WorldWideScience

Sample records for concave transport costs

  1. Local matching indicators for concave transport costs

    OpenAIRE

    Delon , Julie; Salomon , Julien; Sobolevskii , A.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this note, we introduce a class of indicators that enable to compute efficiently optimal transport plans associated to arbitrary distributions of $N$ demands and $N$ supplies in $\\mathbf{R}$ in the case where the cost function is concave. The computational cost of these indicators is small and independent of $N$. A hierarchical use of them enables to obtain an efficient algorithm.

  2. Concave utility, transaction costs, and risk in measuring discounting of delayed rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Santiesteban, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    Research has consistently found that the decline in the present values of delayed rewards as delay increases is better fit by hyperbolic than by exponential delay-discounting functions. However, concave utility, transaction costs, and risk each could produce hyperbolic-looking data, even when the underlying discounting function is exponential. In Experiments 1 (N = 45) and 2 (N = 103), participants placed bids indicating their present values of real future monetary rewards in computer-based 2nd-price auctions. Both experiments suggest that utility is not sufficiently concave to account for the superior fit of hyperbolic functions. Experiment 2 provided no evidence that the effects of transaction costs and risk are large enough to account for the superior fit of hyperbolic functions.

  3. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  4. Endogenous Transport Costs in International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Joern Kleinert; Julia Spies

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we claim that distance alone is a poor proxy for international transport costs in empirical studies. We model a manufacturing and a transport sector and let the level of manufacturing exports determine the demand for transport services. Above a particular trade level, transport service suppliers find it profit-maximizing to invest in an advanced transport technology, which lowers their marginal costs and as a consequence, equilibrium transport prices. Transport costs thus vary w...

  5. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  6. Optimal Portfolio Selection Under Concave Price Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jin; Song Qingshuo; Xu Jing; Zhang Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study an optimal portfolio selection problem under instantaneous price impact. Based on some empirical analysis in the literature, we model such impact as a concave function of the trading size when the trading size is small. The price impact can be thought of as either a liquidity cost or a transaction cost, but the concavity nature of the cost leads to some fundamental difference from those in the existing literature. We show that the problem can be reduced to an impulse control problem, but without fixed cost, and that the value function is a viscosity solution to a special type of Quasi-Variational Inequality (QVI). We also prove directly (without using the solution to the QVI) that the optimal strategy exists and more importantly, despite the absence of a fixed cost, it is still in a “piecewise constant” form, reflecting a more practical perspective.

  7. Optimal Portfolio Selection Under Concave Price Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jin, E-mail: jinma@usc.edu [University of Southern California, Department of Mathematics (United States); Song Qingshuo, E-mail: songe.qingshuo@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Mathematics (Hong Kong); Xu Jing, E-mail: xujing8023@yahoo.com.cn [Chongqing University, School of Economics and Business Administration (China); Zhang Jianfeng, E-mail: jianfenz@usc.edu [University of Southern California, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper we study an optimal portfolio selection problem under instantaneous price impact. Based on some empirical analysis in the literature, we model such impact as a concave function of the trading size when the trading size is small. The price impact can be thought of as either a liquidity cost or a transaction cost, but the concavity nature of the cost leads to some fundamental difference from those in the existing literature. We show that the problem can be reduced to an impulse control problem, but without fixed cost, and that the value function is a viscosity solution to a special type of Quasi-Variational Inequality (QVI). We also prove directly (without using the solution to the QVI) that the optimal strategy exists and more importantly, despite the absence of a fixed cost, it is still in a 'piecewise constant' form, reflecting a more practical perspective.

  8. Concavity Theorems for Energy Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.; Karataglidis, S.

    2011-01-01

    Concavity properties prevent the existence of significant landscapes in energy surfaces obtained by strict constrained energy minimizations. The inherent contradiction is due to fluctuations of collective coordinates. A solution to those fluctuations is given.

  9. Noise Costs from Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margorínová, Martina; Trojanová, Mária; Decký, Martin; Remišová, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Building and improving road infrastructure in Slovakia is currently influenced by the amount of state funding. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of each proposed solution of road project, which is based on life-cycle costs. Besides capital costs, social costs are also important, which valued the negative impacts due to road construction and operation on road users, the environment, and the population living in the affected area. Some components of social costs have shortcomings in quantifying and valuating, which need to be resolved. The one of important components which affects human health and the value of an area, and have some shortcomings are noise costs. Improvement of this component will lead to more accurate valuation of economic efficiency of roads.

  10. Fast approximate convex decomposition using relative concavity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Mukulika; Amato, Nancy M.; Lu, Yanyan; Lien, Jyh-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into approximately convex components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can also generate a more manageable number of components. It can be used as a basis of divide-and-conquer algorithms for applications such as collision detection, skeleton extraction and mesh generation. In this paper, we propose a new method called Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition (FACD) that improves the quality of the decomposition and reduces the cost of computing it for both 2D and 3D models. In particular, we propose a new strategy for evaluating potential cuts that aims to reduce the relative concavity, rather than absolute concavity. As shown in our results, this leads to more natural and smaller decompositions that include components for small but important features such as toes or fingers while not decomposing larger components, such as the torso, that may have concavities due to surface texture. Second, instead of decomposing a component into two pieces at each step, as in the original ACD, we propose a new strategy that uses a dynamic programming approach to select a set of n c non-crossing (independent) cuts that can be simultaneously applied to decompose the component into n c+1 components. This reduces the depth of recursion and, together with a more efficient method for computing the concavity measure, leads to significant gains in efficiency. We provide comparative results for 2D and 3D models illustrating the improvements obtained by FACD over ACD and we compare with the segmentation methods in the Princeton Shape Benchmark by Chen et al. (2009) [31]. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast approximate convex decomposition using relative concavity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Mukulika

    2013-02-01

    Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into approximately convex components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can also generate a more manageable number of components. It can be used as a basis of divide-and-conquer algorithms for applications such as collision detection, skeleton extraction and mesh generation. In this paper, we propose a new method called Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition (FACD) that improves the quality of the decomposition and reduces the cost of computing it for both 2D and 3D models. In particular, we propose a new strategy for evaluating potential cuts that aims to reduce the relative concavity, rather than absolute concavity. As shown in our results, this leads to more natural and smaller decompositions that include components for small but important features such as toes or fingers while not decomposing larger components, such as the torso, that may have concavities due to surface texture. Second, instead of decomposing a component into two pieces at each step, as in the original ACD, we propose a new strategy that uses a dynamic programming approach to select a set of n c non-crossing (independent) cuts that can be simultaneously applied to decompose the component into n c+1 components. This reduces the depth of recursion and, together with a more efficient method for computing the concavity measure, leads to significant gains in efficiency. We provide comparative results for 2D and 3D models illustrating the improvements obtained by FACD over ACD and we compare with the segmentation methods in the Princeton Shape Benchmark by Chen et al. (2009) [31]. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  13. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transportation Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural......-to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...

  14. Environmental costs of transport; Liikenteen paeaestoekustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gynther, L.; Tervonen, J.; Hippinen, I.; Loven, K.; Salmi, J.; Soares, J.; Torkkeli, S.; Tikka, T.

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the estimated total environmental costs of airborne pollutants in road, rail and water transport in Finland and the unit costs of emissions used in socio-economic impact assessments of the transport system. The estimations are based on emission inventory for the year 2007 and the results are shown in prices of 2010. The study updates previous estimates dating back ten years. The total environmental cost of airborne pollutants in transport is estimated at 900 million euros. This is composed of 820 million euros attributable to fuel use and street dust, 54 million euros to the front end of fuel chains and 26 million euros to waste from water transport. The share of road transport in the total cost is 695 million euros, water transport 190 million euros and rail transport just under 15 million euros. The assessment covers the impacts of pollutants on health (increased mortality and morbidity) and flora (crop losses and decreased forest growth) as well as the cost of climate change. In addition to fuel emissions, also street dust is included in the analysis. In water transport the evaluation is extended to solid and liquid waste. In addition to fuel use, also other steps in the fuel chains, namely production, transport, refining and distribution, are covered by the study. The environmental unit costs of primary particles, sulphates and nitrates vary geographically and between different transport modes. The differences are particularly distinctive for particle emissions from road transport. The environmental unit costs of hydrocarbons and greenhouse gasses are the same for all transport modes in all traffic environments and all parts of the country. The impact assessment and monetary valuation of airborne pollutants was principally carried out by using the Impact Pathway Method. The method starts with an emissions inventory and estimation of the consequent pollutant concentrations followed by assessment of physical impacts, and finally monetary

  15. Radioactive materials transportation life-cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Donovan, K.S.; Spooner, O.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses factors that should be considered when estimating the life-cycle cost of shipping radioactive materials and the development of a working model that has been successfully used. Today's environmental concerns have produced an increased emphasis on cleanup and restoration of production plants and interim storage sites for radioactive materials. The need to transport these radioactive materials to processing facilities or permanent repositories is offset by the reality of limited resources and ever-tightening budgets. Obtaining the true cost of transportation is often difficult because of the many direct and indirect costs involved and the variety of methods used to account for fixed and variable expenses. In order to make valid comparisons between the cost of alternate transportation systems for new and/or existing programs, one should consider more than just the cost of capital equipment or freight cost per mile. Of special interest is the cost of design, fabrication, use, and maintenance of shipping containers in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A spread sheet model was developed to compare the life-cycle costs of alternate fleet configurations of TRUPACT-II, which will be used to ship transuranic waste from U.S. Department of Energy sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico

  16. Cost effectiveness of transportation fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Troelstra, W.P.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to investigate whether stimulation of the production and use of biofuels for transportation is worthwhile compared to the production of electricity from biomass. Several options are compared to each other and with reference technologies on the basis of the consumption or the avoided input of fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, specific costs and cost effectiveness. For each phase in the biomass conversion process (cultivation, pretreatment, transportation, conversion, distribution and final consumption) indicators were collected from the literature. Next to costs of the bioconversion routes attention is paid to other relevant aspects that are important for the introduction of the technological options in the Netherlands. 41 refs

  17. Cylindrical concave body of composite fibrous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a cylindrical concave body of compound fibrous material which is intended to be exposed to high rotation speeds around its own longitudinal axis. The concave body in question has at least one layer of fibrils that are interwoven and enclose an identical angle with the longitudinal axis of the concave body in both directions. The concave body in question also has at least a second layer of fibrils that run in the direction of the circumference and are fitted radially to the outside. The cylindrical concave body of the invention is particularly well suited for application as a rotor tube in a gas ultra-centrifuge

  18. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  19. Cost of splitting in Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, C.J.; Cashwell, E.D.

    1978-03-01

    In a simple transport problem designed to estimate transmission through a plane slab of x free paths by Monte Carlo methods, it is shown that m-splitting (m > or = 2) does not pay unless exp(x) > m(m + 3)/(m - 1). In such a case, the minimum total cost in terms of machine time is obtained as a function of m, and the optimal value of m is determined

  20. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  1. External Costs of Transport in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark A.; McCubbin, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we report estimates of the external costs of transport in the United States.1 Generally, we cover road, rail, air, and water transport; passenger transport and freight transport; and congestion, accident, air pollution, climate change, noise, water pollution, and energy-security costs. However, we were not able to find estimates for all cost categories; in particular, there are fewer estimates for freight transport than for passenger transport, fewer estimates for water transp...

  2. BIM cost analysis of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Andrey; Chelyshkov, Pavel; Grossman, Y.; Khromenkova, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the method of analysis of the energy costs of transport infrastructure objects using BIM software. The paper consideres several options of orientation of a building using SketchUp and IES VE software programs. These options allow to choose the best direction of the building facades. Particular attention is given to a distribution of a temperature field in a cross-section of the wall according to the calculation made in the ELCUT software. The issues related to calculation of solar radiation penetration into a building and selection of translucent structures are considered in the paper. The article presents data on building codes relating to the transport sector, on the basis of which the calculations were made. The author emphasizes that BIM-programs should be implemented and used in order to optimize a thermal behavior of a building and increase its energy efficiency using climatic data.

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.507 - Transportation and other costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation and other costs. 101-27.507 Section 101-27.507 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.5-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.507 Transportation and other costs. Transportation costs...

  4. Costs in Swedish Public Transport : An analysis of cost drivers and cost efficiency in public transport contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vigren, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the last seven years, the total cost for Swedish public transport provision has increased by over 30 percent in real terms according to figures from the government agency Transport Analysis. A similar pattern is found if considering a longer time span. Part of the cost increase can be attributed to an increased supply, and part is due to price increases on input factors that are measured by an industry index produced by the public transport industry. The fact that about half of the cos...

  5. Neural Network to Solve Concave Games

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zixin; Wang, Nengfa

    2014-01-01

    The issue on neural network method to solve concave games is concerned. Combined with variational inequality, Ky Fan inequality, and projection equation, concave games are transformed into a neural network model. On the basis of the Lyapunov stable theory, some stability results are also given. Finally, two classic games’ simulation results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  6. Export into EFTA and transportation costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khúlová Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Member States of the European Free Trade Association are the considerable opportunity for export, especially for countries of the European Union. The European Economic Area unites the Member States of European Union and Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland (the three EFTA countries into an Internal Market. The paper deals with comparison the basic data of EFTA Member States such as geography, infrastructure, GDP. Due to Logistics Performance Index, it is possible to compare the level of logistics and transportation conditions in selected countries. The export costs and delivery time from a one Member State of European Union to capital cities of EFTA Member States are identified by using online calculator of chosen integrators.

  7. Costs and benefits of MDOT intelligent transportation system deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report analyses costs and benefits of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployed by : the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). MDOT ITS focuses on traffic incident : management and also provide Freeway Courtesy Patrol services. A...

  8. Impact of timber production and transport costs on stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of cable logging technology, transportation network standards, and transport vehicles on stand management. Managers can use results to understand the impact of timber production costs on eastern hardwood management.

  9. Transport Accident Costs and the Value of Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koornstra, Matthijs; Evans, Andrew; Glansdorp, Cees

    The publication descibes a study of costs of passenger transport accident by road, rail, air and sea. It is argued that "willingness to pay" theory should be preferred to "human capital" theory in valuations of life and limb. The total costs of passenger transport accidents in the EU is estimated...... to about 165 billion ECU in 1995 year prices. Road accident costs account for more than 95% of the costs....

  10. ON THE GENERALIZED CONVEXITY AND CONCAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhayo B.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A function ƒ : R+ → R+ is (m1, m2-convex (concave if ƒ(m1(x,y ≤ (≥ m2(ƒ(x, ƒ(y for all x,y Є R+ = (0,∞ and m1 and m2 are two mean functions. Anderson et al. [1] studies the dependence of (m1, m2-convexity (concavity on m1 and m2 and gave the sufficient conditions of (m1, m2-convexity and concavity of a function defined by Maclaurin series. In this paper, we make a contribution to the topic and study the (m1, m2-convexity and concavity of a function where m1 and m2 are identric mean, Alzer mean mean. As well, we prove a conjecture posed by Bruce Ebanks in [2].

  11. Performance of solar still with a concave wick evaporation surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabeel, A.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Surfaces used for evaporation and condensation phenomenon play important roles in the performance of basin type solar still. In the present study, a concave wick surface was used for evaporation, whereas four sides of a pyramid shaped still were used for condensation. Use of jute wick increased the amount of absorbed solar radiation and enhanced the evaporation surface area. A concave shaped wick surface increases the evaporation area due to the capillary effect. Results show that average distillate productivity in day time was 4.1 l/m{sup 2} and a maximum instantaneous system efficiency of 45% and average daily efficiency of 30% were recorded. The maximum hourly yield was 0.5 l/h. m{sup 2} after solar noon. An estimated cost of 1l of distillate was 0.065 $ for the presented solar still. (author)

  12. Performance of solar still with a concave wick evaporation surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabeel, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Surfaces used for evaporation and condensation phenomenon play important roles in the performance of basin type solar still. In the present study, a concave wick surface was used for evaporation, whereas four sides of a pyramid shaped still were used for condensation. Use of jute wick increased the amount of absorbed solar radiation and enhanced the evaporation surface area. A concave shaped wick surface increases the evaporation area due to the capillary effect. Results show that average distillate productivity in day time was 4.1 l/m 2 and a maximum instantaneous system efficiency of 45% and average daily efficiency of 30% were recorded. The maximum hourly yield was 0.5 l/h. m 2 after solar noon. An estimated cost of 1 l of distillate was 0.065 $ for the presented solar still.

  13. Transport infrastructure costs in low-carbon pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ó BROIN , Eoin; Guivarch , Céline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The rate and manner in which transport infrastructure (e.g. roads, railway tracks, airports) is deployed, will play an important role in determining energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and the economic impact of the transport sector. This paper describes an exercise where the costs of infrastructure deployment for the transport sector have been incorporated into the IMACLIM-R Global E3 IAM. In addition to adding these costs, the modelling of the criteria for the de...

  14. Spent fuel shipping costs for transportation logistics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.M.; Cross, R.E.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    Logistics analyses supplied to the nuclear waste management programs of the U.S. Department of Energy through the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories are used to predict nuclear waste material logistics, transportation packaging demands, shipping and receiving rates and transportation-related costs for alternative strategies. This study is an in-depth analysis of the problems and contingencies associated with the costs of shipping irradiated reactor fuel. These costs are extremely variable however, and have changed frequently (sometimes monthly) during the past few years due to changes in capital, fuel, and labor costs. All costs and charges reported in this study are based on January 1982 data using existing transport cask systems and should be used as relative indices only. Actual shipping costs would be negotiable for each origin-destination combination

  15. Transport costs: the dark continent of the logistics world? The impact of transport costs on book and newspaper logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary logistics management has become more transport-intensive due, for example, to the centralisation of production and strategies aimed at reducing stocks. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision

  16. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  17. Tariff Policy and Transport Costs under Reciprocal Dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Oshiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes tariff competition by investigating the strategic interactions among firms that are highly mobile across national boundaries. Although high transport costs yield a geographic dispersion of the industry, sufficiently low transport costs result in a core-periphery location where nobody bears tariff burdens. In any case, the world economy would be in a much better position under an international coordination scheme. An economy is only required to enforce a weak international ...

  18. Global transportation cost modeling for long-range planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Singley, P.T.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to perform significant remediation activities of the sites for which it is responsible. To accomplish this, it is preparing a corporate global plan focused on activities over the next decade. Significant in these planned activities is the transportation of the waste arising from the remediation. The costs of this transportation are expected to be large. To support the initial assessment of the plan, a cost estimating model was developed, peer-reviewed against other available packaging and transportation cost data, and applied to a significant number of shipping campaigns of radioactive waste. This cost estimating model, known as the Ten-year Plan Transportation Cost Model (TEPTRAM), can be used to model radioactive material shipments between DOE sites or from DOE sites to non-DOE destinations. The model considers the costs for (a) recovering and processing of the wastes, (b)packaging the wastes for transport, and (c) the carriage of the waste. It also provides a rough order of magnitude estimate of labor costs associated with preparing and undertaking the shipments. At the user's direction, the model can also consider the cost of DOE's interactions with its external stakeholders (e.g., state and local governments and tribal entities) and the cost associated with tracking and communicating with the shipments. By considering all of these sources of costs, it provides a mechanism for assessing and comparing the costs of various waste processing and shipping campaign alternatives to help guide decision-making. Recent analyses of specific planned shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste which consider alternative packaging options are described. These analyses show that options are available for significantly reducing total costs while still satisfying regulatory requirements

  19. Global transportation cost modeling for long range planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Singley, P.T.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to perform significant remediation activities of the sites for which it is responsible. To accomplish this, it is preparing a corporate global plan focused on activities over the next decade. Significant in these planned activities is the transportation of the waste arising from the remediation. The costs of this transportation are expected to be large. To support the initial assessment of the plan, a cost-estimating model was developed, peer-reviewed against other available packaging and transportation cost data, and applied to significant number of shipping campaigns of radioactive waste. This cost-estimating model, known as the TEn-year Plan TRAnsportation cost Model (TEPTRAM), can be used to model radioactive material shipments between DOE sites or from DOE sites to non-DOE destinations. The model considers the costs for recovering and processing of the wastes, packaging the wastes for transport, and the carriage of the waste. It also provides a rough order-of-magnitude estimate of labor costs associated with preparing nd undertaking the shipments. At the user's direction, the model can also consider the cost of DOE's interactions with its external stakeholders (e.g., state and local governments and tribal entities) and the cost associated with tracking and communicating with the shipments. By considering all of these sources of costs, it provides a mechanism for assessing and comparing the costs of various waste processing and shipping campaign alternatives to help guide decision-making. Recent analyses of specific planned shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste which consider alternative packaging options are described. These analyses show that options are available for significantly reducing total costs while still satisfying regulatory requirements. (authors)

  20. Optimization of bridge cables with concave fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, Søren V.

    In this paper the aerodynamic performance of new cable surfaces with concave fillet are examined and compared to plain, dimpled and helically filleted surfaces. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel campaign was undertaken. Preliminary flow visualizations tests and static tests were performed to ...

  1. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    The largest share of space missions is going to the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO); they have the highest commercial importance. The paper first shows the historic trend of specific transportation costs to GEO from 1963 to 2002. It started out with more than 500 000 /kg(2002-value) and has come down to 36 000 /kg. This reduction looks impressive, however, the reason is NOT improved technology or new techniques but solely the growth of GEO payloads`unit mass. The first GEO satellite in 1963 did have a mass of 36 kg mass (BoL) . This has grown to a weight of 1600 kg (average of all GEO satellites) in the year 2000. Mass in GEO after injection is used here instead of GTO mass since the GTO mass depends on the launch site latitude. The specific cost reduction is only due to the "law-of-scale", valid in the whole transportation business: the larger the payload, the lower the specific transportation cost. The paper shows the actual prices of launch services to GTO by the major launch vehicles. Finally the potential GEO transportation costs of future launch systems are evaluated. What is the potential reduction of specific transportation costs if reusable elements are introduced in future systems ? Examples show that cost reductions up to 75 % seem achievable - compared to actual costs - but only with launch systems optimized according to modern principles of cost engineering. 1. 53rd International Astronautical Congress, World Space Congress Houston 2. First Submission 3. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future 4. KOELLE, D.E. 5. IAA.1.1 Launch Vehicles' Cost Engineering and Economic Competitiveness 6. D.E. Koelle; A.E. Goldstein 7. One overhead projector and screen 8. Word file attached 9. KOELLE I have approval to attend the Congress. I am not willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program.

  2. External effects and social costs of road transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The article contains a welfare economic analysis of road transport's external effects. First, we discuss the definition of external effects. Applying this definition, it is concluded that road transport activities give rise to a wide range of external costs. However, there are no external benefits

  3. Transportation cost of anticoagulation clinic visits in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jamie M; Clemente, Jennifer; Sharma, Krishna P; Taylor, Thomas N; Garwood, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Patients being managed on warfarin make frequent or regular visits to anticoagulation monitoring appointments. International studies have evaluated transportation cost and associated time related to anticoagulation clinic visits. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the cost of transportation to such clinic visits in the United States. To describe the methods of transportation and estimate the average total cost of transportation to and from an anticoagulation clinic in an urban setting. We prospectively conducted a survey of patients treated at the Harper Anticoagulation Clinic located in Detroit, Michigan, during November 2010. The survey was given to patients while waiting at their regularly scheduled clinic appointments and included questions regarding mode of transportation, distance traveled in miles, parking payment, and time missed from work for clinic appointments. The mean distance traveled was translated into cost assuming 50 cents per mile based on 2010 estimates by the Internal Revenue Service. Sixty patients responded to the 11-item survey; response rates for individual items varied because participants were instructed to skip questions that did not pertain to them. Of the 47 participants responding to demographic questions, 70.2% were female, and 46.8% were older than 60 years. Transportation by private vehicle (80.0%), either driven by patients (41.7%) or someone else (38.3%), was the most common method reported. Use of private automobile translated into a cost of $11.19 per round trip. Other means of transportation identified include a ride from a medical transportation service (10.0%), bus (5.0%), walking (3.3%), and taxi (1.7%). The mean (SD) distance traveled to the clinic for all methods of transportation was 8.34 (7.7) miles. We estimated the average cost of round-trip transportation to be $10.78 weighted for all transportation modes. This is a direct nonmedical cost that is paid for by most patients out of pocket. However, 9 of 44 (20

  4. An inventory of measures for internalising external costs in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.; Van Grinsven, A.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Breemersch, T. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Martino, A.; Rosa, C.; Parolin, R. [Trasporti e Territorio TRT, Brussels (Belgium); Harmsen, J. [Sustainable Transport and Logistics TNO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    This study provides an overview of all existing and close to implementation pricing policies in transport. It supported the European Commission with the evaluation of existing pricing policies in the light of Article 11.4 of the revised Eurovignette Directive. The study covers all existing pricing instruments in all transport modes in all EU Member States. In addition it includes data on revenues and administrative costs and some comparisons across Member States and transport modes. The most recent data have been gathered: data for 2010 and where possible 2011. Also the link with external and infrastructure costs is discussed, and where possible, high level comparisons have been made.

  5. The Implementation of Marginal External Cost Pricing in Road Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of issues that will become increasingly important nowthat the concept of marginal external cost pricing becomes more likely to be implementedas a policy strategy in transport in reality. The first part of the paper deals with thelong-run efficiency of marginal external cost pricing. It is shown that such prices notonly optimize short-run mobility, given the shape and position of the relevant demandand cost curves, but even more importantly, also optimally affect ...

  6. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  7. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...... to equilibrium price differentials between markets. Unlike previous studies this article shows that French wheat markets were well integrated by the middle of the 19th century...... of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed...

  8. Alpha-Concave Hull, a Generalization of Convex Hull

    OpenAIRE

    Asaeedi, Saeed; Didehvar, Farzad; Mohades, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bounding hull, such as convex hull, concave hull, alpha shapes etc. has vast applications in different areas especially in computational geometry. Alpha shape and concave hull are generalizations of convex hull. Unlike the convex hull, they construct non-convex enclosure on a set of points. In this paper, we introduce another generalization of convex hull, named alpha-concave hull, and compare this concept with convex hull and alpha shape. We show that the alpha-concave hull is also a general...

  9. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Peter; Gronalt, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO 2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  10. Sharing a common resource with concave benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, S.

    2006-01-01

    A group of agents enjoy concave and single-peak benefit functions from consuming a shared resource. They also value money (transfers). The resource is scarce in the sense that not everybody can consume its peak. The paper characterizes the unique (resource and money) allocation that is efficient, incentive compatible and equal-sharing individual rational. It can be implemented (i) by selling the resource or taxing extraction and redistributing the money collected equally, or (ii) by assigning...

  11. Log-Concavity Properties of Minkowski Valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Astrid; Parapatits, Lukas; Schuster, Franz E.; Weberndorfer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    New Orlicz Brunn-Minkowski inequalities are established for rigid motion compatible Minkowski valuations of arbitrary degree. These extend classical log-concavity properties of intrinsic volumes and generalize seminal results of Lutwak and others. Two different approaches which refine previously employed techniques are explored. It is shown that both lead to the same class of Minkowski valuations for which these inequalities hold. An appendix by Semyon Alesker contains the proof of a new clas...

  12. A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the Developing World. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like ...

  13. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  14. Cost of transporting irradiated fuels and maintenance costs of a chemical treatment plant for irradiated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1964-01-01

    Numerous studies have been made of the cost of a fuel cycle, but many of them are based on a priori studies and are therefore to be treated with reserve. Thus, in the part dealing with the treatment of irradiated fuels, some important factors in the cost have only rarely been given on the basis of practical experience: the cost of transporting the fuels themselves and the plant maintenance costs. Investigations relating to transport costs are generally based on calculations made from somewhat arbitrary data. The studies carried out in France on the transport of irradiated uranium between the EDF reactors at Chinon and the retreatment plant at La Hague of the irradiated uranium from research reactors to foreign retreatment plants, are reported; they show that by a suitable choice of transport containers and details of expedition it has been possible to reduce the costs very considerably. This has been achieved either by combining rail and road transport or by increasing the writ capacities of the transport containers: an example is given of a container for swimming-pool pile elements which can transport a complete pile core at one time, thus substantially reducing the cost. Studies concerning the maintenance costs of retreatment plants are rarer still, although in direct maintenance plants these figures represent an appreciable fraction of the total treatment cost. An attempt has been made, on the basis of operational experience of a plant, to obtain some idea of these costs. Only maintenance proper has been considered, excluding subsidiary operations such as the final decontamination of apparatus, the burial of contaminated material and radioprotection operations Maintenance has been divided into three sections: mechanical maintenance, maintenance of electrical equipment and maintenance of control and adjustment apparatus. In each of these sections the distinction has been made between manpower and the material side. In order to allow comparisons to be made with

  15. What Causes Cost Overrun in Transport Infrastructure Projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    cost escalation for three types of project ownership - private, state-owned enterprise and other public ownership - it is shown that the oft-seen claim that public ownership is problematic and private ownership effective in curbing cost escalation is an oversimplification. Type of accountability......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of causes of cost escalation in transport infrastructure projects. The study is based on a sample of 258 rail, bridge, tunnel and roads projects worth US$90 billion. The focus is on the dependence of cost escalation on (1......) length of project implementation phase, (2) size of project and (3) type of project ownership. First, it is found with very high statistical significance that cost escalation is strongly dependent on length of implementation phase. The policy implications are clear: Decision makers and planners should...

  16. Life-cycle analysis and external costs in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas impacts in the US shows that against a baseline gasoline vehicle, the impact of including the full fuel cycle generally reduces the relative advantages of alternative transportation fuels. While a switch to diesel is estimated to save 30% as compared to gasoline, the savings from natural gas/LPG are (around 20%), for ethanol from corn (8%) and for battery electricity vehicles using power from coal (6%) are much smaller. This is largely due to the use of LCA rather than end-use comparisons. However, the results also show that there would be large savings from the use of ethanol from fuel cells using methanol (39%) or natural gas (50%), while ethanol from wood in a conventional engine appears to have the greatest savings (63%). In external costs of motor vehicle use, analysis results were presented for both air pollution and energy security impacts (including SPR, military expenditures, macro-economic costs and pecuniary costs) as well as water pollution, noise and congestion impacts. The results suggest that externalities amount to 1.2 US cents per mile travelled in gasoline powered vehicle. The most significant externality is related to air pollution. Costs associated with US defence, the SPR, and climate change are quite insignificant. The only other variable of significance is the impact on the economy, through the transfer of wealth outside the US (referred to as 'pecuniary externality') and the oil price shock impacts on the economy. A comparison of external costs and subsidies for different transportation modes in the US (gas or electric cars, transit bus, light rail, heavy rail) showed that subsidies available to public transit system greatly outweigh the benefit in reduced externalities avoided. In the comparison of social costs of transportation alternatives, differences in external cost, while not trivial, are outweighed by the differences in direct costs or in subsidies. (author)

  17. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiation of target volumes with concave outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Neve, W.; Fortan, L.; Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; DE Wagter, C.

    1995-01-01

    A heuristic planning procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution for target volumes with concavities has been investigated. The procedure divides the planning problem into a number of sub-problems each solvable by known methods. By patching together the solutions to the sub-problems, a solution with a predictable dosimetric outcome can be obtained. The procedure can be applied to most 3-dimensional systems. The procedure is described and its applications to the irradiation of neoplasms are discussed. (A.S.)

  19. Convex and Radially Concave Contoured Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Dieter Richter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral representations of the locally defined star-generalized surface content measures on star spheres are derived for boundary spheres of balls being convex or radially concave with respect to a fan in Rn. As a result, the general geometric measure representation of star-shaped probability distributions and the general stochastic representation of the corresponding random vectors allow additional specific interpretations in the two mentioned cases. Applications to estimating and testing hypotheses on scaling parameters are presented, and two-dimensional sample clouds are simulated.

  20. Irradiation of target volumes with concave outlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Neve, W; Fortan, L; Derycke, S; Van Duyse, B; DE Wagter, C [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    A heuristic planning procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution for target volumes with concavities has been investigated. The procedure divides the planning problem into a number of sub-problems each solvable by known methods. By patching together the solutions to the sub-problems, a solution with a predictable dosimetric outcome can be obtained. The procedure can be applied to most 3-dimensional systems. The procedure is described and its applications to the irradiation of neoplasms are discussed. (A.S.).

  1. Sensitive visual test for concave diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A simple visual test for the evaluation of concave diffraction gratings is described. It is twice as sensitive as the Foucault knife edge test, from which it is derived, and has the advantage that the images are straight and free of astigmatism. It is particularly useful for grating with high ruling frequency where the above image faults limit the utility of the Foucault test. The test can be interpreted quantitatively and can detect zonal grating space errors of as little as 0.1 A.

  2. Experimental analysis of an MIM capacitor with a concave shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lintao; Yu Mingyan; Wang Jinxiang

    2009-01-01

    A novel shielding scheme is developed by inserting a concave shield between a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor and the silicon substrate. Chip measurements reveal that the concave shield improves the quality factor by 11% at 11.8 GHz and 14% at 18.8 GHz compared with an unshielded MIM capacitor. It also alleviates the effect on shunt capacitance between the bottom plate of the MIM capacitor and the shield layer. Moreover, because the concave shields simplify substrate modeling, a simple circuit model of the MIM capacitor with concave shield is presented for radio frequency applications.

  3. Design and management of networks with fixed transportation costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Reusable packages are logistic items used for the shipments of goods from a producer to its customers and which, once the goods have been consumed by the customers, are to be returned to the producer. This doctoral thesis addresses the strategic design and the operational management of large independent reverse networks for their return flows when fixed transportation costs apply. At the strategic level, we identify the economic logic by which the allocation of the customers should be made...

  4. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles i...

  5. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  6. Impacts of Transportation Cost on Distribution-Free Newsboy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribution-free newsboy problem (DFNP has been launched for a vendor to decide a product’s stock quantity in a single-period inventory system to sustain its least maximum-expected profits when combating fierce and diverse market circumstances. Nowadays, impacts of transportation cost on determination of optimal inventory quantity have become attentive, where its influence on the DFNP has not been fully investigated. By borrowing an economic theory from transportation disciplines, in this paper the DFNP is tackled in consideration of the transportation cost formulated as a function of shipping quantity and modeled as a nonlinear regression form from UPS’s on-site shipping-rate data. An optimal solution of the order quantity is computed on the basis of Newton’s approach to ameliorating its complexity of computation. As a result of comparative studies, lower bounds of the maximal expected profit of our proposed methodologies surpass those of existing work. Finally, we extend the analysis to several practical inventory cases including fixed ordering cost, random yield, and a multiproduct condition.

  7. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years

  8. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  9. Estimating the impact of transport efficiency on trade costs: Evidence from Chinese agricultural traders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yinchu

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique survey data on agricultural traders in China in 2004, this study provides direct evidence on significance of interregional transport costs and their key determinants. Our major findings are as follows: (1) the trade barriers within China are dominated by transport-related costs but not artificial barriers, approximated by tolls and fines; (2) Labor and fuels costs are the most significant component of transport costs; (3) road quality is very important for transportation effici...

  10. Log-concavity property for some well-known distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Mohtashami Borzadaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesting properties and propositions, in many branches of science such as economics have been obtained according to the property of cumulative distribution function of a random variable as a concave function. Caplin and Nalebuff (1988,1989, Bagnoli and Khanna (1989 and Bagnoli and Bergstrom (1989 , 1989, 2005 have discussed the log-concavity property of probability distributions and their applications, especially in economics. Log-concavity concerns twice differentiable real-valued function g whose domain is an interval on extended real line. g as a function is said to be log-concave on the interval (a,b if the function ln(g is a concave function on (a,b. Log-concavity of g on (a,b is equivalent to g'/g being monotone decreasing on (a,b or (ln(g" 6] have obtained log-concavity for distributions such as normal, logistic, extreme-value, exponential, Laplace, Weibull, power function, uniform, gamma, beta, Pareto, log-normal, Student's t, Cauchy and F distributions. We have discussed and introduced the continuous versions of the Pearson family, also found the log-concavity for this family in general cases, and then obtained the log-concavity property for each distribution that is a member of Pearson family. For the Burr family these cases have been calculated, even for each distribution that belongs to Burr family. Also, log-concavity results for distributions such as generalized gamma distributions, Feller-Pareto distributions, generalized Inverse Gaussian distributions and generalized Log-normal distributions have been obtained.

  11. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  12. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  13. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  14. Generalized concavity in fuzzy optimization and decision analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ramík, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Convexity of sets in linear spaces, and concavity and convexity of functions, lie at the root of beautiful theoretical results that are at the same time extremely useful in the analysis and solution of optimization problems, including problems of either single objective or multiple objectives. Not all of these results rely necessarily on convexity and concavity; some of the results can guarantee that each local optimum is also a global optimum, giving these methods broader application to a wider class of problems. Hence, the focus of the first part of the book is concerned with several types of generalized convex sets and generalized concave functions. In addition to their applicability to nonconvex optimization, these convex sets and generalized concave functions are used in the book's second part, where decision-making and optimization problems under uncertainty are investigated. Uncertainty in the problem data often cannot be avoided when dealing with practical problems. Errors occur in real-world data for...

  15. Log-concave Probability Distributions: Theory and Statistical Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Mark Yuing

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies the broad class of log-concave probability distributions that arise in economics of uncertainty and information. For univariate, continuous, and log-concave random variables we prove useful properties without imposing the differentiability of density functions. Discrete...... and multivariate distributions are also discussed. We propose simple non-parametric testing procedures for log-concavity. The test statistics are constructed to test one of the two implicati ons of log-concavity: increasing hazard rates and new-is-better-than-used (NBU) property. The test for increasing hazard...... rates are based on normalized spacing of the sample order statistics. The tests for NBU property fall into the category of Hoeffding's U-statistics...

  16. Classroom Note: Concavity and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning-Davies, J.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the mathematical notion of concavity in relation to thermodynamics is stressed and it is shown how it can be useful in increasing the enthusiasm of physics' students for their mathematics' courses.

  17. Shifting orders among suppliers considering risk, price and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitasari, C.; Pujawan, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    Supplier order allocation is an important supply chain decision for an enterprise. It is related to the supplier’s function as a raw material provider and other supporting materials that will be used in production process. Most of works on order allocation has been based on costs and other supply chain performance, but very limited of them taking risks into consideration. In this paper we address the problem of order allocation of a single commodity sourced from multiple suppliers considering supply risks in addition to the attempt of minimizing transportation costs. The supply chain risk was investigated and a procedure was proposed in the risk mitigation phase as a form of risk profile. The objective including risk profile in order allocation is to maximize the product flow from a risky supplier to a relatively less risky supplier. The proposed procedure is applied to a sugar company. The result suggests that order allocations should be maximized to suppliers that have a relatively low risk and minimized to suppliers that have a relatively larger risks.

  18. Concave microwell plate facilitates chondrogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji-Yun; Im, Gun-Il

    2016-11-01

    To compare in vitro chondrogenesis from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells using concave microwell plates with those obtained using culture tubes. Pellets cultured in concave microwell plates had a significantly higher level of GAG per DNA content and greater proteoglycan content than those cultured in tubes at day 7 and 14. Three chondrogenic markers, SOX-9, COL2A1 and aggrecan, showed significantly higher expression in pellets cultured in concave microwell plates than those cultured in tubes at day 7 and 14. At day 21, there was not a significant difference in the expression of these markers. COL10A1, the typical hypertrophy marker, was significantly lower in concave microwell plates during the whole culture period. Runx-2, a marker of hypertrophy and osteogenesis, was significantly lower at day 7 in pellets cultured in concave microwell plates than those cultured in tubes. Concave microwell plates provide a convenient and effective tool for the study of in vitro chondrogenesis and may replace the use of propylene culture tube.

  19. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  20. Relative costs of transporting low-level waste according to four postulated regional-management cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Shirley, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results presented in this paper show that almost any compact binding states into cooperating regions for disposal of LLW will reduce nationwide transportation costs markedly. As a corollary, the reduction of costs may reflect a two- to four-fold reduction of transportation distances with consequent reduction of risk to the public since risk generally decreases directly as transport distances decrease

  1. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Elliott, Robert ' Dan' [U.S. Army Reserve, 812A Franklin St.,Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  2. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold; Elliott, Robert 'Dan'; Durham, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  3. Integration of polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles in a polymer-based microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-12-20

    This paper reports a new technique of fabricating polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles that are integrated in polymer-based microfluidic system. The polystyrene microlenses, or microlens array, are fabricated using the free-surface thermal compression molding method. The laser fabricated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheet is used as the mold for the thermal compression molding process. With different surface treatment methods of the PMMA mold, microlenses with either convex or concave profiles could be achieved during the thermal molding process. By integrating the microlenses in the microfluidic systems, observing the flow inside the microchannels is easier. This new technique is rapid, low cost, and it does not require cleanroom facilities. Microlenses with both convex and concave profiles can be easily fabricated and integrated in microfluidic system with this technique. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Oil Shocks through International Transport Costs: Evidence from U.S. Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Yilmazkuday

    2011-01-01

    The effects of oil shocks on output volatility through international transport costs are investigated in an open-economy DSGE model. Two versions of the model, with and without international transport costs, are structurally estimated for the U.S. economy by a Bayesian approach for moving windows of ten years. For model selection, the posterior odds ratios of the two versions are compared for each ten-year window. The version with international transport costs is selected during periods of hi...

  5. The Optimization of Transportation Costs in Logistics Enterprises with Time-Window Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for solving a multiobjective vehicle routing problem with soft time-window constraints that specify the earliest and latest arrival times of customers. If a customer is serviced before the earliest specified arrival time, extra inventory costs are incurred. If the customer is serviced after the latest arrival time, penalty costs must be paid. Both the total transportation cost and the required fleet size are minimized in this model, which also accounts for the given capacity limitations of each vehicle. The total transportation cost consists of direct transportation costs, extra inventory costs, and penalty costs. This multiobjective optimization is solved by using a modified genetic algorithm approach. The output of the algorithm is a set of optimal solutions that represent the trade-off between total transportation cost and the fleet size required to service customers. The influential impact of these two factors is analyzed through the use of a case study.

  6. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  7. Estimation of CO2 Transport Costs in South Korea Using a Techno-Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangu Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a techno–economic model was used to calculate the costs of CO2 transport and specify the major equipment required for transport in order to demonstrate and implement CO2 sequestration in the offshore sediments of South Korea. First, three different carbon capture and storage demonstration scenarios were set up involving the use of three CO2 capture plants and one offshore storage site. Each transport scenario considered both the pipeline transport and ship transport options. The temperature and pressure conditions of CO2 in each transport stage were determined from engineering and economic viewpoints, and the corresponding specifications and equipment costs were calculated. The transport costs for a 1 MtCO2/year transport rate were estimated to be US$33/tCO2 and US$28/tCO2 for a pipeline transport of ~530 km and ship transport of ~724 km, respectively. Through the economies of scale effect, the pipeline and ship transport costs for a transport rate of 3 MtCO2/year were reduced to approximately US$21/tCO2 and US$23/tCO2, respectively. A CO2 hub terminal did not significantly reduce the cost because of the short distance from the hub to the storage site and the small number of captured sources.

  8. Determination of prerequisites for the estimation of transportation cost of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Seong Ki; Cha, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-10-01

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The scope of this report is limited to the cost for the spent fuel transportation. KAERI is developing a cost estimation method for the spent fuel transportation through a joint study with the French AREVA TN. Several prerequisites should be fixed in order to estimate the cost for the spent fuel transportation properly. In this report we produced them considering the Korean current status on the management of spent fuels. The representative characteristics of a spent fuel generated from the six nuclear reactors at the YG site were determined. Total 7,200 tons of spent fuels are projected with the lifespan of 60 years. As the transportation mode, sea transportation and road transportation is recommended considering the location of the YG site and the hypothetical Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) and Final Repository (FR). The sea route and transportation time were analyzed by using a sea distance analysis program which the NORI (National Oceanographic Research Institute) supplies on a web. Based on the results of the analysis, the shipping rates were determined. The regulations related to the spent fuel transportation were reviewed. The characteristics of the transportation vessel and a trailer were suggested. The handling and transportation systems at the YG site, Centralized Interim Storage Facility, and the Final Repository were described in detail for the purpose of the cost estimation of the spent fuel transportation. From the detail description the major components of the transportation system were determined for the conceptual design. It is believed that the conceptual design of the transportation system developed in this report will be used for the analysis of transportation logistics and the cost estimation of spent fuels

  9. Convexity and concavity constants in Lorentz and Marcinkiewicz spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Anna; Parrish, Anca M.

    2008-07-01

    We provide here the formulas for the q-convexity and q-concavity constants for function and sequence Lorentz spaces associated to either decreasing or increasing weights. It yields also the formula for the q-convexity constants in function and sequence Marcinkiewicz spaces. In this paper we extent and enhance the results from [G.J.O. Jameson, The q-concavity constants of Lorentz sequence spaces and related inequalities, Math. Z. 227 (1998) 129-142] and [A. Kaminska, A.M. Parrish, The q-concavity and q-convexity constants in Lorentz spaces, in: Banach Spaces and Their Applications in Analysis, Conference in Honor of Nigel Kalton, May 2006, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2007, pp. 357-373].

  10. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  11. Improve forest inventory with access data-measure transport distance and cost to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley

    1972-01-01

    Describes a method for relating forest inventory volumes to transport distances and costs. The process, originally developed in Sweden, includes a computer program that can be used to summarize volumes by transport costs per cord to specified delivery point. The method has many potential applications in all aspects of resource analysis.

  12. A reduced-cost iterated local search heuristic for the fixed-charge transportation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buson, Erika; Roberti, Roberto; Toth, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a generalization of the transportation problem where an additional fixed cost is paid for sending a flow from an origin to a destination. We propose an iterated local search heuristic based on the utilization of reduced costs for guiding the restart

  13. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  14. 75 FR 34336 - Reimbursement Transportation Cost Payment Program for Geographically Disadvantaged Farmers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 755 RIN 0560-AI08 Reimbursement... Reimbursement Transportation Cost Payment (RTCP) Program for geographically disadvantaged farmers and ranchers.... To be eligible for reimbursement, the transportation costs must have been incurred in the FY for...

  15. Public policy intervention in freight transport costs: effects on printed media logistics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2005-01-01

    Trends in contemporary logistics management have led to an increased transport-intensity of production and distribution activities. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision-making. At the same time, in Europe,

  16. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  17. Transportation Costs and Subsidy Distribution Model for Urban and Suburban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ševrović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport (PT subsidy provides the means to impose the optimal combination of fare and Level of Service (LoS offered to passengers. In regions where one PT operator services multiple local communities on multiple lines it becomes hard to uniformly link the actual cost of a line and thus the LoS offered, to a particular local community. This leads to possible disproportions in the overall subsidy distribution that can result in being unfair to some local communities, mainly the ones that are sparsely populated or geographically isolated. In order to extricate this problem the appropriate level of PT subsidisation according to the average values in the European cities was investigated and the current subsidy policies in Croatia were investigated. Based on this research and the hypothesis that the offered LoS must be reflected in the subsidy amount a new subsidy distribution model was established that involves a series of analytical procedures and processes. This model introduces several factors used for the calculation of the actual share in costs. Thus, the amount of subsidies for individual lines in a region can be determined based on the actual service offered to the local community, The proposed model has been tested and successfully implemented in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in the Republic of Croatia.

  18. Neonatal carrier: An easy to make alternative device to costly transport chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Milind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of sick neonates to the surgical centers or transportation within the center is an essential requirement of neonatal surgery. Neonatal transport incubators are costly, space occupying, and are not available at many places in the developing countries. We report here a cheap yet effective and easy to make, alternate neonatal carrier device.

  19. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development of...

  20. New high-precision deep concave optical surface manufacturing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, François; Maloney, Chris; VanKerkhove, Steve; Supranowicz, Chris; Dumas, Paul; Donohue, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing steps necessary to manufacture hemispherical concave aspheric mirrors for high- NA systems. The process chain is considered from generation to final figuring and includes metrology testing during the various manufacturing steps. Corning Incorporated has developed this process by taking advantage of recent advances in commercially available Satisloh and QED Technologies equipment. Results are presented on a 100 mm concave radius nearly hemispherical (NA = 0.94) fused silica sphere with a better than 5 nm RMS figure. Part interferometric metrology was obtained on a QED stitching interferometer. Final figure was made possible by the implementation of a high-NA rotational MRF mode recently developed by QED Technologies which is used at Corning Incorporated for production. We also present results from a 75 mm concave radius (NA = 0.88) Corning ULE sphere that was produced using sub-aperture tools from generation to final figuring. This part demonstrates the production chain from blank to finished optics for high-NA concave asphere.

  1. 1-concave basis for TU games and the library game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Theo; Khmelnitskaya, Anna Borisovna; Sales, J.

    2012-01-01

    The study of 1-convex/1-concave TU games possessing a nonempty core and for which the nucleolus is linear was initiated by Driessen and Tijs (Methods Oper. Res. 46:395–406, 1983) and Driessen (OR Spectrum 7:19–26, 1985). However, until recently appealing abstract and practical examples of these

  2. Smith-Purcell radiation from concave dotted gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, D. Yu.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Aryshev, A. S.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    We present the first-principles theory of Smith-Purcell effect from the concave dotted grating consisting of bent chains of separated micro- or nanoparticles. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the obtained spectral-angular distributions change significantly depending on the structure of the grating.

  3. Quantitative test for concave aspheric surfaces using a Babinet compensator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K

    1979-08-15

    A quantitative test for the evaluation of surface figures of concave aspheric surfaces using a Babinet compensator is reported. A theoretical estimate of the sensitivity is 0.002lambda for a minimum detectable phase change of 2 pi x 10(-3) rad over a segment length of 1.0 cm.

  4. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  5. Bilateral Transport Cost, Infrastructure, Common Bilateral Ties and Political Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielken Molina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Los costos de transporte son una de las más importantes fuentes de barreras al comercio. Inspirados por este aspecto, utilizamos un modelo empírico ad-hoc con el fin de examinar los posibles determinantes de los costos de transporte. Utilizando una base de datos de costos de transporte bilaterales para el año 1990, replicamos el trabajo de Limao y Venables (2001 y encontramos que el efecto de su ´índice de infraestructura sobre los costos de transporte no es robusto. Siguiendo a Micco (2004 y Micco y Serebrinzky (2005 calculamos dos ´índices alternativos de infraestructura. Utilizando estos ´índices encontramos que aparte de la distancia, la infraestructura, la estabilidad política, las relaciones bilaterales comunes y los acuerdos de cielos abiertos son otros importantes canales mediante los cuales los costos de transporte pueden reducirse.

  6. STUDY ABOUT THE ROAD TRANSPORTATION COSTS AND FISCALITY IN THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of the European countries in the second half of the XXth century, and also the increase of commercial international exchanges, generated the transportation development in general, and especially the road transportation. The road transports knew an ascendant evolution due to their advantages: superior mobility; fast adaptability to every land conditions, without special investments; the capacity to complete the other modalities of transportation, in order to achieve the transportation chain; the only one type or transportation which can be done by self; the insurance of wares perishability, without require supplementary manipulations during the transportation. It’s obvious that, there are also negative aspects like: pollution and supplementary fuel consumption. On the level of Romanian companies, transports rise problems related on their costs, the costs structure and the directions to make this activity profitable.The Romanian government established fiscal measures, in order to make the companies more responsible in the vehicles use and their efficient exploitation.

  7. Minimization of transport and distribution cost for district heating study of particular cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, A.; Caizergues, R.; Moret Bailly, J.

    1977-01-01

    The transport and distribution of hot pressurized water involve different sets of criteria: transport networks, heat distribution networks, storages. The minimization of transport cost is studied together with the distribution of thermal energy. The same parameters are introduced into these programs. The same method is used for rate of flow calculations, but mathematical methods of pipe diameter calculation are different. Some transport and distribution networks are studied with the corresponding computed programs: 52 branches networks-27 terminations; 287 branches networks-148 terminations

  8. Infrastructure expenditures and costs. Practical guidelines to calculate total infrastructure costs for five modes of transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    Transport infrastructures in general, and the Trans European Transport Network (TEN-T) in particular, play an important role in achieving the medium and long-term objectives of the European Union. In view of this, the Commission has recently adopted a revision of the guidelines for the TEN-T. The main consequences of this revision are the need for a better understanding of the investments made by the member states in the TEN-T and the need for ensuring optimal consistency in the reporting by the Members States of such investments. With Regulation number 1108/70 the Council of the European Communities introduced an accounting system for expenditure on infrastructure in respect of transport by rail, road and inland waterways. The purpose of this regulation is to introduce a standard and permanent accounting system for infrastructure expenditures. However maritime and aviation infrastructure were not included. Further, the need for an effective and easy to apply classification for infrastructure investments concerning all five transport modes was still pending. Therefore, DG TREN has commissioned ECORYS Transport and CE Delft to study the expenditures and costs of infrastructure, to propose an adequate classification of expenditures, and to propose a method for translating data on expenditures into data on costs. The objectives of the present study are threefold: To set out a classification of infrastructure expenditures, in order to increase knowledge of expenditures related to transport infrastructures. This classification should support a better understanding of fixed and variable infrastructure costs; To detail the various components of such expenditures for five modes of transportation, which would enable the monitoring of infrastructure expenditures and costs; and to set up a methodology to move from annual series of expenditures to costs, including fixed and variable elements.

  9. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  10. Low Cost Aerial and Spatial Data, Transportation Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    MnDOT Office of Transportation System Management (OTSM) desires to reduce the cycle time for collecting road data updates from county sources and, opportunistically, capture additional data about road and ancillary uses, e.g. bicycle access. Specific...

  11. transportation cost minimization of a manufacturing firm using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study utilizes a Genetic Algorithm in solving the transportation problem of a beverage producing company in. Nigeria with a ... most important special linear programming problem in terms of ... problem using the concept of spanning trees.

  12. Transport costs component of retail prices of foodstuffs in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Kumasi markets have been studied. The commodities were transported from the hinterlands over distances ranging between 120 km (for plantain and cassava) to 220 km (for ...

  13. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Butler, J. [Butler (James), Tifton, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  14. Optimization of transport network in the Basin of Yangtze River with minimization of environmental emission and transport/investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Shi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the ship-lock at the Three Gorges Dam has become bottleneck of waterway transport and caused serious congestion. In this article, a continual network design model is established to solve the problem with minimizing the transport cost and environmental emission as well as infrastructure construction cost. In this bi-level model, the upper model gives the schemes of ship-lock expansion or construction of pass-dam highway. The lower model assigns the containers in the multi-mode network and calculates the transport cost, environmental emission, and construction investment. The solution algorithm to the model is proposed. In the numerical study, scenario analyses are done to evaluate the schemes and determine the optimal one in the context of different traffic demands. The result shows that expanding the ship-lock is better than constructing pass-dam highway.

  15. Bimacrocyclic concave N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs): synthesis, structure, and application in catalyses

    OpenAIRE

    Lüning , Ulrich; Winkelmann , Ole

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Imidazolinium moieties have been incorporated into bimacrocycles to generate precursors for concave N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Starting from 2-nitroresorcinol and alkenols, symmetric concave imidazolinium salts 1 were obtained. Bimacrocyclization was achieved via ring closing metathesis (RCM). In an analogous fashion, axially chiral concave imidazolinium salts 2 were obtained by using a naphthalene bridgehead devoid of local C2-symmetry. The concave NHCs derived from ...

  16. Real Costs of Transportation and Influence of Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Sustainability of transportation depends on both behavior and technology. Behavior determines how much of various activities are undertaken; technology determines whether they are harmful to the environment. Policies can influence both: they provide behavior incentives, and they affect technological choices and guide technological change.

  17. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teagan, W P; Bentley, J; Barnett, B [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R and D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under $150/kW in stationary applications and $30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories. (orig.)

  18. Sources and Transportation of Bulk, Low-Cost Lunar Simulant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has built the Lunar Surface Testbed using 200 tons of volcanic cinder and ash from the same source used for the simulant series JSC-1. This Technical Memorandum examines the alternatives examined for transportation and source. The cost of low-cost lunar simulant is driven by the cost of transportation, which is controlled by distance and, to a lesser extent, quantity. Metabasalts in the eastern United States were evaluated due to their proximity to MSFC. Volcanic cinder deposits in New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona were recognized as preferred sources. In addition to having fewer green, secondary minerals, they contain vesicular glass, both of which are desirable. Transportation costs were more than 90% of the total procurement costs for the simulant material.

  19. Monotonicity and Logarithmic Concavity of Two Functions Involving Exponential Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Qi; Li, Guo-Fu; Guo, Bai-Ni; Qi, Feng

    2008-01-01

    The function 1 divided by "x"[superscript 2] minus "e"[superscript"-x"] divided by (1 minus "e"[superscript"-x"])[superscript 2] for "x" greater than 0 is proved to be strictly decreasing. As an application of this monotonicity, the logarithmic concavity of the function "t" divided by "e"[superscript "at"] minus "e"[superscript"(a-1)""t"] for "a"…

  20. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1994-09-01

    This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

  1. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  2. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  3. Field arrangement and dosimetry verification for concave target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Huankun; Li Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a method of radiotherapy field arrangement for concave paraspinal target. Methods: Plan was designed for concave target in wax phantom and the selected patients by the guidance of beam eye view (BEV) provided by a 3D treatment planning system (CREAT EXPERT). In BEV, the inner border of all tangential fields was 2 mm out of the organ at risk (OAR) and the outer border was 5 mm beyond the target. Dosimetry films and ion chamber were used to verify the dose distribution and point dose in the wax phantom. Results: Dose distribution in phantom and patient was homogeneous. The mean dose of OAR in phantom did not exceed 16% of the prescribed dose. Isodose curves dropped more than 8% per mm between the target and OAR in the phantom. Film dosimetry coincided well with the calculated results. Position error in high dose region was with- in 4 mm and absolute dose errors were no more than 5%. Conclusion: Tangential field arrangement is valuable and practical in radiotherapy for concave paraspinal targets. (authors)

  4. STRONG ORACLE OPTIMALITY OF FOLDED CONCAVE PENALIZED ESTIMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Xue, Lingzhou; Zou, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Folded concave penalization methods have been shown to enjoy the strong oracle property for high-dimensional sparse estimation. However, a folded concave penalization problem usually has multiple local solutions and the oracle property is established only for one of the unknown local solutions. A challenging fundamental issue still remains that it is not clear whether the local optimum computed by a given optimization algorithm possesses those nice theoretical properties. To close this important theoretical gap in over a decade, we provide a unified theory to show explicitly how to obtain the oracle solution via the local linear approximation algorithm. For a folded concave penalized estimation problem, we show that as long as the problem is localizable and the oracle estimator is well behaved, we can obtain the oracle estimator by using the one-step local linear approximation. In addition, once the oracle estimator is obtained, the local linear approximation algorithm converges, namely it produces the same estimator in the next iteration. The general theory is demonstrated by using four classical sparse estimation problems, i.e., sparse linear regression, sparse logistic regression, sparse precision matrix estimation and sparse quantile regression.

  5. Cost Analysis of Water Transport for Climate Change Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaleniec, V.; Buytaert, W.

    2012-04-01

    It is expected that climate change will have a strong impact on water resources worldwide. Many studies exist that couple the output of global climate models with hydrological models to assess the impact of climate change on physical water availability. However, the water resources topology of many regions and especially that of cities can be very complex. Changes in physical water availability do therefore not translate easily into impacts on water resources for cities. This is especially the case for cities with a complex water supply topology, for instance because of geographical barriers, strong gradients in precipitation patterns, or competing water uses. In this study we explore the use of cost maps to enable the inclusion of water supply topologies in climate change impact studies. We use the city of Lima as a case study. Lima is the second largest desert city in the world. Although Peru as a whole has no water shortage, extreme gradients exist. Most of the economic activities including the city of Lima are located in the coastal desert. This region is geographically disconnected from the wet Amazon basin because of the Andes mountain range. Hence, water supply is precarious, provided by a complex combination of high mountain ecosystems including wetlands and glaciers, as well as groundwater aquifers depending on recharge from the mountains. We investigate the feasibility and costs of different water abstraction scenarios and the impact of climate change using cost functions for different resources. The option of building inter basins tunnels across the Andes is compared to the costs of desalinating seawater from the Pacific Ocean under different climate change scenarios and population growth scenarios. This approach yields recommendations for the most cost-effective options for the future.

  6. Transpirational drying and costs for transporting woody biomass - a preliminary review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce J. Stokes; Bryce J. McDonaStokes; Timothy P. McDonald; Tyrone Kelley

    1993-01-01

    High transport costs arc a factor to consider in the use of forest residues for fuel. Costs can be reduced by increasing haul capacities, reducing high moisture contents, and improving trucking efficiency. The literature for transpirational drying and the economics of hauling woody biomass is summarized here. Some additional, unpublished roundwood and chipdrying test...

  7. Cost Overruns in Large-scale Transportation Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarelli, Chantal C; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Molin, Eric J. E

    2010-01-01

    is also considered possible. Non-political explanations are diverse in character, therefore a range of different theories (including rational choice theory and prospect theory), depending on the kind of explanation is considered more appropriate than one all-embracing theory........ Overall, four categories of explanations can be distinguished: technical, economic, psychological, and political. Political explanations have been seen to be the most dominant explanations for cost overruns. Agency theory is considered the most interesting for political explanations and an eclectic theory...

  8. Preliminary assessment of costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by barge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, R.L.; Meshkov, N.K.; Jones, R.H.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the costs and risks associated with transporting spent fuel by barge. The barge movements would be made in combination with rail movements to transport spent fuel from plants to a repository. For the purpose of this analysis, three candidate repository sites are analyzed: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington. This report complements a report prepared by Sandia National Laboratories in 1984 that analyzes the costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by rail and by truck to nine candidate repository sites

  9. Cost optimization of a real-time GIS-based management system for hazardous waste transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhong, Yilong; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Che-Jen; Chen, Chunyi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the design and cost analysis of a real-time, geographical information system (GIS) based management system for hazardous waste transportation are described. The implementation of such a system can effectively prevent illegal dumping and perform emergency responses during the transportation of hazardous wastes. A case study was conducted in Guangzhou, China to build a small-scale, real-time management system for waste transportation. Two alternatives were evaluated in terms of system capability and cost structure. Alternative I was the building of a complete real-time monitoring and management system in a governing agency; whereas alternative II was the combination of the existing management framework with a commercial Telematics service to achieve the desired level of monitoring and management. The technological framework under consideration included locating transportation vehicles using a global positioning system (GPS), exchanging vehicle location data via the Internet and Intranet, managing hazardous waste transportation using a government management system and responding to emergencies during transportation. Analysis of the cost structure showed that alternative II lowered the capital and operation cost by 38 and 56% in comparison with alternative I. It is demonstrated that efficient management can be achieved through integration of the existing technological components with additional cost benefits being achieved by streamlined software interfacing.

  10. Transportation cost of nuclear off-peak power for hydrogen production based on water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Saburo; Ueno, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes transportation cost of the nuclear off-peak power for a hydrogen production based on water electrolysis in Japan. The power could be obtainable by substituting hydropower and/or fossil fueled power supplying peak and middle demands with nuclear power. The transportation cost of the off-peak power was evaluated to be 1.42 yen/kWh when an electrolyser receives the off-peak power from a 6kV distribution wire. Marked reduction of the cost was caused by the increase of the capacity factor. (author)

  11. Impact of Transport Zone Number in Simulation Models on Cost-Benefit Analysis Results in Transport Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, feasibility studies need to be prepared for all planned transport investments, mainly those co-financed with UE grants. One of the fundamental aspect of feasibility study is the economic justification of an investment, evaluated in an area of so called cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The main goal of CBA calculation is to prove that a transport investment is really important for the society and should be implemented as economically efficient one. It can be said that the number of hours (PH - passengers hours) in trips and travelled kilometres (PK - passengers kilometres) are the most important for CBA results. The differences between PH and PK calculated for particular investment scenarios are the base for benefits calculation. Typically, transport simulation models are the best source for such data. Transport simulation models are one of the most powerful tools for transport network planning. They make it possible to evaluate forecast traffic volume and passenger flows in a public transport system for defined scenarios of transport and area development. There are many different transport models. Their construction is often similar, and they mainly differ in the level of their accuracy. Even models for the same area may differ in this matter. Typically, such differences come from the accuracy of supply side representation: road and public transport network representation. In many cases only main roads and a public transport network are represented, while local and service roads are eliminated as a way of reality simplification. This also enables a faster and more effective calculation process. On the other hand, the description of demand part of these models based on transport zones is often stable. Difficulties with data collection, mainly data on land use, resulted in the lack of changes in the analysed land division into so called transport zones. In this paper the author presents an influence of land division on the results of traffic analyses, and hence

  12. A method for selection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation route considering socioeconomic cost based on contingent valuation method (CVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2008-02-01

    A transportation of SNF may cause an additional radiation exposure to human beings. It means that the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for the public who live near the shipments route. Before the SNF transportation is performed, the route selection is concluded based on the radiological risk estimated with RADTRAN code in existing method generally. It means the existing method for route selection is based only on the radiological health risk but there are not only the impacts related to the radiological health risk but also the socioeconomic impacts related to the cost. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection on transporting SNF is proposed based on cost estimation because there are several costs in transporting SNF. The total cost consists of radiological health cost, transportation cost, and socioeconomic cost. Each cost is defined properly to the characteristics of SNF transportation and many coefficients and variables describing the meaning of each cost are obtained or estimated through many surveys. Especially to get the socioeconomic cost, contingent valuation method (CVM) is used with a questionnaire. The socioeconomic cost estimation is the most important part of the total cost originated from transporting SNF because it is a very dominant cost in the total cost. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be supported with the proposed method reasonably and unnecessary or exhausting controversies about the shipments could be avoided

  13. A new methodology for modeling of direct landslide costs for transportation infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Terhorst, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    The world's transportation infrastructure is at risk of landslides in many areas across the globe. A safe and affordable operation of traffic routes are the two main criteria for transportation planning in landslide-prone areas. The right balancing of these often conflicting priorities requires, amongst others, profound knowledge of the direct costs of landslide damage. These costs include capital investments for landslide repair and mitigation as well as operational expenditures for first response and maintenance works. This contribution presents a new methodology for ex post assessment of direct landslide costs for transportation infrastructures. The methodology includes tools to compile, model, and extrapolate landslide losses on different spatial scales over time. A landslide susceptibility model enables regional cost extrapolation by means of a cost figure obtained from local cost compilation for representative case study areas. On local level, cost survey is closely linked with cost modeling, a toolset for cost estimation based on landslide databases. Cost modeling uses Landslide Disaster Management Process Models (LDMMs) and cost modules to simulate and monetize cost factors for certain types of landslide damage. The landslide susceptibility model provides a regional exposure index and updates the cost figure to a cost index which describes the costs per km of traffic route at risk of landslides. Both indexes enable the regionalization of local landslide losses. The methodology is applied and tested in a cost assessment for highways in the Lower Saxon Uplands, NW Germany, in the period 1980 to 2010. The basis of this research is a regional subset of a landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. In the 7,000 km² large Lower Saxon Uplands, 77 km of highway are located in potential landslide hazard area. Annual average costs of 52k per km of highway at risk of landslides are identified as cost index for a local case study area in this region. The

  14. The Costs of Container Transport Flow Between Far East and Serbia Using Different Liner Shipping Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovic Radoslav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping is the most efficient mode of transport for goods. International liner shipping is a sophisticated network of regularly scheduled services that transports goods from anywhere in the world to anywhere in the world at low cost and with greater energy efficiency than any other form of international transportation. Liner shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. Today, the liner shipping industry transports goods representing approximately one-third of the total value of global trade. Ocean shipping contributes significantly to international stability and security. Considering the large and constant struggle in the market in terms of competitive pricing of products, a very important and indispensable role represents the container transport with a clear task to define the final price of the product. This paper analyzes the costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia, using different liner shipping services, observing the six world’s largest container operators (Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Company, CMA CGM, Evergreen Line, China Ocean Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd and inland (truck-rail-river transport corridors. These corridors include distance between selected Mediterranean ports (Koper, Rijeka, Bar, Thessaloniki, Constanta and Serbia. As a result, in this paper is considered a mathematical model that provides a comparative analysis of transportation costs on the different routes. It is observed already existing transport routes and it is also given hypothetical review to the development of new transport routes. The main goal of this research is to provide an optimal route with lowest transportation cost during container transport. Selection of the best route in the intermodal network is a very difficult and complex task. The costs in all modes of transport and the quality of their services are not constant

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 16 (Cost-Benefit Analysis of Transportation Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the problems of evaluating transportation projects in the context of the less-developed countries. Emphasis will be placed on highway projects, because these account for the bulk of transport investments in the developing parts of the world. If a project passes a straight financial test, based on the present value of its cash inflows and outflows, projects would only come if this financial NPV were outweighed by the present value of the project’s various externali...

  16. A transport logistic and cost model for use in repository design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.S.; Manville, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd (Nirex) is responsible for developing a deep repository for the disposal of the United Kingdom's intermediate level waste and some low level waste. It also needs to be able to predict the total cost of the transport operations, and to compute the costs attributable to different combinations of sites and types of waste packages. This paper draws on work carried out as part of the assessment of Sellafield as a potential repository site, but will also show that many aspects of the transport system are independent of the actual repository location. To analyze the effects of all these possible scenarios and proposed operating practices on the costs and logistics of radioactive waste transport, Nirex commissioned the development of a flexible computer model from a software developer with the appropriate expertise. This paper describes how the LOGCOST model has been used to provide the information required for the repository design specification, and how it can readily be adapted to different potential repository locations and to changing requirements. In conclusion, it can be said that LOGCOST is a very effective transport and logistics model based on the Excel spread-sheet. The examples given have shown how LOGCOST can provide detailed predictions of radioactive waste transport costs, and how LOGCOST can be readily adapted to a new repository site or any other focal point for a transport network. (O.M.)

  17. Economic agglomerations and spatio-temporal cycles in a spatial growth model with capital transport cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem Neto, J. P.; Claeyssen, J. C. R.; Pôrto Júnior, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we introduce capital transport cost in a unidimensional spatial Solow-Swan model of economic growth with capital-induced labor migration, considered in an unbounded domain. Proceeding with a stability analysis, we show that there is a critical value for the capital transport cost where the dynamic behavior of the economy changes, provided that the intensity of capital-induced labor migration is strong enough. On the one hand, if the capital transport cost is higher than this critical value, the spatially homogeneous equilibrium of coexistence of the model is stable, and the economy converges to this spatially homogeneous state in the long run; on the other hand, if transport cost is lower than this critical value, the equilibrium is unstable, and the economy may develop different spatio-temporal dynamics, including the formation of stable economic agglomerations and spatio-temporal economic cycles, depending on the other parameters in the model. Finally, numerical simulations support the results of the stability analysis, and illustrate the spatio-temporal dynamics generated by the model, suggesting that the economy as a whole benefits from the formation of economic agglomerations and cycles, with a higher capital transport cost reducing this gain.

  18. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2003-07-31

    This report describes activities for the third quarter of work performed under this agreement. Atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on June 5 through June 13, 2003. The test results were encouraging, however, the rate of carbon dissolution was below expectations. Additional atmospheric testing is scheduled for the first week of September 2003. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product stream. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  19. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  20. The influence of lunar propellant production on the cost-effectiveness of cislunar transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that propellants produced at the points of destination such as the Moon or Mars will help the economy of space transportation, particularly if round trips with a crew are involved. The construction and operation of a lunar base shortly after the turn of the century is one of the space programs under serious consideration at the present time. Space transportation is one of the major cost drivers. With present technology, if expendable launchers were employed, the specific transportation costs of one-way cargo flights would be approximately 10,000 dollars/kg (1985) at life-cycle cumulative 100,000 ton payload to the lunar surface. A fully reusable space transportation system using lunar oxygen and Earth-produced liquid hydrogen (LH2) would reduce the specific transportation costs by one order of magnitude to less than 1000 dollars/kg at the same payload volume. Another case of primary interest is the delivery of construction material and consumables from the lunar surface to the assembly site of space solar power plants in geostationary orbit (GEO). If such a system were technically and economically feasible, a cumulative payload of about 1 million tons or more would be required. At this level a space freighter system could deliver this material from Earth for about 300 dollars/kg (1985) to GEO. A lunar space transportation system using lunar oxygen and a fuel mixture of 50 percent Al and 50 percent LH2 (that has to come from Earth) could reduce the specific transportation costs to less than half, approximately 150 dollars/kg. If only lunar oxygen were available, these costs would come down to 200 dollars/kg. This analysis indicates a sizable reduction of the transportation burden on this type of mission. It should not be overlooked, however, that there are several uncertainties in such calculations. It is quite difficult at this point to calculate the cost of lunar-produced O and/or Al. This will be a function of production rate and life

  1. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  2. Perceptions, Preferences, and Behavior Regarding Energy and Environmental Costs: The Case of Montreal Transport Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing travel-related fuel and environmental information to transport users is becoming increasingly relevant. However, the impact of providing such information on users’ travel behavior is yet to be determined. This research examined the perceptions and preferences related to the fuel consumption costs, greenhouse gas (GHG social costs, and health-related air pollution costs, and the influence such information could have on travel behavior. Examining the case of Montreal transport users, the authors conducted a survey in which the respondents were asked general and stated preference questions. The respondents were found to be unaware of the energy and environmental footprints of their travel. Approximately 85% of the respondents were not able to estimate GHG social costs and health-related air pollution costs across different modes. The respondents generally overestimated these costs and they interestingly reported higher environmental costs for public transport (metro compared to cars. They also preferred to receive such information in monetary units, and they were more comfortable in receiving the information through mobile applications over other tools/means. The research also found that fuel and environmental information influence respondents’ travel decisions especially their route choices. Finally, the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 7 Canadian dollars/month in exchange for obtaining the information.

  3. An assessment of the transportation costs of shipping non-fuel assembly hardware to FWMS facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Danese, F.L.; Best, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the cost of using Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Initiative I casks for transporting 62,700 MTU of spent fuel plus associated non-fuel assembly hardware (NFAH) between reactor sites and either a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) or a repository facility. The study further considers the benefits of increasing the cell size of the Initiative I BWR cask baskets to accommodate the fuel plus channels (which also would decrease the capacity of the cask to carry BWR fuel without channels) and the use of a commercial, non-spent-fuel cask to carry compacted NFAH that could not be shipped integrally. Costs that are developed involve transportation charges, capital costs for casks, and canning costs of NFAH that have been separated from the fuel. The results indicate that significant cost savings are possible if NFAH is accepted into the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) that is either integral with the spent fuel, or consolidated if it has been separated. Shipment of unconsolidated NFAH is very expensive. Transportation costs for shipping to a western repository are approximately 50 to 75% higher than the costs for shipping to an eastern MRS

  4. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  5. Costs and benefits of employment transportation for low-wage workers: an assessment of job access public transportation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuriah Vonu, Piyushimita; Persky, Joseph; Soot, Siim; Sriraj, P S

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of public transportation-based employment transportation (ET) services to transport low-wage workers to jobs in the US. We make an attempt to capture a more comprehensive range of intended and unintended outcomes of ET services than those traditionally considered in the case of public transportation services. Using primary data from 23 locations across the country, we present a framework to evaluate how transportation improvements, in interaction with labor markets, can affect users' short-run economic welfare, users' long-run human capital accumulation and non-users' short-run economic welfare. These services were partially funded by a specialized program - the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program - which was consolidated into larger transit funding programs by recent legislation. In the sites examined, we found that low wage users benefited from self-reported increased access to jobs, improvements in earnings potential, as well as from savings in transport cost and time. Simulations show the potential of users to accrue long-term worklife benefits. At the same time, users may have accrued changes in leisure time as a result of transitioning from unemployment to employment, and generated a range of societal impacts on three classes of non-users: the general tax-paying public, the general commuting public in the service operating area and other low-wage workers in local labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing transport costs and improving sustainability simultaneously through horizontal logistics collaboration: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lier, Tom; Macharis, Cathy; Caris, An; Vrenken, Huub

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the potential of a more systematic bundling of the outbound freight flows out of three neighboring distribution centers (DCs) of the same company, each specialized in a specific product category and each using a separate planning system, is investigated. Most of the outbound flows are currently still transported by truck, so one way to simultaneously achieve lower transport costs and more sustainable logistics is through supply chain collaboration in outbound logistics. This pap...

  7. The emergence of rural transport strategies in response to rising fuel costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Dana; Pearlmutter, David; Schwartz, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Rising and sometimes volatile fuel prices pose a challenge for rural organizations reliant on long distance transport. To understand the coping mechanisms used by such organizations, we survey rural business strategies in Israel, where fuel prices are high and urban development is concentrated in the country's geographic center. The businesses surveyed are operated by kibbutzim, historically collective communities that are now in various stages of privatization. Analysis of the ‘transport strategies’ employed by nearly 100 organizations in three regions of varying remoteness and isolation shows that firms rely on distinct strategies such as localization and high value density. Localization was found to be prevalent in all regions, as it requires little capital investment. Strategies exploiting high value density, including information-based services, were prevalent in remote and isolated regions where sensitivity to transport costs is acute. Non-remote firms were less inclined toward strategic adaptation, preferring non-disruptive changes such as cheaper shipping modes. The development implications of these transport strategies are consistent with rural economic trends observed throughout the developed world. If transport costs continue to rise, rural firms may shrink the radius of their sales and labor pools, or search for more lucrative products to reduce their relative transport costs. - Highlights: ► We survey transport strategies used by rural businesses in Israeli kibbutzim. ► The seven distinct strategies identified include localization and value density. ► Localization is used in all regions and value density in remote and isolated regions. ► Development implications are consistent with economic trends in other rural regions. ► Rural firms will likely respond to high fuel costs by strategic transport adaptation.

  8. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  9. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations

  10. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  11. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles is limited for some types. A mathematical programming model in the form of the discrete nonlinear optimization model is proposed. A hybrid dynamic programming algorithm is developed for finding the optimal solution. To increase the computational efficiency of the solution algorithm, several concepts and routines, such as the imbedded state routine, surrogate constraint concept, and bounding schemes, are incorporated in the dynamic programming algorithm. A real world case problem is selected and solved by the proposed solution algorithm, and the optimal solution is obtained.

  12. Comparison of high-speed transportation systems in special consideration of investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schach

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a substantial comparison of different high-speed transportation systems and an approach to stochastic cost estimations are provided. Starting from the developments in Europe, the high-speed traffic technical characteristics of high-speed railways and Maglev systems are compared. But for a comprehensive comparison more criterions must be included and led to a wider consideration and the development of a multi-criteria comparison of high-speed transportation systems. In the second part a stochastic approach to cost estimations of infrastructure projects is encouraged. Its advantages in comparison with the traditional proceeding are presented and exemplify the practical implementation.

  13. Directable weathering of concave rock using curvature estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael D; Farley, McKay; Butler, Joseph; Beardall, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of directable weathering of exposed concave rock for use in computer-generated animation or games. Previous weathering models that admit concave surfaces are computationally inefficient and difficult to control. In nature, the spheroidal and cavernous weathering rates depend on the surface curvature. Spheroidal weathering is fastest in areas with large positive mean curvature and cavernous weathering is fastest in areas with large negative mean curvature. We simulate both processes using an approximation of mean curvature on a voxel grid. Both weathering rates are also influenced by rock durability. The user controls rock durability by editing a durability graph before and during weathering simulation. Simulations of rockfall and colluvium deposition further improve realism. The profile of the final weathered rock matches the shape of the durability graph up to the effects of weathering and colluvium deposition. We demonstrate the top-down directability and visual plausibility of the resulting model through a series of screenshots and rendered images. The results include the weathering of a cube into a sphere and of a sheltered inside corner into a cavern as predicted by the underlying geomorphological models.

  14. Apparatus including concave reflectors and a line of optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus including a radiation source which emits in a multiplicity of directions for focusing radiation on an object which may receive radiation within a certain solid angle. It comprises a first reflector and a second reflector, the first reflector being elliptical in cross section and having a first focus and a second focus, the second reflector being circular in cross section and having a center, and a radius equal to the distance between the second reflector and the first focus, the first reflector and the second reflector being arranged so that a concave reflecting surface of the first reflector faces a concave reflecting surface of the second reflector, and so arranged that the first focus of the first reflector corresponds to the center of the second reflector, the radiation source being an elongated discharge bulb, the object being a group of two or more optical fibers defining at least one line of optical fibers which are located at the second focus of the first reflector

  15. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel costs are a significant component of a public transport fare. It is therefore of critical importance for measures aimed at containing household public transport expenditure to explore alternative ways of reducing fuel consumption or fuel...

  16. Development of a Computer Program (CASK) for the Analysis of Logistics and Transportation Cost of the Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Cho, Dong-Keun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lee, Jong-Youl; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-07-01

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The CASK(Cost and logistics Analysis program for Spent fuel transportation in Korea) program is developed to analyze logistics and transportation cost of the spent fuels. And the total amount of PWR spent fuels stored in four nuclear plant sites, a centralized interim storage facility near coast and a permanent disposal facility near the interim storage facility are considered in this program. The CASK program is developed by using Visual Basic language and coupled with an excel sheet. The excel sheet shows a change of logistics and transportation cost. Also transportation unit cost is easily changed in the excel sheet. The scopes of the report are explanation of parameters in the CASK program and a preliminary calculation. We have developed the CASK version 1.0 so far, and will update its parameters in transportation cost and transportation scenario. Also, we will incorporate it into the program which is used for the projection of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants. Finally, it is expected that the CASK program could be a part of the cost estimation tools which are under development at KAERI. And this program will be a very useful tool for the establishment of transportation scenario and transportation cost in Korean situations

  17. Long Distance Bioenergy Logistics: An assessment of costs and energy consumption for various biomass transport chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study gives an analysis of costs and energy consumption, associated with long distance bioenergy transport systems. In order to create the possibility of obtaining an insight in the system’s key factors, a model has been developed, taking into account different production systems,

  18. Relating cost-benefit analysis results with transport project decisions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Jan Anne; Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Koopmans, Carl; Kroesen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results of transportation policy proposals in the Netherlands with the decision to implement or abandon the proposal. The aim of this study is to explore the relation between the CBA results and decision-making. Multinomial logit regression models

  19. Relating cost-benefit analysis results with transport project decisions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Frenken, Koen; Koopmans, Carl; Kroesen, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results of transportation policy proposals in the Netherlands with the decision to implement or abandon the proposal. The aim of this study is to explore the relation between the CBA results and decision-making. Multinomial logit regression

  20. Improving the problem analysis in cost-benefit analysis for transport projects : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Mouter, N.

    2013-01-01

    Key actors (consultants, scientists and policy makers) in the Netherlands transport policy cost-benefit analysis (CBA) practice consider ‘problem analysis’ to be one of the important CBA substantive problems. Their idea is that a good-quality problem analysis can help to identify proper solutions,

  1. Intelligent transport systems deployment in Thessaloniki: Assessment of costs and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsakis Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation projects often require large initial investments and are expected to generate benefits extending far into the future. Thus, there is a need to compare benefits and costs that occur at different periods over time. Since money has a time value, the same amount of money at different time periods does not have the same value. Therefore, it is important to convert costs and benefits into equivalent values when conducting a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA. A special category of transportation projects is that of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS. ITS comprise innovative solutions for travel demand and traffic management, and it is expected to play a key role in future sustainable urban development plans. Compared to other transportation projects, ITS have a lower initial investment. In this paper a framework based on a CBA is presented, assessing costs and benefits of three ITS projects implemented in Thessaloniki, Greece. The paper refers to future developments of ITS in the city of Thessaloniki. The examined systems have already been developed as demonstration systems in various regions throughout Europe. The benefits of the systems have been transferred and scaled up, so as to be in line with the specific characteristics of the Greek environment.

  2. Costs for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelina, M.E.; Arsent'ev, S.V.; Molchanov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the method of calculation of rates for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials, which can minimize the insurer's costs for this type of insurance in situation when there is no statistics available and it is not possible to calculate the insurance rate by the traditional means using the probability theory

  3. Cost-effective strategy to mitigate transportation disruptions in supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertzeth, G.; Pujawan, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    Supply chain disruptions have gained significant attention by scholars. But, even though transportation plays a central role in supply chain, only few studies address transportation disruptions. This research demonstrates a real case of an order delivery process from a focal company (FC) to a single distributor, where transportation disruptions stochastically occurs. Considering the possibility of sales loss during the disruption duration, we proposed a redundant stock, flexible route, and combined flexibility-redundancy (ReFlex) as mitigation strategies and a base case as a risk acceptance strategy. The objective is to find out the best strategy that promotes cost-effectiveness against transportation disruptions. To fulfill this objective, we use simulation modeling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) as our research method. We simulate the delivery process of 5 brands using each strategy to produce two different responses: loss of sales percentage and the incurred costs. Next, using these responses, we evaluate and compare the cost-effectiveness ratio of each strategy using CEA. We found that redundant stock gave the best effectiveness on all brands, ReFlex as the second best, while flexible route gave the least effectiveness. Finally, we recommend which strategy should be applied based on the decision maker willingness to pay.

  4. Short-term responses of Dutch vacationers to a sharp increase in transport costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates vacationers’ short-term responses to a sharp increase in transport costs. It aims to (1) acquire an understanding of the relative popularity of the different types of responses among vacationers and (2) explore whether there are distinct market segments of vacationers that

  5. The implementation of the Quality Costs Methodology in the Public Transport Enterprise in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of TQM (Total Quality Management strategy in the public transport enterprises in Macedonia means improving the quality of services through examination of business processes not just in terms of defining, improvement and design of the process, but also improvement of productivity and optimization of the costs of quality. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of determining the quality of the transport services, its methods, and techniques for measurement of the optimization of business processes in particular. The analysis of the quality costs when providing transport services can help managers to understand the impact of poor quality on the financial results and the bad image it gives to the enterprise. In this study, we proposed and applied the model for better performance and higher efficiency of the transport enterprise, through the optimization of business processes, change in the corporate culture and use of the complete business potentials. The need for this methodology was imposed as a result of the analysis made in the company in terms of whether is it doing an analysis on the costs of quality or not. The benefits from the utilization of this model will not only lead to increasing the business performance of the transport enterprise, but this model will also serve as a driving force for continuous improvements to the satisfaction of all stakeholders.

  6. Electric power transport costs - methodologies analysis; Custos de transporte de energia eletrica: analise de metodologias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahata, Dario

    1997-07-01

    The dissertation presents the aspects related to the restructuring of power systems in terms of international experiences, and the possible implications for the definition of the new power system in Brazil. The experience shows that the reform in various countries has started from the sector deverticalization, together with the transmissions open access scheme. The retrospect of researched countries indicates that the transmissions remuneration is based on a methodology that recovers the operative cost of transmission transactions, along with an additional amount that take into account the cost of the existing transmission system. The following countries have been analyzed: Chile, Norway, England and Argentina. This work also shows the current situation in Brazil, as in terms of tariffs, as regarding the power system organizational structure, as well as a preliminary proposal conceived by SINTREL (National System of Electrical Energy Transmission) to evaluate the transmission transaction cost. This dissertation ended with comments and conclusions, depicting a future program which might be followed, considering the aspects quoted above and the peculiarities of brazilian power system. (author)

  7. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...... convertingdeterministic benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) into stochasticinterval results. A new data collection (2009–2013) forms the empirical basis for any risk simulation embeddedwithin the so-calledUP database (UNITE project database),revealing the inaccuracy of both construction costs and demandforecasts. Accordingly...

  8. Issues connected with indirect cost quantification: a focus on the transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivánková, Zuzana; Bíl, Michal; Kubeček, Jan; Vodák, Rostislav

    2017-04-01

    Transportation and communication networks in general are vital parts of modern society. The economy relies heavily on transportation system performance. A number of people commutes to work regularly. Stockpiles in many companies are being reduced as the just-in-time production process is able to supply resources via the transportation network on time. Natural hazards have the potential to disturb transportation systems. Earthquakes, flooding or landsliding are examples of high-energetic processes which are capable of causing direct losses (i.e. physical damage to the infrastructure). We have focused on quantification of the indirect cost of natural hazards which are not easy to estimate. Indirect losses can also emerge as a result of meteorological hazards with low energy which only seldom cause direct losses, e.g. glaze, snowfall. Whereas evidence of repair work and general direct costs usually exist or can be estimated, indirect costs are much more difficult to identify particularly when they are not covered by insurance agencies. Delimitations of alternative routes (detours) are the most frequent responses to blocked road links. Indirect costs can then be related to increased fuel consumption and additional operating costs. Detours usually result in prolonged travel times. Indirect costs quantification has to therefore cover the value of the time. The costs from the delay are a nonlinear function of travel time, however. The existence of an alternative transportation pattern may also result in an increased number of traffic crashes. This topic has not been studied in depth but an increase in traffic crashes has been reported when people suddenly changed their traffic modes, e.g. when air traffic was not possible. The lost user benefit from those trips that were cancelled or suppressed is also difficult to quantify. Several approaches, based on post-event questioner surveys, have been applied to communities and companies affected by transportation accessibility

  9. Measuring the environmental benefits of hydrogen transportation fuel cycles under uncertainty about external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ('oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine') in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ('natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell'). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove this ambiguity highlighting that the hydrogen pathway provides significant environmental benefits ,especially in densely populated areas, assuming 100% city driving.

  10. A Compensatory Approach to Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with Fuzzy Cost Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gonce Kocken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem that has fuzzy cost coefficients. In the solution procedure, many objectives may conflict with each other; therefore decision-making process becomes complicated. And also due to the fuzziness in the costs, this problem has a nonlinear structure. In this paper, fuzziness in the objective functions is handled with a fuzzy programming technique in the sense of multiobjective approach. And then we present a compensatory approach to solve Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with fuzzy cost coefficients by using Werner's and operator. Our approach generates compromise solutions which are both compensatory and Pareto optimal. A numerical example has been provided to illustrate the problem.

  11. Double concave cesium encapsulation by two charged sumanenyl bowls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spisak, Sarah N.; Wei, Zheng; Petrukhina, Marina A. [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Rogachev, Andrey Yu. [Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Amaya, Toru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Hirao, Toshikazu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan)

    2017-03-01

    The controlled reaction of Na and Cs, two alkali metals of different ionic sizes and binding abilities, with sumanene (C{sub 21}H{sub 12}) affords a novel type of organometallic sandwich [Cs(C{sub 21}H{sub 11}{sup -}){sub 2}]{sup -}, which crystallized as a solvent-separated ion pair with a [Na(18-crown-6)(THF){sub 2}]{sup +} cation (where THF=tetrahydrofuran). The unprecedented double concave encapsulation of a metal ion by two bowl-shaped sumanenyl anions in [Cs(C{sub 21}H{sub 11}{sup -}){sub 2}]{sup -} was revealed crystallographically. Evaluation of bonding and energetics of the remarkable product was accomplished computationally (B2PLYP-D/TZVP/ZORA), providing insights into its formation. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Polarization of concave domains by traveling wave pinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Bialecki

    Full Text Available Pattern formation is one of the most fundamental yet puzzling phenomena in physics and biology. We propose that traveling front pinning into concave portions of the boundary of 3-dimensional domains can serve as a generic gradient-maintaining mechanism. Such a mechanism of domain polarization arises even for scalar bistable reaction-diffusion equations, and, depending on geometry, a number of stationary fronts may be formed leading to complex spatial patterns. The main advantage of the pinning mechanism, with respect to the Turing bifurcation, is that it allows for maintaining gradients in the specific regions of the domain. By linking the instant domain shape with the spatial pattern, the mechanism can be responsible for cellular polarization and differentiation.

  13. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  14. Transient river response, captured by channel steepness and its concavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Govers, Gerard; Molina, Armando; Campforts, Benjamin; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain rivers draining tropical regions are known to be great conveyor belts carrying efficiently more than half of the global sediment flux to the oceans. Many tropical mountain areas are located in tectonically active belts where the hillslope and stream channel morphology are rapidly evolving in response to changes in base level. Here, we report basin-wide denudation rates for an east-west transect through the tropical Andes. Hillslope and channel morphology vary systematically from east to west, reflecting the transition from high relief, strongly dissected topography in the escarpment zones into relatively low relief topography in the inter-Andean valley. The spatial pattern of differential denudation rates reflects the transient adjustment of the landscape to rapid river incision following tectonic uplift and river diversion. In the inter-Andean valley, upstream of the wave of incision, slopes and river channels display a relatively smooth, concave-up morphology and denudation rates (time scale of 104-105 a) are consistently low (3 to 200 mm/ka). In contrast, slopes and river channels of rejuvenated basins draining the eastern cordillera are steep to very steep; and the studied drainage basins show a wide range of denudation rate values (60 to 400 mm/ka) that increase systematically with increasing basin mean slope gradient, channel steepness, and channel convexity. Drainage basins that are characterised by strong convexities in their river longitudinal profiles systematically have higher denudation rates. As such, this is one of the first studies that provides field-based evidence of a correlation between channel concavity and basin mean denudation rates, consistent with process-based fluvial incision models.

  15. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  16. Fabricating small-scale, curved, polymeric structures with convex and concave menisci through interfacial free energy equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chao-Min; Matsuura, Koji; Wang, I-Jan; Kuroda, Yuka; LeDuc, Philip R; Naruse, Keiji

    2009-11-21

    Polymeric curved structures are widely used in imaging systems including optical fibers and microfluidic channels. Here, we demonstrate that small-scale, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based, curved structures can be fabricated through controlling interfacial free energy equilibrium. Resultant structures have a smooth, symmetric, curved surface, and may be convex or concave in form based on surface tension balance. Their curvatures are controlled by surface characteristics (i.e., hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) of the molds and semi-liquid PDMS. In addition, these structures are shown to be biocompatible for cell culture. Our system provides a simple, efficient and economical method for generating integrateable optical components without costly fabrication facilities.

  17. An analysis of travel costs on transport of load and nest building in golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Rogerio F.; Ades, Cesar

    2002-03-28

    We investigated the effects of travel costs on transporting nest material and nest-building activity in golden hamsters. Nest-deprived animals were submitted to run alleys 30, 90 and 180 cm long to access a source containing paper strips as nest material (Experiment 1) or were submitted to the same travel costs in 24-h experimental sessions (Experiment 2). We noted that increased travel costs were related to a decreased number of trips to the source, larger amounts (cm(2)) of nest material transported per trip (although total loads also decreased in longer alleys), longer intervals between trips, and increased time spent at the source and in nest building activity. Foraging efficiency (i.e. size of load divided by the time spent at the source) decreased as a function of travel costs, and animals transported their loads in two fundamental ways: in 30-cm alleys, they simply used their mouth to pull the paper strips, but in 90- or 180-cm alleys they transported the loads in their cheek pouches. The animals were faster when returning to the home-cage and their running speed (cm/s) increased as a function of the length of the alley, showing that animals are under different environmental pressures when searching for resources and subsequently running back with the load to the nest. Both male and female subjects were sensitive to travel costs, but males engaged in nest building activity more promptly and exhibited higher mean performances in most measures. We conclude that nest material is a good reinforcer, and our major results are in accordance with the predictions of microeconomic and optimal foraging theories.

  18. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.55 - Who pays for transportation and other costs associated with a donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation and other costs associated with a donation? 102-37.55 Section 102-37.55 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.55 Who pays for transportation and other costs associated with a donation? The receiving...

  20. A versatile curve-fit model for linear to deeply concave rank abundance curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    A new, flexible curve-fit model for linear to concave rank abundance curves was conceptualized and validated using observational data. The model links the geometric-series model and log-series model and can also fit deeply concave rank abundance curves. The model is based ¿ in an unconventional way

  1. A logistic and cost model for the transport of radioactive waste to a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.L.; Gray, I.L.S.; Manville, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is planning a deep repository for intermediate level radioactive waste, and also some low level waste. Part of this work is to develop a transport system to bring the packaged waste to the repository from nuclear industry sites across the United Kingdom. To assess the logistics and costs of this transport system and to provide inputs to the repository specification and design, Nirex has commissioned the development of a flexible computer model which can be used on a desktop PC. The requirements for the LOGCOST model are explained, and the solutions adopted, and then examples shown of the graphical and tabular outputs that LOGCOST can provide. (Author)

  2. Gasoline Prices, Transport Costs, and the U.S. Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Yilmazkuday

    2014-01-01

    The e¡èects of gasoline prices on the U.S. business cycles are investigated. In order to distinguish between gasoline supply and gasoline demand shocks, the price of gasoline is endogenously determined through a transportation sector that uses gasoline as an input of production. The model is estimated for the U.S. economy using five macroeconomic time series, including data on transport costs and gasoline prices. The results show that although standard shocks in the literature (e.g., technolo...

  3. Concave distal end of ulna metaphysis alone is not a sign of rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Statements have been made in the literature and in legal testimony that misrepresent the radiographic finding of concave distal end of the ulnar metaphysis. To demonstrate that a concave distal end of the ossified ulna in infancy can be normal. Eighty distal wrists of randomly selected infants in the first year of life with radiographic evidence that ruled out rickets were reviewed. In 16 of the cases (20%), mild or moderate concavity of the distal end of the ulna was seen. An intact metaphyseal collar of distal radius or ulna confirmed the absence of radiographic rickets. The finding of 20% of concave distal ulnas in the first year of life confirms the widely acknowledged statements that concave distal end of the ulna alone is not indicative of rickets. Statements to the contrary are not justified. (orig.)

  4. Concave distal end of ulna metaphysis alone is not a sign of rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Statements have been made in the literature and in legal testimony that misrepresent the radiographic finding of concave distal end of the ulnar metaphysis. To demonstrate that a concave distal end of the ossified ulna in infancy can be normal. Eighty distal wrists of randomly selected infants in the first year of life with radiographic evidence that ruled out rickets were reviewed. In 16 of the cases (20%), mild or moderate concavity of the distal end of the ulna was seen. An intact metaphyseal collar of distal radius or ulna confirmed the absence of radiographic rickets. The finding of 20% of concave distal ulnas in the first year of life confirms the widely acknowledged statements that concave distal end of the ulna alone is not indicative of rickets. Statements to the contrary are not justified. (orig.)

  5. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  6. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P J

    1997-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  7. Indirect Transportation Cost in the border crossing process: The United States–Mexico trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Obed Figueroa Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a Social Accounting Matrix as database, a Computable General Equilibrium model is implemented in order to estimate the Indirect Transportations Costs (ITC present in the border crossing for the U.S.–Mexico bilateral trade. Here, an “iceberg–type” transportation function is assumed to determine the amount of loss that must be faced as a result of border crossing process through the ports of entry existing between the two countries. The study period covers annual data from 1995 to 2009 allowing the analysis of the trend of these costs considering the trade liberalisation that is experienced. Results show that the ITC have experienced a decrease of 12% during the period.Test

  8. Freight railway transport: Critical variables to improve the transport applied to infrastructure costs and its associated traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakowska, L.; Pulawska-Obiedowska, S.

    2016-07-01

    The developed societies have as challenge, among others, to achieve a mobility development based on economic models of low carbon and energy efficient, making it accessible to the entire population. In this context, the sustainable mobility seems to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, minimizing their negative impact. There are three factors that are relevant: (1) infrastructures; (2) modes of transport more ecological and safe, and (3) operations and services for passengers and freights.The objective of this research is to provide guidance to investment in sustainable transport infrastructures that are truly useful and effective. In particular we have studied the case of the railway, using the following information: details of the infrastructure; cost of construction (per kilometre); maintenance cost, and life cycle. This information may be relevant to consider their possible business models.The methodology of this research was focused in the detailed analysis of the infrastructure use and maintenance criteria, the market opportunities for freight development and the available data to validate the obtained results from the software tool reached in this work. Our research includes the different following aspects:• Evaluation of the supported traffic by the rail line.• Relevant items to be considered in the rail infrastructure. Defining the track, we can group items in two sets: civil and rail installations.• Rolling stock available. Locomotives and wagons are modelled to introduce the data as convenience for the user.Besides our research includes the development of software, Decision System Tool (DST), for studying the construction and maintenance cost of railway infrastructure. It is developed in a common and open source program, providing the user the interaction with the critical variable of the line. It has been adjusted using the following references: MOM PlanCargorail; EcoTransIT, and Projects funded by Framework Program of EU (New

  9. Allocation of Transportation Cost & CO2 Emission in Pooled Supply Chains Using Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaozhou Xu; Shenle Pan; Eric Ballot

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The sustainability of supply chain,both economical and ecological, has attracted intensive attentions of academic and industry. It is proven in former works that supply chain pooling given by horizontal cooperation among several independent supply chains create a new common supply chain network that could reduce the costs and the transport CO2 emissions. In this regard, this paper introduces a scheme to share in a fairly manner the savings. After a summary of the conce...

  10. Influence of transportation cost on long-term retention in clinic for HIV patients in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah, Leonard A; Turenne, Franck V; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Delva, Guesly; Mesidor, Romaine N; Dessaigne, Camille G; Previl, Harold; Patel, Devang; Edozien, Anthony; Redfield, Robert R; Amoroso, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    With improved access to antiretroviral therapy in resource-constrained settings, long-term retention in HIV clinics has become an important means of reducing costs and improving outcomes. Published data on retention in HIV clinics beyond 24 months are, however, limited. In our clinic in rural Haiti, we hypothesized that individuals residing in locations with higher transportation costs to clinic would have poorer retention than those who had lower costs. We used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate potential predictors of HIV clinic retention. Patient information was abstracted from the electronic medical records. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of 4-year clinic retention. There were 410 patients in our cohort, 266 (64.9%) females and 144 (35.1%) males. Forty-five (11%) patients lived in locations with transportation costs >$2. Males were 1.5 times more likely to live in municipalities with transportation costs to clinic of >$2. Multivariate analysis suggested that age transportation cost were independent predictors of loss to follow-up (LTFU): risk ratio of 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73 to 4.96, P transportation costs greater than $2 were 1.9 times more likely to be lost to care compared with those who paid less for transportation. HIV treatment programs in resource-constrained settings may need to pay closer attention to issues related to transportation cost to improve patient retention.

  11. Simplified radio-over-fiber transport systems with a low-cost multiband light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Hung; Peng, Peng-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Shih, Chine-Liang; Chen, Hwan-Wen

    2010-12-01

    In this Letter, low-cost radio-over-fiber (ROF) transport systems are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By utilizing a laser diode (LD) and a local oscillator (LO) to generate coherent multiband optical carriers, as well as a self-composed wavelength selector to separate every two carriers for different ROF transport systems, no any other dedicated LD or electrical frequency upconverting circuit/process is needed in the central station (CS). Compared with current ROF systems, the required numbers of LDs, LOs, and mixers in a CS are significantly reduced. Reducing the number of components not only can simplify the network structure but can also reduce the volume and complexity of the relative logistics. To demonstrate the practice of the proposed ROF transport systems, clear eye diagrams and error-free transmission performance are experimentally presented.

  12. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  13. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke de Bod

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  14. An approach using Lagrangian/surrogate relaxation for lot-sizing with transportation costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Molina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study a distribution and lot-sizing problem that considers costs with transportation to a company warehouse as well as, inventory, production and setup costs. The logistic costs are associated with necessary containers to pack produced items. The company negotiates a long-term contract in which a fixed cost per period is associated with the transportation of the items. On the other hand, a limited number of containers are available with a lower cost than the average cost. If an occasional demand increase occurs, other containers can be utilized; however, their costs are higher. A mathematical model was proposed in the literature and solved using the Lagrangian heuristic. Here, the use of the Lagrangian/surrogate heuristic to solve the problem is evaluated. Moreover, an extension of the literature model is considered adding capacity constraints and allowing backlogging. Computational tests show that Lagrangian/surrogate heuristics are competitive, especially when the capacity constraints are tight.Neste trabalho estuda-se um problema de dimensionamento de lotes e distribuição que envolve além de custos de estoques, produção e preparação, custos de transportes para o armazém da empresa. Os custos logísticos estão associados aos contêineres necessários para empacotar os produtos produzidos. A empresa negocia um contrato de longo prazo onde um custo fixo por período é associado ao transporte dos itens, em contrapartida um limite de contêineres é disponibilizado com custo mais baixo que o custo padrão. Caso ocorra um aumento ocasional de demanda, novos contêineres podem ser utilizados, no entanto, seu custo é mais elevado. Um modelo matemático foi proposto na literatura e resolvido utilizando uma heurística Lagrangiana. No presente trabalho a resolução do problema por uma heurística Lagrangiana/surrogate é avaliada. Além disso, é considerada uma extensão do modelo da literatura adicionando

  15. Neutral buoyancy is optimal to minimize the cost of transport in horizontally swimming seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi; Aoki, Kagari; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Miller, Patrick J O

    2013-01-01

    Flying and terrestrial animals should spend energy to move while supporting their weight against gravity. On the other hand, supported by buoyancy, aquatic animals can minimize the energy cost for supporting their body weight and neutral buoyancy has been considered advantageous for aquatic animals. However, some studies suggested that aquatic animals might use non-neutral buoyancy for gliding and thereby save energy cost for locomotion. We manipulated the body density of seals using detachable weights and floats, and compared stroke efforts of horizontally swimming seals under natural conditions using animal-borne recorders. The results indicated that seals had smaller stroke efforts to swim a given speed when they were closer to neutral buoyancy. We conclude that neutral buoyancy is likely the best body density to minimize the cost of transport in horizontal swimming by seals.

  16. Are double trailers cost effective for transporting forest biomass on steep terrain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Zamora-Cristales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of forest biomass on steep terrain involves logistical challenges. Trucks with large single trailers are often unable to travel on forest roads due to their narrowness, tight curves, adverse grades and limited areas to turn around. A shorter trailer must be used but then transportation capacity is limited by the trailer volume due to the low bulk density of the processed biomass, particularly when the biomass is dry. With double trailers, transportation capacity can be limited by allowable legal weight based on axle number and spacing. We developed a simulation model that explores the economic feasibility of using double-trailer configurations to transport forest biomass to a bioenergy facility from the grinder at a landing or from a centralized yard in Washington, Oregon and California. Results show that double trailers can be a cost effective alternative to single trailers under limited conditions in Oregon and Washington, but they are not a competitive option in California due to the state's transportation regulations.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. Methods A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects' were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. Results The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M. This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104 and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M. The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability. Conclusion Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc. is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marjory; Haby, Michelle; Galvin, Leah; Swinburn, Boyd; Carter, Robert

    2009-09-14

    To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB) program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects') were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M). This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104) and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M). The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability. Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc.) is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.

  19. Hydrogen adsorption-mediated synthesis of concave Pt nanocubes and their enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bang-An; Du, Jia-Huan; Sheng, Tian; Tian, Na; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Li; Xu, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2016-06-01

    Concave nanocubes are enclosed by high-index facets and have negative curvature; they are expected to have enhanced reactivity, as compared to nanocubes with flat surfaces. Herein, we propose and demonstrate a new strategy for the synthesis of concave Pt nanocubes with {hk0} high-index facets, by using a hydrogen adsorption-mediated electrochemical square-wave potential method. It was found that Pt atoms prefer to deposit on edge sites rather than terrace sites on Pt surfaces with intensive hydrogen adsorption, resulting in the formation of concave structures. The as-prepared concave Pt nanocubes exhibit enhanced catalytic activity and stability towards oxidation of ethanol and formic acid in acidic solutions, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts.Concave nanocubes are enclosed by high-index facets and have negative curvature; they are expected to have enhanced reactivity, as compared to nanocubes with flat surfaces. Herein, we propose and demonstrate a new strategy for the synthesis of concave Pt nanocubes with {hk0} high-index facets, by using a hydrogen adsorption-mediated electrochemical square-wave potential method. It was found that Pt atoms prefer to deposit on edge sites rather than terrace sites on Pt surfaces with intensive hydrogen adsorption, resulting in the formation of concave structures. The as-prepared concave Pt nanocubes exhibit enhanced catalytic activity and stability towards oxidation of ethanol and formic acid in acidic solutions, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of DFT calculation, SEM images of concave Pt nanocubes, mass activity and stability characterization of the catalysts. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02349e

  20. Enhanced Absorption in Organic Thin-Films from Imprinted Concave Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, replicable method for imprinting concave nanostructures to be used as functional light-trapping nanostructures in organic thin-films is presented. Porous anodic alumina templates were fabricated both by anodization of thick Al foils and by anodization of submicrometer thin Al...... patterns and used for imprinting of spin coated photoresist on glass substrates. We have investigated semi-periodic and aperiodic imprinted large concave patterns fabricated from rigid masters after anodization of Al in H3PO4. We show that metal covered imprinted concaves show enhancement in absorption...

  1. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    OpenAIRE

    Mathai, Varghese; Govardhan, Raghuraman N.; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    2017-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a concave nose, there is hardly a splash and the cavity extent is greatly reduced. This may be explained by the fact that in the concave nosed case, the initial impact is between a confined air pock...

  2. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruccelli, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.petruccelli@unibas.it

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  3. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers’ preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger’s choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost. PMID:29746528

  4. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiying; Guan, Wei; Ma, Jihui

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers' preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger's choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost.

  5. Solving lot-sizing problem with quantity discount and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lai, Chun-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Owing to today's increasingly competitive market and ever-changing manufacturing environment, the inventory problem is becoming more complicated to solve. The incorporation of heuristics methods has become a new trend to tackle the complex problem in the past decade. This article considers a lot-sizing problem, and the objective is to minimise total costs, where the costs include ordering, holding, purchase and transportation costs, under the requirement that no inventory shortage is allowed in the system. We first formulate the lot-sizing problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) model. Next, an efficient genetic algorithm (GA) model is constructed for solving large-scale lot-sizing problems. An illustrative example with two cases in a touch panel manufacturer is used to illustrate the practicality of these models, and a sensitivity analysis is applied to understand the impact of the changes in parameters to the outcomes. The results demonstrate that both the MIP model and the GA model are effective and relatively accurate tools for determining the replenishment for touch panel manufacturing for multi-periods with quantity discount and batch transportation. The contributions of this article are to construct an MIP model to obtain an optimal solution when the problem is not too complicated itself and to present a GA model to find a near-optimal solution efficiently when the problem is complicated.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of safety measures applying to uranium hexafluoride transportation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Pages, P.; Auguin, B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of uranium hexafluoride transportation by truck and train. It consists of a probabilistic risk assessment of the potential hazards to the public that can arise from the traffice that will take place in France in 1990. The specificity of UF 6 is that it presents both chemical and radiological hazards. But, whatever the transported material, road traffic entails a risk of its own. Thus three kinds of risk are assessed for natural, depleted and enriched uranium hexafluoride. These assessments are the basis of a cost-effectiveness analysis which deals with such safety measures as using a protective overpack, avoiding populated area and escorting the trucks. The results presented here are based upon research supported by the C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). It is linked to a more general program of experiments and theoretical analyses on package safety and accidental releases for uranium hexafluoride. 7 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  7. DROUGHTS IN THE TIETÊ-PARANÁ WATERWAY: IMPACTS ON THE DIRECT, INDIRECT AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE TRANSPORTATION OF SOYBEAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Carlo Toloi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil's agricultural economy is growing and increasing productivity. Therefore, it has required transportation systems with high load capacity and lower transportation costs. However, with the drought in the Southeast region of Brazil, the waterway Tietê-Paraná closed since May 2014 generating a loss of more than 30 million last year. Thus, this study investigates the impacts on direct, indirect and hidden costs resulting from this change of route for soy transport. The methodology consists of an exploratory, descriptive and bibliographic research that seeks to raise the main costs. The results show that failing to ensure the production of soybeans by the Tiete-Parana waterway and using the highway transportation costs for waterway users are increased by US$ 37,760,146.86.

  8. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  9. Theoretical fringe profiles with crossed Babinet compensators in testing concave aspheric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Lancelot, J P

    1982-11-15

    This paper presents the theory for the use of crossed Babinet compensators in testing concave aspheric surfaces. Theoretical fringe profiles for a sphere and for an aspheric surface with primary aberration are shown. Advantages of this method are discussed.

  10. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas L; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T; Gleiss, Adrian C; Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-07-26

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag-and in turn, the cost of transport-by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function.

  11. 41 CFR 302-10.200 - What costs are allowable when a commercial carrier transports my mobile home overland or over water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when a commercial carrier transports my mobile home overland or over water? 302-10.200 Section 302-10... carrier transports my mobile home overland or over water? Your agency will allow the following costs for... State or local law. (b) When transporting over water cost must include, but not limited to the cost of...

  12. Controlled synthesis of concave tetrahedral palladium nanocrystals by reducing Pd(acac)2 with carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hai; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Li, Chunya; Tang, Heqing; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. CO flow rate was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. Highlights: ► By using CO as a reducing agent, concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were obtained. ► CO flow rate is critical to the formation of concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals. ► The selective adsorption of CO on (1 1 0) facets is essential to concave Pd tetrahedra. -- Abstract: CO reducing strategy to control the morphologies of palladium nanocrystals was investigated. By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals with a mean size of about 55 ± 2 nm were readily synthesized with Pd(acac) 2 as a precursor and PVP as a stabilizer. The structures of the as-prepared Pd nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that CO was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral Pd nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. The most appropriate CO flow rate, temperature and time for the formation of the ideal concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals was 0.033 mL s −1 , 100 °C and 3 h, respectively.

  13. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, C.

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [fr

  14. 41 CFR 302-10.206 - May my agency assume direct responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... direct responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile home? 302-10.206 Section 302... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS... responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile home? Yes, your agency may assume direct...

  15. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Lars J.; Roy, Santanu

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the 'δ-productivity' requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs

  16. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Lars J. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the `{delta}-productivity` requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs.

  17. Análisis de costes y prestaciones de sistemas de transporte público colectivo mediante aproximaciones continuas

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Tomás, Mª Dolores

    2014-01-01

    El estudio que a continuación se desarrolla pretende realizar una comparativa de costes entre los diferentes modos de transporte público urbano. El estudio elaborado considera los principales modos que discurren por las ciudades, concretamente: autobús convencional, autobús propulsado por energías limpias (GNL, híbrido y eléctrico), BRT, tranvía y metro. El transporte público cuenta de inicio con unos costes más elevados que el transporte privado y, en muchas ocasiones, las tarifas c...

  18. Behaviors and housing inertia are key factors in determining the consequences of a shock in transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusdorf, Francois; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of a sudden increase in transportation costs when household behaviors and building inertia are accounted for. A theoretical framework is proposed, capturing the interactions between behaviors, transportation costs and urban structure. Numerical simulations show that changes in households and landowners' choices reduce significantly the long-term adverse effects of a shock in transportation costs. Indeed, the shock translates, over the long run, into a more concentrated housing that limits households utility losses and maintains landowners' income. But, because of building inertia, the shock leads first to a long transition, during which the adjustment is constrained by a suboptimal housing-supply structure. Then, households support larger losses than in the final stage, though lower than with no behavior adjustment, and landowners experience a large decrease in their aggregate income and an important redistribution of wealth. Thus, behaviors and building inertia are key factors in determining the vulnerability to transportation price variability and to the introduction of climate policies. Our policy conclusions are that: (i) if a long-term increase in transportation costs is unavoidable because of climate change or resource scarcity, a smooth change prevents to some extent the negative transition effects and (ii) fast-growing cities of the developing world can reduce their future vulnerability to shocks in transportation costs through the implementation of policies that limit urban sprawl

  19. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg−1 day−1), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102......Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs...

  20. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  1. Long distance bioenergy logistics. An assessment of costs and energy consumption for various biomass energy transport chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suurs, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to create the possibility of obtaining an insight in the key factors of the title system, a model has been developed, taking into account different production systems, pretreatment operations and transport options. Various transport chains were constructed, which were subjected to a sensitivity analysis with respect to factors like transport distance, fuel prices and equipment operation times. Scenarios are analysed for Latin-America and Europe for which the distinguishing parameters were assumed to be the transport distances and biomass prices. For both regions the analysis concerns a situation where ship transports are applied for a coastal and for an inland biomass supply. For European biomass a train transport was considered as well. In order to explore possibilities for improvement, the effects of these variables on costs and energy consumption within a chain, were assessed. Delivered biomass can be converted to power or methanol. Model results are as follows: Total costs for European bioenergy range from 11.2-21.2 euro/GJ MeOH for methanol and 17.4-28.0 euro/GJ e for electricity. For Latin-America, costs ranges are 11.3-21.8 euro/GJ MeOH for methanol and 17.4-28.7 euro/GJ e for electricity. The lower end of these ranges is represented by transport chains that are characterised by the use of high density energy carriers such as logs, pellets or liquid fuels (these are the most attractive for all scenarios considered). The transport of chips should be avoided categorically due to their low density and high production costs. Transport chains based on the early production of liquid energy carriers such as methanol or pyrolysis oil seem to be promising alternatives as well. With respect to energy consumption, the transport of chips is highly unfavourable for the same reasons as stated above. The use of pelletizing operations implies a high energy input, however due to energy savings as a result of more efficient transport operations, this energy loss is

  2. Organization and costs of repurchasing, transportation, warehousing and storage of raspberry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanović-Bulatović Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its characteristic, apart from nutritive and medical significance, raspberry is particularly important for our country in social and economic terms, since its export attracts foreign currency inflow. Since the quality of raspberry decreases rapidly after picking, it is utterly important that the whole process, from picking to cold storage of fruit, should be rationally organized, thus finally reducing the costs and increasing the production value. For these reasons precisely the research deals with organization of the entire process, from repurchase to cold storage of raspberry fruits, as well as the analysis of pertaining costs. Necessary information for the preparation of the paper has been obtained from cold storage plants engaged in raspberry storage and preservation. Necessary information has been gathered using several methods, viz: observation, interview and content analysis methods. Furthermore, analysis, comparison and calculation methods have also been used in the preparation of the paper. The raspberry fruit repurchase, transport and storage costs range from 1,6 to 1,8 EUR per kg, exclusive of storage (store-housing. To this one should add store-housing costs ranging from 0,009 to 0,013 EUR per kg on a monthly basis. Modern organization of production and communication between producers, repurchasers, processors and exporters is essential in order to decrease fluctuations in repurchase and sales price of fresh raspberry and its products and the improvement of overall financial effect of all links within the chain of this economy activity. Cold storage plants, even if of minor capacities, are beneficial not only for the immediate participants in the producer-buyer chain, but it also makes an important stimulating factor for rural development and economy of the country.

  3. Origin of how steam rockets can reduce space transport cost by orders of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Larson, T.K.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Rice, J.W.; Hill, T.J.; Richins, W.D.; Parlier, L.; Werner, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A brief sketch shows the origin of why and how thermal rocket propulsion has the unique potential to dramatically reduce the cost of space transportation for most inner solar system missions of interest. Orders of magnitude reduction in cost are apparently possible when compared to all processes requiring electrolysis for the production of rocket fuels or propellants and to all electric propulsion systems. An order of magnitude advantage can be attributed to rocket propellant tank factors associated with storing water propellant, compared to cryogenic liquids. An order of magnitude can also be attributed to the simplicity of the extraction and processing of ice on the lunar surface, into an easily stored, non-cryogenic rocket propellant (water). A nuclear heated thermal rocket can deliver thousands of times its mass to Low Earth Orbit from the Lunar surface, providing the equivalent to orders of magnitude drop in launch cost for mass in Earth orbit. Mass includes water ice. These cost reductions depend (exponentially) on the mission delta-v requirements being less than about 6 km/s, or about 3 times the specific velocity of steam rockets (2 km/s, from Isp 200 sec). Such missions include: from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit, (LLO), from LLO to lunar escape, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), from LEO to Earth Escape, from LEO to Mars Transfer Orbit, from LLO to GEO, missions returning payloads from about 10% of the periodic comets using propulsive capture to orbits around Earth itself, and fast, 100 day missions from Lunar Escape to Mars. All the assertions depend entirely and completely on the existence of abundant, nearly pure ice at the permanently dark North and South Poles of the Moon. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services for Trauma Scene Transport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M. Kit; Staudenmayer, Kristan L.; Wang, N. Ewen; Spain, David A.; Weir, Sharada; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined the minimum mortality reduction that helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) should provide relative to ground EMS for the scene transport of trauma victims to offset higher costs, inherent transport risks, and inevitable overtriage of minor injury patients. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the costs and outcomes of helicopter versus ground EMS transport to a trauma center from a societal perspective over a patient's lifetime. We determined the mortality reduction needed to make helicopter transport cost less than $100,000 and $50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to ground EMS. Model inputs were derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT), National Trauma Data Bank, Medicare reimbursements, and literature. We assessed robustness with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results HEMS must provide a minimum of a 17% relative risk reduction in mortality (1.6 lives saved/100 patients with the mean characteristics of the NSCOT cohort) to cost less than $100,000 per QALY gained and a reduction of at least 33% (3.7 lives saved/100 patients) to cost less than $50,000 per QALY. HEMS becomes more cost-effective with significant reductions in minor injury patients triaged to air transport or if long-term disability outcomes are improved. Conclusions HEMS needs to provide at least a 17% mortality reduction or a measurable improvement in long-term disability to compare favorably to other interventions considered cost-effective. Given current evidence, it is not clear that HEMS achieves this mortality or disability reduction. Reducing overtriage of minor injury patients to HEMS would improve its cost-effectiveness. PMID:23582619

  5. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO's proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO's cleanup mission. FERMCO's goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo

  6. Availability of cosmetic treatment using novel cosmetics-based material on patients with craniofacial concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko

    2018-03-08

    Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Varghese; Govardhan, Raghuraman N.; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    2015-02-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a concave nose, there is hardly a splash and the cavity extent is greatly reduced. This may be explained by the fact that in the concave nosed case, the initial impact is between a confined air pocket and the free surface unlike in the convex nosed case. From measurements of the unsteady pressure in the concave nose portion, we show that in this case, the maximum pressures are significantly lower than the classically expected "water hammer" pressures and also lower than those generally measured on other geometries. Thus, the presence of an air pocket in the case of a concave nosed body adds an interesting dimension to the classical problem of impact of solid bodies on to a free surface.

  8. Concave pulse shaping of a circularly polarized laser pulse from non-uniform overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Sup [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kulagin, Victor V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky prosp. 13, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Suk, Hyyong, E-mail: hysuk@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwangiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-20

    Pulse shaping of circularly polarized laser pulses in nonuniform overdense plasmas are investigated numerically. Specifically we show by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the generation of a concave pulse front of a circularly polarized, a few tens of petawatt laser pulse from a density-tapered, overdense plasma slab. The concept used for the transverse-directional shaping is the differential transmittance depending on the plasma density, and the laser intensity. For suitable selection of the slab parameters for the concave pulse shaping, we studied numerically the pulse transmittance, which can be used for further parameter design of the pulse shaping. The concavely shaped circularly polarized pulse is expected to add more freedom in controlling the ion-beam characteristics in the RPDA regime. - Highlights: • Laser pulse shaping for a concave front by non-uniform overdense plasma was studied. • Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were used for the investigation. • A laser pulse can be shaped by a density-tapered overdense plasma. • The concave and sharp pulse front are useful in many laser–plasma applications. • They are important for ion acceleration, especially in the radiation pressure dominant regime.

  9. Final Report: Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications (2012-2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allen [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes project activities for Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) Contract Number DE-EE0005236 to the U.S. Department of Energy titled “Transportation Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment”. The project defined and projected the mass production costs of direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell power systems for light-duty vehicles (automobiles) and 40-foot transit buses. In each year of the five-year contract, the fuel cell power system designs and cost projections were updated to reflect technology advances. System schematics, design assumptions, manufacturing assumptions, and cost results are presented.

  10. A multilevel cost-space approach to solving the balanced long transportation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kevin J.; Henson, Van Emden

    1993-01-01

    We develop a multilevel scheme for solving the balanced long transportation problem, that is, given a set (c(sub kj)) of shipping costs from a set of M supply nodes S(sub k) to a set of N demand nodes D(sub j), we seek to find a set of flows, (x(sub kj)), that minimizes the total cost Sigma(sub k=1)(exp M) Sigma(sub j=1)(exp N) x(sub kj)c(sub kj). We require that the problem be balanced, that is, the total demand must equal the total supply. Solution techniques for this problem are well known from optimization and linear programming. We examine this problem, however, in order to develop principles that can then be applied to more intractible problems of optimization. We develop a multigrid scheme for solving the problem, defining the grids, relaxation, and intergrid operators. Numerical experimentation shows that this line of research may prove fruitful. Further research directions are suggested.

  11. The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management on Transportation Cost Reduction in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet SARIDOGAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management (SCM has become an important competitive approach for organizations. The issue of green supply chain management is critical for the successful implementation of industrial ecosystems and industrial ecology. Organizations have a number of reasons for implementing these green supply chain policies, from reactive regulatory reasons, to proactive strategic and competitive advantage reasons. From an overall environmental and organizational perspective, it is important to understand the situation and what issues exist in this field. Many organizations worldwide have already experienced globalization and a shifting focus to competition among networks of companies in this environment. Multinational enterprises have established global networks of suppliers that take advantage of country-industry specific characteristics to build this competitive advantage. To success having this competitive advantage, logistics and supply chain managers have to balance efforts to reduce costs and innovate while maintaining good environmental (ecological performance (Pagell et al., 2004. Therefore, today, competition is not between companies, between supply chains. This study brings us the effect of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM on the Transportation Cost Reduction (TCR.

  12. Cost effectiveness comparison of certain transportation measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in San Diego County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Send, Nilmini; Anders, Scott; Narwold, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    California's overarching mandate to achieve 1990 levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in 2020 (AB 32, 2005), and the ensuing recent regulations (SB 375, CEQA updates) require local and regional governments to assess GHG mitigation policies, including on-road transportation. The regulations do not make cost-effectiveness a primary criteria for choosing measures but cost remains important to a variety of stakeholders. This communication summarizes results from GHG and cost analysis for seven actual San Diego County road transportation policies: telecommute, vanpools, a bicycle strategy, an increase in mass transit use, parking policies (parking pricing, preferred parking for electric vehicles), an increased local fuel tax and speed harmonization (signal re-timing, roundabouts). Net costs are calculated as the sum of direct costs and benefits to the administering agency, the employer and the individual. Net costs per metric ton GHG abated vary greatly across measures, from negative to high positive (more than US $1000). We find that local GHG cost cannot be sensibly compared to other carbon or GHG policy costs outside the local context for a variety of reasons, but especially because measures have not been adopted primarily for carbon or GHG abatement potential or on the basis of cost effectiveness

  13. Highly reusable space transportation: Approaches for reducing ETO launch costs to $100 - $200 per pound of payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS) suggests that considerable market expansion in earth-to-orbit transportation would take place if current launch prices could be reduced to around $400 per pound of payload. If these low prices can be achieved, annual payload delivered to low earth orbit (LEO) is predicted to reach 6.7 million pounds. The primary market growth will occur in communications, government missions, and civil transportation. By establishing a cost target of $100-$200 per pound of payload for a new launch system, the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program has clearly set its sights on removing the current restriction on market growth imposed by today's high launch costs. In particular, achieving the goal of $100-$200 per pound of payload will require significant coordinated efforts in (1) marketing strategy development, (2) business planning, (3) system operational strategy, (4) vehicle technical design, and (5) vehicle maintenance strategy.

  14. Pt3Co concave nanocubes: synthesis, formation understanding, and enhanced catalytic activity toward hydrogenation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Lin, Cuikun; Zhang, Lihua; Quan, Zewei; Sun, Kai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Feng; Porter, Nathan; Wang, Yuxuan; Fang, Jiye

    2014-02-03

    We report a facile synthesis route to prepare high-quality Pt3Co nanocubes with a concave structure, and further demonstrate that these concave Pt3Co nanocubes are terminated with high-index crystal facets. The success of this preparation is highly dependent on an appropriate nucleation process with a successively anisotropic overgrowth and a preservation of the resultant high-index planes by control binding of oleyl-amine/oleic acid with a fine-tuned composition. Using a hydrogenation of styrene as a model reaction, these Pt3Co concave nanocubes as a new class of nanocatalysts with more open structure and active atomic sites located on their high-index crystallographic planes exhibit an enhanced catalytic activity in comparison with low-indexed surface terminated Pt3Co nanocubes in similar size. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  16. Assessment of risks and costs associated with transportation of US Department of Energy radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-Y.; Arnish, J.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Folga, S.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of potential human health risks and develops unit risks and costs for transporting radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS) scrap between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The RCCS would be generated from DOE activities (current or future) and from decontamination and decommissioning of DOE facilities. The estimates of transportation system risk reflect preliminary information regarding the quantities of RCCS at some sites and the spectrum of activity in RCCS at various types of DOE facilities

  17. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by

  18. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  19. The Successor Function and Pareto Optimal Solutions of Cooperative Differential Systems with Concavity. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kurt Munk; Sandqvist, Allan

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the domain of definition and the domain of values for the successor function of a cooperative differential system x'=f(t,x), where the coordinate functions are concave in x for any fixed value of t. Moreover, we give a characterization of a weakly Pareto optimal solution.......We investigate the domain of definition and the domain of values for the successor function of a cooperative differential system x'=f(t,x), where the coordinate functions are concave in x for any fixed value of t. Moreover, we give a characterization of a weakly Pareto optimal solution....

  20. Heat transfer and forces on concave surfaces in free molecule flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C.

    1971-01-01

    A Monte Carlo modeling technique is described for mathematically simulating free molecular flows over a concave spherical surface and a concave cylindrical surface of finite length. The half-angle of the surfaces may vary from 0 to 90 degrees, and the incident flow may have an arbitrary speed ratio and an arbitrary angle of attack. Partial diffuse reflection and imperfect energy accommodation for molecules colliding with the surfaces are also considered. Results of heat transfer, drag and lift coefficients are presented for a variety of flow conditions. The present Monte Carlo results are shown to be in very good agreement with certain available theoretical solutions.

  1. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  2. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  3. Life cycle benefit-cost analysis of alternatives for deployment of the transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, J.L.; Dole, L.R.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) occupies almost 37,000 acres in and around the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the rapid effort to produce a working atomic bomb, three plants were constructed: Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25), now the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and the Center for Environmental Technology and Waste Management; Clinton Laboratories (now the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]); and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Following the end of the Cold War and the resulting reduction in nuclear weapons production, the DOE faced an unprecedented task of safely managing, storing, and treating legacy waste while, at the same time, cleaning up the contaminated areas within its sites in 33 states in a manner that uses the most cost-effective methods in conjunction with its responsibility to protect human health and the environment. The Transportable Vitrification system (TVS), an alternative waste treatment technology, has been developed by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50). EM-50, or OTD, is the DOE program concerned with developing, demonstrating, and deploying new methods for environmental restoration and waste management and, as such, has provided the majority of the funding for the development of the TVS. This study reports the results of life cycle benefit-cost-risk analyses of the TVS for a series of use-scenarios proposed for treating mixed low-level waste (MLLW) streams on the ORR in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines contained in OMB Circular 94. The system is designed to produce about 300 lb of glass per hour at its maximum capacity and is capable of processing wet, dry, or slurried waste. When formed into glass by the TVS, MLLW streams meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal requirements (LDR) and can potentially be disposed of as low-level wastes (LLW)

  4. Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden); Linnaeus University, 35195 Vaexjoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Lisa; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO{sub 2} benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO{sub 2} emission balance. (author)

  5. Flow features that arise due to the interaction of a plane shock wave with concave profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacLucas, David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the author's thesis was the aerodynamic flow field that develops as a result of the interaction of a moving plane shock wave with concave profiles. In this presentation, he discusses some of the interesting flow phenomena that arise...

  6. [Design of flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xian-Yi; Wen, Zhi-Yu

    2008-07-01

    Near-infrared spectrum analysis can be used to determine the nature or test quantitatively some chemical compositions by detecting molecular double frequency and multiple frequency absorption. It has been used in agriculture, biology, petrifaction, foodstuff, medicament, spinning and other fields. Near-infrared spectrophotometer is the main apparatus for near-infrared spectrum analysis, and the grating is the most important part of the apparatus. Based on holographic concave grating theory and optic design software CODE V, a flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer was designed from primary structure, which relied on global optimization of the software. The contradiction between wide spectrum bound and limited spectrum extension was resolved, aberrations were reduced successfully, spectrum information was utilized fully, and the optic structure of spectrometer was highly efficient. Using CODE V software, complex high-order aberration equations need not be solved, the result can be evaluated quickly, flat field and resolving power can be kept in balance, and the work efficiency is also enhanced. A paradigm of flat field holographic concave grating is given, it works between 900 nm to 1 700 nm, the diameter of the concave grating is 25 mm, and F/ # is 1. 5. The design result was analyzed and evaluated. It was showed that if the slit source, whose width is 50 microm, is used to reconstruction, the theoretic resolution capacity is better than 6.3 nm.

  7. Enhanced Absorption in Organic Thin-Films from Imprinted Concave Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jarosław GOSZCZAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid, replicable method for imprinting concave nanostructures to be used as functional light-trapping nanostructures in organic thin-films is presented. Porous anodic alumina templates were fabricated both by anodization of thick Al foils and by anodization of submicrometer thin Al films evaporated via e-beam evaporation on Si substrates. The template formation leads to natural patterning of the underlying Al layers that are used as rigid masters for stamp fabrication, after selective etching of the porous anodic alumina. PDMS stamps were made after replicating the Al concave patterns and used for imprinting of spin coated photoresist on glass substrates. We have investigated semi-periodic and aperiodic imprinted large concave patterns fabricated from rigid masters after anodization of Al in H3PO4. We show that metal covered imprinted concaves show enhancement in absorption that is attributed to field enhancement and diffuse scattering, leading to efficient light trapping for a selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14188

  8. Novel high-NA MRF toolpath supports production of concave hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Supranowitz, Chris; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Many optical system designs rely on high numerical aperture (NA) optics, including lithography and defense systems. Lithography systems require high-NA optics to image the fine patterns from a photomask, and many defense systems require the use of domes. The methods for manufacturing such optics with large half angles have often been treated as proprietary by most manufacturers due to the challenges involved. In the past, many high-NA concave surfaces could not be polished by magnetorheological finishing (MRF) due to collisions with the hardware underneath the polishing head. By leveraging concepts that were developed to enable freeform raster MRF capabilities, QED Technologies has implemented a novel toolpath to facilitate a new high-NA rotational MRF mode. This concept involves the use of the B-axis (rotational axis) in combination with a "virtual-axis" that utilizes the geometry of the polishing head. Hardware collisions that previously restricted the concave half angle limit can now be avoided and the new functionality has been seamlessly integrated into the software. This new MRF mode overcomes past limitations for polishing concave surfaces to now accommodate full concave hemispheres as well as extend the capabilities for full convex hemispheres. We discuss some of the previous limitations, and demonstrate the extended capabilities using this novel toolpath. Polishing results are used to qualify the new toolpath to ensure similar results to the "standard" rotational MRF mode.

  9. On the equivalence of the Choquet, pan- and concave integrals on finite spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouyang, Y.; Li, J.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 1 (2017), s. 151-162 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : (M)-property * Choquet integral * Concave integral * Minimal atom * Monotone measure * Pan-integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477091.pdf

  10. Nanoscale aluminum concaves for light-trapping in organic thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Adam, Jost; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, fabricated from oxalic acid and phosphoric acid, lead to non-periodic nanoscale concave structures in their underlying aluminum layer, which are investigated for their field-enhancement properties by applying a thin-film polymer coating based laser ablation...

  11. Processing convexity and concavity along a 2-D contour: figure-ground, structural shape, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-04-01

    Interest in convexity has a long history in vision science. For smooth contours in an image, it is possible to code regions of positive (convex) and negative (concave) curvature, and this provides useful information about solid shape. We review a large body of evidence on the role of this information in perception of shape and in attention. This includes evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, imaging, and developmental studies. A review is necessary to analyze the evidence on how convexity affects (1) separation between figure and ground, (2) part structure, and (3) attention allocation. Despite some broad agreement on the importance of convexity in these areas, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of specific claims--for example, on the contribution of convexity to metric depth and on the automatic directing of attention to convexities or to concavities. The focus is on convexity and concavity along a 2-D contour, not convexity and concavity in 3-D, but the important link between the two is discussed. We conclude that there is good evidence for the role of convexity information in figure-ground organization and in parsing, but other, more specific claims are not (yet) well supported.

  12. Pierce-type electron gun with a large concave LaB6 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tumoru; Ohba, Kunio; Matoba, Masaru; Katase, Akira

    1981-01-01

    A Pierce-type electron gun with a concave cathode of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) 30 mm in diameter is described. At an accelerating voltage of 3 kV and a cathode temperature of 1340 0 C, a focussed electron beam of DC 300 mA was obtained. (author)

  13. The Scallop's Eye--A Concave Mirror in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Waltner, Christine; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Teaching physics in the context of medicine or biology is a way to generate students' interest in physics. A more uncommon type of eye, the scallop's eye (an eye with a spherical concave mirror, which is similar to a Newtonian or Schmidt telescope) and the image-forming mechanism in this eye are described. Also, a simple eye model, which can…

  14. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathai, Varghese; Govardhan, R.N.; Arakeri, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a

  15. Singular elliptic systems involving concave terms and critical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E. O. El Mokhtar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we establish the existence of at least four solutions to a singular system with a concave term, a critical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg exponent, and sign-changing weight functions. Our main tools are the Nehari manifold and the mountain pass theorem.

  16. Preliminary analysis of the cost and risk of transporting nuclear waste to potential candidate commercial repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Madsen, M.M.; Cashwell, J.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1983-06-01

    This report documents preliminary cost and risk analyses that were performed in support of the Nuclear Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The analyses compare the costs and hazards of transporting wastes to each of five regions that contain potential candidate nuclear waste repository sites being considered by the NWTS program. These regions are: the Gulf Interior Region, the Permian Basin, the Paradox Basin, Yucca Mountain, and Hanford. Two fuel-cycle scenarios were analyzed: once-through and reprocessing. Transportation was assumed to be either entirely by truck or entirely by rail for each of the scenarios. The results from the risk analyses include those attributable to nonradiological causes and those attributable to the radioactive character of the wastes being transported. 17 references

  17. An analytic solution for calculating the beam intensity profiles useful to irradiate target volumes with bi-concave outlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Neve, W; Derycke, S; De Wagter, C [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    A heuristic planing procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy for target volumes with a bi-concave or multi-concave shape has been developed. The described method is tested on a phantom simulating a pelvic target, described by Brahme.

  18. Modelling public transport passenger flows in the era of intelligent transport systems COST Action TU1004 (TransITs)

    CERN Document Server

    Noekel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how transit assignment models can be used to describe and predict the patterns of network patronage in public transport systems. It provides a fundamental technical tool that can be employed in the process of designing, implementing and evaluating measures and/or policies to improve the current state of transport systems within given financial, technical and social constraints. The book offers a unique methodological contribution to the field of transit assignment because, moving beyond “traditional” models, it describes more evolved variants that can reproduce: • intermodal networks with high- and low-frequency services; • realistic behavioural hypotheses underpinning route choice; • time dependency in frequency-based models; and • assumptions about the knowledge that users have of network conditions that are consistent with the present and future level of information that intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide. The book also considers the practical perspective of practit...

  19. Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi R.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one

  20. The cost-utility of haemodiafiltration versus haemodialysis in the Convective Transport Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, A.H.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Grooteman, M.P.C.; Penne, E.L.; Weerd, N.C. van der; Hoedt, C.H. den; Buskens, E.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Wee, P.M. ter; Nube, M.J.; Bots, M.L.; Wit, G.A. de; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest in haemodiafiltration (HDF), there is no information on the costs and cost-utility of this dialysis modality yet. It was therefore our objective to study the cost-utility of HDF versus haemodialysis (HD). METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was performed using a

  1. The cost-utility of haemodiafiltration versus haemodialysis in the Convective Transport Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; den Hoedt, Claire H.; Buskens, Erik; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Nube, Menso J.; Bots, Michiel L.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    Background. Despite the growing interest in haemodiafiltration (HDF), there is no information on the costs and cost-utility of this dialysis modality yet. It was therefore our objective to study the cost-utility of HDF versus haemodialysis (HD). Methods. A cost-utility analysis was performed using a

  2. Manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth for edge-selective metal deposition and the formation of concave au nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Moitree; Zhong, Xiaolan; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2013-10-01

    By manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth through judicious control of reaction conditions, edge-selective metal deposition can be achieved to synthesize new Au nanostructures with face-centered concavities, referred to herein as Au overgrown trisoctahedra. These nanostructures display higher sensitivity to changes in refractive index compared to both Au traditional trisoctahedra and the Au nanocube seeds from which they are grown. Often, concave nanostructures are achieved by selective etching processes or corner-selective overgrowth and adopt a stellated profile rather than a profile with face-centered concavities. The presented results illustrate another strategy toward concave nanostructures and can facilitate the synthesis of new concave nanostructures for applications in catalysis and chemical sensing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Integrated land-use and transport modelling using OTP to determine lowest cost trips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Q

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the link between economic infrastructure, that includes transport, and social infrastructure that includes social well-being and the basic necessities of people. It shows how transport models and urban models influence...

  4. Cost of transporting irradiated fuels and maintenance costs of a chemical treatment plant for irradiated fuels; Cout de transport des combustibles irradies et cout d'entretien d'une usine de traitement chimique des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousselier, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Numerous studies have been made of the cost of a fuel cycle, but many of them are based on a priori studies and are therefore to be treated with reserve. Thus, in the part dealing with the treatment of irradiated fuels, some important factors in the cost have only rarely been given on the basis of practical experience: the cost of transporting the fuels themselves and the plant maintenance costs. Investigations relating to transport costs are generally based on calculations made from somewhat arbitrary data. The studies carried out in France on the transport of irradiated uranium between the EDF reactors at Chinon and the retreatment plant at La Hague of the irradiated uranium from research reactors to foreign retreatment plants, are reported; they show that by a suitable choice of transport containers and details of expedition it has been possible to reduce the costs very considerably. This has been achieved either by combining rail and road transport or by increasing the writ capacities of the transport containers: an example is given of a container for swimming-pool pile elements which can transport a complete pile core at one time, thus substantially reducing the cost. Studies concerning the maintenance costs of retreatment plants are rarer still, although in direct maintenance plants these figures represent an appreciable fraction of the total treatment cost. An attempt has been made, on the basis of operational experience of a plant, to obtain some idea of these costs. Only maintenance proper has been considered, excluding subsidiary operations such as the final decontamination of apparatus, the burial of contaminated material and radioprotection operations Maintenance has been divided into three sections: mechanical maintenance, maintenance of electrical equipment and maintenance of control and adjustment apparatus. In each of these sections the distinction has been made between manpower and the material side. In order to allow comparisons to be made with

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  6. STUDY ABOUT THE ROAD TRANSPORTATION COSTS AND FISCALITY IN THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Isai; Riana Iren Radu

    2013-01-01

    The economic development of the European countries in the second half of the XXth century, and also the increase of commercial international exchanges, generated the transportation development in general, and especially the road transportation. The road transports knew an ascendant evolution due to their advantages: superior mobility; fast adaptability to every land conditions, without special investments; the capacity to complete the other modalities of transportation, in order to achieve th...

  7. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B.; Schofield, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs

  8. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Allen, R.B. [USDOE, Fernald Area Office, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Schofield, W.D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.

  9. Low-cost copper complexes as p-dopants in solution processable hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, Renate [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Taroata, Dan; Maltenberger, Anna; Hartmann, David; Schmid, Guenter [Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    We demonstrate the usage of the Lewis-acidic copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(hfac){sub 2}) and copper(II)trifluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(tfac){sub 2}) as low-cost p-dopants for conductivity enhancement of solution processable hole transport layers based on small molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The materials were clearly soluble in mixtures of environmentally friendly anisole and xylene and spin-coated under ambient atmosphere. Enhancements of two and four orders of magnitude, reaching 4.0 × 10{sup −11} S/cm with a dopant concentration of only 2 mol% Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 1.5 × 10{sup −9} S/cm with 5 mol% Cu(tfac){sub 2} in 2,2′,7,7′-tetra(N,N-ditolyl)amino-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-TTB), respectively, were achieved. Red light emitting diodes were fabricated with reduced driving voltages and enhanced current and power efficiencies (8.6 lm/W with Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 5.6 lm/W with Cu(tfac){sub 2}) compared to the OLED with undoped spiro-TTB (3.9 lm/W). The OLED with Cu(hfac){sub 2} doped spiro-TTB showed an over 8 times improved LT{sub 50} lifetime of 70 h at a starting luminance of 5000 cd/m{sup 2}. The LT{sub 50} lifetime of the reference OLED with PEDOT:PSS was only 8 h. Both non-optimized OLEDs were operated at similar driving voltage and power efficiency.

  10. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was requested to assess the effectiveness of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) oversight of the costs of large-dollar highway and bridge projects (those with a total estimated cost of over $100 million)...

  11. Assessing cost-effectiveness in obesity: active transport program for primary school children--TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marj; Haby, Michelle M; Swinburn, Boyd; Carter, Robert

    2011-05-01

    To assess from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness of a school program to increase active transport in 10- to 11-year-old Australian children as an obesity prevention measure. The TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program was modeled nationally for 2001 in terms of its impact on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measured against current practice. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modeled until the eligible cohort reached age 100 or died. The intervention was qualitatively assessed against second stage filter criteria ('equity,' 'strength of evidence,' 'acceptability to stakeholders,' 'feasibility of implementation,' 'sustainability,' and 'side-effects') given their potential impact on funding decisions. The modeled intervention reached 267,700 children and cost $AUD13.3M (95% uncertainty interval [UI] $6.9M; $22.8M) per year. It resulted in an incremental saving of 890 (95%UI -540; 2,900) BMI units, which translated to 95 (95% UI -40; 230) DALYs and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD117,000 (95% UI dominated; $1.06M). The intervention was not cost-effective as an obesity prevention measure under base-run modeling assumptions. The attribution of some costs to nonobesity objectives would be justified given the program's multiple benefits. Cost-effectiveness would be further improved by considering the wider school community impacts.

  12. Life Cycle Cost Calculation at the Transport Company in the Supply of Production of Wooden Houses – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkány Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A correct information manager's decision-maker database is a very important element that substantially affects its success. This article presents the potential of using the methodology of life cycle cost calculation in the conditions of a transport company that focuses on the logistic supply of wood-housing producers. The problem is presented through a case study and addresses the decision-making aspect of the decision about acquisition of the transport vehicle. This decision uses time value indicators, inflation rates, average rate of profitability of industry and life cycle costs. Due to the short life cycle of the analyzed period, it was not necessary to consider the ergonomic requirements resulting from the trend of anthropometric dimensions growth.

  13. Preliminary assessment of nuclear waste transportation cost and risk for operation of the first repository at candidate sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.W.; McSweeney, T.I.; Varadarajan, R.V.; Wilmot, E.L.; Cashwell, J.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    To support the selection of the first commercial nuclear waste repository site in 1987, environmental analyses of five candidate site locations are currently being performed. The five locations are in the Gulf Interior Region, the Permian Basin, the Paradox Basin, Yucca Mountain and the Hanford reservation. Costs and operational risks associated with the transportation of nuclear wastes to a single repository located in these regions have been calculated for a life-cycle of 26 years

  14. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation in transport: A review of methodological approaches and their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Robert; Annema, Jan Anne; Wee, Bert van

    2011-01-01

    A review is given of methodological practices for ex ante cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures, e.g. fuel economy and CO 2 standards for road vehicles in the US and EU. Besides the fundamental differences between different types of policies and abatement options which inherently result in different CEA outcomes, differences in methodological choices and assumptions are another important source of variation in CEA outcomes. Fourteen methodological issues clustered into six groups are identified on which thirty-three selected studies are systematically reviewed. The potential variation between lower and upper cost-effectiveness estimates for GHG mitigation measures in transport, resulting from different methodological choices and assumptions, lies in the order of $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. The practise of using CEA for policy-making could improve considerably by clearly indicating the specific purpose of the CEA and its strengths and limitations for policy decisions. Another improvement is related to the dominant approach in transport GHG mitigation studies: the bottom-up financial technical approach which assesses isolated effects, implying considerable limitations for policy-making. A shift to welfare-economic approaches using a hybrid model has the potential to establish an improved assessment of transport GHG mitigation measures based on realistic market responses and behavioural change. - Highlights: ► We identify fourteen important methodological issues clustered into six groups. ► We systematically review thirty-three selected transport GHG mitigation studies. ► Methodological choices can lead to a difference by up to $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. ► The dominant bottom-up approach has limitations for policy-making. ► Welfare-economic approaches could improve cost-effectiveness analysis.

  15. The near-field acoustic levitation for spheres by transducer with concave spherical radiating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian Fang; Sun, Xu Guang; Jiao, Xiao Yang; Chen, Hong Xia; Hua, Shun Ming; Zhang, Hong Chun

    2013-01-01

    To levitate ICF target spheres in the near-field acoustic levitation, a transducer with concave spherical radiating surface and a nearfield acoustic levitation system is established. The concave spherical radiating surface of the transducer is designed by the finite element parametric method. Then the levitation height and levitation perturbation of spheres with different mass and diameters in the near-field acoustic levitation system are tested and discussed in the driving voltage at 400V, 500V and 600V, respectively, when the levitation system is under the resonant frequency. Finally, based on the experimental results, the height formula of the near-field acoustic levitation for spheres is deduced by introducing a coupling coefficient.

  16. Reproducible and recyclable SERS substrates: Flower-like Ag structures with concave surfaces formed by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Juncao; Shu, Shiwei; Li, Jianfu; Huang, Chao; Li, Yang Yang; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2015-04-01

    Direct synthesis of three-dimensional Ag structures on solid substrates for the purposes of producing reproducible and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications remains challenging. In this work, flower-like Ag structures with concave surfaces (FACS) were successfully electrodeposited onto ITO glass using the double-potentiostatic method. The FACS, with an enhancement factor of the order of 108, exhibited a SERS signal intensity 3.3 times stronger than that measured from Ag nanostructures without concave surfaces. A cleaning procedure involving lengthy immersion of the sample in ethanol and KNO3 was proposed to recycle the substrate and confirmed by using rhodamine 6G, adenine, and 4-aminothiophenol as target molecules. The findings can help to advance the practical applications of Ag nanostructure-based SERS substrates.

  17. A facile method to fabricate close-packed concave microlens array on cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zefang; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Liu, Hewei; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hu, Yang; Si, Jinhai; Meng, Xiangwei; Hou, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a facile method to fabricate concave microlens arrays (MLAs) with controllable shape and high fill factor on cylindrical silica glass by a femtosecond laser-enhanced chemical wet etching process. The hexagonal and rectangular MLAs are flexibly fabricated on the silica glass cylinder with a diameter of 3 mm. The morphological characteristics of MLAs are measured by a scanning electron microscope and a laser scanning confocal microscope. The measurements show that the good uniformity and high packing density MLA structures are generated. It has also been demonstrated that the shape and size of the concave structures could be easily tuned by changing laser power and the arrangement of laser exposure spots. The convex MLAs replicated by the polymer casting method experience excellent image quality. (paper)

  18. The near-field acoustic levitation for spheres by transducer with concave spherical radiating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian Fang; Sun, Xu Guang; Jiao, Xiao Yang; Chen, Hong Xia [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Hua, Shun Ming [Zhejiang University, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Hong Chun [Aviation University of AirForce, Changchun (China)

    2013-02-15

    To levitate ICF target spheres in the near-field acoustic levitation, a transducer with concave spherical radiating surface and a nearfield acoustic levitation system is established. The concave spherical radiating surface of the transducer is designed by the finite element parametric method. Then the levitation height and levitation perturbation of spheres with different mass and diameters in the near-field acoustic levitation system are tested and discussed in the driving voltage at 400V, 500V and 600V, respectively, when the levitation system is under the resonant frequency. Finally, based on the experimental results, the height formula of the near-field acoustic levitation for spheres is deduced by introducing a coupling coefficient.

  19. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Au@Pd core-shell nanobricks with concave structures and their catalysis of ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjin; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shengchun; Ding, Bingjun; Song, Xiaoping

    2013-10-01

    Au@Pd core-shell nanobricks (CNBs) with concave surfaces and Pd shells with a thickness of approximately 5 nm were synthesized by co-reduction of HAuCl4 and H2 PdCl4 in the presence of Au seeds and Ag ions. These as-synthesized concave CNBs exhibit significantly enhanced catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of ethanol in alkaline media compared to the commercially-used Pd black. The improved performance of the Au@Pd CNBs can be attributed to the exposed stepped surfaces, high-index facets, and the synergistic effects of the core and shell metals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Hideo; Sakoda, Naoya; Hattori, Shigeru; Kawabata, Takuya; Saiki, Munehiro; Fujita, Yasufumi; Yunoki, Keiji; Hisamochi, Kunikazu; Mine, Yoshinari

    2017-06-01

    Prosthetic valve fracture is a serious complication and may arise in patient post-valve replacement. We experienced an outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of a Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve. We performed an emergency redo mitral valve replacement and successfully retrieved the fractured strut and escaped leaflet from superficial femoral artery and the abdominal aorta. The patient showed an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  3. Feedback-Capacity of Degraded Gaussian Vector BC using Directed Information and Concave Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    It is known that the capacity region of a two user physically degraded discrete memoryless (DM) broadcastchannel (BC) is not enlarged by feedback. An identical result holds true for a physically degraded Gaussian BC,established later using a variant of the Entropy Power Inequality (EPI). In this paper, we extend the latter resultto a physically degraded Gaussian Vector BC (PD-GVBC). However, the extension is not EPI based, but employs arecent result on the factorization of concave envelopes. ...

  4. Visualizing RNA Secondary Structure Base Pair Binding Probabilities using Nested Concave Hulls

    OpenAIRE

    Sansen , Joris; Bourqui , Romain; Thebault , Patricia; Allali , Julien; Auber , David

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The challenge 1 of the BIOVIS 2015 design contest consists in designing an intuitive visual depiction of base pairs binding probabilities for secondary structure of ncRNA. Our representation depicts the potential nucleotide pairs binding using nested concave hulls over the computed MFE ncRNA secondary structure. Thus, it allows to identify regions with a high level of uncertainty in the MFE computation and the structures which seem to match to reality.

  5. Renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO2 emissions in the production of fuels for Brazilian transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M. da; Velásquez, Héctor; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    An exergy and environmental comparison between the fuel production routes for Brazilian transportation sector, including fossil fuels (natural gas, oil-derived products and hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and electricity is performed, and the percentage distribution of exergy destruction in the different units of the processing plants is characterized. An exergoeconomy methodology is developed and applied to properly allocate the renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost among the different products of multiproduct plants. Since Brazilian electricity is consumed in the upstream processing stages of the fuels used in the generation thereof, an iterative calculation is used. The electricity mix comprises thermal (coal, natural gas and oil-fired), nuclear, wind and hydroelectric power plants, as well as bagasse-fired mills, which, besides exporting surplus electricity, also produce sugar and bioethanol. Oil and natural gas-derived fuels production and biodiesel fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME) derived from palm oil are also analyzed. It was found that in spite of the highest total unit exergy costs correspond to the production of biofuels and electricity, the ratio between the renewable to non-renewable invested exergy (cR/cNR) for those fuels is 2.69 for biodiesel, 4.39 for electricity, and 15.96 for ethanol, whereas for fossil fuels is almost negligible. - Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation fuels are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions in the production of Brazilian transportation fuels are determined. • Representative production routes for fossil fuels, biofuels and electricity are reviewed. • Exergoeconomy is used to distribute costs and emissions in multiproduct processes

  6. Environmental protection stability of river bed and banks using convex, concave, and linear bed sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Alireza; Noori, Lila Khaje

    2010-12-01

    River bed scourings are a major environmental problem for fish and aquatic habitat resources. In this study, to prevent river bed and banks from scouring, different types of bed sills including convex, concave and linear patterns were installed in a movable channel bed in a laboratory flume. The bed sills were tested with nine different arrangements and under different flow conditions. To find the most effective bed sill pattern, the scouring depth was measured downstream of the bed sill for a long experimental duration. The scour depth was measured at the middle and at the end of each experimental test for different ratios of the arch radius to the channel width [r/w]. The experimental results indicated that the convex pattern with r/w=0.35 produced minimum bed scouring depth at the center line whereas the concave pattern with r/w=0.23 produced the minimum scour depth at the wall banks. Therefore, the convex pattern was the most effective configuration for prevention of scouring at the center line of the river while the concave pattern was very effective to prevent scouring at the river banks. These findings can be suggested to be used in practical applications.

  7. A Lower Bound on the Differential Entropy of Log-Concave Random Vectors with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Marsiglietti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We derive a lower bound on the differential entropy of a log-concave random variable X in terms of the p-th absolute moment of X. The new bound leads to a reverse entropy power inequality with an explicit constant, and to new bounds on the rate-distortion function and the channel capacity. Specifically, we study the rate-distortion function for log-concave sources and distortion measure d ( x , x ^ = | x − x ^ | r , with r ≥ 1 , and we establish that the difference between the rate-distortion function and the Shannon lower bound is at most log ( π e ≈ 1 . 5 bits, independently of r and the target distortion d. For mean-square error distortion, the difference is at most log ( π e 2 ≈ 1 bit, regardless of d. We also provide bounds on the capacity of memoryless additive noise channels when the noise is log-concave. We show that the difference between the capacity of such channels and the capacity of the Gaussian channel with the same noise power is at most log ( π e 2 ≈ 1 bit. Our results generalize to the case of a random vector X with possibly dependent coordinates. Our proof technique leverages tools from convex geometry.

  8. Assessment of CHF enhancement mechanisms in a curved, rectangular channel subjected to concave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturgis, J.C.; Mudawar, I.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to examine the enhancement in critical heat flux (CHF) provided by streamwise curvature. Curved and straight rectangular flow channels were fabricated with identical 5.0 x 2.5 mm cross sections and heated lengths of 101.6 mm in which the heat was applied to only one wall--the concave wall (32.3 mm radius) in the curved channel and a side wall in the straight. Tests were conducted using FC-72 liquid with mean inlet velocity and outlet subcooling of 0.25 to 10 m s -1 and 3 to 29 C, respectively. Centripetal acceleration for curved flow reached 315 times earth's gravitational acceleration. Critical heat flux was enhanced due to flow curvature at all conditions but the enhancement decreased with increasing subcooling. For near-saturated conditions, the enhancement was approximately 60% while for highly subcooled flow it was only 20%. The causes for the enhancement were identified as (1) increased pressure on the liquid-vapor interface at wetting fronts, (2) buoyancy forces and (3) increased subcooling at the concave wall. Flow visualization tests were conducted in transparent channels to explore the role of buoyancy forces in enhancing the critical heat flux. These forces were observed to remove vapor from the concave wall and distribute it throughout the cross section. Vapor removal was only effective at near-saturated conditions, yielding the observed substantial enhancement in CHF relative to the straight channel

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  11. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  12. 48 CFR 945.505-11 - Records of transportation and installation costs of plant equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and installation costs of plant equipment. 945.505-11 Section 945.505-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Management of Government... plant equipment. The requirements of FAR 45.505-11 apply to plant equipment having a unit cost of $1,000...

  13. Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Soumya; Evans, Barbara; Hardy, Richard; Ahmed, Rizwan; Habib, Ahasan; Asad, N S M; Rahman, Mominur; Hasan, M; Dey, Digbijoy; Fletcher, Louise; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Chaitanya Rao, Krishna; Fernando, Sudarshana

    2017-01-01

    Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood. In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh. The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income); household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household-comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications. This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost in other

  14. Characterizing the tradeoffs and costs associated with transportation congestion in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    We consider distribution and location-planning models for supply chains that explicitly : account for traffic congestion effects. The majority of facility location and transportation : planning models in the operations research literature consider fa...

  15. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  16. Thermal-hydraulic performance of a multiple jet cooling module with a concave dimple array in a helium-cooled divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyo-Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Yong, E-mail: kykim@inha.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    A numerical study was performed to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of a finger type cooling module, where multiple jets impinge on the surface with concave dimples, in the divertor of a nuclear fusion reactor. Conjugate heat transfer was analyzed in both the solid and fluid domains using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model. The computational domain consisted of a single fluid domain and three solid domains: tile, thimble, and cartridge. The numerical results for the temperature variation on the tile were validated in comparison with the experimental data. A parametric study was performed with two design variables, the ratios of dimple diameter and dimple height to the nozzle diameter, and two dimple arrays (inline and staggered arrays). The parametric study showed that the heat transfer rate was increased by up to 2.62% by introducing concave dimples, and that the heat transfer and pressure drop performances increased with increasing diameter and height of the dimples for a specified dimple array.

  17. Integration of polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles in a polymer-based microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique of fabricating polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles that are integrated in polymer-based microfluidic system. The polystyrene microlenses, or microlens array, are fabricated using the free

  18. Performance indicators, practices and maintenance costs in tires management of a transport company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three operational costs that are more expressive for PSL: vehicle maintenance, tires and fuel. In studies of maintenance has been little researched the concept of tire management, technical maintenance and performance together. In this context, this study aims at identifying the practices and performance indicators in the area of maintenance and tire management also analyze the influence of costs applied to the tires on the total cost of maintenance. We conducted a case study of exploratory and descriptive. The main instruments of data collection were on-site observation, unstructured interviews, document analysis and reports results indicators. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression. It was revealed that among the performance indicators in the management of tire maintenance costs applied to the tires have a higher correlation with the total cost of maintenance. The ANOVA indicated that tire maintenance costs influence in 54% of the variations in the total cost of maintenance. We clarified the concepts of maintenance techniques specific tire management, and identify performance indicators in the area of tire managent.

  19. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  20. Quarterly Costs Of Transporting Brazilian Soybeans From The North And Northeastern Ports To Hamburg, Germany

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Quarterly total landed costs (truck and ocean) of shipping Brazilian soybeans through the ports of Santarém and São Luís to Hamburg, Germany. This is table 6 of the...

  1. Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time...

  2. Too expensive to meter: the influence of transaction costs in transportation and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, David; Odlyzko, Andrew

    2008-06-13

    Technology appears to be making fine-scale charging (as in tolls on roads that depend on time of day or even on current and anticipated levels of congestion) increasingly feasible. Such charging also appears to be increasingly desirable, as traffic on roads continues to grow and costs and public opposition limit new construction. Similar incentives towards fine-scale charging also appear to be operating in communications and other areas, such as electricity usage. Standard economic theory supports such measures and technology is being developed and deployed to implement them. But their spread is not very rapid and their prospects for the future are uncertain. This paper presents a collection of sketches, ranging from ancient history to very recent developments, that illustrate the costs that charging imposes. Some of those costs are explicit (in terms of the monetary costs to users and the costs of implementing the charging mechanisms). Others are implicit, such as the time or the mental processing costs of users. These argue that the case for fine-scale charging is not unambiguous and that in many cases such charging may lead to undesirable outcomes.

  3. OBSERVATORIO DE COSTES Y FINANCIACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE URBANO COLECTIVO: UN PROGRAMA DE INVESTIGACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Toledano, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Observatorio de Costes y Financiación del Transporte Urbano Colectivo y sus informes anuales sobre el sector constituyen una excelente plataforma para mejorar el conocimiento de su estructura de costes, posibilitar prácticas de benchmarking a las operadoras y orientar políticas para una financiación eficiente del servicio. Constituye objetivo principal del presente trabajo divulgar el contenido y la estructura del Informe delObservatorio de Costes y Financiación del Transporte Urbano Colectivo 2008-2009, el universo poblacional objeto de estudio y la metodología aplicada tanto para la selección de la muestra analizada como para la definición de los indicadores analizados. Por último, se esbozan algunas propuestas para identificación de itinerarios de investigación de los aspectos críticos para una gestión eficiente y sostenible del servicio y se presentan las principales conclusiones del trabajo.

  4. Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hon, G.; Wang, H. [The International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT, Beijing (China); Tsimplis, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  6. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la recherche de la

  7. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  8. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  9. Transportation Costs and Carbon Emissions in a Vendor Managed Inventory Situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been much focus on carbon emissions and fuel consumption from road transport. In this paper, we consider a vendor deciding on the degree to which deliveries to geographically dispersed retailers should be consolidated. The vendor can consolidate shipments over time and deliver...

  10. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  11. Low-cost management aspects for developing, producing and operating future space transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.; Rücker, Udo

    2005-01-01

    It is believed that a potential means for further significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results also in a stimulation of launch rates of small satellites, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. Therefore, not only launching small satellites with expendable rockets on non-regular flights but also with reusable rockets on regular flights should be considered for the long term. However, developing, producing and operating reusable rockets require a fundamental change in the current "business as usual" philosophy. Under current conditions, it might not be possible to develop, to produce or to operate a reusable vehicle fleet economically. The favorite philosophy is based on "smart business" processes adapted by the authors using cost engineering techniques. In the following paper, major strategies for reducing costs are discussed, which are applied for a representative program proposal.

  12. The development of manufacturing techniques and philosophies for the cost effective production of modern nuclear transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, S.L.; Ward, S.

    1997-01-01

    Design changes to enhance the characteristics of a new generation of large transport flasks have created new challenges to manufacturers. New fabrication, manufacturing and handling techniques have been developed but often at significant costs. The paper examines these developments covering two main areas, welding and the application of neutron absorbing material. Whilst designers have looked at enhancing flask performance, they often fail to appreciate that ultimately whatever has been designed, has to be firstly sold' and then manufactured. Optimisation of design must therefore include due consideration of the ultimate clients cost structure and the manufacturing route. The paper suggests that the only way this can be achieved is to adopt a teaming approach between designers and manufacturers. The ultimate choice of manufacturer however is left to the designers who must consider competencies, track record and commitment to assistance prior to entering into an agreement. (Author)

  13. Improved HYLIFE-II heat transport system and steam power plant: Impact on performance and cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Lee, Ying T.

    1992-12-01

    The HYLIFE-II conceptual design has evolved and improved continually over the past four years to its present form. This paper describes the latest FY92 versions, Reference Case H1 (nominally 1 GWe net output) and the Enhanced Case HE (nominally 2 GWe net output), which take advantage of improvements in the tritium management system to eliminate the intermediate loop and the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX's). The improvements in the heat transport system and the steam power plant are described and the resulting cost reductions are evaluated. The new estimated cost of electricity (in 1990 dollars) is 6.6 cents/kWh for Reference Case H1 and 4.7 cents/kWh for the Enhanced Case

  14. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  15. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mareev, Ivan; Becker, Jan Nicolas; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2018-01-01

    The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventio...

  16. Electron optical characteristics of a concave electrostatic electron mirror for a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamarat, R.T.; Witzani, J.; Hoerl, E.M.

    1984-08-01

    Numerical computer calculations are used to explore the design characteristics of a concave electrostatic electron mirror for a mirror attachment for a conventional scanning electron microscope or an instrument designed totally as a scanning electron mirror microscope. The electron paths of a number of set-ups are calculated and drawn graphically in order to find the optimum shape and dimensions of the mirror geometry. This optimum configuration turns out to be the transition configuration between two cases of electron path deflection, towards the optical axis of the system and away from it. (Author)

  17. Inference from concave stochastic frontiers and the covariance of firm efficiency measures across firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Imad

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a Bayesian stochastic frontier model to obtain confidence intervals on firm efficiency measures of electric utilities rather than the point estimates reported in most previous studies. Results reveal that the stochastic frontier model yields imprecise measures of firm efficiency. However, the application produces much more precise inference on pairwise efficiency comparisons of firms due to a sometimes strong positive covariance of efficiency measures across firms. In addition, we examine the sensitivity to functional form by repeating the analysis for Cobb-Douglas, translog and Fourier frontiers, with and without imposing monotonicity and concavity

  18. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  19. Leaf area compounds height-related hydraulic costs of water transport in Oregon White Oak trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Phillips; B. J. Bond; N. G. McDowell; Michael G. Ryan; A. Schauer

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of leaf to sapwood area generally decreases with tree size, presumably to moderate hydraulic costs of tree height. This study assessed consequences of tree size and leaf area on water flux in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex. Hook (Oregon White Oak), a species in which leaf to sapwood area ratio increases with tree size. We tested hypotheses that...

  20. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  1. Cuprous Oxide as a Potential Low-Cost Hole-Transport Material for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-08

    Inorganic hole-transport materials are commercially desired to decrease the fabrication cost of perovskite solar cells. Here, Cu2O is introduced as a potential hole-transport material for stable, low-cost devices. Considering that Cu2O formation is highly sensitive to the underlying mixture of perovskite precursors and their solvents, we proposed and engineered a technique for reactive magnetron sputtering. The rotational angular deposition of Cu2O yields high surface coverage of the perovskite layer for high rate of charge extraction. Deposition of this Cu2O layer on the pinhole-free perovskite layer produces devices with power conversion efficiency values of up to 8.93%. The engineered Cu2O layers showed uniform, compact, and crack-free surfaces on the perovskite layer without affecting the perovskite structure, which is desired for deposition of the top metal contact and for surface shielding against moisture and mechanical damages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Facility Management as a Way of Reducing Costs in Transport Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusova, Dominika; Gogolova, Martina

    2017-10-01

    For facility management exists a several interpretations. These interpretations emerged progressively. At the time of the notion of facility management was designed to manage an administrative building, in the United States (US). They can ensure their operation and maintenance. From the US, this trend is further moved to Europe and now it start becoming a current and actual topic also in Slovakia. Facility management is contractually agreed scheme of services, semantically recalls traditional building management. There by finally pushed for activities related to real estates. For facility management is fundamental - certification and certification systems. Therefore, is essential to know, the cost structure of certification. The most commonly occurring austerity measures include: heat pumps, use of renewable energy, solar panels and water savings. These measures can reduce the cost.

  3. High level waste transport and disposal cost calculations for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nattress, P.C.; Ward, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power has been generated in the United Kingdom since 1962, and throughout that time fuel has been reprocessed giving rise to high level waste. This has been managed by storing fission products and related wastes as highly active liquor, and more recently by a program of vitrification and storage of the glass blocks produced. Government policy is that vitrified high level waste should be stored for at least 50 years, which has the technical advantage of allowing the heat output rate of the waste to fall, making disposal easier and cheaper. Thus, there is no immediate requirement to develop a deep geological repository in the UK, but the nuclear companies do have a requirement to make financial provision out of current revenues for high level waste disposal at a future repository. In 1991 the interested organizations undertook a new calculation of costs for such provisions, which is described here. The preliminary work for the calculation included the assumption of host geology characteristics, a compatible repository concept including overpacking, and a range of possible nuclear programs. These have differing numbers of power plants, and differing mixes of high level waste from reprocessing and spent fuel for direct disposal. An algorithm was then developed so that the cost of high level waste disposal could be calculated for any required case within a stated envelope of parameters. An Example Case was then considered in detail leading to the conclusion that a repository to meet the needs of a constant UK nuclear economy up to the middle of the next century would have a cash cost of UK Pounds 1194M (US$2011M). By simple division the cost to a kWh of electricity is UK Pounds 0.00027 (0.45 US mil). (author)

  4. Partial null astigmatism-compensated interferometry for a concave freeform Zernike mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yimeng; Yuan, Qun; Gao, Zhishan; Yin, Huimin; Chen, Lu; Yao, Yanxia; Cheng, Jinlong

    2018-06-01

    Partial null interferometry without using any null optics is proposed to measure a concave freeform Zernike mirror. Oblique incidence on the freeform mirror is used to compensate for astigmatism as the main component in its figure, and to constrain the divergence of the test beam as well. The phase demodulated from the partial nulled interferograms is divided into low-frequency phase and high-frequency phase by Zernike polynomial fitting. The low-frequency surface figure error of the freeform mirror represented by the coefficients of Zernike polynomials is reconstructed from the low-frequency phase, applying the reverse optimization reconstruction technology in the accurate model of the interferometric system. The high-frequency surface figure error of the freeform mirror is retrieved from the high-frequency phase adopting back propagating technology, according to the updated model in which the low-frequency surface figure error has been superimposed on the sag of the freeform mirror. Simulations verified that this method is capable of testing a wide variety of astigmatism-dominated freeform mirrors due to the high dynamic range. The experimental result using our proposed method for a concave freeform Zernike mirror is consistent with the null test result employing the computer-generated hologram.

  5. Hydrogen storage in pure and Li-doped carbon nanopores: combined effects of concavity and doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I; López, M J; Alonso, J A

    2008-04-14

    Density functional calculations are reported for the adsorption of molecular hydrogen on carbon nanopores. Two models for the pores have been considered: (i) The inner walls of (7,7) carbon nanotubes and (ii) the highly curved inner surface of nanotubes capped on one end. The effect of Li doping is investigated in all cases. The hydrogen physisorption energies increase due to the concavity effect inside the clean nanotubes and on the bottom of the capped nanotubes. Li doping also enhances the physisorption energies. The sum of those two effects leads to an increase by a factor of almost 3 with respect to the physisorption in the outer wall of undoped nanotubes and in flat graphene. Application of a quantum-thermodynamical model to clean cylindrical pores of diameter 9.5 A, the diameter of the (7,7) tube, indicates that cylindrical pores of this size can store enough hydrogen to reach the volumetric and gravimetric goals of the Department of Energy at 77 K and low pressures, although not at 300 K. The results are useful to explain the experiments on porous carbons. Optimizations of the pore size, concavity, and doping appear as promising alternatives for achieving the goals at room temperature.

  6. Experimental study of curvature effects on jet impingement heat transfer on concave surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the local and average heat transfer characteristics of a single round jet impinging on the concave surfaces was conducted in this work to gain in-depth knowledge of the curvature effects. The experiments were conducted by employing a piccolo tube with one single jet hole over a wide range of parameters: jet Reynolds number from 27000 to 130000, relative nozzle to surface distance from 3.3 to 30, and relative surface curvature from 0.005 to 0.030. Experimental results indicate that the surface curvature has opposite effects on heat transfer characteristics. On one hand, an increase of relative nozzle to surface distance (increasing jet diameter in fact enhances the average heat transfer around the surface for the same curved surface. On the other hand, the average Nusselt number decreases as relative nozzle to surface distance increases for a fixed jet diameter. Finally, experimental data-based correlations of the average Nusselt number over the curved surface were obtained with consideration of surface curvature effect. This work contributes to a better understanding of the curvature effects on heat transfer of a round jet impingement on concave surfaces, which is of high importance to the design of the aircraft anti-icing system.

  7. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  9. Balancing the costs of carbon gain and water transport: testing a new theoretical framework for plant functional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, I Colin; Dong, Ning; Gleason, Sean M; Maire, Vincent; Wright, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    A novel framework is presented for the analysis of ecophysiological field measurements and modelling. The hypothesis 'leaves minimise the summed unit costs of transpiration and carboxylation' predicts leaf-internal/ambient CO2 ratios (ci /ca ) and slopes of maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) or leaf nitrogen (Narea ) vs. stomatal conductance. Analysis of data on woody species from contrasting climates (cold-hot, dry-wet) yielded steeper slopes and lower mean ci /ca ratios at the dry or cold sites than at the wet or hot sites. High atmospheric vapour pressure deficit implies low ci /ca in dry climates. High water viscosity (more costly transport) and low photorespiration (less costly photosynthesis) imply low ci /ca in cold climates. Observed site-mean ci /ca shifts are predicted quantitatively for temperature contrasts (by photorespiration plus viscosity effects) and approximately for aridity contrasts. The theory explains the dependency of ci /ca ratios on temperature and vapour pressure deficit, and observed relationships of leaf δ(13) C and Narea to aridity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  11. Final Report - High Performance, Durable, Low Cost Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Andrew [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The primary project objective was development of improved polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) which address the key DOE barriers of performance, durability and cost. Additional project objectives were to address commercialization barriers specific to MEAs comprising 3M nanostructured thin film (NSTF) electrodes, including a larger-than-acceptable sensitivity to operating conditions, an unexplained loss of rated power capability with operating time, and slow break-in conditioning. Significant progress was made against each of these barriers, and most DOE 2020 targets were met or substantially approached.

  12. Methods for estimating costs of transporting spent fuel and defense high-level radioactive waste for the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrough, M.E.; Lilly, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is planning and developing a transportation program for the shipment of spent fuel and defense high-level waste from current storage locations to the site of the mined geologic repository. In addition to its responsibility for providing a safe transportation system, the DOE will assure that the transportation program will function with the other system components to create an integrated waste management system. In meeting these objectives, the DOE will use private industry to the maximum extent practicable and in a manner that is cost effective. This paper discusses various methodologies used for estimating costs for the national radioactive waste transportation system. Estimating these transportation costs is a complex effort, as the high-level radioactive waste transportation system, itself, will be complex. Spent fuel and high-level waste will be transported from more than 100 nuclear power plants and defense sites across the continental US, using multiple transport modes (truck, rail, and barge/rail) and varying sizes and types of casks. Advance notification to corridor states will be given and scheduling will need to be coordinated with utilities, carriers, state and local officials, and the DOE waste acceptance facilities. Additionally, the waste forms will vary in terms of reactor type, size, weight, age, radioactivity, and temperature

  13. Carbon emissions and the economic costs of transport policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Our most important conclusion is that unilateral increases in carbon, diesel and petrol taxes do not appear to generate emission reductions that are sufficient to justify the cost they impose on the consumers. Using twice the economic gross benefit estimated by IPCC WG3 per ton of CO2 avoided, the benefit is of the order of one percent of the costs for individuals or households for carbon, diesel or petrol taxes. The model we use is incomplete in a number of important parameters. Specifically, we need to (1) add better data on the differences in factor endowments of households, to better reflect differences in the income sources; (2) incorporate data-based estimates of leisure consumption in the benchmark, as well as labor supply elasticities for different household types; and (3) employ data-based estimates of differences in carbon emissions in foreign countries relative to Sweden. The model may also be incomplete in terms of it's treatment of the economic structure of some sectors. 38 refs., 13 tabs

  14. Carbon emissions and the economic costs of transport policy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Our most important conclusion is that unilateral increases in carbon, diesel and petrol taxes do not appear to generate emission reductions that are sufficient to justify the cost they impose on the consumers. Using twice the economic gross benefit estimated by IPCC WG3 per ton of CO2 avoided, the benefit is of the order of one percent of the costs for individuals or households for carbon, diesel or petrol taxes. The model we use is incomplete in a number of important parameters. Specifically, we need to (1) add better data on the differences in factor endowments of households, to better reflect differences in the income sources; (2) incorporate data-based estimates of leisure consumption in the benchmark, as well as labor supply elasticities for different household types; and (3) employ data-based estimates of differences in carbon emissions in foreign countries relative to Sweden. The model may also be incomplete in terms of it`s treatment of the economic structure of some sectors. 38 refs., 13 tabs.

  15. Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behaviour for future energy-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Brand, Christian; Banister, David

    2014-04-01

    Emerging technologies will have important impacts on sustainability objectives. Yet little is known about the explicit feedbacks between consumer behaviour and technological change, and the potential impact on mass market penetration. We use the UK as a case-study to explore the dynamic interactions between technology supply, performance, cost, and heterogeneous consumer behaviour and the resulting influence on long term market diffusion. Simulations of competing vehicle technologies indicate that petrol hybrids (HEVs) dominate the market over the long-term because they benefit from improved performance and are able to reach the steep part of the diffusion curve by 2025 while competing technologies remain in the early stages of growth and are easier to displace in the market. This is due to the cumulative build-up of stock and slow fleet turnover creating inertia in the technological system. Consequently, it will be difficult to displace incumbent technologies because of system inertia, cumulative growth in stock, long operational life, and consumer risk aversion to new unproven technologies. However, when accounting for both technological and behavioural change, simulations indicate that if investment can reach 30-40% per annum growth in supply, combined with steady technology improvements, and more sophisticated agent decision making such as accounting for full technology lifecycle cost and performance, full battery electric vehicles could displace the incumbent system by 2050.

  16. Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Balasubramanya

    Full Text Available Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood.In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh.The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income; household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household-comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications.This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost

  17. Modeling of Focused Acoustic Field of a Concave Multi-annular Phased Array Using Spheroidal Beam Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Li; Shou, Wen-De; Hui, Chun

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axial dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field.

  18. Development of a Computer Program for an Analysis of the Logistics and Transportation Costs of the PWR Spent Fuels in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeong Hun; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that a substantial amount of spent fuels will be transported from the four nuclear power plant (NPP) sites in Korea to a hypothetical centralized interim storage facility or a final repository in the near future. The cost for the transportation is proportional to the amount of spent fuels. In this paper, a cost estimation program is developed based on the conceptual design of a transportation system and a logistics analysis. Using the developed computer program, named as CASK, the minimum capacity of a centralized interim storage facility (CISF) and the transportation cost for PWR spent fuels are calculated. The PWR spent fuels are transported from 4 NPP sites to a final repository (FR) via the CISF. Since NPP sites and the CISF are located along the coast, a sea-transportation is considered and a road-transportation is considered between the CISF and the FR. The result shows that the minimum capacity of the interim storage facility is 15,000 MTU

  19. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles in the US Transportation Sector Following Optimistic Cost and Efficiency Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzmohammadian, Azadeh; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2017-06-20

    This study investigates emission impacts of introducing inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Scenarios are explored using the ANSWER-MARKAL model with a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 9-region database. Modified cost and performance projections for LDV technologies are adapted from the National Research Council (2013) optimistic case. Under our optimistic scenario (OPT) we find 15% and 47% adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2030 and 2050, respectively. In contrast, gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) remain dominant through 2050 in the EPA reference case (BAU). Compared to BAU, OPT gives 16% and 36% reductions in LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 2030 and 2050, respectively, corresponding to 5% and 9% reductions in economy-wide emissions. Total nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and SO 2 emissions are similar in the two scenarios due to intersectoral shifts. Moderate, economy-wide GHG fees have little effect on GHG emissions from the LDV sector but are more effective in the electricity sector. In the OPT scenario, estimated well-to-wheels GHG emissions from full-size BEVs with 100-mile range are 62 gCO 2 -e mi -1 in 2050, while those from full-size ICEVs are 121 gCO 2 -e mi -1 .

  20. Elective removal of convexo-concave Björk-Shiley valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P B; Smith, G H; Lawford, P V; Black, M M

    1994-08-01

    Replacement has been an accepted method for treating advanced cardiac valvular disease for more than 25 years. However, the perfect prosthesis has yet to be developed, judging by the number of devices available. A prosthesis that initially appears promising may cause problems in due course, and indeed some devices have been modified or withdrawn from clinical use. A notable example of a prosthetic valve that has give problems is the Björk-Shiley convexo-concave prosthesis, some models of which have undergone mechanical failure due to strut fracture. We report the elective removal of such a valve and the subsequent examination of the prosthesis. The results of this examination suggest that a policy of elective removal is justified.

  1. Self-centring technique for fibre optic microlens mounting using a concave cone-etched fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demagh, Nacer-Eddine; Guessoum, Assia; Zegari, Rabah; Gharbi, Tijani

    2011-01-01

    Several techniques of centring a microlens onto the fibre optic end face are studied. In most of them, microsphere lenses are centred with the aid of high-accuracy micro-positioners. This process is complicated with regard to the difficulty in manipulating microsphere lenses. In this paper, a simple and accurate self-centring method for mounting microsphere lenses using a concave cone etched fibre (Demagh et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 119–22) is described. This technique allows the centring of a wide variety of microlens radii, typically 7 µm to over 24 µm. The proposed process, however, is not affected by any spatial positioning control of microspheres. In over 85% of the attempts, the microsphere lenses were centred on the fibre axis to within 0.12 µm

  2. Theoretical analysis of the cumulative costs of different diesel bus alternatives for a public transport in the city of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Stevan S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes comparative analysis of the environmental, energetic, and financial costs of different bus propulsion, possibly applied on the public transport in the city of Belgrade. It considers the modern diesel bus, the trolleybus, the natural gas bus with the spark ignition engine, the electric bus using LiFePO4 battery, and the electric bus with ultra-capacitor. The results are presented according to the real data and the real electro-energetic situation in Serbia, with the dominantly used lignite coal as primary fuel. This model gives the exact exhaust emission of electric vehicles at the thermal power plant, enables its comparison to the internal combustion engine vehicles. The result in analysis shows that the natural gas bus is the most cost efficient in economical way with overall exploitation price of $87 per 100 km. The trolleybus is more economical then the natural gas powered bus only at high departures rate, higher than 230 per workday.

  3. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Peninsular Malaysia was modeled to minimize cost or GHG emissions. It is found that Malaysia can meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target via co-firing with a cost reduction of about 24 million compared to 100% coal. Optimal GHG reduction for co-firing was found to be 17 Mt lower than 100% coal at a cost of carbon mitigation (COM) of about 22.50/t CO2-eq mitigated. This COM is lower than an implied COM under the newly introduced levy on heavy electricity users in Malaysia. Gasoline consumed roughly 370 PJ of energy in Malaysia's transportation sector in 2009. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline up to 10% by volume in most vehicles. Peninsular Malaysia's 12.2 Mt/yr of agro-forestry residues can be used for potentially producing 3.8 billion liters ethanol annually. Using a large scale mixed-integer linear optimization, it is found that if Malaysia introduces a 10% ethanol-gasoline blend (E10), approximately 2.9 Mt (24%) of the residues would be used at 5.4 million more cost compared to 100% gasoline (reference case) estimated at 5.2 billion/yr. In the E10 scenario, all cities receive 10% ethanol altogether producing 900 million liters of ethanol. The GHG emissions for 100% gasoline is estimated at 26.4 Mt/yr. The minimum GHG emissions if E10 is implemented in Peninsular Malaysia was found to be 24.5 Mt, 2.0 Mt lower than 100% gasoline, which implies a 4.70/t CO2-eq cost of carbon mitigation (COM). Since only 24% of the available residues are used to produce the E10, the possibility of producing the E10 and electricity via co-firing with coal simultaneously was investigated. This is done by combining the fuel (gasoline/E10) model with the electricity (coal-only/co-firing) model. The costs of the reference case combined scenario (100% gasoline and 100% coal) is estimated at 6.3 billion/yr and emits 63 Mt/yr of GHG emissions. The minimum cost for producing the E10 and co-firing is found to be 30 million lower than the combined reference case. This is achieved by using 5.9 Mt

  4. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  5. The contribution of transport policies to the mitigation potential and cost of 2 °C and 1.5 °C goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runsen; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hanaoka, Tatsuya

    2018-05-01

    The transport sector contributes around a quarter of global CO2 emissions; thus, low-carbon transport policies are required to achieve the 2 °C and 1.5 °C targets. In this paper, representative transport policy scenarios are structured with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the interaction between the transport sector and the macroeconomy. To accomplish this, the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model/Transport (AIM/Transport) model, coupled with a computable general equilibrium model (AIM/CGE), is used to simulate the potential for different transport policy interventions to reduce emissions and cost over the period 2005–2100. The results show that deep decarbonization in the transport sector can be achieved by implementing transport policies such as energy efficiency improvements, vehicle technology innovations particularly the deployment of electric vehicles, public transport developments, and increasing the car occupancy rate. Technological transformations such as vehicle technological innovations and energy efficiency improvements provide the most significant reduction potential. The key finding is that low-carbon transport policies can reduce the carbon price, gross domestic product loss rate, and welfare loss rate generated by climate mitigation policies to limit global warming to 2 °C and 1.5 °C. Interestingly, the contribution of transport policies is more effective for stringent climate change targets in the 1.5 °C scenario, which implies that the stronger the mitigation intensity, the more transport specific policy is required. The transport sector requires attention to achieve the goal of stringent climate change mitigation.

  6. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 6. Cost determination of the LWR waste management routes (treatment/conditioning/packaging/transport operations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiels, G.M.; Kowa, S.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the cost determination of a number of schemes for the treatment, conditioning, packaging, interim storage and transport operations of LWR wastes drawn up on the basis of Belgian, French and German practices in this particular area. In addition to the general procedure elaborated for determining, actualizing and scaling of plant and transport costs associated with the various schemes, in-depth calculations of each intermediate management stage are included in this report. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  7. Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals with concave cubic shapes: kinetically controlled synthesis and electrocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Niu, Wenxin; Zhao, Jianming; Zhu, Shuyun; Yuan, Yali; Hua, Lianzhe; Xu, Guobao

    2013-01-01

    A new type of concave cubic Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals is synthesized through a kinetically controlled growth process. Pd nanocubes of 56 nm are used as the inner core, and CTAC and Br(-) are used as the capping agent and selective adsorbent, respectively. A suitable ratio of HAuCl4 and cubic Pd seeds and the presence of Br(-) anions are critical to the growth of the concave cubic Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals. The fast deposition rate on the corners of the cubic Pd seeds promotes the overgrowth of the Au outer shell along the direction, leading to the formation of concave cubic nanostructures. The reduction process is monitored by the surface plasmon resonance spectra of the nanocrystals, and the extinction band became broader and red shifted as the nanocrystals became larger. The electrocatalytic properties of the concave cubic Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals were investigated with the cathodic electrochemiluminescence reaction of luminol and H2O2. A possible electrocatalytic mechanism was proposed and analyzed.

  8. Endophthalmitis after descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty with concave-oriented dislocation on slit-lamp optical coherence topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiura, Terry L; Ritterband, David C; Koplin, Richard S; Shih, Carolyn; Palmierto, Pat M; Seedor, John A

    2010-02-01

    To present the first reported case of Descemet membrane stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK)-associated endophthalmitis with concave dislocation on slit-lamp optical coherence topography (SL-OCT). An 86-year-old man underwent DSEK for corneal decompensation secondary to prior surgery. On all postoperative visits, a slit-lamp examination and SL-OCT were performed. On the first postoperative day, the lenticle was dislocated in a concave configuration as imaged with the SL-OCT. On the second postoperative day, the patient had eye pain, nausea, and increased intraocular pressure. On SL-OCT imaging, the concave configuration and fibrin stranding were imaged. With intraocular pressure lowering, the patient's pain subsided, and he was scheduled for a lenticle refloat the following day. The next day, endophthalmitis was diagnosed secondary to exuberant purulent inflammation. At surgery, the lenticle was removed, cultures were obtained, and pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal injections were administered. Intraoperative cultures were positive for heavy growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Endophthalmitis is a potential complication for any intraocular procedure including DSEK. SL-OCT imaging postoperatively may reveal concave lenticle configuration and subtle anterior chamber fibrin stranding may be early sign of endophthalmitis.

  9. "Poverty is the big thing": exploring financial, transportation, and opportunity costs associated with fistula management and repair in Nigeria and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Sripad, Pooja; Nwala, Emmanuel; Warren, Charlotte E

    2018-06-01

    Women living with obstetric fistula often live in poverty and in remote areas far from hospitals offering surgical repair. These women and their families face a range of costs while accessing fistula repair, some of which include: management of their condition, lost productivity and time, and transport to facilities. This study explores, through women's, communities', and providers' perspectives, the financial, transport, and opportunity cost barriers and enabling factors for seeking repair services. A qualitative approach was applied in Kano and Ebonyi in Nigeria and Hoima and Masaka in Uganda. Between June and December 2015, the study team conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with women affected by fistula (n = 52) - including those awaiting repair, living with fistula, and after repair, and their spouses and other family members (n = 17), along with health service providers involved in fistula repair and counseling (n = 38). Focus group discussions (FGDs) with male and female community stakeholders (n = 8) and post-repair clients (n = 6) were also conducted. Women's experiences indicate the obstetric fistula results in a combined set of costs associated with delivery, repair, transportation, lost income, and companion expenses that are often limiting. Medical and non-medical ancillary costs such as food, medications, and water are not borne evenly among all fistula care centers or camps due to funding shortages. In Uganda, experienced transport costs indicate that women spend Ugandan Shilling (UGX) 10,000 to 90,000 (US$3.00-US$25.00) for two people for a single trip to a camp (client and her caregiver), while Nigerian women (Kano) spent Naira 250 to 2000 (US$0.80-US$6.41) for transportation. Factors that influence women's and families' ability to cover costs of fistula care access include education and vocational skills, community savings mechanisms, available resources in repair centers, client counseling, and subsidized care and

  10. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  11. articles: The implementation of marginal external cost pricing in road transport Long run vs short run and first-best vs second-best

    OpenAIRE

    Erik T. Verhoef

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses a number of issues that will become increasingly important now that the concept of marginal external cost pricing becomes more likely to be implemented as a policy strategy in transport in reality. The first part of the article deals with the long-run efficiency of marginal external cost pricing. It is shown that such prices not only optimize short-run mobility, given the shape and position of the relevant demand and cost curves, but even more importantly, also optimall...

  12. Evaluation of concave dose distributions created using an inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Hsiung, C.-Y.; Spirou, Spirodon V.; Chui, C.-S.; Amols, Howard I.; Ling, Clifton C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and develop optimum inverse treatment planning strategies for the treatment of concave targets adjacent to normal tissue structures. Methods and Materials: Optimized dose distributions were designed using an idealized geometry consisting of a cylindrical phantom with a concave kidney-shaped target (PTV) and cylindrical normal tissues (NT) placed 5-13 mm from the target. Targets with radii of curvature from 1 to 2.75 cm were paired with normal tissues with radii between 0.5 and 2.25 cm. The target was constrained to a prescription dose of 100% and minimum and maximum doses of 95% and 105% with relative penalties of 25. Maximum dose constraint parameters for the NT varied from 10% to 70% with penalties from 10 to 1000. Plans were evaluated using the PTV uniformity index (PTV D max /PTV D 95 ) and maximum normal tissue doses (NT D max /PTV D 95 ). Results: In nearly all situations, the achievable PTV uniformity index and the maximum NT dose exceeded the corresponding constraints. This was particularly true for small PTV-NT separations (5-8 mm) or strict NT dose constraints (10%-30%), where the achievable doses differed from the requested by 30% or more. The same constraint parameters applied to different PTV-NT separations yielded different dose distributions. For most geometries, a range of constraints could be identified that would lead to acceptable plans. The optimization results were fairly independent of beam energy and radius of curvature, but improved as the number of beams increased, particularly for small PTV-NT separations or strict dose constraints. Conclusion: Optimized dose distributions are strongly affected by both the constraint parameters and target-normal tissue geometry. Standard site-specific constraint templates can serve as a starting point for optimization, but the final constraints must be determined iteratively for individual patients. A strategy whereby NT constraints and penalties are modified until the highest

  13. The cost of pipelining climate change mitigation: An overview of the economics of CH4, CO2 and H2 transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, B.C.C. van der; Schoots, K.; Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Learning for pipeline construction, if available, is outshadowed by cost variability. → Pipelining is a mature technology, for which much experience has been gained. → Pipeline projects are heterogeneous with widely varying technical and cost specifics. → Pipeline cost components tend to reflect (commodity) market price developments. → Pipeline costs are strongly determined by the properties of the transported gas. -- Abstract: Gases like CH 4 , CO 2 and H 2 may play a key role in establishing a sustainable energy system: CH 4 is the least carbon-intensive fossil energy resource; CO 2 capture and storage can significantly reduce the climate footprint of especially fossil-based electricity generation; and the use of H 2 as energy carrier could enable carbon-free automotive transportation. Yet the construction of large pipeline infrastructures usually constitutes a major and time-consuming undertaking, because of safety and environmental issues, legal and (geo)political siting arguments, technically un-trivial installation processes, and/or high investment cost requirements. In this article we focus on the latter and present an overview of both the total costs and cost components of the distribution of these three gases via pipelines. Possible intricacies and external factors that strongly influence these costs, like the choice of location and terrain, are also included in our analysis. Our distribution cost breakdown estimates are based on transportation data for CH 4 , which we adjust for CO 2 and H 2 in order to account for the specific additional characteristics of these two gases. The overall trend is that pipeline construction is no longer subject to significant cost reductions. For the purpose of designing energy and climate policy we therefore know in principle with reasonable certainty what the minimum distribution cost components of future energy systems are that rely on pipelining these gases. We describe the reasons why we observe

  14. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mareev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventional diesel trucks in different transportation scenarios. The average consumption is simulated for different battery electric truck configurations on the main German highways and transportation scenarios incorporating battery charging during driver rest periods. The results show that in average case the required battery would restrict the payload to only 80% of a usual diesel truck payload that might be acceptable considering the statistical payload use. The life cycle costs in the examined scenarios also considering the charging infrastructure show that battery electric trucks can already perform on the same costs level as diesel trucks in certain scenarios.

  15. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  16. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries: evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  17. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries : evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  18. Energy, Pollutant Emissions and Other Negative Externality Savings from Curbing Individual Motorized Transportation (IMT: A Low Cost, Low Technology Scenario Analysis in Brazilian Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the inefficient use of resources in the Brazilian transportation system. The energy use growth and external cost generation in this essential economic sector are considerable, and the trend is towards an increasing problem in the coming years. The continued expansion of Brazilian cities and the increase in demand for mobility is a result of a substantial growth in the number of road transport users, as increased earnings enable lower income groups to acquire and use individual motorized means of transport. The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential gains from reducing individual motorized transport by the year 2020. This investigation concludes that in a conservationist scenario, by prioritizing low cost, low technology public policies—which include operation of Bus Rapid Transit systems, walking and cycling facilities and congestion charges, among others—it should be possible to save over USD 30 billion and USD 26 billion in external transportation and infrastructure costs, respectively, up to 2020. In addition, these public policies can save more than 35 million Tons of Oil Equivalents in energy consumption and avoid almost 4,000 thousand tons of local pollution emissions and 37,500 thousand tons of GHG emissions in the same period.

  19. Low-cost concepts for dry transfer of spent fuel and waste between storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The federal government may provide interim storage for spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors that have used up their available storage capacity. One of the leading candidate concepts for this interim storage is to place spent fuel in large metal shielding casks. The Federal Interim Storage (FIS) site may not have the capability to transfer spent fuel from transportation casks to storage casks and vice versa. Thus, there may be an incentive to construct a relatively inexpensive but reliable intercask transfer system for use at an FIS site. This report documents the results of a preliminary study of preconceptual design and analysis of four intercask transfer concepts. The four concepts are: a large shielded cylindrical turntable that contains an integral fuel handling machine (turntable concept); a shielded fuel handling machine under which shipping and storage casks are moved horizontally (shuttle concept); a small hot cell containing equipment for transferring fuel betwee shipping and storage casks (that enter and leave the cell on carts) in a bifurcated trench (trench concept) and a large hot cell, shielded by an earthen berm, that houses equipment for handling fuel between casks that enter and leave the cell on a single cart (igloo concept). Information derived for each of the concepts is operating, capital and relocation costs; implementation and relocation time requirements; and overall characteristics

  20. Differentiated sales and vehicles taxes. An assessment of instruments for the internalization of external costs of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schol, E.

    1995-12-01

    The level of differentiation of the sales and annual vehicle taxes is based on the avoidance costs of noise and air pollution caused by transportation. The assessment is made on economic, ecological, technical and political criteria. The basic assumption of this report is that a system of differentiated sales and annual vehicle taxes for passenger cars will be an additional instrument to an energy/CO 2 tax (or levy). The reason is that due to the far reaching characteristics, the incentives for innovation and the fact that fuel taxes are relatively easy to implement, the core of any internalization strategy at an international level should consist of a taxation on fuel. In this report the discussion of instruments is at the European Community level. On the base of this preliminary research it can be concluded that differentiated sales and annual vehicle taxes have no strong negative impacts, but also have not many strong positive impacts. The instruments will not lead to strong positive impacts on the environment. One of the reasons is that both tax systems are related to vehicle ownership and not to vehicle use. There is a stronger relationship between vehicle use and emissions than between vehicle ownership and emissions. However, the instruments probably are technically as well as politically feasible and will give an incentive for the development and sale of cleaner and more quiet vehicles within the European Union. 1 figs., 9 tabs., 22 refs

  1. The cost of pipelining climate change mitigation. An overview of the economics of CH4, CO2 and H2 transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Schoots, K.; Rivera-Tinoco, R. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands (ECN), Policy Studies Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbong, G.P.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Gases like CH4, CO2 and H2 may play a key role in establishing a sustainable energy system: CH4 is the least carbon-intensive fossil energy resource; CO2 capture and storage can significantly reduce the climate footprint of especially fossil-based electricity generation; and the use of H2 as energy carrier could enable carbon-free automotive transportation. Yet the construction of large pipeline infrastructures usually constitutes a major and time-consuming undertaking, because of safety and environmental issues, legal and (geo)political siting arguments, technically untrivial installation processes, and/or high investment cost requirements. In this article we focus on the latter and present an overview of both the total costs and cost components of the distribution of these three gases via pipelines. Possible intricacies and external factors that strongly influence these costs, like the choice of location and terrain, are also included in our analysis. Our distribution cost breakdown estimates are based on transportation data for CH4, which we adjust for CO2 and H2 in order to account for the specific additional characteristics of these two gases. The overall trend is that pipeline construction is no longer subject to significant cost reductions. For the purpose of designing energy and climate policy we therefore know in principle with reasonable certainty what the minimum distribution cost components of future energy systems are that rely on pipelining these gases. We describe the reasons why we observe limited learning-by-doing and explain why negligible construction cost reductions for future CH4, CO2 and H2 pipeline projects can be expected. Cost data of individual pipeline projects may strongly deviate from the global average because of national or regional effects related to the type of terrain, but also to varying costs of labor and fluctuating market prices of components like steel.

  2. Designs of contraction nozzle and concave back-wall for IFMIF target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Mizuho E-mail: ida@ifmif.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Nakamura, Hideo; Nakamura, Hiroo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    For the liquid lithium flow target of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the double reducer (two-step contraction) nozzle with a high-contraction ratio of 10 which generated high-speed uniform jet flows up to 20 m/s was proposed. Multi-dimensional hydraulic analyses were carried out to verify the performance of the proposed nozzle. The analytical results showed that the double reducer nozzle would well generate high-speed uniform flow, while one-step contraction nozzle generated non-uniform flow and resulted in flow thickening at the beam footprint. For the target design, the range of the concave back-wall radius with no lithium boiling due to the centrifugal force and proper component arrangement in the irradiation test cell was determined by the thermal-hydraulic analysis of a free-surface flow. It was verified that the back-wall radius from 0.25 to 10 m was acceptable in the velocity range of 10-20 m/s.

  3. Reliable single chip genotyping with semi-parametric log-concave mixtures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph C A Rippe

    Full Text Available The common approach to SNP genotyping is to use (model-based clustering per individual SNP, on a set of arrays. Genotyping all SNPs on a single array is much more attractive, in terms of flexibility, stability and applicability, when developing new chips. A new semi-parametric method, named SCALA, is proposed. It is based on a mixture model using semi-parametric log-concave densities. Instead of using the raw data, the mixture is fitted on a two-dimensional histogram, thereby making computation time almost independent of the number of SNPs. Furthermore, the algorithm is effective in low-MAF situations.Comparisons between SCALA and CRLMM on HapMap genotypes show very reliable calling of single arrays. Some heterozygous genotypes from HapMap are called homozygous by SCALA and to lesser extent by CRLMM too. Furthermore, HapMap's NoCalls (NN could be genotyped by SCALA, mostly with high probability. The software is available as R scripts from the website www.math.leidenuniv.nl/~rrippe.

  4. Designs of contraction nozzle and concave back-wall for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Hideo; Nakamura, Hiroo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    For the liquid lithium flow target of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the double reducer (two-step contraction) nozzle with a high-contraction ratio of 10 which generated high-speed uniform jet flows up to 20 m/s was proposed. Multi-dimensional hydraulic analyses were carried out to verify the performance of the proposed nozzle. The analytical results showed that the double reducer nozzle would well generate high-speed uniform flow, while one-step contraction nozzle generated non-uniform flow and resulted in flow thickening at the beam footprint. For the target design, the range of the concave back-wall radius with no lithium boiling due to the centrifugal force and proper component arrangement in the irradiation test cell was determined by the thermal-hydraulic analysis of a free-surface flow. It was verified that the back-wall radius from 0.25 to 10 m was acceptable in the velocity range of 10-20 m/s

  5. Water experiment of high-speed, free-surface, plane jet along concave wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Ida, Mizuho; Kato, Yoshio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Kukita, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an intense 14 MeV neutron beam will be generated in the high-speed liquid lithium (Li) plane jet target flowing along concave wall in vacuum. As part of the conceptual design activity (CDA) of the IFMIF, the stability of the plane liquid jet flow was studied experimentally with water in a well-defined channel geometry for non-heating condition. A two-dimensional double-reducer nozzle being newly proposed for the IFMIF target successfully provided a high-speed (≤ 17 m/s) stable water jet with uniform velocity distribution at the nozzle exit without flow separation in the nozzle. The free surface of the jet was covered by two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional waves, the size of which did not change much over the tested jet length of ∼130 mm. The jet velocity profile changed around the nozzle exit from uniform to that of free-vortex flow where the product of the radius of stream line and local velocity is constant in the jet thickness. The jet thickness increased immediately after exiting the nozzle because of the velocity profile change. The predicted jet thickness by a modified one-dimensional momentum model agreed with the data well. (author)

  6. A theoretical model for flow boiling CHF from short concave heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, J.E.; Mudawar, I.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were performed to enable the development of a new theoretical mode for the enhancement in CHF commonly observed with flow boiling on concave heater as compared to straight heaters. High-speed video imaging and photomicrography were employed to capture the trigger mechanism for CHF each type heater. A wavy vapor layer was observed to engulf the heater surface in each case, permitting liquid access to the surface only in regions where depressions (troughs) in the liquid vapor interface made contact with the surface. CHF in each case occurred when the pressure force exerted upon the wavy vapor-liquid inter ace in the contact region could no longer overcome the momentum of the vapor produced in these regional. Shorter interfacial wavelengths with greater curvature were measured on the curve, heater than on the straight heater, promoting a greater pressure force on the wave interface and a corresponding increase in CHF for the curved heater. A theoretics. CHF model is developed from these observations, based upon a new theory for hydrodynamic instability, along a curved interface. CHF data are predicted with good accuracy for both heaters. 23 refs., 9 figs

  7. Micro-concave waveguide antenna for high photon extraction from nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Kewes, Günter; Djalalian-Assl, Amir; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Roberts, Ann; Benson, Oliver; Prawer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy colour center (NV− center) in nanodiamond is an excellent single photon source due to its stable photon generation in ambient conditions, optically addressable nuclear spin state, high quantum yield and its availability in nanometer sized crystals. In order to make practical devices using nanodiamond, highly efficient and directional emission of single photons in well-defined modes, either collimated into free space or waveguides are essential. This is a Herculean task as the photoluminescence of the NV centers is associated with two orthogonal dipoles arranged in a plane perpendicular to the NV defect symmetry axis. Here, we report on a micro-concave waveguide antenna design, which can effectively direct single photons from any emitter into either free space or into waveguides in a narrow cone angle with more than 80% collection efficiency irrespective of the dipole orientation. The device also enhances the spontaneous emission rate which further increases the number of photons available for collection. The waveguide antenna has potential applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation, spectroscopy and metrology. PMID:26169682

  8. The advanced launch system: Application of total quality management principles to low-cost space transportation system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, M. G.; Rothwell, T. G.; Rosenberg, D. A.; Oliver, M. B.

    Recognizing that a major inhibitor of man's rapid expansion of the use of space is the high cost (direct and induced) of space transportation, the U.S. has embarked on a major national program to radically reduce the cost of placing payloads into orbit while, at the same time, making equally radical improvements inlaunch system operability. The program is entitled "The Advanced Launch System" (ALS) and is a joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (DoD/NASA) program which will provide launch capability in the post 2000 timeframe. It is currently in Phase II (System Definition), which began in January 1989, and will serve as a major source of U.S. launch system technology over the next several years. The ALS is characterized by a new approach to space system design, development, and operation. The practices that are being implemented by the ALS are expected to affect the management and technical operation of all future launch systems. In this regard, the two most significant initiatives being implemented on the ALS program are the practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Unified Information System (Unis). TQM is a DoD initiative to improve the quality of the DoD acquisition system, contractor management systems, and the technical disciplines associated with the design, development, and operation of major systems. TQM has been mandated for all new programs and affects the way every group within the system currently does business. In order to implement the practices of TQM, new methods are needed. A program on the scale of the ALS generates vast amounts of information which must be used effectively to make sound decisions. Unis is an information network that will connect all ALS participants throughout all phases of the ALS development. Unis is providing support for project management and system design, and in following phases will provide decision support for launch operations, computer integrated manufacturing, automated

  9. An Accelerated Development, Reduced Cost Approach to Lunar/Mars Exploration Using a Modular NTR-Based Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S.; Clark, J.; Sefcik, R.; Corban, R.; Alexander, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of integrated systems and mission studies are presented which quantify the benefits and rationale for developing a common, modular lunar/Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. At present NASA's Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for an 'early return to the Moon' and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The time and cost to develop these multiple systems are expected to be significant. The Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) has examined a variety of lunar and Mars missions and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) options in an effort to determine a 'standardized' set of engine and stage components capable of satisfying a wide range of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. By using these components in a 'building block' fashion, a variety of single and multi-engine lunar and Mars vehicles can be configured. For NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to translunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.5 m length, and 66 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a UC-ZrC-graphite 'composite' fuel with a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.3. By extending the size and LH2 capacity of the lunar NTR stage to approximately 20 m and 96 t, respectively, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle capable of delivering approximately 50 t of surface payload is possible. Three 50 klbf NTR engines and the two standardized LH2 tank sizes developed for lunar and Mars cargo vehicle applications would be used to configure the Mars piloted vehicle for a mission as early as 2010. The paper describes the features of the 'common

  10. Automatic choroid cells segmentation and counting based on approximate convexity and concavity of chain code in fluorescence microscopic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihua; Chen, Xinjian; Zhu, Weifang; Yang, Lei; Cao, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method based on the Freeman chain code to segment and count rhesus choroid-retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF/6A) automatically for fluorescence microscopy images. The proposed method consists of four main steps. First, a threshold filter and morphological transform were applied to reduce the noise. Second, the boundary information was used to generate the Freeman chain codes. Third, the concave points were found based on the relationship between the difference of the chain code and the curvature. Finally, cells segmentation and counting were completed based on the characteristics of the number of the concave points, the area and shape of the cells. The proposed method was tested on 100 fluorescence microscopic cell images, and the average true positive rate (TPR) is 98.13% and the average false positive rate (FPR) is 4.47%, respectively. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Modeling of Focused Acoustic Field of a Concave Multi-annular Phased Array Using Spheroidal Beam Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lili; Shou Wende; Hui Chun

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axial dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Revisiting maximum-a-posteriori estimation in log-concave models: from differential geometry to decision theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pereyra, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) estimation is the main Bayesian estimation methodology in many areas of data science such as mathematical imaging and machine learning, where high dimensionality is addressed by using models that are log-concave and whose posterior mode can be computed efficiently by using convex optimisation algorithms. However, despite its success and rapid adoption, MAP estimation is not theoretically well understood yet, and the prevalent view is that it is generally not proper ...

  13. Studies on the zeros of Bessel functions and methods for their computation: 2. Monotonicity, convexity, concavity, and other properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, M. K.

    2016-07-01

    This work continues the study of real zeros of first- and second-kind Bessel functions and Bessel general functions with real variables and orders begun in the first part of this paper (see M.K. Kerimov, Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 54 (9), 1337-1388 (2014)). Some new results concerning such zeros are described and analyzed. Special attention is given to the monotonicity, convexity, and concavity of zeros with respect to their ranks and other parameters.

  14. TAF(II)170 interacts with the concave surface of TATA-binding protein to inhibit its DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L A; van der Knaap, J A; van den Boom, V; van den Heuvel, F A; Timmers, H T

    2001-11-01

    The human RNA polymerase II transcription factor B-TFIID consists of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the TBP-associated factor (TAF) TAF(II)170 and can rapidly redistribute over promoter DNA. Here we report the identification of human TBP-binding regions in human TAF(II)170. We have defined the TBP interaction domain of TAF(II)170 within three amino-terminal regions: residues 2 to 137, 290 to 381, and 380 to 460. Each region contains a pair of Huntington-elongation-A subunit-Tor repeats and exhibits species-specific interactions with TBP family members. Remarkably, the altered-specificity TBP mutant (TBP(AS)) containing a triple mutation in the concave surface is defective for binding the TAF(II)170 amino-terminal region of residues 1 to 504. Furthermore, within this region the TAF(II)170 residues 290 to 381 can inhibit the interaction between Drosophila TAF(II)230 (residues 2 to 81) and TBP through competition for the concave surface of TBP. Biochemical analyses of TBP binding to the TATA box indicated that TAF(II)170 region 290-381 inhibits TBP-DNA complex formation. Importantly, the TBP(AS) mutant is less sensitive to TAF(II)170 inhibition. Collectively, our results support a mechanism in which TAF(II)170 induces high-mobility DNA binding by TBP through reversible interactions with its concave DNA binding surface.

  15. Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Benoit

    Etant donne la demande croissante de temperatures elevees dans des chambres de combustion de systemes de propulsions en aerospatiale (turbomoteurs, moteur a reaction, etc.), l'interet dans le refroidissement par jets impactant s'est vu croitre. Le refroidissement des aubes de turbine permet une augmentation de temperature de combustion, ce qui se traduit en une augmentation de l'efficacite de combustion et donc une meilleure economie de carburant. Le transfert de chaleur dans les au bages est influence par les aspects aerodynamiques du refroidissement a jet, particulierement dans le cas d'ecoulements turbulents. Un manque de comprehension de l'aerodynamique a l'interieur de ces espaces confinees peut mener a des changements de transfert thermique qui sont inattendus, ce qui augmente le risque de fluage. Il est donc d'interet pour l'industrie aerospatiale et l'academie de poursuivre la recherche dans l'aerodynamique des jets turbulents impactant les parois courbes. Les jets impactant les surfaces courbes ont deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes. Par contre des conditions oscillatoires observees en laboratoire se sont averees difficiles a reproduire en numerique, puisque les structures d'ecoulements impactants des parois concaves sont fortement dependantes de la turbulence et des effets instationnaires. Une etude experimentale fut realisee a l'institut PPRIME a l'Universite de Poitiers afin d'observer le phenomene d'oscillation dans le jet. Une serie d'essais ont verifie les conditions d'ecoulement laminaires et turbulentes, toutefois le cout des essais experimentaux a seulement permis d'avoir un apercu du phenomene global. Une deuxieme serie d'essais fut realisee numeriquement a l'Universite de Moncton avec l'outil OpenFOAM pour des conditions d'ecoulement laminaire et bidimensionnel. Cette etude a donc comme but de poursuivre l'enquete de l'aerodynamique oscillatoire des jets impactant des parois courbes, mais pour un regime d'ecoulement transitoire, turbulent

  16. The Interior City. Infinity and Concavity in the No-Stop City(1970-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez Capdevila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the late 60s it had become clear how the environment technification had allowed some typologies (supermarkets, car parks, factories to reach potentially unlimited built depths becoming, therefore, independent from the outside. The No-Stop City is born from a very simple idea: to extend this technification to the totality of built reality encompassing, not only almost all functions, but ultimately, the whole city. This operation has paradoxical effects: as architecture grows, it loses most of the features that have traditionally defined it. A dissolution by hypertrophy that gives rise to an homogeneous, concave and potentially infinite space.But beyond the pure technical feasibility, there are two key influences, seemingly contradictory, that explain this endeavor for an interior and endless city: Marxism and Pop Art. The project is, in many senses, a built manifesto reflecting the militancy of the group members within the Italian Marxism. But it is also the embodiment of the group's declared interest in Pop Art, popular culture and mass society. The cross-influence of communism and consumerism explains this "quantitative utopia" in which the society and the factory, the production and consumption, would match. A city based on the centrality of consumer products and the subsequent loss of prominence of architecture, in which the urban phenomenon, while spreading endlessly over territory, ignoring its rural exteriority, dissolves the home as a sphere of privacy, ignoring its domestic interiority.A project, also in the wake of Marshall McLuhan, that illustrates like few others the conversion of the urbane into a virtually omnipresent "condition" and that still interrogates us with questions that are, on the other hand, eternal: What is a building? What is a city?Key wordsBranzi, dissolution, pop, Marxism, neo-avant-garde

  17. Report: Ozone Transport Commission Incurred Costs Under EPA Assistance Agreements XA98379901, OT83098301, XA97318101, and OT83264901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2007-4-00068, July 31, 2007. We questioned $2,723,706 of the $9,042,706 in reported outlays because the recipient claimed unallowable outlays for contractual services, indirect costs, and in-kind costs.

  18. Acceptance of anti-retroviral therapy among patients infected with HIV and tuberculosis in rural Malawi is low and associated with cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Zachariah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A study was conducted among newly registered HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB patients systematically offered anti-retroviral treatment (ART in a district hospital in rural Malawi in order to a determine the acceptance of ART b conduct a geographic mapping of those placed on ART and c examine the association between "cost of transport" and ART acceptance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed on routine program data for the period of February 2003 to July 2004. Standardized registers and patient cards were used to gather data. The place of residence was used to determine road distances to the Thyolo district hospital. Cost of transport from different parts of the district was based on the known cost for public transport to the road-stop closest to the patient's residence. Of 1,290 newly registered TB patients, 1,003(78% underwent HIV-testing of whom 770 (77% were HIV-positive. 742 of these individuals (pulmonary TB = 607; extra-pulmonary TB = 135 were considered eligible for ART of whom only 101(13.6% accepted ART. Cost of transport to the hospital ART site was significantly associated with ART acceptance and there was a linear trend in association between cost and ART acceptance (chi(2 for trend = 25.4, P<0.001. Individuals who had to pay 50 Malawi Kwacha (1 United States Dollar = 100 Malawi Kwacha, MW or less for a one-way trip to the Thyolo hospital were four times more likely to accept ART than those who had to pay over 100 MW (Adjusted Odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval: 2.0-8.1, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ART acceptance among TB patients in a rural district in Malawi is low and associated with cost of transport to the centralized hospital based ART site. Decentralizing the ART offer from the hospital to health centers that are closer to home communities would be an essential step towards reducing the overall cost and burden of travel.

  19. A state-of-the-art review of techno-economic models predicting the costs of CO2 pipeline transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Ramirez, C.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    This study aims to provide a systematic overview and comparison of capital and O&M costs models for CO2 pipelines and booster stations currently available in literature. Our findings indicate significantly large cost ranges for the results provided by the different cost models. Two main types of

  20. Cost that is Directly Incurred as a Result of Operating the Train Service on the 1520 mm Rail with Primarily Freight Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hudenko, J; Ribakova, N; Počs, R

    2016-01-01

    Under the Directive 2012/34/EU (21 November 2012) "the charges for … [rail] infrastructure … shall be set at the cost that is directly incurred as a result of operating the train service". This charging rule is new for Baltic States’ railways, where due to the favorable geographic position a full cost application without detalization was possible. Although, a big number of relevant studies on the issue was made in EU, all of them covered only 1435mm railways with primarily passenger transport...

  1. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF PYROLYSIS OIL PRODUCTION COSTS AND MATERIAL ENERGY BALANCE ASSOCIATED WITH A TRANSPORTABLE FAST PYROLYSIS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Badger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic analysis was performed for a 100 dry-ton/day (90,719 kg/day fast pyrolysis transportable plant. Renewable Oil International® LLC provided the life cycle cost of operating a 100 dry-ton/day fast pyrolysis system using southern pine wood chips as feedstock. Since data was not available from an actual large-scale plant, the study examined data obtained from an actual 15 dry-ton/day pilot plant and from several smaller plants. These data were used to obtain base figures to aid in the development of models to generate scaled-up costs for a larger 100 dry-ton/day facility. Bio-oil represented 60% of mass of product yield. The cost for the bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was valued at $0.94/gal. Energy cost bio-oil and char was valued at $6.35/MMBTU. Costs associated with purchasing feedstocks can drastically influence the final cost of the bio-oil. The assumed cost of feedstocks was $25/wet ton or $50/dry ton. This paper is part of a larger study investigating the economic and environmental impacts for producing bio-oil / biocide wood preservatives.

  2. The cost-effectiveness of physician staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) transport to a major trauma centre in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Colman; Jan, Stephen; Curtis, Kate; Tzannes, Alex; Li, Qiang; Palmer, Cameron; Dickson, Cara; Myburgh, John

    2012-11-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are highly resource-intensive facilities that are well established as part of trauma systems in many high-income countries. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a physician-staffed HEMS intervention in combination with treatment at a major trauma centre versus ground ambulance or indirect transport (via a referral hospital) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Cost and effectiveness estimates were derived from a cohort of trauma patients arriving at St George Hospital in NSW, Australia during an 11-year period. Adjusted estimates of in-hospital mortality were derived using logistic regression and adjusted hospital costs were estimated through a general linear model incorporating a gamma distribution and log link. These estimates along with other assumptions were incorporated into a Markov model with an annual cycle length to estimate a cost per life saved and a cost per life-year saved at one year and over a patient's lifetime respectively in three patient groups (all patients; patients with serious injury [Injury Severity Score>12]; patients with traumatic brain injury [TBI]). Results showed HEMS to be more costly but more effective at reducing in-hospital mortality leading to a cost per life saved of $1,566,379, $533,781 and $519,787 in all patients, patients with serious injury and patients with TBI respectively. When modelled over a patient's lifetime, the improved mortality associated with HEMS led to a cost per life year saved of $96,524, $50,035 and $49,159 in the three patient groups respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed a higher probability of HEMS being cost-effective in patients with serious injury and TBI. Our investigation confirms a HEMS intervention is associated with improved mortality in trauma patients, especially in patients with serious injury and TBI. The improved benefit of HEMS in patients with serious injury and TBI leads to improved estimated cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  3. Estudio de gastos en insumos de mantenimiento correctivo de las cuñas tractoras en empresa de transporte. // An study about consumable parts of corrective maintenance costs of the tractive vehicles of the Transportation Filial of Almacenes Universales Ent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rigol Cardona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Las cuñas tractoras son vehículos de transporte utilizados en Cuba bajo intensas condiciones de explotación, con un sistemade mantenimiento preventivo, que teóricamente simultanea alta disponibilidad técnica a gastos aceptables. El trabajopresenta los gastos en insumos de mantenimiento correctivo en pesos convertibles cubanos (CUC y su arancel en pesoscubanos (CUP tras explotar ocho meses consecutivos una flota de 20 cuñas marca Renault, de la filial de transporte en laprovincia de Holguín, en una empresa transportista nacional. Los objetivos del artículo son: recopilar la información sobregastos de mantenimiento, realizar un análisis estadístico, obtener el comportamiento relativo de los gastos e interpretar losresultados. Los métodos empleados fueron, observación no participante, porcentajes componentes, análisis clúster, análisisde varianza, diferencias significativas medias y principio de Pareto. El estudio reveló que al 95 % de confianza haydiferencias significativas entre los gastos en CUC de mantenimiento correctivo, de donde se originan tres grupos devehículos; los gastos de mantenimiento correctivo superan tres veces los de mantenimiento preventivo y esto contradice lasupuesta aplicación de mantenimiento preventivo y se determinaron los vehículos con mayores gastos, empleándose en laactualidad esta herramienta para la toma de decisiones de la gerencia.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, costos, vehículos de transporte, disponibilidad._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe tractive vehicles are transportation vehicles used in Cuba under intensive explotation conditions, and have a preventivemaintenance system that theoricately produces both high technical availability and acceptable costs. In the article arepresented the maintenance costs in cuban convertible pesos (CUC and the tariff in cuban pesos (CUP of using duringeight consecutive months, a twenty Renault vehicle

  4. MoS2: a two-dimensional hole-transporting material for high-efficiency, low-cost perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Nazari, Pariya; Abdollahi Nejand, Bahram; Eskandari, Mehdi

    2018-05-01

    In this work MoS2 thin film was studied as a potential two-dimensional (2D) hole-transporting material for fabrication of low-cost, durable and efficient perovskite solar cells. The thickness of MoS2 was studied as a potential factor in reaching high power conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells. The thickness of the perovskite layer and the different metal back contacts gave distinct photovoltaic properties to the designed cells. The results show that a single sheet of MoS2 could considerably improve the power conversion efficacy of the device from 10.41% for a hole transport material (HTM)-free device to 20.43% for a device prepared with a 0.67 nm thick MoS2 layer as a HTM. On the back, Ag and Al collected the carriers more efficiently than Au due to the value of their metal contact work function with the TiO2 conduction band. The present work proposes a new architecture for the fabrication of low-cost, durable and efficient perovskite solar cells made from a low-cost and robust inorganic HTM and electron transport material.

  5. Análise do custo e do raio econômico de transporte de madeira de reflorestamentos para diferentes tipos de veículos Cost and distance of reforestation wood transport for different types of trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Lopes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer a distância máxima de transporte viável para cada tipo de veículo utilizado para transportar a madeira das áreas de colheita até centros de consumo. Para tanto, utilizaram-se dados de custos e receitas de um reflorestamento, bem como a capacidade de carga de diferentes composições veiculares empregadas no transporte. Aplicando-se os critérios econômicos (VPL, TIR, CMP e BCPE, as distâncias variaram entre 155 e 226 km, para o caminhão-truck e o rodotrem, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que o rodotrem pode alcançar distância maior de transporte, sendo o preço da madeira a variável que mais influenciou a distância máxima de transporte.The objective of this study was to establish the viable transport maximum distance for each type of wood transportation vehicle from the harvest areas to the consumption centers. Thus, reforestation cost and revenue data were used, as well as the load capacity of different types of vehicles used for wood transport. The application of economic criteria (VPL, TIR, CMP and BCPE showed that the distances varied between 155 and 226 km, for the small truck and rodotrem (truck with two large trailers, respectively. It was concluded that rodotrem could reach a greater distance, with wood price being the factor most influencing maximum transport distance.

  6. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  7. Cost Overruns in Large-Scale Transport Infrastructure Projects : A theoretical and empirical exploration for the Netherlands and worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantarelli, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the costs of railroad infrastructure construction work out 11 per cent higher than forecast; the percentage for roads is 19 and 22 for bridges and tunnels. While this puts the Netherlands in a favourable light compared to other countries, the actual cost overruns are probably far

  8. The modal transfer analysis by adding transport costs. Case study: The use of bus and private vehicle student Institut Teknologi Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliarto, H.; Alhamidi; Syahbandi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Since the last two years the Institut Teknologi Sumatera to accept new students in large numbers. Increasing the number of students is directly proportional to the increase of private vehicles that enter the campus it is not in line with the policy of the Institut Teknologi Sumatera as Smart, Friendly, and Forest Campus. Institut Teknologi Sumatera as Smart, Friendly, and Forest Campus fact has made some deal with mass public transport, Damri, to provide bus transportation to the Institut Teknologi Sumatera, but the number of bus users is still inferior to the number of private vehicle users. This study was conducted to see the modal transfer of the entire academic community ITERA, from private cars to public transport such as buses, with the addition of transportation costs in the form of parking rates. This study shows the dominant displacement can occur if the respondent charged parking fees of IDR 4.000. Besides the displacement mode of transportation from using private vehicles be using the bus can occur if Trans Lampung fix three systems including bus departure and arrival schedules, facility service providers that support, and the addition of the Bus Trans Lampung.

  9. The Björk-Shiley 70 degree convexo-concave prosthesis strut fracture problem (present state of information).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeyer, J; Horstkotte, D; Bennett, J; Huysmans, H; Lindblom, D; Olin, C; Orinius, E; Semb, G

    1987-04-01

    Between June 1980 and June 1983 4028 Björk-Shiley 70 degree convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves were distributed and implanted in Australia, Canada, Europe and South Africa. As of March 1986, a total of 52 outlet strut fractures (1.29%; 70% CL: 1.1%-1.5%) have been reported from 29 implant institutions in 12 countries. The majority (82.7%) occurred in Europe. Intervals between implantation and fracture were 13 days to 45.3 months (mean: 18.4 months; 70% CL: 16.6 months-20.1 months). The mortality rate after strut fracture was 78.7% (70% CL: 72.5%-84.9%). Upon stratification of the fracture by valve sizes and types it becomes evident that 75% (70% CL: 68.8%-81.2%) of all fractures are related to the sizes 29 mm to 33 mm (which virtually represent the same valve size) and predominantly to mitral valves (p less than 0.01). The large valves again have been stratified into two subsets, namely those fabricated from flanges originally machined as Björk-Shiley 60 degree convexo-concave valves (group I) and later produced valves machined initially to 70 degree specifications (group II). In group I the fracture rate was 5.2% (70% CL: 4.2%-6.2%) versus 1.6% (70% CL: 1.1%-2.1%) in group II (p less than 0.01), which identifies the group I 29 mm-33 mm Björk-Shiley 70 degree convexo-concave valves as the highest risk group for strut fracture. The rates are based upon all available information as of March 16, 1986.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Bregman Cost for Non-Gaussian Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Martin; Dong, Yiqiu; Sciacchitano, Federica

    estimator for the Bregman cost if the image is corrupted by Gaussian noise. In this work we extend this result to other noise models with log-concave likelihood density, by introducing two related Bregman cost functions for which the CM and the MAP estimates are proper Bayes estima-tors. Moreover, we also....... From a theoretical point of view it has been argued that the MAP estimate is only in an asymptotic sense a Bayes estimator for the uniform cost function, while the CM estimate is a Bayes estimator for the means squared cost function. Recently, it has been proven that the MAP estimate is a proper Bayes...

  11. Three-dimensional imaging of a complex concaved cuboctahedron copper sulfide crystal by x-ray nanotomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Li Wenjie; Tian Yangchao; Wu Chunyan; Yu Shuhong

    2008-01-01

    By combining Fresnel zone-plate based transmission x-ray microscopy with computed tomography, the nanoscale features in materials with complex shapes can be imaged using synchrotron radiation. The tomographic data sets of a complex copper sulfide crystal were acquired in the angle range ±70 deg. at photon energy of 8.0 keV and then were reconstructed by a standard filtered-back-projection algorithm. This experiment shows the quantifiable three-dimensional information of the copper sulfide crystal, which offers a complete understanding of the concaved cuboctahedron structure with 14 faces comprising of six squares and eight triangles

  12. Plasmonic enhancement of UV emission from ZnO thin films induced by Al nano-concave arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norek, Małgorzata; Łuka, Grzegorz; Włodarski, Maksymilian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Al nano-concave arrays with different interpore distance (D c ) were prepared. • PL of ZnO thin films deposited directly on the Al nano-concaves were studied. • The effect of 10 nm Al 2 O 3 spacer on PL emission from ZnO thin films was analyzed. • Plasmonic enhancement of the PL emission was dependent on the D c and the spacer. • The highest 9-fold enhancement was obtained for the Al/ZnO sample with D c ∼333 nm. - Abstract: Surface plasmons (SPs) supported by Al nano-concave arrays with increasing interpore distance (D c ) were used to enhance the ultraviolet light emission from ZnO thin films. Two sets of samples were prepared: in the first set the thin ZnO films were deposited directly on Al nanoconcaves (the Al/ZnO samples) and in the second set a 10 nm − Al 2 O 3 spacer was placed between the textured Al and the ZnO films (the Al/Al 2 O 3 -ALD/ZnO samples). In the Al/ZnO samples the enhancement was limited by a nonradiative energy dissipation due to the Ohmic loss in the Al metal. However, for the ZnO layer deposited directly on Al nanopits synthesized at 150 V (D c = 333 ± 18 nm), the largest 9-fold enhancement was obtained by achieving the best energy fit between the near band-edge (NBE) emission from ZnO and the λ (0,1) SPP resonance mode. In the Al/Al 2 O 3 -ALD/ZnO samples the amplification of the UV emission was smaller than in the Al/ZnO samples due to a big energy mismatch between the NBE emission and the λ (0,1) plasmonic mode. The results obtained in this work indicate that better tuning of the NBE − λ (0,1) SPP resonance mode coupling is possible through a proper modification of geometrical parameters in the Al/Al 2 O 3 -ALD/ZnO system such as Al nano-concave spacing and the thickness of the corresponding layer. This approach will reduce the negative influence of the non-radiative plasmonic modes and most likely will lead to further enhancement of the SP-modulated UV emission from ZnO thin films.

  13. Plasmonic enhancement of UV emission from ZnO thin films induced by Al nano-concave arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norek, Małgorzata, E-mail: mnorek@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Łuka, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Włodarski, Maksymilian [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Str. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Al nano-concave arrays with different interpore distance (D{sub c}) were prepared. • PL of ZnO thin films deposited directly on the Al nano-concaves were studied. • The effect of 10 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spacer on PL emission from ZnO thin films was analyzed. • Plasmonic enhancement of the PL emission was dependent on the D{sub c} and the spacer. • The highest 9-fold enhancement was obtained for the Al/ZnO sample with D{sub c} ∼333 nm. - Abstract: Surface plasmons (SPs) supported by Al nano-concave arrays with increasing interpore distance (D{sub c}) were used to enhance the ultraviolet light emission from ZnO thin films. Two sets of samples were prepared: in the first set the thin ZnO films were deposited directly on Al nanoconcaves (the Al/ZnO samples) and in the second set a 10 nm − Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spacer was placed between the textured Al and the ZnO films (the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ALD/ZnO samples). In the Al/ZnO samples the enhancement was limited by a nonradiative energy dissipation due to the Ohmic loss in the Al metal. However, for the ZnO layer deposited directly on Al nanopits synthesized at 150 V (D{sub c} = 333 ± 18 nm), the largest 9-fold enhancement was obtained by achieving the best energy fit between the near band-edge (NBE) emission from ZnO and the λ{sub (0,1)} SPP resonance mode. In the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ALD/ZnO samples the amplification of the UV emission was smaller than in the Al/ZnO samples due to a big energy mismatch between the NBE emission and the λ{sub (0,1)} plasmonic mode. The results obtained in this work indicate that better tuning of the NBE − λ{sub (0,1)} SPP resonance mode coupling is possible through a proper modification of geometrical parameters in the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ALD/ZnO system such as Al nano-concave spacing and the thickness of the corresponding layer. This approach will reduce the negative influence of the non-radiative plasmonic modes and most likely will lead to further

  14. Em busca da eficiência no transporte terceirizado: estrutura de custos, parcerias e eliminação de desperdícios Seeking effectiveness in third-party transportation: cost structures, partnerships and increased efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Fleury

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar um modelo racional para custeio de transporte como elemento fundamental ao bom funcionamento de parcerias entre embarcadores e transportadoras numa cadeia de suprimentos. A aplicação deste modelo a situações reais traz à tona uma série de informações importantes, a principal delas é o fato que o atual sistema de custeio utilizado pela maioria das empresas brasileiras causa sérias distorções em termos de custos, quando se consideram rotas curtas e rotas longas, subavaliando as primeiras e super-avaliando as últimas. Estas distorções estão vinculadas à elevada ineficiência no transporte de mercadorias, sobretudo nas operações de carregamento e descarregamento, cujos tempos médios excedem seis horas. Dentro deste escopo são definidos o conceito de parceria, suas implicações organizacionais e suas conseqüências imediatas, como por exemplo, o envolvimento de ambas as partes num programa de qualidade e produtividade do transporte. A adoção deste programa, paralelamente ao acordo quanto a um sistema de custeio de frete com as transportadoras que garantam um nível mínimo de retorno sobre seu investimento, tornam mais claras, e facilmente mensuráveis, as oportunidades para exploração de ganhos conjuntos dentro de um ambiente de parceria. Finalmente, são descritas as três causas básicas que levam a ineficiência das operações de carregamento e descarregamento no Brasil: organizacionais, tecnológicas e procedimentos.The main objective of this paper is to present a rational model for cost allocation in the transportation activity as a key element for designing and maintaining partnerships between shippers and carriers. The utilization of the proposed cost allocation model for a real case situation gave rise to several conclusions. The most important of them is the fact that the cost allocation system currently used by Brazilian shippers and carriers underestimate the cost of short

  15. Fleet servicing facilities for servicing, maintaining, and testing rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems: functional requirements, technical design concepts and options cost estimates and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Keith, D.A.; Preston, M.K. Jr.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-05-01

    This is a resource document which examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of a Fleet Servicing Facility (FSF). Such a facility is intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the United States' waste handling plants presently receiving radioactive wastes have an on-site FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the system is placed into service. Thus, a need is indicated for FSF's, or their equivalent, at various radioactive materials receiving sites. In this report, three forms of FSF's solely for spent fuel transport systems were examined: independent, integrated, and colocated. The independent concept was already the subject of a detailed report and is extensively referenced in this document so that capital cost comparisons of the three concepts could be made. These facilities probably could service high-level, intermediate-level, low-level, or other waste transportation systems with minor modification, but this study did not include any system other than spent fuel. Both the Integrated and Colocated concepts were assumed to be associated with some radioactive materials handling facility such as an AFR repository

  16. Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF{sub 6} by truck and trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Philippe; Pages, Pierre

    1989-08-01

    The present case study deals with the problem of uranium hexafluoride transportation by truck and train. It consists of a probabilistic risk assessment of the potential hazards to the public that can arise from the traffic that will take place in France in 1990. The specificity of UF{sub 6} is that it presents both chemical and radiological hazards. But, whatever the transported material, road traffic entails a risk of its own. Thus three kinds of risks are assessed for natural, depleted and enriched uranium hexafluoride. These assessments are the basis of a cost-effectiveness analysis which deals with such safety measures as using a protective overpack, avoiding populated areas and escorting the trucks.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF6 by truck and trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Philippe; Pages, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    The present case study deals with the problem of uranium hexafluoride transportation by truck and train. It consists of a probabilistic risk assessment of the potential hazards to the public that can arise from the traffic that will take place in France in 1990. The specificity of UF 6 is that it presents both chemical and radiological hazards. But, whatever the transported material, road traffic entails a risk of its own. Thus three kinds of risks are assessed for natural, depleted and enriched uranium hexafluoride. These assessments are the basis of a cost-effectiveness analysis which deals with such safety measures as using a protective overpack, avoiding populated areas and escorting the trucks

  18. Fabrication of complex free-standing nanostructures with concave and convex curvature via the layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi, Mohammad; Schönherr, Holger

    2014-02-18

    We report on the fabrication of unprecedented free-standing complex polymeric nanoobjects, which possess both concave and convex curvatures, by exploiting the layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polyelectrolytes. In a combined top-down/bottom-up replication approach pore diameter-modulated anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, fabricated by temperature modulation hard anodization (TMHA), were replicated with multilayers of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) to yield open nanotubes with diameters in the wide and narrow segments of 210 and 150 nm, respectively. To obtain stable pore diameter-modulated nanopores, which possess segment lengths between 1 and 5 μm and 5 and 10 μm in the narrow and wide pore portion, respectively, conventional hard anodization of aluminum was followed by a subsequent temperature-modulated anodization. After removing the backside aluminum electrode, silanizing the aluminum oxide, and passivating the exposed membrane surface with a thin layer of gold, PSS and PAH were deposited alternatingly to yield LBL multilayers. For optimized LBL multilayer thicknesses and compactness, established in separate experiments on silicon substrates and nanoporous AAO with straight pores, free-standing polymeric nanoobjects with concave and convex curvatures, were obtained. These were stable for wall thickness to pore diameter ratios of ≥0.08.

  19. Fabrication of agarose concave petridish for 3D-culture microarray method for spheroids formation of hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Li, Yang; Wang, Gaoshang; Jia, Zhidong; Li, Haiyan; Peng, Qing; Gao, Yi

    2018-04-19

    Liver is one of the most important organ in the body. But there are many limitations about liver transplantation for liver failure. It is quite important to develop the xenogeneic biological liver for providing an alternation to transplantation or liver regeneration. In this paper, we proposed a method to construct a novel kind of agarose 3D-culture concave microwell array for spheroids formation of hepatic cells. Using the 3D printing method, the microwell array was fabricated with an overall size of 6.4 mm × 6.4 mm, containing 121 microwells with 400 μm width/400 μm thickness. By exploiting the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes as a bridge, we finally fabricated the agarose one. We co-cultured three types of liver cells with bionics design in the microwell arrays. Using the methods described above, the resulting co-formed hepatocyte spheroids maintained the high viability and stable liver-specific functions. This engineered agarose concave microwell array could be a potentially useful tool for forming the elements for biological liver support. After developing the complete system, we also would consider to scale up the application of this system. It will be not only applied to the therapy of human organ damage, but also to the development of disease models and drug screening models.

  20. The evaluation of the modernization cost of the transport infrastructure of the Northern Sea Route in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radushinsky, Dmitry; Mottaeva, Asiiat; Andreeva, Larisa; Dyakova, Galina

    2017-10-01

    The paper is aimed to figure out the cost of modernization of the transport infrastructure of the Northern Sea Route. Main unfavorable factors, such as fall in prices for energy resources and the necessity of the implementation of ecologically safe and energy efficient technologies are taken into account. It is estimated that the development of Northern Sea Route financial model should also reflect the of effect of introduction of sanctions against the Russian Federation since 2014. The systematize the current conditions for the implementation of the, a survey of expert has been conducted. The total amount of cost appreciation, according to experts, is estimated from 50 to 70% of the base amount of planned investments in different areas. This result could be taken into account while making a proposals to potential investors.

  1. Iris concavity, corneal biomechanics, and their correlations with ocular biometry in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old UK school boys: baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet; Low, Sancy; Garway-Heath, David F; Foster, Paul J; Barton, Keith

    2014-04-17

    Pigment dispersion syndrome is associated with iris concavity. This study investigated the prevalence of iris concavity, defined as a measurement of ≤-0.1 mm, in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old boys, and explored the relationship between iris curvature and anterior segment biometry. Associations with corneal biomechanical parameters also were explored. A cohort of school boys (n = 96) was recruited from a local school. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was performed under accommodative and nonaccommodative conditions, and iris curvature quantified. Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with the ocular response analyzer (ORA). Noncontact axial biometry was performed using laser interferometry. The prevalence of iris concavity was 24% on distance fixation, increasing to 65% on accommodation. Variables significantly associated with nonaccommodating iris curvature were lens vault (P = 0.02) and mean keratometry (P = 0.02). For both variables acting jointly, R(2) = 0.30. Variables associated significantly with accommodating iris curvature were anterior chamber depth (P = 0.009), lens vault (P = 0.049), and mean scleral spur angle (P Iris concavity was a common finding in this cohort and related to anterior segment biometric parameters. Further work is required to clarify whether anatomical differences exist between iris concavity seen in the adolescent eye and that found in adults with pigment dispersion syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  3. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Thomas C., E-mail: tcj@transport.dtu.d [Department of Transport, Danish Technical University, Bygningstorvet 116 Vest, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Flemming [National Environmental Research Institute, Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-01-15

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  4. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis. An application to oil prices in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Thomas C. [Department of Transport, Danish Technical University, Bygningstorvet 116 Vest, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Moeller, Flemming [National Environmental Research Institute, Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-01-15

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. (author)

  5. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis. An application to oil prices in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Thomas C.; Moeller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. (author)

  6. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 1: Technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effectiveness and associated costs of operational and technical options for reduced fuel consumption by Douglas aircraft in the domestic airline fleet are assessed. Areas explored include alternative procedures for airline and flight operations, advanced and state of the art technology, modification and derivative configurations, new near-term aircraft, turboprop configuration studies, and optimum aircraft geometry. Data for each aircraft studied is presented in tables and graphs.

  7. Three-Dimensional Steady Supersonic Euler Flow Past a Concave Cornered Wedge with Lower Pressure at the Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Aifang; Xiang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of the three-dimensional jet created by a supersonic flow past a concave cornered wedge with the lower pressure at the downstream. The gas beyond the jet boundary is assumed to be static. It can be formulated as a nonlinear hyperbolic free boundary problem in a cornered domain with two characteristic free boundaries of different types: one is the rarefaction wave, while the other one is the contact discontinuity, which can be either a vortex sheet or an entropy wave. A more delicate argument is developed to establish the existence and stability of the square jet structure under the perturbation of the supersonic incoming flow and the pressure at the downstream. The methods and techniques developed here are also helpful for other problems involving similar difficulties.

  8. Five-year results after valve replacement with the Björk-Shiley 70 degrees convexo-concave prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsland, S; Svennevig, J L; Abdelnoor, M; Aas, H; Semb, G

    1992-01-01

    In the 18 months up to July 1983, 120 Björk-Shiley convexo-concave prostheses with 70 degrees opening angle were implanted in 47 women and 61 men aged 19-78 (mean 58.6) years. The prosthetic valves were aortic in 65 cases, mitral in 23 and both aortic and mitral in 20 cases. Emergency operation was required in ten cases, and concomitant surgery was performed in 43 (39.8%). The early mortality was 5.5%. A follow-up study, comprising 498 patient years, revealed 73.1% 5-year survival. There were three mechanical failures of prosthesis, in one of which re-replacement was successful. Elective prosthesis replacement was performed in four other cases judged to be at high risk of strut fracture.

  9. Self-Similar Solutions of Rényi’s Entropy and the Concavity of Its Entropy Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapitos N. Hatzinikitas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the class of self-similar probability density functions with finite mean and variance, which maximize Rényi’s entropy. The investigation is restricted in the Schwartz space S(Rd and in the space of l-differentiable compactly supported functions Clc (Rd. Interestingly, the solutions of this optimization problem do not coincide with the solutions of the usual porous medium equation with a Dirac point source, as occurs in the optimization of Shannon’s entropy. We also study the concavity of the entropy power in Rd with respect to time using two different methods. The first one takes advantage of the solutions determined earlier, while the second one is based on a setting that could be used for Riemannian manifolds.

  10. Fabrication and performance of a tubular ceria based oxygen transport membrane on a low cost MgO support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Søgaard, Martin; Clemens, F.

    2015-01-01

    A 30 μm thin-film tubular CGO (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ) membrane with catalytic layers on both sides has been prepared by dip-coating on a low cost, porous magnesium oxide (MgO) support. The MgO support was fabricated through a thermoplastic extrusion process. Support, thin membrane and catalytic layer...... atmospheric air and N2, H2 for the feed and sweep side respectively. The oxygen permeation was 4 N ml min−1 cm−2 at 850 °C using H2 on one side and air on the other side....

  11. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  12. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  13. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks (aka AURORA: Areal Use and Reactant Optimization at Rated Amperage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Amedeo [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dross, Robert [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Hydrogen fuel cells are recognized as one of the most viable solutions for mobility in the 21st century; however, there are technical challenges that must be addressed before the technology can become available for mass production. One of the most demanding aspects is the costs of present-day fuel cells which are prohibitively high for the majority of envisioned markets. The fuel cell community recognizes two major drivers to an effective cost reduction: (1) decreasing the noble metals content, and (2) increasing the power density in order to reduce the number of cells needed to achieve a specified power level. To date, the majority of development work aimed at increasing the value metric (i.e. W/mg-Pt) has focused on the reduction of precious metal loadings, and this important work continues. Efforts to increase power density have been limited by two main factors: (1) performance limitations associated with mass transport barriers, and (2) the historical prioritization of efficiency over cost. This program is driven by commercialization imperatives, and challenges both of these factors. The premise of this Program, supported by proprietary cost modeling by Nuvera, is that DOE 2015 cost targets can be met by simultaneously exceeding DOE 2015 targets for Platinum loadings (using materials with less than 0.2 mg-Pt/cm2) and MEA power density (operating at higher than 1.0 Watt/cm2). The approach of this program is to combine Nuvera’s stack technology, which has demonstrated the ability to operate stably at high current densities (> 1.5 A/cm2), with low Platinum loading MEAs developed by Johnson Matthey in order to maximize Pt specific power density and reduce stack cost. A predictive performance model developed by PSU/UTK is central to the program allowing the team to study the physics and optimize materials/conditions specific to low Pt loading electrodes and ultra-high current density and operation.

  14. Facile synthesis and electrochemiluminescence application of concave trisoctahedral Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals bound by {331} high-index facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Niu, Wenxin; Li, Zhiyuan; Xu, Guobao

    2011-10-07

    Concave trisoctahedral (TOH) Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals bound by {331} facets have been synthesized for the first time. Pd nanocubes and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride were used as the structure-directing cores and capping agents, respectively. Their optical and electrocatalytic properties were investigated. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  15. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  16. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611}high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H_2PtCl_6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells. (paper)

  17. Concave omnidirectional imaging device for cylindrical object based on catadioptric panoramic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Wu, Yumei; Wen, Peizhi

    2018-03-01

    To obtain information on the outer surface of a cylinder object, we propose a catadioptric panoramic imaging system based on the principle of uniform spatial resolution for vertical scenes. First, the influence of the projection-equation coefficients on the spatial resolution and astigmatism of the panoramic system are discussed, respectively. Through parameter optimization, we obtain the appropriate coefficients for the projection equation, and so the imaging quality of the entire imaging system can reach an optimum value. Finally, the system projection equation is calibrated, and an undistorted rectangular panoramic image is obtained using the cylindrical-surface projection expansion method. The proposed 360-deg panoramic-imaging device overcomes the shortcomings of existing surface panoramic-imaging methods, and it has the advantages of low cost, simple structure, high imaging quality, and small distortion, etc. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Utilization of BIM for automation of quantity takeoffs and cost estimation in transport infrastructure construction projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitásek, Stanislav; Matějka, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with problematic parts of automated processing of quantity takeoff (QTO) from data generated in BIM model. It focuses on models of road constructions, and uses volumes and dimensions of excavation work to create an estimate of construction costs. The article uses a case study and explorative methods to discuss possibilities and problems of data transfer from a model to a price system of construction production when such transfer is used for price estimates of construction works. Current QTOs and price tenders are made with 2D documents. This process is becoming obsolete because more modern tools can be used. The BIM phenomenon enables partial automation in processing volumes and dimensions of construction units and matching the data to units in a given price scheme. Therefore price of construction can be estimated and structured without lengthy and often imprecise manual calculations. The use of BIM for QTO is highly dependent on local market budgeting systems, therefore proper push/pull strategy is required. It also requires proper requirements specification, compatible pricing database and software.

  19. What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Plea of Transport and Logistics Netherlands for a practical and transparent system to calculate societal cost in the transportation sector in order to realize governmental targets for equal treatment of means of transportation; Gelijke monniken, gelijke kappen. Pleidooi van Transport en Logistiek Nederland voor een praktisch en transparant systeem van doorberekening van maatschappelijke kosten in de transportsector om overheidsdoelstellingen te halen bij gelijke behandeling van vervoerswijzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, R.; Poppink, P. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Transport makes an important contribution to our welfare, which is expressed in a large consumer surplus or added value for society. Some people define this consumer surplus as external benefits, if the positive consequences of transport fall to others. But unfortunately transport is also accompanied by negative effects for society. If the causer does not pay all the costs of the negative effects of transport, called external or social costs. These social costs above all lie in the area of air pollution, noise nuisance, land use, cutting through the landscape, accident risk and - in a certain way - also congestion. Just like all the other players, the transport industry has a social responsibility to bear the social costs created. For example compensating victims for damage incurred, like paying emotional damages to surviving relatives of traffic casualties. In an ideal situation, transport will remove all the negative effects by source or end-of-pipe measures, so that the social costs disappear. If we compensate, reduce and remove negative effects by means of charging or standards, we speak of internalisation of the social costs. The best way to internalise the costs is with a 'market model' (Pigou/Coase), but a 'government model' is also possible in certain conditions. Firstly, we will discuss the ideal market model and then we will discuss the government model as the second-best solution. The following points will be discussed: Marginal costs are by definition costs of most expensive measure to achieve objectives; No mode of transport pays all marginal costs; Transport costs rise least with road transport and most with inland shipping; Market model or government model?; Government model will place heavier burdens on rail and inland shipping; In practice, the unpaid bill is lower than in theory; Wishes of industry and society can be combined by politicians; What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander is necessary and feasible

  20. Site-Selective Carving and Co-Deposition: Transformation of Ag Nanocubes into Concave Nanocrystals Encased by Au-Ag Alloy Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaewan; Wang, Daniel; Ding, Yong; Zhang, Jiawei; Qin, Dong

    2018-01-23

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes with concave side faces and Au-Ag alloy frames, namely Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals, by titrating HAuCl 4 solution into an aqueous mixture of Ag nanocubes, ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc), NaOH, and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) at an initial pH of 11.6 under ambient conditions. Different from all previous studies involving poly(vinylpyrrolidine), the use of CTAC at a sufficiently high concentration plays an essential role in carving away Ag atoms from the side faces through galvanic replacement. Concurrent co-deposition of Au and Ag atoms via chemical reduction at orthogonal sites on the surface of Ag nanocubes leads to the generation of Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals with well-defined and controllable structures. Specifically, in the presence of CTAC-derived Cl - ions, the titrated HAuCl 4 is maintained in the AuCl 4 - species, enabling its galvanic replacement with the Ag atoms located on the side faces of nanocubes. The released Ag + ions can be retained in the soluble form of AgCl 2 - by complexing with the Cl - ions. Both the AuCl 4 - and AgCl 2 - in the solution are then reduced by ascorbate monoanion, a product of the neutralization reaction between H 2 Asc and NaOH, to Au and Ag atoms for their preferential co-deposition onto the edges and corners of the Ag nanocubes. Compared with Ag nanocubes, the Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals exhibit much stronger SERS activity at an excitation of 785 nm, making it feasible to monitor the Au-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBH 4 in situ. When the Ag cores are removed, the concave nanocrystals evolve into Au-Ag nanoframes with controllable ridge thicknesses.

  1. Flat-ramp vs. convex-concave thrust geometries in a deformable hanging wall: new insights from analogue modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Pedro; Tomas, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe; Duarte, Joao; Terrinha, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Different modes of strain accommodation affecting a deformable hanging-wall in a flat-ramp-flat thrust system were previously addressed through several (sandbox) analog modeling studies, focusing on the influence of different variables, such as: a) thrust ramp dip angle and friction (Bonini et al, 2000); b) prescribed thickness of the hanging-wall (Koy and Maillot, 2007); and c) sin-thrust erosion (compensating for topographic thrust edification, e.g. Persson and Sokoutis, 2002). In the present work we reproduce the same experimental procedure to investigate the influence of two different parameters on hanging-wall deformation: 1) the geometry of the thrusting surface; and 2) the absence of a velocity discontinuity (VD) that is always present in previous similar analogue modeling studies. Considering the first variable we use two end member ramp geometries, flat-ramp-flat and convex-concave, to understand the control exerted by the abrupt ramp edges in the hanging-wall stress-strain distribution, comparing the obtain results with the situation in which such edge singularities are absent (convex-concave thrust ramp). Considering the second investigated parameter, our motivation was the recognition that the VD found in the different analogue modeling settings simply does not exist in nature, despite the fact that it has a major influence on strain accommodation in the deformable hanging-wall. We thus eliminate such apparatus artifact from our models and compare the obtained results with the previous ones. Our preliminary results suggest that both investigated variables play a non-negligible role on the structural style characterizing the hanging-wall deformation of convergent tectonic settings were such thrust-ramp systems were recognized. Acknowledgments This work was sponsored by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through project MODELINK EXPL/GEO-GEO/0714/2013. Pedro Almeida wants to thank to FCT for the Ph.D. grant (SFRH/BD/52556/2014) under the

  2. Análise do impacto nos custos de transporte de um modelo de seleção de fornecedores baseado em variáveis socioambientais e de competitividade Suppliers selection model and its transportation cost impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Barros Telles do Carmo

    2011-09-01

    together along with a transport optimization model. It could be observed that the "selo social" has an important impact in transportation costs. When we analyzed competitiveness and certification evaluation models, we could observe that these suppliers evaluation model changes this relationship.

  3. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  4. A wear simulation study of nanostructured CVD diamond-on-diamond articulation involving concave/convex mating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul A.; Thompson, Raymond G.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Using microwave-plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), a 3-micron thick nanostructured-diamond (NSD) layer was deposited onto polished, convex and concave components that were machined from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These components had the same radius of curvature, 25.4mm. Wear testing of the surfaces was performed by rotating articulation of the diamond-deposited surfaces (diamond-on-diamond) with a load of 225N for a total of 5 million cycles in bovine serum resulting in polishing of the diamond surface and formation of very shallow, linear wear grooves of less than 50nm depth. The two diamond surfaces remained adhered to the components and polished each other to an average surface roughness that was reduced by as much as a factor of 80 for the most polished region located at the center of the condyle. Imaging of the surfaces showed that the initial wearing-in phase of diamond was only beginning at the end of the 5 million cycles. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and surface profilometry were used to characterize the surfaces and verify that the diamond remained intact and uniform over the surface, thereby protecting the underlying metal. These wear simulation results show that diamond deposition on Ti alloy has potential application for joint replacement devices with improved longevity over existing devices made of cobalt chrome and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). PMID:26989457

  5. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Magnetic Abrasive Finishing on Concave Freeform Surface of Al Alloy via RSM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts of researchers in industries to obtain accurate and high quality surfaces led to the invention of new methods of finishing. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF is a relatively new type of finishing in which the magnetic field is used to control the abrasive tools. Applications such as the surface of molds are ones of the parts which require very high surface smoothness. Usually this type of parts has freeform surface. In this study, the effect of magnetic abrasive process parameters on freeform surfaces of parts made of aluminum is examined. This method is obtained through combination of magnetic abrasive process and Control Numerical Computer (CNC. The use of simple hemisphere for installation on the flat area of the magnets as well as magnets’ spark in curve form is a measure done during testing the experiments. The design of experiments is based on response surface methodology. The gap, the rotational speed of the spindle, and the feed rate are found influential and regression equations governing the process are also determined. The impact of intensity of the magnetic field is obtained using the finite element software of Maxwell. Results show that in concave areas of the surface, generally speaking, the surface roughness decreases to 0.2 μm from its initial 1.3 μm roughness. However, in some points the lowest surface roughness of 0.08 μm was measured.

  6. Comparison between evaluations of the glenoid concavity by double oblique axial MR arthrography and clinical results in arthroscopic bankart repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Shugo; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Tsuda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Toh, Satoshi; Sasaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings obtained in the glenoid concavity by double oblique axial MR arthrography (DOA-MRA) and the clinical outcome after arthroscopic Bankart repair. The results in 57 shoulders of 50 patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair were reviewed. The pre and postoperative lesions in the inferior glenohumeral ligament labrum complex (IGHLLC) were classified into 5 morphological types based on the DOA-MRA findings prominent (P), split (S), flat (F), detached (D), and capsular tear (C). The height and slope of the anterior labrum from the glenoid fossa were measured on the DOA-MRA images. The Japan Shoulder Society Shoulder Instability Score (JSS-SIS) system was used to evaluate the affected shoulder of all of the patients after surgery. There were no significant differences between the JSS-SISs of the shoulders in the P group, F group, and S+D group (recurrent Bankart lesion) 6 months postoperatively. There were significant increases in the slope and height of all of the shoulders as a whole between the preoperative period and 3 months postoperatively, but there were no statistically significant differences in the slope or height between 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The initial capsulolabral buttress property was maintained at 6 months after arthroscopic Bankart repair, and there was no correlation between the morphology of the IGHLLC and the JSS-SISs. (author)

  7. Wavefront error measurement of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph on ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the alignment technique developed for the wavefront error measurement of ellipsoidal mirrors presenting a central hole. The achievement of a good alignment with a classic setup at the finite conjugates when mirrors are uncoated cannot be based on the identification and materialization at naked eye of the retro-reflected spot by the mirror under test as the intensity of the retro-reflected spot results to be ≈1E-3 of the intensity of the injected laser beam of the interferometer. We present the technique developed for the achievement of an accurate alignment in the setup at the finite conjugate even in condition of low intensity based on the use of an autocollimator adjustable in focus position and a small polished flat surface on the rear side of the mirror. The technique for the alignment has successfully been used for the optical test of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. The presented method results to be advantageous in terms of precision and of time saving also when the mirrors are reflective coated and integrated into their mechanical hardware.

  8. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  9. [Strut fracture of a convex-concave 60 degree Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis 5 years after implantation--metallurgic analysis of the prosthesis strut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, B; Rathmann, J; Wiebe, V; Witzel, U

    1991-08-01

    Acute mechanical failure of prosthetic heart valves is rare, but associated with high mortality when occurring. For convexo-concave Björk-Shiley prostheses only fractures of the outlet strut are reported. We present a case of lethal mechanical complication 5 years after implantation. By additional metallurgic analysis we were able to identify a sequential course of the outlet strut fracture. This could lead to new approaches for early detection of this complication.

  10. The improvement of GaN-based LED grown on concave nano-pattern sapphire substrate with SiO2 blocking layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concave nano-patterned sapphire substrates with SiO 2 blocking layer. • The IQE is almost two times larger than that of conventional one. • The EQE was extremely enhanced more than 100%. - Abstract: In contrast to convex nano-pattern sapphire substrates (NPSS), which are frequently used to fabricate high-quality nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), concave NPSS have been paid relatively less attention. In this study, a concave NPSS was fabricated, and its nitride epitaxial growth process was evaluated in a step by step manner. A SiO 2 layer was used to avoid nucleation over the sidewall and bottom of the nano-patterns to reduce dislocation reformation. Traditional LED structures were grown on the NPSS layer to determine its influence on device performance. X-ray diffraction, etched pit density, inverse leakage current, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results showed that dislocations and non-radiative recombination centers are reduced by the NPSS constructed with a SiO 2 blocking layer. An IQE twice that on a planar substrate was also achieved; such a high IQE significantly enhanced the external quantum efficiency of the resultant device. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the SiO 2 blocking layer proposed in this work can enhance the performance of LEDs.

  11. 太阳能技术在“绿色凹宅”中的应用%Application of Solar Energy Technology in Green Concave House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫理莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the application of solar energy technology in green concave house.The grid-connection photovoltaic power generation was used,which sent the redundant power back to the power network.The photovoltaic solar-thermal integrated solar panels provided the output of electricity and daily at the same time.The smart home system provided the comfortable environment for green concave house.The green concave house is a successful and low energy consumption example,which could provide references for the area of abundant solar energy and dispersal residence.%介绍了太阳能技术在“绿色凹宅”中的应用。采用的并网型太阳能光伏发电系统,当有余电时可回馈电网。铺设的光伏光热一体化太阳能板,在电力输出的同时提供生活热水。智能家居系统给“绿色凹宅”提供舒适的环境。“绿色凹宅”是一个比较成功的环保、低能耗的住宅实例,对太阳能资源丰富而又居住分散的地区有很好的借鉴意义。

  12. A new signal restoration method based on deconvolution of the Point Spread Function (PSF) for the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating UV spectrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Honglin; Luo, Yongdao

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, with the development of the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating, they are adopted by all kinds of UV spectrometers. By means of single optical surface, the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating can implement dispersion and imaging that make the UV spectrometer system design quite compact. However, the calibration of the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating is very difficult. Various factors make its imaging quality difficult to be guaranteed. So we have to process the spectrum signal with signal restoration before using it. Guiding by the theory of signals and systems, and after a series of experiments, we found that our UV spectrometer system is a Linear Space- Variant System. It means that we have to measure PSF of every pixel of the system which contains thousands of pixels. Obviously, that's a large amount of calculation .For dealing with this problem, we proposes a novel signal restoration method. This method divides the system into several Linear Space-Invariant subsystems and then makes signal restoration with PSFs. Our experiments turn out that this method is effective and inexpensive.

  13. Ribosomal protein L5 has a highly twisted concave surface and flexible arms responsible for rRNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, T; Yao, M; Kawamura, S; Iwasaki, K; Kimura, M; Tanaka, I

    2001-05-01

    Ribosomal protein L5 is a 5S rRNA binding protein in the large subunit and plays an essential role in the promotion of a particular conformation of 5S rRNA. The crystal structure of the ribosomal protein L5 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. The molecule consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices, which fold in a way that is topologically similar to the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain. The molecular shape and electrostatic representation suggest that the concave surface and loop regions are involved in 5S rRNA binding. To identify amino acid residues responsible for 5S rRNA binding, we made use of Ala-scanning mutagenesis of evolutionarily conserved amino acids occurring in the beta-strands and loop regions. The mutations of Asn37 at the beta1-strand and Gln63 at the loop between helix 2 and beta3-strand as well as that of Phe77 at the tip of the loop structure between the beta2- and beta3-strands caused a significant reduction in 5S rRNA binding. In addition, the mutations of Thr90 on the beta3-strand and Ile141 and Asp144 at the loop between beta4- and beta5-strands moderately reduced the 5S rRNA-binding affinity. Comparison of these results with the more recently analyzed structure of the 50S subunit from Haloarcula marismortui suggests that there are significant differences in the structure at N- and C-terminal regions and probably in the 5S rRNA binding.

  14. Strut fracture of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valve in Japan--risk of small valve size--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watarida, S; Shiraishi, S; Nishi, T; Imura, M; Yamamoto, Y; Hirokawa, R; Fujita, M

    2001-08-01

    The Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (BSCC) prosthetic valve was introduced in 1979. Between 1979 and 1986, approximately 86,000 BSCC valves were implanted. By December 31, 1994, 564 complete strut fractures had been reported to the manufacture. We experienced a case of an outlet strut fracture and investigated the risk of BSCC prosthetic valve fractures in Japan. To investigate the risk factor of a strut fracture in Japan, we investigated published cases of strut fractures. Between 1979 and 1986, 2021 BSCC valves were implanted in Japan. By January 31, 2000, 11 complete strut fractures of 60-degree BSCC valves including our case had occurred. The patients were eight males and three females. The average age at valve replacement was 42.4+/-8.1 years, and nine of eleven (81.8%) were patients valve fractured was 47.7+/-6.4 years, and eight of eleven (72.7%) were patients valve were 27 mm (n=5) (45.5%), 29 mm (n=3) (27.2%), and 31 mm (n=3) (27.2%). Four patients died and seven patients survived. Although only 11 BSCC valve struts fractured and statistical analysis could not be performed, our findings suggest that the high risk group for a strut fracture in Japan is young male patients with a mitral valve, >= 27 mm in size with BSCC models manufactured before March 1982. When following-up patients with BSCC models manufactured before March 1982, the possibility of a strut fracture in all BSCC valve sizes should be kept in mind.

  15. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  16. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : Cost Study : Before, During And After AOS Implementation (October 1996-May 1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority (AATA) began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such te...

  17. Workload of official contests, net cost of transport, and metabolic power of Mangalarga Marchador horses of marcha batida or picada gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Fonseca, M G; de Barros, G G M; Feringer-Júnior, W H; Pereira, G T; Ferraz, G C

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the maximum heart rate (HR) and the intensity of official marcha contests (OMC) and to compare the cost of transport (COT) and metabolic power (Pmet) of Mangalarga Marchador (MM) horses of marcha batida (MB) and marcha picada (MP) gaits. Twenty-two MM horses participated in this study. The experiment was conducted in 3 phases: 1) maximum effort test (MET), 2) OMC, and 3) standardized marcha test (SMT). To characterize the HR, 19 horses (14 MB and 5 MP) underwent a MET. Of those, 13 (9 MB and 4 MP) were monitored during the OMC, which consisted of 4 stages: marcha, walk, functional trial, and rest. The average heart rate (HR) in each stage of the OMC was related to the HR to determine their relative intensity. The SMT was performed with 14 horses (9 MB and 5 MP), of which 11 had already participated in the previous stages. The COT and Pmet were calculated from the HR values obtained during the SMT. Blood samples were collected to analyze plasma lactate concentration ([Lac]). One-way ANOVA or 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by the Tukey's test ( 0.05). This indicated that horses of both groups had the same physical fitness levels. The OMC stages defined in our study differed ( < 0.05) regarding the relative intensity of the HR, except for the walk and standing stages, which were similar ( = 0.0875). The MP group presented greater COT ( = 0.0247) and Pmet ( = 0.0193). It can be concluded that the mean HR of MM horses (MB and MP) is 212 ± 11 bpm. The OMC of the MM breed can be characterized as an effort of intermittent and submaximal intensity. In addition, the locomotion of the MB horses is probably more energetically efficient than that of MP horses.

  18. INTERMODAL TAŞIMACILIĞIN MALİYET AVANTAJLARI: KARAYOLU-DENİZYOLU ENTEGRASYONU ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA - COST BENEFITS OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: A RESEARCH ON ROAD AND MARITIME INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıtkı SAYGILI

    2014-03-01

    conditions and keep their costs under control for offering a transportation price that creates a competitive advantage to their customers. In order to decrease transportations costs and to minimize environmental damage, intermodal transportation that utilizes superior aspects of each transportation modality gains importance.In the present study, firstly basic points of intermodal transportation are explained and factors that affect integration of transportation modalities are identified. Also, information is given on cost management of logistics companies. Moreover, in terms of analyzing transportation costs in intermodal transportation, a sample application is conducted for comparing route costs in road transportation and integration of road and maritime transportation.

  19. INTERMODAL TAŞIMACILIĞIN MALİYET AVANTAJLARI: KARAYOLU-DENİZYOLU ENTEGRASYONU ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA - COST BENEFITS OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: A RESEARCH ON ROAD AND MARITIME INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıtkı SAYGILI

    2014-01-01

    conditions and keep their costs under control for offering a transportation price that creates a competitive advantage to their customers. In order to decrease transportations costs and to minimize environmental damage, intermodal transportation that utilizes superior aspects of each transportation modality gains importance.In the present study, firstly basic points of intermodal transportation are explained and factors that affect integration of transportation modalities are identified. Also, information is given on cost management of logistics companies. Moreover, in terms of analyzing transportation costs in intermodal transportation, a sample application is conducted for comparing route costs in road transportation and integration of road and maritime transportation.

  20. Dynamic transport study of the plasmas with transport improvement in LHD and JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, T.; Funaba, H.; Kubo, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Takeiri, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Michael, C.; Tokuzawa, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Takenaga, H.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Ide, S.

    2009-01-01

    Transport analysis during the transient phase of heating (a dynamic transport study) applied to the plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in the Large Helical Device (LHD) heliotron and the JT-60U tokamak is described. In the dynamic transport study the time of transition from the L-mode plasma to the ITB plasma is clearly determined by the onset of flattening of the temperature profile in the core region and a spontaneous phase transition from a zero curvature ITB (hyperbolic tangent shaped ITB) or a positive curvature ITB (concaved shaped ITB) to a negative curvature ITB (convex shaped ITB) and its back-transition are observed. The flattening of the core region of the ITB transition and the back-transition between a zero curvature ITB and a convex ITB suggest the strong interaction of turbulent transport in space.

  1. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  2. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  3. The cost-effectiveness of a steel tube or a buffer zone for mitigating blast effects on a building spanning an underpass with transport of LPG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den

    2010-01-01

    The use of space is being intensified near and above transport routes of hazardous materials. In The Netherlands, some buildings are even realized above infrastructure with transport of hazardous materials like LPG. An accident with an LPG-tank may result in a BLEVE, causing injuries and large

  4. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost of...

  6. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  7. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  8. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  9. The national-economic cost of reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Comparison of investments aimed towards a reduced greenhouse gas emission in power industry, agriculture, transportation sector and other essential greenhouse gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    For a number of years the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions in the energy sector in Denmark has been investigated in detail. The same has not been the case what concerns the cost of reducing other greenhouse gases (CH 4 and N 2 O) and especially not what concerns the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases in other sectors in the Danish economy, i.e. agriculture, transport, industry, domestic waste and forestry. Thus, the objective of this project was twofold: 1) To calculate the national economic costs related to a number of options for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) by using the same methodology for all important sectors in the economy and 2) To compare the cost efficiency of these options not only wihtin the individual sectors but also across the sectoral boundaries to achieve an overall view of the reduction possibilities in society and the associated costs. (au) 80 refs.; Prepared by Forskningscenter Risoe and Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser. Afdeling for Systemanalyse

  10. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport...

  11. Radiographic detection of single-leg fracture in Björk-Shiley Convexo-Concave prosthetic valves: a phantom model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, I C; Cardella, J F; Fox, P S; Pae, W E; el-Ghamry Sabe, A A; Landis, J R; Localio, A R; Kunselman, A R; Hopper, K D

    1997-02-01

    Cineradiography can identify patients with single-leg fractured Björk-Shiley Convexo-Concave valves, although little is known about the sensitivity and specificity of this technique. We evaluated three normal and six (0 microm gap) single-leg fractured Björk-Shiley valves that were placed in a working phantom model. Valves were randomly imaged a total of 33 times and duplicated into a 120-valve series with a 1:9 ratio of abnormal/normal valves. Six reviewers independently graded each valve and demonstrated markedly different rates of identifying the fractured valves. Average sensitivity at the grade that clinically results in valve explanation was 47%. Among the normal valves, a correct identification was made 96% (range 91% to 99%) of the time. Present radiographic technology may have significant difficulty in identifying true single-leg fracture in Björk-Shiley valves with limb separations that are common among clinically explanted valves.

  12. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  13. Optimization of radiotherapy to target volumes with concave outlines: target-dose homogenization and selective sparing of critical structures by constrained matrix inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colle, C; Van den Berge, D; De Wagter, C; Fortan, L; Van Duyse, B; De Neve, W

    1995-12-01

    The design of 3D-conformal dose distributions for targets with concave outlines is a technical challenge in conformal radiotherapy. For these targets, it is impossible to find beam incidences for which the target volume can be isolated from the tissues at risk. Commonly occurring examples are most thyroid cancers and the targets located at the lower neck and upper mediastinal levels related to some head and neck. A solution to this problem was developed, using beam intensity modulation executed with a multileaf collimator by applying a static beam-segmentation technique. The method includes the definition of beam incidences and beam segments of specific shape as well as the calculation of segment weights. Tests on Sherouse`s GRATISTM planning system allowed to escalate the dose to these targets to 65-70 Gy without exceeding spinal cord tolerance. Further optimization by constrained matrix inversion was investigated to explore the possibility of further dose escalation.

  14. An automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method for touching cells by integrating concave points clustering and random walker algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available Characterizing cytoarchitecture is crucial for understanding brain functions and neural diseases. In neuroanatomy, it is an important task to accurately extract cell populations' centroids and contours. Recent advances have permitted imaging at single cell resolution for an entire mouse brain using the Nissl staining method. However, it is difficult to precisely segment numerous cells, especially those cells touching each other. As presented herein, we have developed an automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method applied to the Nissl staining data, with the following two key steps: 1 concave points clustering to determine the seed points of touching cells; and 2 random walker segmentation to obtain cell contours. Also, we have evaluated the performance of our proposed method with several mouse brain datasets, which were captured with the micro-optical sectioning tomography imaging system, and the datasets include closely touching cells. Comparing with traditional detection and segmentation methods, our approach shows promising detection accuracy and high robustness.

  15. Outlet strut fracture of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valves: can valve-manufacturing characteristics explain the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R Z; Morton, L S; Beirne, M; Blot, W J; Lawford, P V; Hose, R; Taylor, K M

    2001-06-01

    Björk-Shiley 60 degrees convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves (Shiley, Inc, Irvine, Calif, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Inc) continue to be a concern for approximately 35,000 nonexplanted patients worldwide, with approximately 600 events reported to the manufacturer to date. Fractures of the outlet struts of the valves began to appear in the early 1980s and have continued to the present, but their causes are only partially understood. A matched case-control study was conducted evaluating manufacturing records for 52 valves with outlet strut fractures and 248 control subjects matched for age at implantation, valve size, and valve position. In addition to the risk factors recognized as determinants of outlet strut fracture, the United Kingdom case-control study has observed 7- to 9-fold increased risk with performance of multiple hook deflection tests. This test was performed more than once, usually after rework on the valve. Six valves in this study underwent multiple hook deflection tests, of which 4 experienced an outlet strut fracture. Cracks and further rework were noted for these valves. Significant associations were also observed between outlet strut fracture and disc-to-strut gap measurements taken before the attachment of the sewing ring. It is our view that a combination of factors related to valve design, manufacturing process, and patient characteristics are responsible for outlet strut fractures of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valves. Multiple hook deflection tests have emerged as a potential new risk factor for outlet strut fracture in both The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This factor appears to be correlated with the presence of other abnormalities. A further study is needed to investigate the factors correlated with multiple hook deflection tests. On confirmation of risk, the presence of multiple hook deflection tests may be added to equations, quantifying the risk of outlet strut fracture for comparison against risk of mortality and serious

  16. A preliminary assessment of system cost impacts of using transportable storage casks and other shippable metal casks in the utility/DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the foregoing, a study was conducted by E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. and H and R Technical Associates, Inc. to determine the prospective viability of the use of TSCs and shippable SOCs in the combined utility/DOE system. This study considered costs, ALARA considerations and the logistics of the use and delivery of casks to the DOE system by utilities. It was intended that this study would result in a technical and cost resource base that could be used for evaluating various strategies and scenarios for deploying TSCs or SOCs in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system with respect to the prospective economic advantage that could be realized

  17. Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires: Role of evanescent modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Li-Fu; Fan, Dian-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires is investigated by using the isotropic elastic continuum theory. The numerical calculations for both the concavity-shaped and convexity-shaped cylindrical structures are made to reveal the role of the evanescent modes. Results show that the evanescent modes play an important role in influencing the thermal transport in such structures. For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent. It is also shown that the influence of the evanescent modes on the thermal conductance is strongly related to the attenuation length of the evanescent modes. A brief analysis of these results is given. - Highlights: • The evanescent modes play an important role in influencing thermal transport contributed by torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires. • For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, they can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent.

  18. Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires: Role of evanescent modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China); Zhang, Li-Fu, E-mail: zhanglifu68@hotmail.com [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Dian-Yuan [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2017-05-03

    Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires is investigated by using the isotropic elastic continuum theory. The numerical calculations for both the concavity-shaped and convexity-shaped cylindrical structures are made to reveal the role of the evanescent modes. Results show that the evanescent modes play an important role in influencing the thermal transport in such structures. For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent. It is also shown that the influence of the evanescent modes on the thermal conductance is strongly related to the attenuation length of the evanescent modes. A brief analysis of these results is given. - Highlights: • The evanescent modes play an important role in influencing thermal transport contributed by torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires. • For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, they can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent.

  19. Longitudinal study of iris concavity, corneal biomechanics, and correlations to ocular biometry in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old UK schoolboys: 2-year follow-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet; Lascaratos, Gerassimos; Garway-Heath, David F; Foster, Paul J; Barton, Keith

    2014-06-10

    To explore changes in iris curvature over a 2-year period. To investigate associations between iris curvature and ocular biometric parameters. To explore relationships between a number of nonocular measurements and ocular biometric parameters. Schoolboys enrolled 2 years previously were invited to return for anterior segment optical coherence tomography, corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and axial biometric measurements. Refractive error was assessed and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, digit ratio, and percentage body fat taken. Mean spherical equivalent refraction reduced by 0.76 diopters and mean iris concavity, defined as a measurement of less than or equal to -0.1 mm, increased by 0.018 mm at distance fixation and 0.04 mm on accommodation. Compared with 2 years previously, the prevalence of iris concavity increased from 24% to 32% on distance fixation and from 65% to 84% on accommodation. Variables significantly associated with nonaccommodating iris curvature were anterior chamber depth (ACD, P = 0.029) and mean scleral spur angle (P = 0.0001). Variables significantly associated with accommodating iris curvature were ACD (P = 0.02), lens vault (P = 0.047), and scleral spur angle (P Iris concavity was more prevalent in this cohort of schoolboys than 2 years earlier. The degree of concavity remains related to ACD and lens vault. The association between spur-to-spur distance and CH was similar at baseline and after 2 years. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  20. 48 CFR 47.102 - Transportation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... assumed responsibility. The cost of this insurance to the carrier shall be part of the transportation cost...

  1. Posterior all-pedicle screw instrumentation combined with multiple chevron and concave rib osteotomies in the treatment of adolescent congenital kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Mehmet; Olgun, Z Deniz; Demirkiran, H Gokhan; Alanay, Ahmet; Yazici, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Congenital kyphoscoliosis is a disorder that often requires surgical treatment. Although many methods of surgical treatment exist, posterior-only vertebral column resection with instrumentation and fusion seem to have become the gold standard for very severe and very rigid curves. Multiple chevron and concave rib osteotomies have been previously reported to be effective in the treatment of neglected severe idiopathic curves. We hypothesized that this method may also be used successfully in the treatment of congenital kyphoscoliosis. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of multiple chevron osteotomies combined with concave rib osteotomy and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. Retrospective chart review in the spine service of a large university hospital. Adolescent patients undergoing a specific surgical treatment for the indication of rigid congenital kyphoscoliotic deformity. Radiographic images were used for the measurement of deformity correction. The Turkish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) Patient Questionnaire has been used as a clinical outcome measure in the patient population. A retrospective chart review was performed. Patients admitted to Hacettepe Hospital Spine Center during the period of 2005 to 2009 were included. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: adolescent age group (10-16 years); congenital kyphoscoliosis; formation and/or segmentation defect of at least two vertebral motion segments; surgical treatment of deformity by posterior all-pedicle screw instrumentation, multiple chevron osteotomies, and multiple concave rib osteotomies; follow-up of at least 24 months; and a complete set of preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up standing posteroanterior and lateral full spinal radiographs. The patients' hospital records and X-rays were reviewed. Duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative transfusion requirements, postoperative stay in postanesthesia care unit (PACU), time of hospitalization, and

  2. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  3. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo moro 2, Rome, I-00185 (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  4. Gas-fuelled driving and sailing. Cost and environmental effects of natural gas and green gas in transport; Rijden en varen op gas. Kosten en milieueffecten van aardgas en groen gas in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.E.; Croezen, H.J.; Verbraak, G.M.; Brouwer, F.P.E.

    2010-06-15

    A number of new gaseous fuels for cars and ships is becoming more popular: compressed natural gas (CNG), liquid natural gas (LNG) and biogas. This report presents the results of a study of the costs and environmental effects of these gas applications and compares them to diesel and petrol and the 'common' biofuels biodiesel and bio-ethanol. The green gas applications emit much less CO2 than biodiesel and bio-ethanol from wheat. The air-polluting emissions are much lower in all cases. The basic cost of driving or sailing on these gaseous fuels (excl. levies and taxes) are significantly higher than in case of diesel, but in some cases van be comparable or even lower than in case of liquid biofuels. [Dutch] Een aantal nieuwe gasvormige brandstoffen voor auto's en schepen is in opkomst: aardgas onder druk (CNG), vloeibaar aardgas (LNG) en biogassen. In dit rapport worden de resultaten van een onderzoek naar de kosten en de milieueffecten van deze gastoepassingen gepresenteerd en vergeleken met diesel en benzine en de 'gewone' biobrandstoffen bio-diesel en bio-ethanol. De groen gas-toepassingen stoten aanzienlijk minder CO2 uit dan biodiesel en bio-ethanol uit tarwe. De luchtvervuilende emissies zijn in alle gevallen een stuk lager. De kale kosten van rijden en varen op deze gasvormige brandstoffen (excl. heffingen en belastingen) zijn wel aanzienlijk hoger dan bij diesel, maar kunnen in sommige toepassingen vergelijkbaar of lager uitkomen dan van de vloeibare biobrandstoffen.

  5. 49 CFR 1562.27 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs. 1562.27 Section 1562.27 Transportation... Costs. (a) Each aircraft operator must pay a threat assessment fee of $15 for each passenger and... part. (b) Each aircraft operator must pay to TSA the costs associated with carrying out this subpart...

  6. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela STET

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with the problems of logistics costs, highlighting some methods for estimation and determination of specific costs for different transport modes in freight distribution. There are highlighted, besides costs of transports, the other costs in supply chain, as well as costing methods used in logistics activities. In this context, there are also revealed some optimization means of transport costs in logistics chain.

  7. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela STET

    2016-01-01

    The paper is dealing with the problems of logistics costs, highlighting some methods for estimation and determination of specific costs for different transport modes in freight distribution. There are highlighted, besides costs of transports, the other costs in supply chain, as well as costing methods used in logistics activities. In this context, there are also revealed some optimization means of transport costs in logistics chain.

  8. Improved electron injection and transport by use of baking soda as a low-cost, air-stable, n-dopant for solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earmme, Taeshik; Jenekhe, Samson A.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) is found to be an efficient low-cost, air-stable, and environmentally friendly n-dopant for electron-transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). A 2.0-fold enhancement in power efficiency of blue PhOLEDs is observed by use of NaHCO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) ETL. The bulk conductivity of NaHCO3-doped BPhen film is increased by 5 orders of magnitude. Enhanced performance of PhOLEDs is similarly observed by use of NaHCO3-doped 1,3,5-tris(m-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene ETL. These results demonstrate that sodium bicarbonate is an effective n-dopant in organic electronics.

  9. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (Δ 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  10. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  11. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  12. Diffusive-to-ballistic transition of the modulated heat transport in a rarefied air chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Gomez-Heredia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulated heat transfer in air subject to pressures from 760 Torr to 10-4 Torr is experimentally studied by means of a thermal-wave resonant cavity placed in a vacuum chamber. This is done through the analysis of the amplitude and phase delay of the photothermal signal as a function of the cavity length and pressure through of the Knudsen’s number. The viscous, transitional, and free molecular regimes of heat transport are observed for pressures P>1.5 Torr, 25 mTorrconcavity of the amplitude decay in a length scan, which is concave upward for the viscous regime and concave downward in the free molecular one. Furthermore, the increase of the radiative contribution on both the amplitude and phase is also observed as the pressure reduces. The obtained results show that the proposed methodology can be used to study the molecular dynamics in gases supporting diffusive and ballistic heat transport.

  13. Self-reported quality of life and health among Björk-Shiley convexo-concave prosthetic heart valve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, L B; Kennedy, J A; Richmond, R A; Sieu, K L; Blot, W J; Harrison, D C

    2001-03-01

    The risk of fracture of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (BSCC) prosthetic heart valves has resulted in consideration of prophylactic explantation and replacement for patients with high-risk valves. Little information exists on perceived quality of life, health status, and serious morbidity among BSCC patients, including those who have undergone explantation. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a cohort of 585 BSCC patients who participated in an X-ray imaging study to detect precursors to valve fracture up to seven years (average 3.9 years) previously. Responses from 31 explant patients were contrasted with those from 554 BSCC patients in whom explant surgery was not attempted. Perceived quality of life and health status and risk of hospitalization after participating in the imaging study varied considerably among patients, but on average tended not to differ significantly between those with and without explants. A slightly greater proportion of explantees tended to report both improved health status and high rates of heart attack and pacemaker implantation. The health status of these patients was, in general, considerably worse than previously reported among valve implant patients. Over half the cohort were hospitalized during follow up, and half were unable to walk up more than one flight of stairs without shortness of breath. The less than optimal health status of most BSCC patients and relatively high rates of morbidity should be taken into account when considering potential explantation of the valves.

  14. Semi-analytical computation of the acoustic field of a segment of a cylindrically concave transducer in lossless and attenuating media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Başak Ulker; Miller, Eric L; Cleveland, Robin O

    2007-02-01

    Conventional ultrasound transducers used for medical diagnosis generally consist of linearly aligned rectangular apertures with elements that are focused in one plane. While traditional beamforming is easily accomplished with such transducers, the development of quantitative, physics-based imaging methods, such as tomography, requires an accurate, and computationally efficient, model of the field radiated by the transducer. The field can be expressed in terms of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral; however, its direct numerical evaluation is a computationally intensive task. Here, a fast semianalytical method based on Stepanishen's spatial impulse response formulation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 1627-1638 (1971)] is developed to compute the acoustic field of a rectangular element of cylindrically concave transducers in a homogeneous medium. The pressure field, for, lossless and attenuating media, is expressed as a superposition of Bessel functions, which can be evaluated rapidly. In particular, the coefficients of the Bessel series are frequency independent and need only be evaluated once for a given transducer. A speed up of two orders of magnitude is obtained compared to an optimized direct numerical integration. The numerical results are compared with Field II and the Fresnel approximation.

  15. Configuration design and accuracy analysis of a novel magneto rheological finishing machine tool for concave surfaces with small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Henan; Chen, Mingjun; Yu, Bo; Zhen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a computer-controlled deterministic polishing technique that is widely used in the production of high-quality optics. In order to overcome the defects of existing MRF processes that are unable to achieve concave surfaces with small radius of curvature, a configuration method of a novel structured MRF machine tool using small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head is proposed in this paper. The preliminary design focuses on the structural configuration of the machine, which includes the machine body, motion units and accessory equipment, and so on. Structural deformation and fabrication accuracy of the machine are analyzed theoretically, in which the reasonable structure sizes, manufacturing errors and assembly errors of main structural components are given for configuration optimization. Based on the theoretical analysis, a four-axes linkage MRF machine tool is developed. Preliminary experiments of spot polishing are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed MRF process can achieve stable polishing area which meets requirement of deterministic polishing. A typical small-bore complex component is polished on the developed device and fine surface quality is obtained with sphericity of the finished spherical surfaces 1.3 μm and surface roughness Ra less than 0.018 μm.

  16. Sulphur extended oil sand mix : paving material for lower transport cost and CO{sub 2} reduction : ASRL Syncrude research project 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquin d' , G. [Con-Sul Inc., Missoula, MT (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This power point presentation discussed the use of sulphur-enhanced oil sands (SEOS) as a paving mixture. Sulphur has been added to asphaltic bitumen paving processes since the 1850s. Research into sulphur additions has been conducted by various Canadian industry members and institutions. A study in 1995 investigated the use of SEOS as a temporary paving material. The benefits of using SEOS included lower capital costs and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts. Increases in equipment efficiency were also observed. Researchers are now developing mixing protocols and testing various paving materials in relation to temperature regimes and percentages of sulphur. Sand, limestone, coke, and rubber additions are also being evaluated, as well as the behaviour of SEOS in freeze-thaw cycles. To date, the studies have indicated that a 30 percent sulphur, 10 percent sand, and 60 percent oil sand mixture provides optimal compression and behaviour under freeze-thaw conditions. The use of SEOS paving at oil sands mine sites will reduce truck and road maintenance as well as reduce fuel emissions and consumption rates. tabs., figs.

  17. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo

    1986-01-01

    by a given supply of transport. In contrast with conventional methods, this method operates with real measures, i.e. real location (instead of traffic zones), real time (instead of average travel time), and real costs (instead of proxy-costs). The purpose is to produce relevant and easily understandable......This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...

  18. Tariff structures for the transport of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenken, R.M.L.; Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Some possible tariff structures for electricity transport are discussed. First, the costs associated with the transport of electricity are explained. The fixed and variable costs of a transport are illustrated with some examples. Furthermore, the most common tariff structures (contract path, megawatt mile, postage stamp) and negotiated Third Party Access are discussed. Finally, the way the tariff structures reflect the costs of electricity transport are reviewed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  19. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  20. The cost of electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, J.C.; Kan, J.; Szynkarczuk, J.; Hassan, T.A.; Kar, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Electrocoagulation could be an attractive and suitable method for separating solids from waste water. The electrocoagulation of kaolinite and bentonite suspensions was studied in a pilot electrocoagulation unit to assess the cost and efficiency of the process. Factors affecting cost such as the formation of passivation layers on electrode plates and the recirculation and concentration of sodium chloride were examined. Colorimetry was used to analyze aluminum content in the suspension. The results were used to calculate the cost due to consumption of electrode material (aluminium) during the process. Total cost was assumed to comprise the energy cost and the cost of electrode material. Comparison was based on the settling properties of the treated product: turbidity, settling rate, and cake height. In most cases, aluminium efficiency averaged around 200% and material cost accounted for 80% of total cost. Although higher concentrations of sodium chloride could only slightly increase aluminium efficiency and electrode efficiency, the higher concentrations resulted in much greater total cost, due to the greater current generated by the increased suspension conductivity, which in turn dissolved a larger amount of aluminium. The recirculation loop increased the flow rate by 3-10 times, enhancing the mass transport between the electrodes and resulting in lower cost and better settling properties. Over the course of two months the electrodes coatings became thicker while efficiency decreased. The electrode efficiency was found to be as high as 94% for virgin electrodes and as low as 10% after two months. 8 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  2. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  3. 77 FR 17121 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. [[Page 17122

  4. Project Cost Estimation for Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    For Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT), there are far too many projects that ultimately cost much more than initially planned. Because project nominations are linked to estimates of future funding and the analysis of system needs, the inaccur...

  5. Designer's unified cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, William T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Swanson, G. D.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model has been initiated. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state of the art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a data base and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. The approach, goals, plans, and progress is presented for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  6. Designers' unified cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  7. Strut fracture with Björk-Shiley 70 degrees convexo-concave valve. An international multi-institutional follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, A; Lindblom, D; Semb, G; Huysmans, H A; Thulin, L I; Scully, H E; Bennett, J G; Ostermeyer, J; Grunkemeier, G L

    1992-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1983, 831 Björk-Shiley 70 degrees convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves were implanted at five institutions in Sweden, Germany. The Netherlands, and Canada. As of January 1991, there were 34 outlet strut fractures occurring from 0.2 to 10.1 years (median = 4.6 years) after implantation. In addition, there were 28 sudden, unexplained deaths. The mortality after strut fracture was 84%. The mortality after emergency valve replacement for strut fracture was 50%. The 10-year actuarial fracture rate (standard error) was 10.5 (2.4)% for large (29-33 mm) valves vs. 3.3 (1.2)% for 21-27 mm valves (P less than 0.001). Within valve size groups, fracture rates for aortic and mitral valves were similar. Cox regression analysis found only valve size to be significantly associated with strut fracture. There is a further subgrouping of the valves according to the manufacturer: group I are the earlier large 29-33 mm) valves; group II are the later large valves; group III are the small size (21-27 mm) valves. The risk of strut fracture was highest in group I (12.3% at 10 years) with an approximatively constant hazard (1.4% per year). A comparison was made with a statistical model incorporating all cases reported to the manufacturer. This model estimates fracture rates approximately 63%-73% of those found in the present study. These findings lead us to recommend that group I patients should be considered for elective reoperation on an individual basis, giving careful attention to risk factors and contraindications.

  8. [Directions for reoperation of patients with Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valve prosthesis, based on long-term experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, F; Nakano, K; Endo, M; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1994-02-01

    Although a high incidence of strut fracture of the Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (C-C) valve prosthesis has been reported, it is still controversial whether the prosthesis functioning normally should be replaced electively. To clarify our policy for this issue, we reviewed 28 patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement with a C-C valve prosthesis, and evaluated long-term results according to STS guidelines. The incidence of valve-related complications expressed as % patient-year were; structural deterioration 0.30, nonstructural dysfunction 0.30, thromboembolism 1.20. There were no thrombosed valves, anticoagulant-related hemorrhage or prosthetic valve endocarditis. The actuarial free rate after valve replacement with the C-C at 10 years, constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method, were compared with those with St. Jude Medical (SJM) valve prosthesis. (1) Actuarial survival: 77.9 vs 87.3 (NS), (2) Reoperation-free: 91.6 vs 98.0 (p valve-related complications: 71.2 vs 77.7 (NS). The long-term results with the C-C were compatible to those with a SJM valve prosthesis. However, if a strut fracture occurs, it is very difficult to save the patient's life. The hospital mortality of re-replacement of valve prosthesis during the last 10 years, at our institute, was 2.6%, which is almost equal to the cumulative risk of strut fracture of the C-C valve after 10 years (3.0%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. 76 FR 80448 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. EP 290 (Sub-No. 5) (2012-1)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  10. Shaping Segregation: Convexity vs. concavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, Sebastián; Windows-Yule, Kit; Luding, Stefan; Parker, D.J.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    2014-01-01

    Controlling segregation is both a practical and a theoretical challenge. In this Letter we demonstrate a manner in which rotation-induced segregation may be controlled by altering the geometry of the rotating containers in which granular systems are housed. Using a novel drum design comprising

  11. An evolutionary algorithm for order splitting with multiple transport alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, Wout; Maes, Bart; Vernimmen, Bert; Witlox, Frank

    In this paper, a new methodology is suggested for determining the optimal mix of transport alternatives to minimize total logistics costs when goods are shipped from a supplier to a receiver. The total logistics costs comprise order costs, transportation costs and inventory costs. It is assumed that

  12. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  13. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  14. 49 CFR 639.21 - Determination of cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of cost-effectiveness. 639.21... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.21 Determination of cost...-effectiveness comparison as described in this subpart, it may ask FTA to approve an alternate form of cost...

  15. Systems/cost: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgments on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying high-leverage subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion. The systems considered as examples are: (1) injection system; (2) Wideroe linac; (3) Alvarez linac; (4) induction linac; (5) superconducting accumulator ring; (6) synchrotron; (7) final rf bunching; and (8) final beam transport to target

  16. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  17. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  18. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  19. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.4 Carrier costs. (a) The reasonable costs projected for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  20. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.