency and solar thermal conversion efficiency for different values of parameters such as the solar insolation, concentration ratio, and TEM ZT values.

  10. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.M.; de Boer, D.K.G.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the

  11. Long term optical stability of fluorescent solar concentrator plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.; Bakker, N.J.; Sommeling, P.M.; Büchtemann, A.; Wedel, A.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent solar concentrators offer an alternative approach for low-cost photovoltaic energy conversion. For successful application, not only the power conversion efficiency and cost are important, but also lifetime or stability of the devices. As today’s concentrator is made of polymer sheets

  12. Long-term optical stability of fluorescent solar concentrator plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, Lenneke H.; Bakker, Nicolaas J.; Sommeling, Paul M.; Büchtemann, Andreas; Wedel, Armin; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent solar concentrators offer an alternative approach for low-cost photovoltaic energy conversion. For successful application, not only the power conversion efficiency and cost are important, but also lifetime or stability of the devices. As today's concentrator is made of polymer sheets

  13. Optimisation of Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cirocco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of non-scheduled generation from renewable electrical energy sources such concentrated solar power (CSP presents a need for enabling scheduled generation by incorporating energy storage; either via directly coupled Thermal Energy Storage (TES or Electrical Storage Systems (ESS distributed within the electrical network or grid. The challenges for 100% renewable energy generation are: to minimise capitalisation cost and to maximise energy dispatch capacity. The aims of this review article are twofold: to review storage technologies and to survey the most appropriate optimisation techniques to determine optimal operation and size of storage of a system to operate in the Australian National Energy Market (NEM. Storage technologies are reviewed to establish indicative characterisations of energy density, conversion efficiency, charge/discharge rates and costings. A partitioning of optimisation techniques based on methods most appropriate for various time scales is performed: from “whole of year”, seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily averaging to those best suited matching the NEM bid timing of five minute dispatch bidding, averaged on the half hour as the trading settlement spot price. Finally, a selection of the most promising research directions and methods to determine the optimal operation and sizing of storage for renewables in the grid is presented.

  14. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  15. Experimental investigation of a solar collector integrated with a pulsating heat pipe and a compound parabolic concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Rong Ji; Zhang, Xiao Hui; Wang, Rui Xiang; Xu, Shu Hui; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar collector integrates compound parabolic concentrator and pulsating heat pipe. • Concentrator of a concentration ratio 3.4 matches well heat flux of heat pipe. • Solar collector efficiency increases with decreasing absorber thermal resistance. • Maximum 50% efficiency of the integrated solar collector has been achieved. - Abstract: The paper reports an experimental investigation of a newly proposed solar collector that integrates a closed-end pulsating heat pipe (PHP) and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The PHP is used as an absorber due to its simple structure and high heat transfer capacity. The CPC has a concentration ratio of 3.4 and can be readily manufactured by three-dimensional printing. The CPC can significantly increase the incident solar irradiation intensity to the PHP absorber and also reduce the heat loss due to the decrease in the area of the hot surface. A prototype of the solar collector has been built, consisting of a PHP absorber bent by 4 mm diameter copper tube, CPC arrayed by 10 × 2 CPC units with the collection area of 300 × 427.6 mm 2 , a hot water tank and a glass cover. HFE7100 was utilized as the working fluid at a filling ratio of 40%. The operating characteristics and thermal efficiency of the solar collector were experimentally studied. The steady and periodic temperature fluctuations of the evaporation and condensation sections of the PHP absorber indicate that the absorber works well with a thermal resistance of about 0.26 °C/W. It is also found that, as the main factor to the the thermal performance of the collector, thermal resistance of the PHP absorber decreases with increasing evaporation temperature. The collector apparently shows start-up, operational and shutdown stages at the starting and ending temperatures of 75 °C. When the direct normal irradiance is 800 W/m 2 , the instantaneous thermal efficiency of the solar collector can reach up to 50%.

  16. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  17. Solar Concentrating Façade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzahiri, Sidi Mohamed; Nasif, Badia S.; Krieg, Jan; Bakker, Anco; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Auer, Thomas; Knaack, Ulrich; Schneider, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The search for renewable energy sources is a wide area in which significant progress is still expected. This paper focuses on an energy system that uses Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight on a tubing system to heat up the working fluid. Fresnel lenses are lighter, thinner and cheaper to build

  18. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  19. Experimental study on a parabolic concentrator assisted solar desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Denkenberger, David; Velraj, R.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vinothkumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. • Parabolic concentrator has been integrated with solar distillation systems. • We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of parabolic concentrator (PC) – solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank to enhance the productivity. Four modes of operation were studied experimentally: (i) PC-solar still without top cover cooling; (ii) PC-solar still with top cover cooling, PC-solar still integrated with phase change material (PCM) without top cover cooling and PC-solar still integrated PCM with cooling. The experiments were carried out for the cooling water flow rates of 40 ml/min; 50 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min. Diurnal variations of water temperature (T_w), ambient air temperature (T_a), top cover temperature (T_o_c) and production rate are measured with frequent time intervals. Water cooling was not cost effective, but adding PCM was.

  20. Building integration of concentrating solar systems for heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsou, Sapfo; Infante Ferreira, Carlos; Krieg, Jan; Ezzahiri, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A new solar collection system integrated on the façade of a building is investigated for Dutch climate conditions. The solar collection system includes a solar façade, a receiver tube and 10 Fresnel lenses. The Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses considered were linear, non-imaging, line – focused with a system tracking the position of the sun that ensures vertical incidence of the direct solar radiation on the lenses. For the heating system a double-effect absorption heat pump, which requires high temperature of the heating fluid, was used, working with water and lithium-bromide as refrigerant and solution respectively. The Fresnel lens system is connected with the absorption heat pump through a thermal energy storage tank which accumulates the heat from the Fresnel lens system to provide it to the high pressure generator of the absorption heat pump. - Highlights: • The integration of Fresnel lenses in solar thermal building façades is investigated. • Using building integrated Fresnel lenses, 43% heating energy can be saved. • Energy savings in Mediterranean countries are significantly larger. • The absorption heat pump could make great contribution to energy savings for Dutch climate conditions

  1. Viability study of porous silicon photonic mirrors as secondary reflectors for solar concentration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Mora, M.B.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Nava, R.; Tagueena-Martinez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, 62760 Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper we report the viability of using porous silicon photonic mirrors (PSPM) as secondary reflectors in solar concentration systems. The PSPM were fabricated with nanostructured porous silicon to reflect light from the visible range to the near infrared region (500-2500 nm), although this range could be tuned for specific wavelength applications. Our PSPM are multilayers of two alternated refractive indexes (1.5 and 2.0), where the condition of a quarter wavelength in the optical path was imposed. The PSPM were exposed to high radiation in a solar concentrator equipment. As a result, we observed a significant degradation of the mirrors at an approximated temperature of 900 C. In order to analyze the origin of the degradation of PSPM, we model the samples with a non-linear optical approach and study the effect of a temperature increase. Those theoretical and experimental studies allow us to conclude that the main phenomenon involved in the breakdown of the photonic mirrors is of thermal origin, produced by heterogeneous expansion of each layer. Our next step was to introduce a cooling system into the solar concentrator to keep the mirrors at approximately 70 C, with very good results. As a conclusion we propose the use of PSPM as selective secondary mirrors in solar concentration devices using temperature control to avoid thermal degradation. (author)

  2. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  3. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  4. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  5. Design of a nonimaging Fresnel lens for solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, R.; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering; Suzuki, Akio [UNESCO, Paris (France)

    1999-04-01

    An optimum convex shaped nonimaging Fresnel lens is designed following the edge ray principle. The lens is evaluated by tracing rays and calculating a projective optical concentration ratio. This Fresnel lens is intended for use in evacuated tube type solar concentrators, generating mid-temperature heat to drive sorption cycles, or provide industrial process heat. It can also be used along with a secondary concentrator in photovoltaic applications. (author)

  6. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  7. Transient analysis of the double pass photovoltaic thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfegi, Ebrahim M.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Abakr, Yousif A.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of a double pass photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar collector is reported in this work. It is composed of five couple unsteady nonlinear partial differential equations which are solved by using Gear implicit numerical scheme. That model was validated against experimental data and was found to accurately predict the temperature of the circulated air as well as the temperature distribution of every static elements in a two-pass PV/T solar collector.(Author)

  8. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  9. Thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system analysis using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The energy demand in Jordan is primarily met by petroleum products. As such, the development of renewable energy systems is quite attractive. In particular, solar energy is a promising renewable energy source in Jordan and has been used for food canning, paper production, air-conditioning and sterilization. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have received significant attention due to their capabilities in forecasting, modelling of complex nonlinear systems and control. ANNs have been used for forecasting solar energy. This paper presented a study that examined a thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system that was built in Jordan. Historical input-output system data that was collected experimentally was used to train an ANN that predicted the collector, PV module, pump and total efficiencies. The model predicted the efficiencies well and can therefore be utilized to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. The paper provided a description of the photovoltaic solar system including equations for PV module efficiency; pump efficiency; and total efficiency. The paper also presented data relevant to the system performance and neural networks. The results of a neural net model were also presented based on the thermal PV solar integrated system data that was collected. It was concluded that the neural net model of the thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system set the background for achieving the best system performance. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of concentrating solar power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Ishan; Purohit, Pallav

    2010-01-01

    The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) of the recently announced National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) by the Government of India aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. The plan includes specific goals to (a) create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022; (b) create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability, particularly solar thermal for indigenous production and market leadership; (c) promote programmes for off grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022, (d) achieve 15 million m 2 solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022, and (e) deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022. The installed capacity of grid interactive solar power projects were 6 MW until October 2009 that is far below from their respective potential. In this study, a preliminary attempt towards the technical and economic assessment of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies in India has been made. To analyze the techno-economic feasibility of CSP technologies in Indian conditions two projects namely PS-10 (based on power tower technology) and ANDASOL-1 (based on parabolic trough collector technology) have been taken as reference cases for this study. These two systems have been simulated at several Indian locations. The preliminary results indicate that the use of CSP technologies in India make financial sense for the north-western part of the country (particularly in Rajasthan and Gujarat states). Moreover, internalization of secondary benefits of carbon trading under clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol further improves the financial feasibility of CSP systems at other locations considered in this study. It may be noted that the locations blessed with annual direct solar radiation more than 1800 k

  11. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  12. European research school on large scale solar thermal – SHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bales, Chris; Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Heat Integration NEtwork (SHINE) is a European research school in which 13 PhD students in solar thermal technologies are funded by the EU Marie-Curie program. It has five PhD course modules as well as workshops and seminars dedicated to PhD students both within the project as well...... as outside of it. The SHINE research activities focus on large solar heating systems and new applications: on district heating, industrial processes and new storage systems. The scope of this paper is on systems for district heating for which there are five PhD students, three at universities and two...

  13. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  14. Analysis of dynamic effects in solar thermal energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines a study the purpose of which is to assess the performance of solar thermal power systems insofar as it depends on the dynamic character of system components and the solar radiation which drives them. Using a dynamic model, the daily operation of two conceptual solar conversion systems was simulated under varying operating strategies and several different time-dependent radiation intensity functions. These curves ranged from smoothly varying input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours.

  15. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  16. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  17. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers...... because of lower thermal pinch and heat transfer degradation for mixtures as compared with using a pure fluid in a conventional steam Rankine cycle, and the necessity to use a complex cycle arrangement. Most of the previous studies on the Kalina cycle focused solely on the thermodynamic aspects......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...

  18. Modeling and performance simulation of 100 MW PTC based solar thermal power plant in Udaipur India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bishoyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a key renewable energy source and the most abundant energy source on the globe. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of photovoltaic (PV conversion and the thermodynamic cycles. Concentrated solar power (CSP is viewed as one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Lifetime and efficiency of PV system are very less compared to the CSP technology. A 100 MW parabolic trough solar thermal power plant with 6 h of thermal energy storage has been evaluated in terms of design and thermal performance, based on the System Advisor Model (SAM. A location receiving an annual DNI of 2248.17 kW h/m2 in Rajasthan is chosen for the technical feasibility of hypothetical CSP plant. The plant design consists of 194 solar collector loops with each loop comprising of 8 parabolic trough collectors. HITEC solar salt is chosen as an HTF due to its excellent thermodynamic properties. The designed plant can generate annual electricity of 285,288,352 kW h with the plant efficiency of 21%. The proposed design of PTC based solar thermal power plant and its performance analysis encourages further innovation and development of solar thermal power plants in India.

  19. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  20. Absorber design for a Scheffler-Type Solar Concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelas, José; Palomares, Juan; Pando, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Receiver and absorber design methodology based in a solar image in the focal surface. • Stirling absorber dimensions based in a solar image in the focal surface of a STSC. • Comparative study of a solar image in the focal surface from different optical model. • A Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method was used to set STSC cavity receiver aperture. - Abstract: Ray tracing software, digital close range photogrammetry and the Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method have proven to be precise and efficient measurement techniques for the assessment of the shape accuracies of solar concentrators and their components. This paper presents a new method and results for the geometric aspect of a focal image for a Scheffler-Type Solar Concentrator (STSC) using ray tracing, digital close range photogrammetry and the Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method to establish parameters that allow for the design of the most suitable absorber and receiver geometry for coupling the STSC to a Stirling engine. The results of the ray tracing software, digital close range photogrammetry and Monte-Carlo ray tracing technique in STSC are associated with a Stirling receiver. When using the method to perform simulations, we found that the most suitable solar image geometry has an elliptical shape and area of 0.0065 m 2 on average. Although this result is appropriate, the geometry of the receiver is modified to fit an absorber and cavity receiver to improve the heat transfer by radiation

  1. Ray tracing for optimization of compound parabolic concentrators for solar collectors of enclosed design

    OpenAIRE

    YURCHENKO, VLADIMIR; YURCHENKO, EDUARD; ÇİYDEM, MEHMET; TOTUK, ONAT

    2015-01-01

    We present our developments in computer simulations and optimization of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) for solar heat collectors. Issues of both the optical and thermal optimization of CPC collectors of enclosed design are discussed. Ray tracing results for a CPC with a V-shaped absorber are presented. A range of optimal values for the apex angle of a V-shaped absorber is proposed for a CPC collector of typical design.

  2. Experimental study on a new solar boiling water system with holistic track solar funnel concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodi, Xue; Hongfei, Zheng; Kaiyan, He; Zhili, Chen; Tao, Tao; Guo, Xie

    2010-01-01

    A new solar boiling water system with conventional vacuum-tube solar collector as primary heater and the holistic solar funnel concentrator as secondary heater had been designed. In this paper, the system was measured out door and its performance was analyzed. The configuration and operation principle of the system are described. Variations of the boiled water yield, the temperature of the stove and the solar irradiance with local time have been measured. Main factors affecting the system performance have been analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the system produced large amount of boiled water. And the performance of the system has been found closely related to the solar radiance. When the solar radiance is above 600 W/m 2 , the boiled water yield rate of the system has reached 20 kg/h and its total energy efficiency has exceeded 40%.

  3. Collecting performance of an evacuated tubular solar high-temperature air heater with concentric tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Li, Shuang-Fei; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel evacuated tube solar high temperature air heater is designed. • The solar air heater system consists of 30 linked collecting units. • Every unit consisted of a evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and concentric tube. • The flow air is heated over temperature of 200 °C. - Abstract: A set of evacuated tube solar high temperature air heaters with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and concentric tube heat exchanger is designed to provide flow air with a temperature of 150–230 °C for industrial production. The solar air heater system consists of 30 linked collecting units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube absorber with a concentric copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. A stainless steel mesh layer with high thermal conductivity is filled between the evacuated tube and the concentric copper tube. Air passes through each collecting unit, and its temperature increases progressively. An experimental investigation of the thermal performance of the air heater is performed, and the experimental results demonstrate the presented high-temperature solar air heater has excellent collecting performance and large output power, even in the winter. The measured thermal efficiency corresponding to the air temperature of 70 °C reaches 0.52. With the increase of air temperature, thermal efficiency reaches 0.35 at an air temperature of 150 °C, and 0.21 at an air temperature of 220 °C.

  4. Experimental investigations into low concentrating line axis solar concentrators for CPV applications

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, H; Sabry, M; Redpath, DAG

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic conversion systems with integrated, low concentration ratio, non-imaging reflective concentrators, could be on south facing building roofs used to generate power at a lower cost than currently available proprietary systems. The experimental investigation presented by this research provides information on the optical and energy conversion characteristics of two geometrically equivalent non-imaging concentrators; a compound parabolic concentrator and a V-trough reflector. The...

  5. Solar thermally driven cooling systems: Some investigation results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajib, Salman; Günther, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two types of solar thermally driven absorption refrigeration machines (ARMs) have been investigated. ► We investigated the influence of the operating conditions on the effectiveness of the ARMs. ► The influence of the flow rate of the work solution on the effectiveness of the ARMs has been tested. ► Two laboratory test plants have been built and tested under different operating conditions. - Abstract: A big increase in the number of solar thermal cooling installations and research efforts could be seen over the last years worldwide. Especially the producers of solar thermal collectors and systems have been looking for thermal chillers in the small capacity range to provide air conditioning for one or two family houses. Furthermore, many developments aim to increase the efficiency of the system and to decrease the specific costs of the produced refrigeration capacity. The growth in the use of solar thermal cooling systems amounted about 860% from 52 units in 2004 to 450 units in 2009 [1]. This tendency is expected to be continuously in the next years. The practical examinations on solar thermally driven absorption machines with refrigeration capacity of 15, 10 and 5 kW have shown that this technology has a good chance to be standardized and to replace partly the conventional one. These systems can save more primary energy at high fraction of solar thermally driving by suitable control and regulation of the system. The investing costs still higher as the conventional one, however, the operating costs are less than the conventional one. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) depends on the kind of the system, work temperatures and conditions as well as the refrigeration capacity of the systems. It lies between 0.4 and 1.2. In the framework of the research on this field, we built, tested and measured two prototypes. After measuring the first prototype, the chillers were redesigned to reduce internal heat losses and make the heat and mass transfer

  6. Fixed Nadir Focus Concentrated Solar Power Applying Reflective Array Tracking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; DAMayanti, A. M.; Murdani, A.; Habibi, I. I. A.; Wakidah, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Sun is one of the most potential renewable energy develoPMent to be utilized, one of its utilization is for solar thermal concentrators, CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). In CSP energy conversion, the concentrator is as moving the object by tracking the sunlight to reach the focus point. This method need quite energy consumption, because the unit of the concentrators has considerable weight, and use large CSP, means the existence of the usage unit will appear to be wider and heavier. The addition of weight and width of the unit will increase the torque to drive the concentrator and hold the wind gusts. One method to reduce energy consumption is direct the sunlight by the reflective array to nadir through CSP with Reflective Fresnel Lens concentrator. The focus will be below the nadir direction, and the position of concentrator will be fixed position even the angle of the sun’s elevation changes from morning to afternoon. So, the energy concentrated maximally, because it has been protected from wind gusts. And then, the possibility of dAMage and changes in focus construction will not occur. The research study and simulation of the reflective array (mechanical method) will show the reflective angle movement. The distance between reflectors and their angle are controlled by mechatronics. From the simulation using fresnel 1m2, and efficiency of solar energy is 60.88%. In restriction, the intensity of sunlight at the tropical circles 1KW/peak, from 6 AM until 6 PM.

  7. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  8. Optimal year-round operation of a concentrated solar energy plant in the south of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Lidia; Martín, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We present the year-round optimization of the operation of a concentrated solar power facility evaluating the molten salts storage, the power block and cooling. We locate the plant in the south of Europe, Almería (Spain), where high solar radiation is available. The operation of the plant is a function of the solar incidence as well as the climate and atmospheric conditions. The optimization of the system is formulated as a multiperiod Non-linear Programming problem (NLP) that is solved for the optimal production of electricity over a year defining the main operating variables of the thermal and cooling cycles. For a maximum of 25 MW in summer and a minimum of 9.5 MW in winter the annual production cost of electricity is 0.15 €/kWh consuming an average of 2.1 L water /kWh. The investment for the plant is 260 M€. Scale-up studies reveal that the production cost can decrease by half while the investment per unit of power should become competitive with current coal based power plants if solar and coal facilities present similar production capacities. -- Highlights: • Plant design so far relies on process simulation and only partial optimization studies. • We optimize the operation of a concentrated solar power plant. • The facility involves solar field, molten salts, steam and electricity generation and cooling. • The results are promising and validate literature sensitive studies

  9. SolAir. Innovative solar collectors for efficient and cost-effective solar thermal power generation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbato, M. C.; Haueter, Ph.; Bader, R.; Steinfeld, A.; Pedretti, A.

    2008-12-15

    This report presents the main results of the project. The project has been started at the end of 2007 and has been successfully finished in December 2008. The present project of ALE AirLight Energy aims at the engineering investigation and design of a novel concept of a solar collector system for efficient and cost-effective solar thermal power generation. The technology exploits an air-inflated reflective structure to concentrate solar radiation. This new arrangement reduces investment costs of the collector field and promises to be economically competitive. A first prototype, built in 2007, has been redesigned and heavily modified during this project. In the new configuration, by using secondary mirrors, the focal area is located close to the main structure and allows the integration of the receiver into the inflated structure. The topics developed in this document are as follows: (i) Design solutions for the concentrated energy receiver suitable for the revised SolAir concentrator concept. (ii) Solar flux simulation via Monte Carlo method. (iii) New version of the ALE AirLight Energy concentrator prototype. (iv) Prototype radiative flux measurements. (author)

  10. The solar thermal market in Greece - review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiriou, A.A.; Mirasgedis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Hellenic solar thermal market is actually one of the most developed worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of this market since its start in the mid-1970s until today. The reasons for its success are discussed in detail: the role of the manufacturers, the quality assurance practices applied and the incentives on the demand and supply sides. The role of economic instruments towards the development of the Hellenic solar thermal market is investigated using a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Although commercially successful, solar thermal applications today in Greece still cover a very limited percentage of their potential applications. The perspectives and potential barriers for their future development are presented, analysed by a CBA and discussed. This information is useful for all parties related to this market, manufacturers, potential users, policy makers, etc. Countries having a solar energy potential similar to that of Greece but a less developed solar market may also identify in this work parameters that will contribute to the development of their national market. (author)

  11. Nonimaging achromatic shaped Fresnel lenses for ultrahigh solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languy, Fabian; Habraken, Serge

    2013-05-15

    The maximum concentration ratio achievable with a solar concentrator made of a single refractive primary optics is much more limited by the chromatic aberration than by any other aberration. Therefore achromatic doublets made with poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate are of great interest to enhance the concentration ratio and to achieve a spectrally uniform flux on the receiver. In this Letter, shaped achromatic Fresnel lenses are investigated. One lossless design is of high interest since it provides spectrally and spatially uniform flux without being affected by soiling problems. With this design an optical concentration ratio of about 8500× can be achieved.

  12. Tailored solar optics for maximal optical tolerance and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Alex [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Gordon, Jeffrey M. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); The Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel)

    2011-02-15

    Recently identified fundamental classes of dual-mirror double-tailored nonimaging optics have the potential to satisfy the pragmatic exigencies of concentrator photovoltaics. Via a comprehensive survey of their parameter space, including raytrace verification, we identify champion high-concentration high-efficiency designs that offer unprecedented optical tolerance (i.e., sensitivity to off-axis orientation) - a pivotal figure-of-merit with a basic bound that depends on concentration, exit angle, and effective solar angular radius. For comparison, results for the best corresponding dual-mirror aplanatic concentrators are also presented. (author)

  13. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  14. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Mahmood

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2-water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary. Keywords: Solar energy, Thermal collectors, Maxwell-nanofluid, Thermal radiation, Partial slip, Variable thermal conductivity

  15. Numerical simulation of a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator used as direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, N.; Sauceda, D.; Beltran, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez y Calle de la Normal s/n, Mexicali, Baja California 21280 (Mexico); Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    In this work a methodological analysis to design and evaluate the technical feasibility of use a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator (LFRC) as generator in an advanced absorption refrigeration system (Solar-GAX cycle) has been carried out. For this purpose, a detailed one-dimensional numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behavior of a LFRC that solves, in a segregated manner, four subroutines: (a) fluid flow inside the receptor tube, (b) heat transfer in the receptor tube wall, (c) heat transfer in cover tube wall, and (d) solar thermal analysis in the solar concentrator has been developed. The LFRC numerical model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the technical literature; after that, a parametric study for different configurations of design has been carried out in order to obtain the highest solar concentration with the lowest thermal losses, keeping in mind both specific weather conditions and construction restrictions. The numerical result obtained demonstrates that using a LFRC as a direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle satisfy not only the quantity and quality of the energy demanded by the advanced cooling system, it also allows to obtain higher global efficiencies of the system due to it can be operated in conditions where the maximum performance of the Solar-GAX cycle is obtained without affecting in any significant way the solar collector efficiency. (author)

  16. Numerical simulation of a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator used as direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, N.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Sauceda, D.; Beltran, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a methodological analysis to design and evaluate the technical feasibility of use a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator (LFRC) as generator in an advanced absorption refrigeration system (Solar-GAX cycle) has been carried out. For this purpose, a detailed one-dimensional numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behavior of a LFRC that solves, in a segregated manner, four subroutines: (a) fluid flow inside the receptor tube, (b) heat transfer in the receptor tube wall, (c) heat transfer in cover tube wall, and (d) solar thermal analysis in the solar concentrator has been developed. The LFRC numerical model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the technical literature; after that, a parametric study for different configurations of design has been carried out in order to obtain the highest solar concentration with the lowest thermal losses, keeping in mind both specific weather conditions and construction restrictions. The numerical result obtained demonstrates that using a LFRC as a direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle satisfy not only the quantity and quality of the energy demanded by the advanced cooling system, it also allows to obtain higher global efficiencies of the system due to it can be operated in conditions where the maximum performance of the Solar-GAX cycle is obtained without affecting in any significant way the solar collector efficiency.

  17. Experimental Investigation of a Solar Greenhouse Heating System Equipped with a Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator and a Double-Purpose Flat Plate Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jafari

    2017-10-01

    stored heat transferred from the collector surface to the greenhouse. The evaluation tests were conducted at three levels of fluid flow rate through the solar concentrator (0.44, 0.75 and 1.5 Lmin-1 and two different working modes of the heat exchanger. Results and Discussion The variation of thermal efficiency of the PTC at different flow rates has been illustrated in Fig 3. As shown, thermal efficiency increased with flow rate mainly because the fluid convection coefficient enhances with raising the velocity of the fluid inside the tubes. The heat storing process began from 9 am and the highest amounts of the stored heat during sunshine time occurred between 10 am and 2 pm. Fig 5 showed that the stored energy in the tank enhanced when the flat plate collector was employed beside the PTC. Also, increasing the fluid flow rate from 0.44 to 1.5 Lmin-1 improved the index of stored heat by 32.14%. Energy consumption during the night time was also significantly changed with flow rate and the mode of heating. Fig 7 indicated that the electrical energy consumption was lower with flat plate solar collector and it is possible to save the electrical energy by 26.67% using the flat plate collector. Bouadila et al., (2014 concluded that the electrical energy consumption reduced by 31% employing a natural convection flat plate solar collector system equipped with phase changed heat storage material for greenhouse heating. Since increasing the flow rate enhanced the thermal efficiency of the solar concentrator system and led to an improvement in stored thermal energy during the sunshine time, solar fraction increased with raising the flow rate from 0.44 to 1.5 Lmin-1. A maximum solar fraction of 66% was achieved at the highest flow rate when using the flat plate solar collector beside the PTC. Conclusions An experimental comparative study was conducted to investigate the performance of a novel solar greenhouse heating system at the different fluid flow rates and two modes of heating

  18. Organic wavelength selective mirrors for luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbunt, P.P.C.; Debije, M.G.; Broer, D.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Boer, de D.K.G.; Wehrspohn, R.; Gombert, A.

    2012-01-01

    Organic polymeric chiral nematic liquid crystalline (cholesteric) wavelength selective mirrors can increase the efficiency of luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) when they are illuminated with direct sunlight normal to the device. However, due to the angular dependence of the reflection band, at

  19. Leaf Roof – designing luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology has resulted in a functional prototype . The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs. This paper outlines the

  20. Patterned dye structures limit reabsorption in luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoi, S.; Broer, D.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Debije, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a method for limiting internal losses of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) due to reabsorption through patterning the fluorescent dye doped coating of the LSC. By engineering the dye coating into regular line patterns with fill factors ranging from 20 - 80%, the surface

  1. Leaf Roof - Designing Luminescent Solar Concentrating PV Roof Tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Doudart de la Gree, G.; Papadopoulos, A..; Rosemann, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.; Krumer, Zachar

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology [1] has resulted in a functional prototype. The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs [2]. This paper outlines

  2. The solar forcing on the ground 7 Be concentration variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpos, S.; Borsan, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    7 Be, natural radionuclide, is produced by the interaction of cosmic radiation with oxygen and nitrogen molecules. 7 Be production in atmosphere depends on the intensity of cosmic radiation which is influenced by the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetosphere shape depends on solar activity. This paper presents the influence of sunspots number (11 years period) on the ground 7 Be concentration variability. (authors)

  3. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ties M; de Boer, Dick K G; Bastiaansen, Cees W M

    2016-07-11

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the principles of nonimaging optics, while the thickness of the device is minimized due to the use of total internal reflection.

  4. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldes, N.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

  5. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  6. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2018-06-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  7. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2017-12-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  8. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  9. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  10. Thermo-economic analysis of Shiraz solar thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghoubi, M. [Academy of Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, A.; Hesami, R. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The Shiraz solar thermal power plant in Iran has 48 parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) which are used to heat the working oil. There is potential to significantly increase the performance and reduce the cost of PTC solar thermal electric technologies. Conventional energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics does qualitatively assess the various losses occurring in the components. Therefore, exergy analysis, based on the second law of thermodynamics, can be applied to better assess various losses quantitatively as well as qualitatively. This paper presented a newly developed exergy-economic model for the Shiraz solar thermal power plant. The objective was to find the minimum exergetic production cost (EPC), based on the second law of thermodynamics. The application of exergy-economic analysis includes the evaluation of utility supply costs for production plants, and the energy costs for process operations. The purpose of the analysis was to minimize the total operating costs of the solar thermal power plant by assuming a fixed rate of electricity production and process steam. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Compensation of self-absorption losses in luminescent solar concentrators by increasing luminophore concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumer, Zachar; van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; de Mello Donegá, Celso

    2017-01-01

    Self-absorption in luminophores is considered a major obstacle on the way towards efficient luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). It is commonly expected that upon increasing luminophore concentration in an LSC the absorption of the luminophores increases as well and therefore self-absorption

  12. Solar thermal application for the livestock industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems have proven reliable and economical. In Taiwan, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors at the end of 2014 was approximately 2.39 million m2 and approximately 98% of those systems were installed in the domestic sector. Preheating water for livestock processing plants is cost-effective since heated water can be used for evisceration, sanitation during processing and for daily cleanup of plant. In this case study, detailed measurements are reported for parallel combined solar thermal and heat pump systems that are installed in a livestock processing plant. These results confirm that the hot water consumption, the mass flow rate and the operation of circulation and heat pumps affect the system's thermal efficiency. The combined operational effect is a factor in system design. The estimated payback period is less than the expected service period of the system, which validates the financial viability.

  13. Preliminary design of the thermal protection system for solar probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Loomis, W. C.; Heightland, C. N.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design of the thermal protection system for the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft is presented. As presently conceived, the spacecraft will be launched by the Space Shuttle on a Jovian swing-by trajectory and at perihelion approach to three solar radii of the surface of the Earth's sun. The system design satisfies maximum envelope, structural integrity, equipotential, and mass loss/contamination requirements by employing lightweight carbon-carbon emissive shields. The primary shield is a thin shell, 15.5-deg half-angle cone which absorbs direct solar flux at up to 10-deg off-nadir spacecraft pointing angles. Secondary shields of sandwich construction and low thickness-direction thermal conductivity are used to reduce the primary shield infrared radiation to the spacecraft payload.

  14. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle....... The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show...

  15. Performance analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV/T) air heater is a collector that combines thermal and photovoltaic systems in one single hybrid generating unit. It generators both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously. A new design of a double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPC and fins was successfully developed and fabricated at Universiti Kebangsaam Malaysia. This collector tested under actual environmental conditions to study its performance over a range of operating conditions. The test set-up, instrumentation and measurement are described further. It was found that the performance of the collector was in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Results of the outdoors test are presented and discussed(Author)

  16. Buffer thermal energy storage for a solar Brayton engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been completed on the application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine. To aid in the study, a computer program was written for complete transient/stead-state Brayton cycle performance. The results indicated that thermal storage can afford a significant decrease in the number of engine shutdowns as compared to operating without thermal storage. However, the number of shutdowns does not continuously decrease as the storage material weight increases. In fact, there appears to be an optimum weight for minimizing the number of shutdowns.

  17. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  18. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Hussain, Sajid

    Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2 -water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  19. Optimized dispatch in a first-principles concentrating solar power production model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Michael J.; Newman, Alexandra M.; Hamilton, William T.; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    Concentrating solar power towers, which include a steam-Rankine cycle with molten salt thermal energy storage, is an emerging technology whose maximum effectiveness relies on an optimal operational and dispatch policy. Given parameters such as start-up and shut-down penalties, expected electricity price profiles, solar availability, and system interoperability requirements, this paper seeks a profit-maximizing solution that determines start-up and shut-down times for the power cycle and solar receiver, and the times at which to dispatch stored and instantaneous quantities of energy over a 48-h horizon at hourly fidelity. The mixed-integer linear program (MIP) is subject to constraints including: (i) minimum and maximum rates of start-up and shut-down, (ii) energy balance, including energetic state of the system as a whole and its components, (iii) logical rules governing the operational modes of the power cycle and solar receiver, and (iv) operational consistency between time periods. The novelty in this work lies in the successful integration of a dispatch optimization model into a detailed techno-economic analysis tool, specifically, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM). The MIP produces an optimized operating strategy, historically determined via a heuristic. Using several market electricity pricing profiles, we present comparative results for a system with and without dispatch optimization, indicating that dispatch optimization can improve plant profitability by 5-20% and thereby alter the economics of concentrating solar power technology. While we examine a molten salt power tower system, this analysis is equally applicable to the more mature concentrating solar parabolic trough system with thermal energy storage.

  20. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  1. Plane-concentrators solar collectors: analysis of the heating performance using surface resistances; Coletores solares plano-concentradores: analise do desempenho termico utilizando resistencias superficiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, I M.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Hackenberg, C M [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    In this work it is developed theoretical model which utilizes the Oppenheim concepts of surface and spatial resistances for thermal radiation transfer on solid surfaces in order to determine the heating performance of plane-concentrators solar collectors. It is shown that the shape factor for trapezoidal geometries, which includes the reflecting surfaces, may be utilized to determine the solar concentration chamber effective absorptivity with reasonable degree of accuracy. The experimental results measured on 2:1 plane-concentrators confirm the theoretical values. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  2. Plane-concentrators solar collectors: analysis of the heating performance using surface resistances; Coletores solares plano-concentradores: analise do desempenho termico utilizando resistencias superficiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, I.M.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Hackenberg, C.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1984-12-31

    In this work it is developed theoretical model which utilizes the Oppenheim concepts of surface and spatial resistances for thermal radiation transfer on solid surfaces in order to determine the heating performance of plane-concentrators solar collectors. It is shown that the shape factor for trapezoidal geometries, which includes the reflecting surfaces, may be utilized to determine the solar concentration chamber effective absorptivity with reasonable degree of accuracy. The experimental results measured on 2:1 plane-concentrators confirm the theoretical values. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  3. Thermal analysis for folded solar array of spacecraft in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.H.; Cheng, H.E.; Cai, A.

    2004-01-01

    The combined radiation-conduction heat transfer in folded solar array was considered as a three-dimensional anisotropic conduction without inner heat source. The three-dimensional equivalent conductivity in cell plate were obtained. The especially discrete equation coefficients of the nodes on the surfaces of adjacent cell plates were deduced by utilizing the simplified radiation network among the two adjacent cell plate surfaces and the deep cold space. All the thermal influence factors on the temperature response of the folded solar array were considered carefully. SIP method was used to solve the discrete equation. By comparing the calculation results under three cases, the temperature response and the maximum average difference of the folded solar array was obtained during the period of throw-radome of the launch vehicle and spread of the folded solar array. The obtained result is a valuable reference for the selection of the launch time of the spacecraft

  4. Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Acosta, R. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Boulevard Bahia s/n Esq. I. Comonfort, Chetumal Quintana Roo 77019 (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    A calorimeter was built for measuring the concentrated solar power produced by a point focus solar concentrator that was developed at CIE - UNAM. In order to obtain a thermal characterization of the calorimeter a theoretical and experimental heat transfer study is carried out. This study addresses the heat transfer in the circular flat plate of the calorimeter, which acts as receiver for the concentrating system. Temperatures are measured at different points of this plate and fit with a theoretical model that considers heat conduction with convective and radiative boundary conditions. In particular, it is possible to calculate the temperature distribution on the irradiated surface. This allows to examine the validity of the assumptions of cold water calorimetry, which was the technique applied to this system in previous works. (author)

  5. Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery, (STEOR) Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P.; Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal enhanced oil recovery is widely used in California to aid in the production of heavy oils. Steam injection either to stimulate individual wells or to drive oil to the producing wells, is by far the major thermal process today and has been in use for over 20 years. Since steam generation at the necessary pressures (generally below 4000 kPa (580 psia)) is within the capabilities of present day solar technology, it is logical to consider the possibilities of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). The present project consisted of an evaluation of STEOR. Program objectives, system selection, trade-off studies, preliminary design, cost estimate, development plan, and market and economic analysis are summarized.

  6. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  7. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Krebs, Frederik C; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5-15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine cell, after 30 min exposure at 5 suns and after 30 min of rest in the dark. High intensity exposure introduced a major performance decrease for all solar intensities, followed by a partial recovery of the lost performance over time: at 1 sun only 6% of the initial performance was conserved after the high intensity exposure, while after rest the performance had recovered to 60% of the initial value. The timescale of the recovery effect was studied by monitoring the cell performance at 1 sun after high intensity exposure. This showed that cell performance was almost completely restored after 180 min. The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O 2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process, and care has to be taken to allow for a sound accelerated lifetime assessment based on concentrated sunlight.

  8. Techno-Economic Assessment of Heat Transfer Fluid Buffering for Thermal Energy Storage in the Solar Field of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Llamas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, operating parabolic trough (PT solar thermal power plants, either solar-only or with thermal storage block, use the solar field as a heat transfer fluid (HTF thermal storage system to provide extra thermal capacity when it is needed. This is done by circulating heat transfer fluid into the solar field piping in order to create a heat fluid buffer. In the same way, by oversizing the solar field, it can work as an alternative thermal energy storage (TES system to the traditionally applied methods. This paper presents a solar field TES model for a standard solar field from a 50-MWe solar power plant. An oversized solar model is analyzed to increase the capacity storage system (HTF buffering. A mathematical model has been developed and different simulations have been carried out over a cycle of one year with six different solar multiples considered to represent the different oversized solar field configurations. Annual electricity generation and levelized cost of energy (LCOE are calculated to find the solar multiple (SM which makes the highest solar field thermal storage capacity possible within the minimum LCOE.

  9. Optical losses due to tracking error estimation for a low concentrating solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; García de Jalón, Alberto; Torres, José-Luis; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar thermal collector with low concentration and one-axis tracking was tested. • A quasi-dynamic testing procedure for IAM was defined for tracking collector. • The adequation between the concentrator optics and the tracking was checked. • The maximum and long-term optical losses due to tracking error were calculated. - Abstract: The determination of the accuracy of a solar tracker used in domestic hot water solar collectors is not yet standardized. However, while using optical concentration devices, it is important to use a solar tracker with adequate precision with regard to the specific optical concentration factor. Otherwise, the concentrator would sustain high optical losses due to the inadequate focusing of the solar radiation onto its receiver, despite having a good quality. This study is focused on the estimation of long-term optical losses due to the tracking error of a low-temperature collector using low-concentration optics. For this purpose, a testing procedure for the incidence angle modifier on the tracking plane is proposed to determinate the acceptance angle of its concentrator even with different longitudinal incidence angles along the focal line plane. Then, the impact of maximum tracking error angle upon the optical efficiency has been determined. Finally, the calculation of the long-term optical error due to the tracking errors, using the design angular tracking error declared by the manufacturer, is carried out. The maximum tracking error calculated for this collector imply an optical loss of about 8.5%, which is high, but the average long-term optical loss calculated for one year was about 1%, which is reasonable for such collectors used for domestic hot water

  10. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  11. Designing solar thermal experiments based on simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huleihil, Mahmoud; Mazor, Gedalya

    2013-01-01

    In this study three different models to describe the temperature distribution inside a cylindrical solid body subjected to high solar irradiation were examined, beginning with the simpler approach, which is the single dimension lump system (time), progressing through the two-dimensional distributed system approach (time and vertical direction), and ending with the three-dimensional distributed system approach with azimuthally symmetry (time, vertical direction, and radial direction). The three models were introduced and solved analytically and numerically. The importance of the models and their solution was addressed. The simulations based on them might be considered as a powerful tool in designing experiments, as they make it possible to estimate the different effects of the parameters involved in these models

  12. Concentration of solar radiation by white backed photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1984-12-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the concentration achieved by white backed photovoltaic panels. Concentration is due to the trapping by light scattered in the refractive plate to which the solar cell is bonded. Using the reciprocity relation and assuming the ideal case of a Lambertian distribution, a detailed model is formulated that includes the effects of the thickness and walls of the concentrator. This model converges to the thermodynamic limit and is found to be consistent with experimental results for a wide range of cell sizes. Finally, the model is generalized to multiple-cell photovoltaic panels.

  13. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasri, R., E-mail: subasri@arci.res.in; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO{sub 2} as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes.

  14. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasri, R.; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO_2 as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes

  15. Micro solar concentrators: Design and fabrication for microcells arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutteau, Sébastien; Paire, Myriam; Proise, Florian; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    In this work we look at a micro-concentrating system adapted to a new type of concentrator photovoltaic material, well known for flate-plate applications, Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells are polycrystalline thin film devices that can be deposited by a variety of techniques. We proposed to use a microcell architecture [1], [2], with lateral dimensions varying from a few μm to hundreds of μm, to adapt the film cell to concentration conditions. A 5% absolute efficiency increase on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells at 475 suns has been observed for a final efficiency of 21.3%[3]. We study micro-concentrating systems adapted to the low and middle concentration range, where thin film concentrator cells will lean to substrate fabrication simplification and cost savings. Our study includes optical design, fabrication and experimental tests of prototypes.

  16. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  17. Compatibility tests between Solar Salt and thermal storage ceramics from inorganic industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Fabrice; Falcoz, Quentin; Veron, Emmanuel; Py, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESEM and XRD characterizations have been performed. • Compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at 500 °C. • Tested ceramics have relevant properties to store thermal energy up to 1000 °C. • Feasibility of using ceramics as filler materials in thermocline is demonstrated. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using several post-industrial ceramics as filler materials in a direct thermocline storage configuration. The tested ceramics, coming from several industrial processes (asbestos containing waste treatment, coal fired power plants or metallurgic furnaces) demonstrate relevant properties to store thermal energy by sensible heat up to 1000 °C. Thus, they represent at low-cost a promising, efficient and sustainable approach for thermal energy storage. In the present study, the thermo-chemical compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at medium temperature (500 °C) under steady state. In order to determine the feasibility of using such ceramics as filler material, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterizations have been performed to check for their chemical and structural evolution during corrosion tests. The final objective is to develop a molten salt thermocline direct storage system using low-cost shaped ceramic as structured filler material. Most of the tested ceramics present an excellent corrosion resistance in molten Solar Salt and should significantly decrease the current cost of concentrated solar thermal energy storage system

  18. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); Feron, Krishna [Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Technology, P. O. Box 330, Newcastle NSW 2300 (Australia)

    2014-05-12

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles.

  19. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, N; Iasiello, M; Naso, V

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics ® . Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared. (paper)

  20. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Feron, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C 60 bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles

  1. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, N.; Iasiello, M.; Naso, V.

    2015-11-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics®. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

  2. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  3. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  4. Materials for Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems: Optical Properties and Solar Radiation Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. H.; Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; Lemon, M. F.; Romano, E. C.; Boydell, P.

    2010-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are designed to operate over a wide range of solar concentrations, from low concentrations of ˜1 to 12 Suns to medium concentrations in the range from 12 to 200 Suns, to high concentration CPV systems going up to 2000 Suns. Many transparent optical materials are used for a wide variety of functions ranging from refractive and reflective optics to homogenizers, encapsulants and even thermal management. The classes of materials used also span a wide spectrum from hydrocarbon polymers (HCP) and fluoropolymers (FP) to silicon containing polymers and polyimides (PI). The optical properties of these materials are essential to the optical behavior of the system. At the same time radiation durability of these materials under the extremely wide range of solar concentrations is a critical performance requirement for the required lifetime of a CPV system. As part of our research on materials for CPV we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of various polymeric materials to define the optimum material combinations for various CPV systems.

  5. Portable linear-focused solar thermal energy collecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Pohl, J. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar heat collection system is provided by utilizing a line-focusing device that is effectively a cylindrically curved concentrator within a protected environment formed by a transparent inflatable casing. A target, such as a fluid or gas carrying conduit is positioned within or near the casing containing the concentrator, at the line focus of the concentrator. The casing can be inflated at the site of use by a low pressure air supply to form a unitary light weight structure. The collector, including casing, concentrator and target, is readily transportable and can be used either at ground level or on rooftops. The inflatable concentrator can be replaced with a rigid metal or other concentrator while maintaining the novel advantages of the whole solar heat collection system.

  6. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  7. Thermal behavior of spatial structures under solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Liao, Xiangwei; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The temperature, particularly the non-uniform temperature under solar irradiation, is the main load for large-span steel structures. Due the shortage of in-site temperature test in previous studies, an in-site test was conducted on the large-span steel structures under solar irradiation, which was covered by glass roof and light roof, to gain insight into the temperature distribution of steel members under glass roof or light roof. A numerical method also was presented and verified to forecast the temperature of steel member under glass roof or light roof. Based on the on-site measurement and numerical analyses conducted, the following conclusions were obtained: 1) a remarkable temperature difference exists between the steel member under glass roof and that under light roof, 2) solar irradiation has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and thermal behavior of large-span spatial structures, 3) negative thermal load is the controlling factor for member stress, and the positive thermal load is the controlling factor for nodal displacement. - Highlights: • Temperature was measured for a steel structures under glass roof and light roof. • Temperature simulation method was presented and verified. • The thermal behavior of steel structures under glass or light roof was presented

  8. Solar-thermal energy - How progress will be made

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, U.; Hawkins, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article is based on a lecture given by professor Ueli Frei of the University of Applied Science in Rapperswil, Switzerland. It discusses present and future system technologies that can be used for thermal applications of solar energy. The importance of correct engineering and planning is stressed. The evolution of solar collector technology since 1980 is examined and the important progress made in this area is looked at. A selection of graphical representations illustrate the progress that has already been made and that which can be expected in the future

  9. Design of a Heat Pump Assisted Solar Thermal System

    OpenAIRE

    Krockenberger, Kyle G.; DeGrove, John M.; Hutzel, William J.; Foreman, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the design of an active solar thermal loop system that will be integrated with an air source heat pump hot water heater to provide highly efficient heating of a water/propylene glycol mixture. This system design uses solar energy when available, but reverts to the heat pump at night or during cloudy weather. This new design will be used for hydronic heating in the Applied Energy Laboratory, a teaching laboratory at Purdue University, but it is more generally applicable for...

  10. SOLARGE - European programme for the development of collective thermal solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmig, Bodo; Chastanet, Aymeric; Gagnepain, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The European programme SOLARGE aims at enlarging solar thermal systems in multi-family houses, hotels, public and social buildings in Europe. This publication first outlines that it is a way to struggle against climate change at a rather large scale. It indicates the members of this European consortium, and proposes sheets of presentation of operations (in La Rochelle, Paris, Venissieux, Ostwald, Strasbourg, Val Thorens, Echirolles, Asnieres, Saint-Raphael, Sophia Antipolis, Saignon, Beziers) which mainly concern solar production of domestic hot water in collective building (often social housing), and hotels

  11. Performance analysis of a lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochen; Ma, Rong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The manned deep-space exploration is a hot topic of the current space activities. The continuous supply of thermal and electrical energy for the scientific equipment and human beings is a crucial issue for the lunar outposts. Since the night lasts for periods of about 350 h at most locations on the lunar surface, massive energy storage is required for continuous energy supply during the lengthy lunar night and the in-situ resource utilization is demanded. A lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage is presented in this paper. The performance analysis is carried out by the finite-time thermodynamics to take into account major irreversible losses. The influences of some key design parameters are analyzed for system optimization. The analytical results shows that the lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage can meet the requirement of the continuous energy supply for lunar outposts. - Highlights: • A lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage is presented. • The performance analysis is carried out by the finite-time thermodynamics. • The influences of some key design parameters are analyzed.

  12. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  13. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  14. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  15. Compact Flyeye concentrator with improved irradiance uniformity on solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Yu, Feihong

    2013-08-01

    A Flyeye concentrator with improved irradiance distribution on the solar cell in a concentrator photovoltaic system is proposed. This Flyeye concentrator is composed of four surfaces: a refractive surface, mirror surface, freeform surface, and transmissive surface. Based on the principles of geometrical optics, the contours of the proposed Flyeye concentrator are calculated according to Fermat's principle, the edge-ray principle, and the ray reversibility principle without solving partial differential equations or using an optimization algorithm, therefore a slope angle control method is used to construct the freeform surface. The solid model is established by applying a symmetry of revolution around the optical axis. Additionally, the optical performance for the Flyeye concentrator is simulated and analyzed by Monte-Carlo method. Results show that the Flyeye concentrator optical efficiency of >96.2% is achievable with 1333× concentration ratio and ±1.3 deg acceptance angle, and 1.3 low aspect ratio (average thickness to entry aperture diameter ratio). Moreover, comparing the Flyeye concentrator specification to that of the Köhler concentrator and the traditional Fresnel-type concentrator, results indicate that this concentrator has the advantages of improved uniformity, reduced thickness, and increased tolerance to the incident sunlight.

  16. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  17. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  18. Numerical analysis of hydrogen production via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor using concentrated solar irradiation as heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Shuai, Yong; Gong, Liang; Tan, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 production by hybrid solar energy and methane steam reforming is analyzed. • MCRT and FVM coupling method is used for chemical reaction in solar porous reactor. • LTNE model is used to study the solid phase and fluid phase thermal performance. • Modified P1 approximation programmed by UDFs is used for irradiative heat transfer. - Abstract: The calorific value of syngas can be greatly upgraded during the methane steam reforming process by using concentrated solar energy as heat source. In this study, the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupling method is developed to investigate the hydrogen production performance via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor which includes the mass, momentum, energy and irradiative transfer equations as well as chemical reaction kinetics. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model is used to provide more temperature information. The modified P1 approximation is adopted for solving the irradiative heat transfer equation. The MCRT method is used to calculate the sunlight concentration and transmission problems. The fluid phase energy equation and transport equations are solved by Fluent software. The solid phase energy equation, irradiative transfer equation and chemical reaction kinetics are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that concentrated solar irradiation on the fluid entrance surface of solar chemical reactor is highly uneven, and temperature distribution has significant influence on hydrogen production

  19. Effects of thermal budget in n-type bifacial solar cell fabrication processes on effective lifetime of crystalline silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomihisa Tachibana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of residual C on cell properties are investigated from the view point of thermal budget in the n-type bifacial cell processes. Implied Voc obtained from wafers with same Oi concentration depend on the thermal budgets decreases as the Cs concentration increases. The Voc values vary depending on the wafer with different growth cooling rate. To analyze the effect of thermal budget correspond to solar cell fabrication process, CZ wafers with almost the same Oi concentrations are prepared. One of the wafers with relatively high residual Cs concentration shows the longer lifetime than the initial value after the 950 oC annealing step. On the other hand, the lifetime of a wafer with relatively low Cs concentration dramatically decreased by the same process due to the O segregation. These results suggest that it is important to choose appropriate wafer specification, starting with feedstock material, for increasing the solar cell efficiency.

  20. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  1. Thermal performance of Danish solar combi systems in practice and in theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    An overview of measured thermal performances of Danish solar combi systems in practice is given. The thermal performance varies greatly from system to system. Measured and calculated thermal performances of different solar combi systems are compared and the main reasons for the different thermal ...... as theoretically expected....

  2. Preparation and characterization of molten salt based nanothermic fluids with enhanced thermal properties for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madathil, Pramod Kandoth; Balagi, Nagaraj; Saha, Priyanka; Bharali, Jitalaxmi; Rao, Peddy V.C.; Choudary, Nettem V.; Ramesh, Kanaparthi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prepared and characterized inorganic ternary molten salt based nanothermic fluids. • MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles incorporated ternary molten salts have been prepared. • Thermal properties enhanced by the addition of MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles. • The amount of nanoparticles has been optimized. - Abstract: In the current energy scenario, solar energy is attracting considerable attention as a renewable energy source with ample research and commercial opportunities. The novel and efficient technologies in the solar energy are directed to develop methods for solar energy capture, storage and utilization. High temperature thermal energy storage systems can deal with a wide range of temperatures and therefore they are highly recommended for concentrated solar power (CSP) applications. In the present study, a systematic investigation has been carried out to identify the suitable inorganic nanoparticles and their addition in the molten salt has been optimized. In order to enhance the thermo-physical properties such as thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of molten salt based HTFs, we report the utilization of MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles. The enhancement in the above mentioned thermo-physical properties has been demonstrated for optimized compositions and the morphologies of nanoparticle-incorporated molten salts have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanoparticle addition to molten salts is an efficient method to prepare thermally stable molten salt based heat transfer fluids which can be used in CSP plants. It is also observed that the sedimentation of nanoparticles in molten salt is negligible compared to that in organic heat transfer fluids.

  3. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  4. Spectral and Concentration Sensitivity of Multijunction Solar Cells at High Temperature: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.; Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John

    2017-06-14

    We model the performance of two-junction solar cells at very high temperatures of ~400 degrees C and beyond for applications such as hybrid PV/solar-thermal power production, and identify areas in which the design and performance characteristics behave significantly differently than at more conventional near-room-temperature operating conditions. We show that high-temperature operation reduces the sensitivity of the cell efficiency to spectral content, but increases the sensitivity to concentration, both of which have implications for energy yield in terrestrial PV applications. For other high-temperature applications such as near-sun space missions, our findings indicate that concentration may be a useful tool to enhance cell efficiency.

  5. A survey of manufacturers of solar thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N.; Slonski, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-seven firms that had received funding for development of solar thermal energy systems (STES) were surveyed. The effect of the solar thermal technology systems program in accelerating (STES) were assessed. The 54 firms still developing STES were grouped into a production typology comparing the three major technologies with three basic functions. It was discovered that large and small firms were developing primarily central receiver systems, but also typically worked on more than one technology. Most medium-sized firms worked only on distributed systems. Federal support of STES was perceived as necessary to allow producers to take otherwise unacceptable risks. Approximately half of the respondents would drop out of STES if support were terminated, including a disproportionate number of medium-sized firms. A differentiated view of the technology, taking into account differing firm sizes and the various stages of technology development, was suggested for policy and planning purposes.

  6. Thermal properties of carbon black aqueous nanofluids for solar absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dongxiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, carbon black nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the pretreated carbon black powder into distilled water. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were explored. The photothermal properties, optical properties, rheological behaviors, and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that the nanofluids of high-volume fraction had better photothermal properties. Both carbon black powder and nanofluids had good absorption in the whole wavelength ranging from 200 to 2,500 nm. The nanofluids exhibited a shear thinning behavior. The shear viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction and decreased with the increasing temperature at the same shear rate. The thermal conductivity of carbon black nanofluids increased with the increase of volume fraction and temperature. Carbon black nanofluids had good absorption ability of solar energy and can effectively enhance the solar absorption efficiency.

  7. The THESEUS project -- 50 MWe solar thermal power for Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillig, F.; Geyer, M.; Kistner, R.; Aringhoff, R.; Nava, P.; Brakmann, G.

    1998-07-01

    A consortium of European industry, utilities and research institutions from Greece, Germany, Spain and Italy attempts to implement a 52 MWe solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough technology on the Greek island of Crete sponsored by the EU' s THERMIE program. The increased demand for electricity on the island, a consequence of the growing allurement of the island as a tourist resort, makes it necessary to expand the installed capacity on Crete during the next years. According to the capacity expansion plans of Greek' s utility PPC a 160 MWe heavy fuel-fired power plant complex--two 30 MWe diesel units and two 50 MWe steam turbine units--is foreseen to be built by the year 2002. In this paper a description of the technical, economical and environmental aspects of the THESEUS project is provided. Moreover a market entry strategy for solar thermal power generation is discussed.

  8. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  9. Solar Probe Plus MAG Sensor Thermal Design for Low Heater Power and Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The heater power available for the Solar Probe Plus FIELDS MAG sensor is less than half of the heritage value for other missions. Nominally the MAG sensors are in the spacecraft's umbra. In the worst hot case, approximately 200 spacecraft communication downlinks, up to 10 hours each, are required at 0.7 AU. These downlinks require the spacecraft to slew 45 deg. about the Y-axis, exposing the MAG sensors and boom to sunlight. This paper presents the thermal design to meet the MAG sensor thermal requirements in the extreme thermal environment and with low heater power. A thermal balance test on the MAG sensor engineering model has verified the thermal design and correlated the thermal model for flight temperature predictions.

  10. Thermal evaluation of a sun tracking solar cooker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif; Al-Mofleh, Anwar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa' Applied University, P.O. Box 15008, Amman (Jordan); Badran, Omar. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Appllied University, P.O. Box 15008, Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    Solar energy is one of many important types of renewable energy. Jordan is of great needs for renewable energy systems applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This study is an experimental work of tracking system developed for enhancing the solar heating using solar cooker. An electronic sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar heater with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked cooker showed that the use of sun tracking increased the heating temperature by 36% due to the increase in radiation concentration and using internal mirror reflectors. The programming method used for tracking control works efficiently in all weather conditions regardless of the presence of clouds. It can be used as backup control circuit in which relays are the essential control devices.

  11. Prospects for solar thermal electricity generation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaquil, P.

    1991-01-01

    The future potential for solar thermal electric power plants is quite significant. The size of the renewable energy resource base for the United States of America alone is almost 500 times its current primary energy consumption. Unfortunately, the levels of current utilization are quite small. Why have these technologies not made a larger contribution to today's market? The answer is that significant barriers still exist. (orig.)

  12. Techno-economic design optimization of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A holistic view is essential in the engineering of technical systems. This thesis presents an integrative approach for designing solar thermal power plants. The methodology is based on a techno-economic plant model and a powerful optimization algorithm. Typically, contemporary design methods treat technical and economic parameters and sub-systems separately, making it difficult or even impossible to realize the full optimization potential of power plant systems. The approach presented here ov...

  13. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  14. Independent Energy's Solar thermal products and services listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This article is a listing of companies offering products and services for the development of solar thermal electric power plants. The listing provides the company name under a heading describing the product or service the company provides. The products and services covered by the listing include developers and owner/operators, manufacturers of equipment, instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, and financial and legal services

  15. Solar thermal barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 443708 m 2 less year-on-year. The economic crisis has had a ripple effect on the European market in the shape of the Euro crisis at the beginning of May, so the slump seems set to continue on into 2010

  16. Thermal analysis of a solar collector consisting of V cavities for water heating; Analise termica de um coletor solar composto de cavidades V para aquecimento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Michel Fabio de Souza

    2009-03-15

    The solar water heating is carried through, in Brazil, by means of solar heaters compound for collectors flat plate of the type plate-and-pipes, devices that operate in stationary position and they do not require tracking of the sun. A compound collector for some formed V-trough concentrators can be an alternative to the conventional solar collectors flat plate. This compound collector for V-trough is considered, each one, for side-walls which are specularly reflecting surfaces associates in V (equivalent to a triangular gutter). Next to the vertex to each V-trough concentrators an absorber tube is fixed, for flow of the fluid to be heated. Interconnection of the absorbers tubes forms a similar tubular network existing in solar collectors of the type the plate and pipe. V-trough concentrators with the absorbers tubes are made use in series in the interior a prismatic box, which have one of its faces consisting by a glass covering and directed toward incidence of the solar radiation. An analysis of thermal performance of these devices operating stationary and without tracking of the sun is researched. A mathematical model for the computational simulation of the optical and thermal performance of these concentrative devices is elaborated, whose implementation was carried through software EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The efficiency optics of V-trough concentrators with cylindrical absorbers is calculated from the adaptation of the methodology used for Fraidenraich (1994), proposal for Hollands (1971) for V-trough cavities with plain absorbers. The thermal analysis of the considered collector was based on the applied methodology the CPC for Hsieh (1981) and Leao (1989). Relative results to the thermal performance of V-trough concentrators suggest that these configurations are not competitive, technique and economically, with the conventional plain collectors. Although some geometric configurations presented next thermal efficiencies to the conventional plain

  17. Optimized concentrating/passive tracking solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterne, K E; Johnson, A L; Grotheer, R H

    1979-01-01

    A concentrating solar collector having about half the material cost of other collectors with similar performance is described. The selected design is a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) which concentrates solar energy throughout the year without requiring realignment. Output is a fluid heated to 100/sup 0/C with good efficiency. The optical design of the reflector surface was optimized, yielding a 2.0:1 concentration ratio with a 60/sup 0/C acceptance angle and a low profile. Double glazing was chosen consisting of a polyester film outer glazing and an inner glazing of glass tubes around the absorbers. The selectively coated steel absorber tubes are connected in series with flexible plastic tubing. Much development effort went into the materials for the reflector subassembly. A laminate of metalized plastic film over plaster was chosen for the reflective surface. The reflector is rigidized by attaching filled epoxy header plates at each end. Aluminum side rails and an insulating back complete the structure. The finished design resulted in a material cost of $21.40 per square meter in production quantities. Performance testing of a prototype produced a 50% initial efficiency rating. This is somewhat lower than expected, and is due to materials and processes used in the prototype for the outer glazing, reflective surface and absorber coating. However, the efficiency curve drops only slightly with increasing temperature differential, showing the inherent advantage of the concentrator over flat plate collectors.

  18. Functionalized Graphene Enables Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlong; Pang, Yunsong; Huang, Weixin; Shaw, Scott K; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Pillers, Michelle Anne; Mu, Xin; Luo, Shirui; Zhang, Teng; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Lieberman, Marya; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-06-27

    The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

  19. Assessment Of The Viability Of Kaduna City Climate For Year Round Use Of Direct Solar Thermal Cooking Fuel In Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumann Ephraim Sule

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy obtained from the sun is the world most abundant and cheapest source of energy as a cooking fuel. It comes in two forms Concentrated Solar Thermal direct conversion of solar energy to heat that cooks and Solar Photovoltaic PV a conversion of solar energy to electrical then to heat energy the former technology is simple and far cheaper. Despite all these architectural and engineering researches is yet to capture it for indoor cooking because of inability to cook year round due the claimed hindrances by weather condition such as clouds rainfall wind dusty atmosphere and many others. This paper attempted to look into the possibility of cooking year round in Kaduna city. It collected and analyzed ten years climatic data from three different meteorological stations strategically located round the city this showed a low solar radiation in the month of August. It further compared the result with a literature review of solar cooking carried in the same month the findings showed at the peak of each weather hindrance a another element overrides it to give enough minimum energy for cooking a meals. This paper has therefore pointed the potentials of Kaduna city climate for year round use of concentrated solar thermal as a cooking fuel in residential building and further recommends the architectural collaboration with engineers for the direct capturing of solar rays into residential dwelling as a sustainable cooking fuel.

  20. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.