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Sample records for con spirulina sp

  1. Modelamiento matemático y por redes neuronales artificiales del crecimiento de Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactor con fuente de luz fluorescente e iluminación en estado sólido

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    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los modelos matemáticos de Gompertz y logístico en la cinética de crecimiento de Spirulina sp., los cuales fueron comparados con un modelamiento por Redes Neuronales Artificiales Backpropagation (RNA-BP. La Spirulina fue cultivada en un fotobiorreactor de laboratorio aireado (3 L/min de 500 mL, con iluminación fluorescente de 40W y en Estado Sólido (LED-Light Emitting Diode de 1W; obteniendo con ambos sistemas 11,0 klx. La iluminación LED, permitió obtener un valor elevado de biomasa (ɑ de 0,90 , en comparación con la obtenida con iluminación fluorescente de 0,82; así como una mayor velocidad de crecimiento μ=0,63 h-1, precedida de un menor tiempo de latencia λ=0,34 h. La RNA-BP mostró buena precisión con respecto al modelo corregido de Gompertz I, tanto para el caso del cultivo de Spirulina sp. con iluminación fluorescente y con LED, mostrando coeficientes de correlación (R del orden de 0,993 y 0,994 respectivamente, con respecto a los datos experimentales. Resulta ventajoso el modelamiento a través del modelo corregido de Gompertz I, porque además de valores de R de 0,987 y 0,990 en los cultivos de Spirulina sp. Con iluminación fluorescente y con LED respectivamente, permite obtener los parámetros de la cinética de crecimiento de manera directa.

  2. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

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    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  3. Nutritional comparison of Spirulina sp powder by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127)

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    Dewi, E. N.; Amalia, U.

    2018-01-01

    The Spirulina sp powder contains high levels of protein and Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) improved protein level. The aims of the study was to find the proximate contents in Spirulina sp’s powder fermentation. The experiments were conducted by SSF of Spirulina sp’s powder using fungi Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127). SSF was carried out for 10 days at 35% moisture level. The protein contents of Spirulina sp’s powder fermented by L. plantarum were consistently lower (p fermentation. The Spirulina sp fermented products contained the highest level of protein after 6 days.

  4. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

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    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  5. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

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    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

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    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  7. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

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    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  8. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

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    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  9. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

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    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  10. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

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    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  11. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

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    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  12. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

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    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  13. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

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    Hadiyanto,; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur; Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Synthesis by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Using Biopolymer Extraction Waste.

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    da Silva, Cleber Klasener; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2018-01-20

    The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis. Concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (v/v) of biopolymer extraction waste were tested. For comparison, two assays were used without addition of waste, Zarrouk (SZ) and modified Zarrouk (ZM), with reduction of nitrogen. The assays were carried out in triplicate and evaluated for the production of microalgal biomass and PHB. The tests with addition of waste presented a biomass production statistically equal to ZM (0.79 g L -1 ) (p PHB in the assay containing 25% of waste was higher when compared to the other cultivations, obtaining 10.6% (w/w) of biopolymer. From the results obtained, it is affirmed that the use of PHB extraction waste in the microalgal cultivation, aiming at the synthesis of biopolymers, can occur in a cyclic process, reducing process costs and the deposition of waste, thus favoring the preservation of the environment.

  15. Outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 in different geographic locations for evaluating its growth and chemical composition.

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    de Jesus, Cristiane Santos; da Silva Uebel, Lívia; Costa, Samantha Serra; Miranda, Andréa Lobo; de Morais, Etiele Greque; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Nunes, Itaciara Larroza; de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated whether outdoor cultivation of Spirulina sp. in different geographical locations affected its growth and biomass quality, with respect to the chemical composition, volatile compound and heavy metal content, and thermal stability. The positive effect of solar radiation and temperature on biomass productivity in Spirulina sp. cultivated in the northeast was directly related to its improved nutritional characteristics, which occurred with an increase in protein, phycocyanin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (mainly γ-linolenic) content. The biomass produced in Northeast and South Brazil showed high thermal stability and had volatile compounds that could be used as biomarkers of Spirulina, and their parameters were within the limits of internationally recognized standards for food additives; hence, they have been considered safe foods. However, the growth of crops in south Brazil occurred at lower rates due to low temperatures and luminous intensities, indicative of the robustness of microalgae in relation to these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dampak Intervensi Sumber Iodium Alami Spirulina sp terhadap Kadar T4 Bebas (FT4 dan Tiroglobulin (TG pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Kalibawang Kulon Progo

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    R. Agus Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSRACT Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Salt iodization was one of IDD prevention programme to prevent IDD, however the national coverage for iodized salt is still less than 90%. Alternative solution to solve IDD elimination is needed to find a better iodine sources. One of nutrient rich source from the sea that was developed to improve the nutritional status is Spirulina sp. Spirulina has high bioavailability due to the simple structure of the cell wall, so that the nutrients contained iodine will be more easily absorbed by the body. The aim of this research was to describe the effect of Spirulina sp to free T4 and thyroglobulin level in women of child bearing age in Kalibawang Kulon Progo regency. This is an experimental study using double blind randomized control trial (RCT. Subjects are euthyroid child bearing woman (18-40 years old, with TSH levels of 3 to 6.2 μIU/L. They were divided into 2 groups with subjects in control group were given placebo while the treatment group were given Spirulina sp (1 gr/day for 3 months. Serum for free T4 and thyroglobulin was analysed using ELISA. The results showed that there were significant changes in free T4 level in both groups after intervention (P <0.05, but there were no significant differences between the two groups at the beginning and end of treatment (P> 0.05 in thyroglobulin. The intervention using Spirulina sp has potential effect to increase free T4 level, however it did not effect thyroglobulin level. Keywords: FreeT4, RCT, Spirulina sp, Thyroglobulin   ABSTRAK   Masalah kekurangan asupan iodium dan gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium (GAKI masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. Program iodisasi garam merupakan salah satu program yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah Indonesia untuk menanggulangi GAKI, namun sampai saat ini cakupan angka nasional untuk garam beriodium belum mencapai 90%. Dibutuhkan metode baru yang efektif dalam membantu program

  17. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

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    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  18. Improvement the Yoghurt Nutritional Value, Organoleptic Properties and Preferences by Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation

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    Suzery, M.; Hadiyanto; Sutanto, H.; Widiastuti, Y.; Judiono

    2018-04-01

    Spirulina sp has been identified as potential source food functional such as protein, amino acids and other high added value compounds from microalgae. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. This research was aimed to increase the nutritional value and organoleptic properties and preferences yoghurt by Spirulina platensis supplementation. Completely randomized controlled group design conducted by 31 respondents. Spirulina Research accomplished in Food Technology, Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory at Bandung Health Polytechnic in Bandung. Samples divided randomly into three groups: (1) yoghurt standard supplemented 50 ml, (2) yoghurt and spirulina 1% supplemented 50 ml, (3) yoghurt and spirulina 1,2% supplemented 50 ml. Spirulina was added concentration by 0, 1, 1,2 % calculated by dx trial. Proximate analysis revealed the highest protein in enriched by spirulina 1%. However fat was lower 3.48 – 3.56 compare to control. All products found growing Lactobacillus acidophilus with a pH of 4.0 range. There was no microbial contamination such as E coli, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas sp. Supplementation of spirulina to yoghurt products can be accepted by organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests of concentrations of 1 and 1.2%. The material makes the blue colours more attractive and can be accepted by the expert panellist.

  19. Promoting helix pitch and trichome length to improve biomass harvesting efficiency and carbon dioxide fixation rate by Spirulina sp. in 660 m2 raceway ponds under purified carbon dioxide from a coal chemical flue gas.

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    Cheng, Jun; Guo, Wangbiao; Ameer Ali, Kubar; Ye, Qing; Jin, Guiyong; Qiao, Zhanshan

    2018-08-01

    The helix pitch and trichome length of Spirulina sp. were promoted to improve the biomass harvesting efficiency and CO 2 fixation rate in 660 m 2 raceway ponds aerated with food-grade CO 2 purified from a coal chemical flue gas. The CO 2 fixation rate was improved with increased trichome length of the Spirulina sp. in a raceway pond with double paddlewheels, baffles, and CO 2 aerators (DBA raceway pond). The trichome length has increased by 33.3 μm, and CO 2 fixation rate has increased by 42.3% and peaked to 51.3 g/m 2 /d in a DBA raceway pond. Biomass harvesting efficiency was increased with increased helix pitch. When the day-average greenhouse temperature was 33 °C and day-average sunlight intensity was 72,100 lu×, the helix pitch of Spirulina sp. was increased to 56.2 μm. Hence the biomass harvesting efficiency was maximized to 75.6% and biomass actual yield was increased to 35.9 kg in a DBA raceway pond. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp Mecanismo de inibição de Fusarium graminearum por compostos fenólicos extraídos de Spirulina sp

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    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.A aplicação de substâncias naturais com efeito antifúngico é motivada pela necessidade de alternativas aos métodos existentes que nem sempre são aplicáveis, eficientes ou sem risco de danos ao consumidor ou meio ambiente. Além disso, estudos para elucidar o comportamento de espécies toxigênicas mediante fungicidas naturais tornam-se necessárias, contribuindo dessa forma com a segurança alimentar. Neste trabalho, extrato fenólico de Spirulina foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antifúngica sobre 12 cepas toxigênicas de Fusarium graminearum, isoladas de cevada e trigo. As rotas metabólicas que poderiam ser afetadas foram avaliadas através da determinação de compostos estruturais (glicosamina e ergosterol e da atividade de enzimas do metabolismo primário dos micro-organismos. Os resultados indicaram que os

  1. Diseño de una crema para masajes con extracto de spirulina cubana Design of Cuban spirulin extract-derived massage cream

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    Ivone Almirall Díaz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La spirulina constituye la microalga de mayor uso en Cuba y una de las más importantes en el ámbito mundial por su alto contenido proteico y poseer una excelente mezcla de vitaminas, minerales y agentes antioxidantes que protegen al organismo contra la acción nociva de los radicales libres. Por estas razones se ha incursionado en la elaboración de productos cosméticos destinados al cuidado de la piel con la utilización del principio bioactivo del extracto hidroalcohólico de esta microalga. Se realizó el diseño de una crema para masajes y se evaluaron 3 lotes del producto hasta los 18 meses desde un punto de vista tecnológico, microbiológico y toxicológico. La formulación resultó ser estable durante el tiempo de ensayo y el estudio toxicológico desarrollado demostró la no irritabilidad dérmica ni oftálmica del cosmético. Se analizó la aceptación del producto por parte de 130 consumidores mediante la aplicación de una prueba sensorial afectiva y se encontró que este es aceptado con agrado.Spirulin constitutes the most used microalga in Cuba and one of the most important worldwide because of its high protein content and excellent combination of vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative agents that protect the body against harmful action of free radicals. For these reasons, the manufacture of cosmetic products for the skin care using the bioactive principle of the hydroalcoholic extract of this microalga has been undertaken. The design of a massage cream was technologically, microbiologically and toxicologically evaluated in three different product batches for 18 months. The formulation was stable during the testing period and the toxicological study showed that the cosmetic did not cause skin or eye irritation. The acceptance of the product by 130 consumers was analyzed on the basis of a sensorial test where it was found that the cream was satisfactorily accepted.

  2. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

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    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  3. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid; Mejora de la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva: Incorporación de Espirulina y evaluación de su sinergismo con ácido cítrico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [Spanish] Se evaluaron los efectos de diferentes concentraciones de Espirulina usadas solas y en combinación con ácido cítrico sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva. Las cantidades de productos de oxidación primarios y secundarios producidos en muestras de Espirulina fueron menores que las del control. Además, la estabilidad oxidativa de muestras de Espirulina con y sin ácido cítrico estaban en el intervalo de 85,20–94,47% y 258,10–260,21%, respectivamente. En comparación con el control, las muestras de Espirulina mostraron un contenido significativamente mayor de carotenoides y clorofila al inicio y al final del período de almacenamiento. La presencia de estos compuestos bioactivos y la presencia de Espirulina en el medio pueden retardar la oxidación del aceite de oliva. Se obtuvo una mayor estabilidad oxidativa usando BHT en comparación con muestras de Espirulina. Además, no se observó ninguna acción sin

  4. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Influência da ingestão de biomassas de spirulina (Arthrospira sp. sobre o peso corporal e consumo de ração em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Kátia Gomes de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho verificou-se a influência do consumo de biomassas provenientes de três diferentes origens sobre o peso corporal e consumo de ração em ratos Wistar, machos e adultos. Grupos que consumiram 5% ou 10% (p/p da biomassa foram comparados com um controle. A biomassa I não promoveu diferença significativa no consumo de ração ou peso corporal dos três grupos. A biomassa II não causou diferença significativa no peso corporal, mas sim no consumo de ração. A biomassa III não causou diferença significativa no consumo de ração, nem no peso corporal, mas houve tendência de maior ganho de peso para o grupo que consumiu a ração contendo 10% de spirulina. Os resultados obtidos indicam que diferentes biomassas podem apresentar diferentes propriedades, mas não confirmam a alegação de que a spirulina pode levar a diminuição de peso ou de consumo de alimento.

  6. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  7. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  8. Acanthamoeba sp.: un caso de queratitis no relacionada con el uso de lentes de contacto Acanthamoeba sp.: a case report in a non-contact lens wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Menghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp. generalmente se relaciona con el uso de lentes de contacto y en menor proporción se vincula con el contacto con agua contaminada. Se caracteriza por una disminución de la capacidad visual y la presencia de un fuerte dolor ocular. al examen clínico, puede confundirse con una infección herpética. Si la infección no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo en forma adecuada, puede culminar en la perforación de la córnea y, eventualmente, en la pérdida del ojo. en este trabajo se informa uno de los pocos casos registrados de queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp. no relacionada con el uso de lentes de contacto.Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis is generally related to wearing contact lenses, and, to a lesser extent, to contaminated water. it is characterized by reduced visual capacity and the presence of severe ocular pain. Clinically, it can be mistaken for a herpes infection. if it is not diagnosed, and timely and adequately treated, it can result in corneal perforation and, eventually, in vision loss. One of the few registered cases of Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis not related to the use of contact lenses is herein reported.

  9. Análisis microscópico de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1996-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophytu), expendidas en el mercado como suplementos dietéticos y adelgazantes. Fueron observadas al microscopio fotónico y al microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), previo tratamiento por "freeze drying". Los resultados indican que todas contienen Spirulina platensis. En algunas de ellas esta especie se presenta pura, mientras que en otras se halla mezclada con otras Cyanophyta (Oscillatoria y Phormidium) debido probablemente...

  10. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  11. Caracterización de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. con marcadores moleculares RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Torres Jaramillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica RAPD (amplificación al azar de ADN polimórfico para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Oreochromis sp. (tilapia roja en cinco piscícolas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia y en la determinación del nivel de introgresión de las especies parentales Oreochromis mosambicus, O. niloticus y O. aureus. Se evaluaron 25 cebadores, ocho fueron polimórficos y se obtuvieron 109 bandas. Los valores de heterocigosidad esperada (0.196 a 0.256 y la estructura genética (Gst = 0.22 para Oreochromis sp. indicaron un elevado grado de polimorfismo y alta estructuración genética. Estos resultados fueron consistente con el Fst = 0.268 (P < 0.0001 dado por el Amova y el Gst = 0.040 del análisis de correspondencia múltiple. Los valores de similitud genética, el análisis de grupo, el análisis de correspondencia múltiple y el nivel de introgresion, indicaron diferencias significativas (P<0.0001 en los niveles de introgresión. El bajo nivel de diferenciación genética entre poblaciones podría ser el resultado de peces con el mismo origen genético y la alta variación dentro de poblaciones se puede presentar por prácticas de manejo. La introgresión entre piscícolas es significativa para O. aureus, mientras que las especies O. niloticus y O. mosambicus se encuentran introgresadas de forma similar en las poblaciones de Oreochromis sp.

  12. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  13. Caracterización de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. con marcadores moleculares RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Jaime Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica RAPD (amplificación al azar de ADN polimórfico para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Oreochromis sp. (tilapia roja en cinco piscícolas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia y en la determinación del nivel de introgresión de las especies parentales Oreochromis mosambicus, O. niloticus y O. aureus. Se evaluaron 25 cebadores, ocho fueron polimórficos y se obtuvieron 109 bandas. Los valores de heterocigosidad esperada (0.196 a 0.256 y la estructura genética (Gst = 0.22 para Oreochromis sp. indicaron un elevado grado de polimorfismo y alta estructuración genética. Estos resultados fueron consistente con el Fst = 0.268 (P < 0.0001 dado por el Amova y el Gst = 0.040 del análisis de correspondencia múltiple. Los valores de similitud genética, el análisis de grupo, el análisis de correspondencia múltiple y el nivel de introgresion, indicaron diferencias significativas (P<0.0001 en los niveles de introgresión. El bajo nivel de diferenciación genética entre poblaciones podría ser el resultado de peces con el mismo origen genético y la alta variación dentro de poblaciones se puede presentar por prácticas de manejo. La introgresión entre piscícolas es significativa para O. aureus, mientras que las especies O. niloticus y O. mosambicus se encuentran introgresadas de forma similar en las poblaciones de Oreochromis sp.

  14. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  15. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  16. Aislamiento y serotipificación de Salmonella sp. en estanques con Crocodylus intermedius y testudines cautivos en Villavicencio - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pachón C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de microorganismos del género Salmonella sp. en el ambiente acuático de los ejemplares Crocodylus intermedius y testudines en la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio se utilizó la metodología estándar para aislar e identificar microorganismos del género Salmonella sp., a partir de muestras de agua y sedimento de 52 estanques (nEstanques Crocodylus=25; nEstanques testudines=27; se procedió a serotipificar los aislamientos por el método convencional de Kaufmann-White y se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos por la técnica de Kirby Bauer. Resultados. Se determinó la presencia de Salmonella sp., en un 33% del total de estanques muestreados. El 29% de los aislamientos de Salmonella sp. serotipificados, correspondió al serogrupo B; los serogrupos C, C1, C2 y D1 presentaron menores porcentajes. Con las pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos se determinó que el 100% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a norfloxacina. Conclusiones. La ocurrencia de Salmonella sp., en los estanques de la EBTRF fue del 33%, con la mayor presencia del serogrupo B, donde se encuentran especies con características ampliamente zoonóticas. Con los resultados obtenidos es necesario el seguimiento de las normas de bioseguridad establecidas en la estación para el manejo de las poblaciones allí mantenidas y evitar de esa manera la ocurrencia de cuadros zoonóticos.

  17. Factores de riesgo asociados con las gastropatías. Trinidad, Sancti Spíritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirenia Castellanos Sánchez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: es importante identificar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de complicaciones gastrointestinales serias, así como, determinar la conducta a seguir para reducirlas. Objetivo: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con las gastropatías en pacientes atendidos en consulta de gastroenterología. Métodos: se diseñó un estudio de casos y testigos los cuales fueron seleccionados a partir de los pacientes que asistieron a la consulta de gastroenterología de un policlínico de Trinidad, Sancti Spíritus, durante el año 2008. Se incluyeron 104 casos de gastropatías diagnosticadas por endoscopia y 208 testigos. Se analizaron como variables: edad, sexo, las exposiciones al hábito de fumar, la ingestión de café, bebidas alcohólicas y medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroideos. Se utilizó la regresión logística dicotómica para controlar el sesgo de confusión, después de la cual se calculó el Riesgo atribuible poblacional porcentual y la curva de dosis respuesta. Resultados: se identificaron como factores de riesgo independientes para las gastropatías: la ingestión de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (RP 4,50 IC; 2,60-7,80 y RAP % 56,75 IC; 37,50-71,83 con una curva de dosis respuesta significativa para la exposición en tabletas diarias y meses de consumo; el hábito de fumar (RP 2,82 IC; 1,65-4,84 y RAP % 38,97 % IC; 18,57-57,40, con una curva de dosis respuesta significativa para la exposición en cigarrillos diarios y en años de consumo. Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos identificados como riesgos independientes fueron la indometacina, el ibuprofeno y la aspirina. El incremento de 1 año de edad también representó un riesgo en esta serie. Conclusiones: el hábito de fumar y la ingestión de indometacina, ibuprofeno y aspirina representaron riesgos independientes para contraer una gastropatía. Los médicos deben tener en cuenta los efectos de estos medicamentos para no prescribirlos en altas dosis y por

  18. Efecto de la intensidad de diodos electroluminosos y fotoperiodo en la optimización de la producción de biomasa de Spirulina ( Arthrospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vásquez - Villalobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó la producción de biomasa ( ф de cultivos batch d e Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactores a escala de laboratorio (FBL de 0,2 L, por efecto de X 1 : intensidad de diodos electroluminosos (LED’s entre 1,25 a 41,7 klux y X 2 : fotoperiodo de12/12 a 24/0, h de luz/h de oscuridad (L/O utilizando un diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR y metodología de superficie de respuesta (MSR. Asimismo, se eval uaron las características hidráulicas y el valor ф de un cultivo batch de Spirulina en un fotobiorreactor de canal bucle cerrado abierto a la atmósfera (FB - BCAA por efecto de la iluminación LED de 8,3±1,9 klux y fotoperiodos de 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O. En los FBL se encontró dos zonas óptimas de ф , ambas con una intensidad LED de 21,5 klux y fotoperiodos 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O, siendo los valores ф de 1,65 y 1,62 respectivamente. El modelo matemático que indicó estas zonas fue de segundo orden (p = 0,000396 < 0,05 con una consistencia de predicción de R² = 0,92. En el FB - BCAA, el cultivo de Spirulina sp. con fotoperiodo de 12/12 h L/O, mostr ó un valor ф de 0,72, una adaptación más rápida de λ = 4,62 h, una mayor velocidad específica de crecimiento de μ max = 0,033 h - 1 y menor tiempo de consumo de energía de 74,05 h ; comparado con el cultivo desarrollado con fotoperiodo 24/0 h L/O. Los parámetros hidráulicos del FB - BCAA fueron: volumen de operación 2,5 L, velocidad de flujo 0,26 m/s, números de Reynolds ( Re 15488, Froude ( Fr 0,60 y Vedernikov ( V ed 0,90.

  19. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

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    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  20. Response of Spirulina Platensis to Sulfamethazine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiankuan; Lu, Xiaohong; Ma, Xiangjuan; Xia, Huilong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between a positive important biological energy source algae Spirulina platensis and an antimicrobial drug sulfamethazine was studied by a panel of bioassays. The result demonstrated that the acute toxicity of sulfadimidine on Spirulina platensis gradually increased with the increasing of the concentration of sulfadimidine. During the exposure, the toxicity of sulfamethazine on Spirulina platensis enlarged at first and reduced thereafter, and the summit was at 48 h, showing a typical “bell” curve. The EC50 in 48 h was 6.06 mg/L. Spirulina platensis was able to accumulate and degrade sulfamethazine simultaneously. The amounts of sulfamethazine accumulated and degraded by Spirulina platensis were 1.40 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg (dry weight) at 24 h, respectively. After 96 h of exposure, the accumulation decreased to 0.47 mg/kg, however, the degradation of sulfamethazine increased to 6.57 mg/kg. Due to biological activity, the removal rate of sulfamethazine was 5.2 times in the nutrient solution with Spirulina platensis as that of without Spirulina platensis. The results of this study implied that Spirulina platensis had a potential to remove sulfamethazine in the sulfamethazine contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA DE UN AISLADO BACTERIANO NATIVO COMPATIBLE CON PSEUDOMONA SP. AL INSECTICIDA LORSBAN 4 EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Quinchía

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia de un aislado bacteriano compatible con Pseudomona sp. frente al insecticida Lorsban 4EC (ingrediente activo Chlorpyrifos a escala de laboratorio. El aislado bacteriano se obtuvo a partir de un suelo del Oriente Antioqueño sometido a la aplicación del insecticida para el cultivo de pastos. Al suelo se le analizaron los principales factores que afectan la movilidad y adsorción del insecticida en él, se obtuvieron como resultados un porcentaje alto de materia orgánica, elementos mayores y menores así como media a alta capacidad de intercambio catiónico, lo que facilita la adsorción del plaguicida en su fracción coloidal de la micela orgánica e inorgánica. La textura franco arenosa del suelo genera buena aireación, que favorece los procesos de volatilización y degradación del plaguicida. El aislado bacteriano se expuso a diferentes concentraciones del insecticida (480 ppm, 4.800 ppm, 24.000 ppm y 48.000 ppm, evaluando de esta manera el efecto del agente sobre la población bacteriana. Según los resultados de los ensayos, la bacteria nativa compatible con Pseudomona sp. es resistente al insecticida con las concentraciones estudiadas y puede poseer la capacidad de degradar el insecticida.

  3. Caracterización de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. con marcadores moleculares RAPD Characterization of the red tilapia Oreochromis sp. through molecular markers RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Torres Jaramillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica RAPD (amplificación al azar de ADN polimórfico para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Oreochromis sp. (tilapia roja en cinco piscícolas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia y en la determinación del nivel de introgresión de las especies parentales Oreochromis mosambicus, O. niloticus y O. aureus. Se evaluaron 25 cebadores, ocho fueron polimórficos y se obtuvieron 109 bandas. Los valores de heterocigosidad esperada (0.196 a 0.256 y la estructura genética (Gst = 0.22 para Oreochromis sp. indicaron un elevado grado de polimorfismo y alta estructuración genética. Estos resultados fueron consistente con el Fst = 0.268 (P Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to study genetic diversity on red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. species collected from five fish farms located in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia and to determine the level of introgression from three parental species O. mosambicus, O. niloticus and O. aureus into local Oreochromis populations. from the 25 RAPD primers evaluated, eight were polymorphic and 109 banding patterns were observed, any of them were specific. The expected levels of heterozygosis (0.1964 to 0.2561 and genetic structure (Gst = 0.22 funded for Oreochrosmis sp. indicate high grade of polymorphism and genetic structuring. This results were observed following the analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA] (Fst = 0.268 (P <0.0001 and Multiple correspondence analysis (Gst = 0.040. The values of genetic similarity, the analysis of group, the analysis of multiple correspondence and the level of introgression, indicated that the differences in the introgression levels(P=0.0001 were significant. The low level of observed genetic differentiation among populations, could be the result of fish with the same genetic origin, whereas the high variation within populations can be displayed by handling practices and the pressure of selection to favor commercial phenotypes. The level of introgression

  4. Respuesta de variedades de clavel a la inoculacion con Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. dianthi y Phialophora cinerescens: produccion de fitoalexinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco de Amezquita Martha

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La resistencia del clavel a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi se ha correlacionado con el metabolismo de compuestos fenólicos. Por lo tanto, con el fin de profundizar en el conocimiento de las relaciones que existen entre el patógeno vascular y su hospedante, en este trabajo, se propuso evaluar la producci6n de compuestos feno1icos en cinco variedades de clavel inoculadas con el aislamiento 15 de la raza 2, un aislamiento de la raza 4 y el aislamiento 71 de baja patogeninidad de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi y un aislamiento de Phialophora cinerescens. En todas las variedades se presenta acumulación de compuestos fenolicos independientemente de si fueron o no inoculadas con los patógenos. La proporción de estos compuestos y el tipo de ellos fue diferente en los distintos tratamientos. Ya que los perfiles cromatograficos obtenidos en este experimento coinciden con los correspondientes a la muestra enviada por el doctor Schoffelmeer, se puede señalar que los compuestos separados por cromatografía corresponden a dianthialexinas, pero que, los resultados de este trabaje aun no permiten establecer su relación con las respuestas de resistencia.

    Palabras claves: Asistencia, Metabolismo, Compuestos fenólicos, Dianthialexinas.

  5. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  6. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  7. Pronóstico de los índices accionarios DAX y S&P 500 con redes neuronales diferenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortiz Arango

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza una red neuronal diferencial (RND para describir las series de valores de cierre diarios de los índices accionarios DAX de Alemania y S&P 500 de Estados Unidos entre el periodo del 3 de julio de 2000 y el 13 de enero de 2012. Con la RND se lleva a cabo el pronóstico de los valores de cierre diarios de esos índices durante un periodo de cuatro semanas (del 16 de enero al 10 de febrero de 2012. Los resultados obtenidos confirman el hecho de que las redes neuronales diferenciales pueden constituirse en una de las herramientas más poderosas y precisas para poder pronosticar valores futuros de activos financieros.

  8. Characteristic of resistant ionization-radiation and its relationship with polysaccharide contents in spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Xu Bujin

    2001-01-01

    The anti-radiation capacities of intact filaments, no-sheath filaments and cells of 4 kinds of Spiralina strains (Ss-V, Sp-F, Sp-Z and Sp-D) treated by "6"0Co γ-rays were studied. The relationship between polysaccharide contents and anti-radiation capacity of 4 strains were also detected. The results showed that Spirulina is highly resistant toγ-radiation, however there were significant differences with various strains. The order of anti-radiation capacity is Ss-V > Sp-F > Sp-Z > Sp-D. Moreover, the anti-radiation capacity were remarkably related with polysaccharide contents in the 4 strains. This showed that polysaccharide is very important for raising and maintain-ing super anti-radiation capacity in Spiralina. (authors)

  9. Bacillus sp. G3 un microorganismo promisorio en la biorremediación de aguas industriales contaminadas con cromo hexavalente

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    Alexander Mora Collazos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar y caracterizar microorganismos provenientes de un agua residual industrial potencialmente útiles en biorremediación de aguas contaminadas con cromo hexavalente. Metodología: Se realizó el aislamiento de tres microorganismos partiendo de un agua residual industrial proveniente de una empresa de galvanoplastia. Se evaluó el potencial de los microorganismos aislados en su capacidad para reducir cromo hexavalente; escogiéndose al aislado bacteriano G3 por mostrase potencialmente útiles en biorremediación de cromo hexavalente. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica, bioquímica e inferencias filogenéticas basadas en el gen del ARNr 16S del aislado seleccionado; se evaluó el potencial de reducción de cromo hexavalente asociado a la actividad microbiana y la actividad enzimática utilizando un extracto libre de células; de forma adicional, se realizaron bioensayos de reducción de cromo evaluando la acción conjunta de los 3 microorganismos. Resultados: Los datos moleculares y pruebas bioquímicas sugieren que el asilado bacteriano G3 pertenece al grupo de Bacillus cereus sensu lato. Los bioensayos de reducción de cromo hexavalente (10 mg/L realizados con Bacillus sp. G3 mostraron una reducción química del 100% del contaminante al cabo de diez horas en medio LB y de 34 horas en agua residual industrial. El extracto libre de células obtenido a partir del aislado bacteriano G3 mostró actividad de cromato reductasa al reducir el cromo hexavalente a su forma trivalente, mostrando valores óptimos de actividad relativa a 28ºC y 6.5 de pH. La acción conjunta de los microorganismos sobre la reducción de cromo se mostró cinco veces menos eficiente que los ensayos realizados solo con la cepa G3. Discusión o conclusión: Los resultados sugieren, que el aislado bacteriano G3 se muestra como un microorganismo con buen potencial para utilizarse en procesos de biorremediaci

  10. Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  11. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima . The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % ( P  maxima -is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements.

  12. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  13. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  14. Selection and protein sds-page identification of a new high-producing polysaccharide strain of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Liu Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between anti-radiation capacity and polysaccharide contents of ten Spirulina platensis strains were studied. The results showed that the correlation coefficient between 60 Co γ-ray half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) and polysaccharide contents of the 10 strains was 0.9873. After the single cells or spheroplasts of Sp-08 were treated by 0.6%EMS and 2.4 kGy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, four morphological mutant named Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, which could endure about 7.0 kGy γ-ray irradiation, were obtained. The polysaccharide contents of Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, were 32.8%, 17.3%, 3.4% and 42.3% higher than that of their parent Sp-08, respectively. The results of protein SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heredity of Sp-08A, Sp-08C and Sp-08D were mutated. Therefore, Sp-08A was a perfect high-producing polysaccharide strain with excellent characteristics of morphology and growth. Now, Sp-08A is applied in mass cultivation and industrialization. (authors)

  15. Biodesulfurización de queroseno con células inmovilizadas de Pseudomonas sp. No. 6 (aislado nativo) en un novedoso biorreactor de lecho de tubos con recirculación

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Edelberto; Caicedo, Luis; Pulido, Paula; Lentijo, Iván

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se realizó la biodesulfurización de queroseno con células inmovilizadas de Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 39327, en un sistema emulsionado, W/O 30/70 (v/v), con medio mínimo de sales (MMS) como fase dispersa. El sistema de inmovilización consta de dos paneles de 60 tubos cada uno. Los tubos de alta alúmina tienen 140 mm de largo, 6,6 mm de diámetro externo y 3,2 mm de diámetro interno, con una porosidad del 43% y capacidad de retención de 9,5x109 células/g de soporte, colocados dentro d...

  16. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  17. Análises proteômicas de conídios do fungo patogênico humano Paracoccidioides sp

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, André Luís Elias

    2014-01-01

    A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica causada pelo fungo termodimórfico Paracoccidioides spp.. A principal rota de infecção da PCM ocorre por inalação de conídios ou fragmentos de micélio. Até o momento, estudos proteômicos não foram realizados com conídios de Paracoccidoides sp. Neste sentido, caracterizar o proteoma do conídio poderá contribuir para o conhecimento detalhado das proteínas expressas durante a fase de propagação e seus potenciais papéis na virulência e patogenic...

  18. Hallazgo de Lophomonas sp. en secreciones del tracto respiratorio de niños hospitalizados con enfermedad pulmonar grave Lophomonas sp. in respiratory tract secretions in hospitalized children with severe lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rito Zerpa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lophomonas sp. es un parásito habitual del tracto intestinal de las cucarachas y que no es reconocido como patógeno humano. Sin embargo, en la literatura mundial existen escasos reportes de Lophomonas sp. en secreciones del tracto respiratorio en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar grave, principalmente en adultos. Presentamos evidencias de Lophomonas sp. en el tracto respiratorio inferior de niños atendidos en el centro de referencia nacional de enfermedades pediátricas de Lima, Perú, en el periodo 2009-2010. Se encontró seis casos, 4/23 provenientes de muestras de lavado broncoalveolar y 2/794 muestras de aspirado traqueal de niños. Cinco de ellos tuvieron neumonía y uno atelectasia, cuatro estuvieron en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Es necesario conocer más sobre la presencia de este organismo en infecciones respiratorias así como su rol patogénico real.Lophomonas sp. is a habitual parasite of the intestinal tract of the cockroaches and that is not recognized as pathogenic human being. Nevertheless, in the world literature are few reports of Lophomonas sp. in respiratory tract secretions in patients with severe pulmonary disease, mostly in adults. We present evidences of Lophomonas sp. in the respiratory low tract of children attended in the national reference center of paediatric diseases of Lima, Peru, in the period 2009- 2010. We found six cases, 4/23 from broncoalveolar lavage and 2/794 from tracheal aspirate samples of children. Five of them had pneumonia and one atelectasis, four were hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Increase knowledge about the presence of this organism in respiratory infections is needed, as its real pathogenic role.

  19. Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartsch, Peter C

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes.

  20. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  1. Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duarte

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation

  2. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin of Spirulina powder treated with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Dejsungkranont

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The functionality and activity of proteins can be modified by supercritical fluid CO2 (SCFCO2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of enhanced antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC proteins from light-harvested Spirulina maxima powder using the SCFCO2 pretreatment and to optimize the SCFCO2 pretreatment conditions enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the SCFCO2 pretreatment. The experimental factors were the pretreatment temperature, pressure, pretreatment mode (static, dynamic and conjugated and duration. The optimal conditions of SCFCO2 pretreatment were: 60 °C, 24.13 MPa and 60 min in static batch mode. Using these pretreatment conditions, the maximum antioxidant activity of C-PC from the treated residual biomass was 410.1 μmole trolox/mg, which was 1.7-fold higher than the untreated biomass (control. The factor that most affected the antioxidant activity of C-PC was temperature (59%. A high pretreatment temperature could damage C-PC, but promoted antioxidant activity. Of note is that this work was the first to explore SCFCO2 treatment enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC in Spirulina sp. powder. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C-phycocyanin, Spirulina sp., Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide pretreatment, Taguchi method

  4. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  5. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  6. RESPUESTA DEL PASTO RAIGRASS AUBADE (Lolium sp. A DOSIS DE SILICIO EN INTERACCION CON DIFERENTES DOSIS DE NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA LEGARDA - LOPEZ

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en el corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, localizado a 01°06'33 N y 77°19 '07.8 WO; con el objeto de conocer El presente trabajo se realizó en el corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, localizado a 01°06 '33 N y 77°19´07.8 WO; con el objeto de conocer con tres repeticiones y 10 tratamientos distribuidos en dosis altas, medias y bajas de NPK (Altas: 529 kg/ha de úrea, 72 kg/ha de SFT, 160 kg/ha de KCl. Medias: 397 kg/ha de urea, 54 kg/ha de SFT, 120 kg/ha de KCl. Bajas: 265 kg/ha de úrea, 36 kg/ha de SFT, 80 kg/ha de KCl contrastadas con dosis altas, medias y bajas de Si (Alta 100 kg/ha, media 75 kg/ha, baja 50 kg/ha de SiO2 y un testigo sin fertilización con Si. El Si en dosis alta y NPK alto, presentó mejores resultados en altura de planta (101cm, producción de forraje verde (167,2 Ton/ha/año, materia seca (27,44 Ton/ha/año, concentraciones de P (parte aérea 0,53%y raíz 0,42%,de K (parte aérea 3,11% y raíz 2,27%. Al aplicar dosis altas y medias en el suelo,la concentración de P y K disminuyó. El tratamiento dosis alta de NPK y alta de Si presentó el mayor beneficio económico, seguido del tratamiento dosis media de NPK y alta de Si.

  7. Control biológico de la pudrición basal del tallo en Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflorum ocasionada por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum con algunos aislamientos de Trichoderma sp. y Gliocladium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Jenny

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    EI hongo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ocasiona perdidas apreciables en diversos cultivos de flores y hortalizas. La investigación consistió en evaluar la capacidad antagónica de algunos aislamientos de Trichoderma sp. Y Gliocladium sp. Sobre Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, tanto in vitro, como en plantas de crisantemo. Los mejores antagonistas del patógeno in vitro fueron los aislamientos G-8B y G-98 de Gliocladium sp. y los aislamientos T-2IB y T-34B de Trichoderma sp. Los dos aislamientos de Gliocladium sp. Formaron un halo de inhibición alrededor de la colonia del patógeno, mientras que los aislamientos de Trichoderma sp. Produjeron esporulación abundante sobre las colonias del patógeno. Los mejores tratamientos en el control de la enfermedad en plantas de crisantemo fueron los aislamientos T-2IB y T-34B de Trichoderma sp. y el aislamiento G-8B de Gliocladium sp., con un menor índice y una menor severidad de la enfermedad. La metodología de evaluación in vitro utilizada en la investigación fue confiable, ya que los resultados encontrados en el laboratorio fueron bastante similares a los obtenidos en el ensayo de invernadero. Además, los aislamientos de Trichoderma y de Gliocladium utilizados ocasionaron un estimulo apreciable en el crecimiento de las plantas y un adelanto en la floración.

  8. Magnetic field action on outdoor and indoor cultures of Spirulina: Evaluation of growth, medium consumption and protein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether a magnetic field (MF) affects the growth of Spirulina sp. when applied to it at different exposure times in indoor and outdoor culture systems. The effects of MF on chlorophyll content, medium consumption and protein profile were also investigated. In raceway tanks, a 25 mT MF was applied for 24 h or for 1 h d -1 . MF for 24 h to outdoor assays increased biomass concentration and chlorophyll-a content besides altering the protein profile. Outdoor Spirulina growth was higher (∼3.65 g L -1 ) than the growth found in indoor assays (∼1.80 g L -1 ), while nitrogen and phosphorus consumption was not enhanced by the application of MF. This is the first study that investigated the influence of MF on outdoor microalga assays, and the results showed that MF affected the metabolism of Spirulina cultured in raceways, especially when it was grown outdoors in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  10. CONTROl.. DE ERWINIA UREDOVORA CON MICROORGANISMOS ANTAGÓNICOS EN CUI..TIVOS DE PYRUS SP~ (PERO)

    OpenAIRE

    De Rico, Myriam E.; Departamento de Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Parra, Diana P.; Departamento de Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Baquero, Sandra L.; Departamento de Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá

    2013-01-01

    In order to dirninish the use of high doses of the chemical substances employed for the control of fire blight (Erwinia uredovora) in pear crops (Pyrus sp.), antagonistic microorganisms were isolated from the soil near healthy trees, from the rhizosphere, leaves, and stems of the sarne trees. To determine the antagonism in vitro, of these microorganisms against Erwinza uredovora, methods were used: channel, disk and strip. The best results were obtained with the disk method. The microorganism...

  11. Bacillus sp. G3 un microorganismo promisorio en la biorremediación de aguas industriales contaminadas con cromo hexavalente

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Mora Collazos

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar y caracterizar microorganismos provenientes de un agua residual industrial potencialmente útiles en biorremediación de aguas contaminadas con cromo hexavalente. Metodología: Se realizó el aislamiento de tres microorganismos partiendo de un agua residual industrial proveniente de una empresa de galvanoplastia. Se evaluó el potencial de los microorganismos aislados en su capacidad para reducir cromo hexavalente; escogiéndose al ai...

  12. AISLAMIENTO DE CLONES CON ACTIVIDAD ENDO-b-1,4-GLUCANASA A PARTIR DE UN SEGMENTO DE ADN DE 13KB DE Clostridium sp IBUN22A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roncancio-Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción de combustibles, solventes y algunos productos químicos a partir de sustratos celulósicos usando microorganismos ofrece una ventaja frente a los de origen fósil. Un acercamiento prometedor ha sido la implementación de ingeniería genética utilizando genes de enzimas involucradas en la degradación de desechos celulósicos. En la última década se han generado bibliotecas genéticas para proveer enzimas celulolíticas, que hagan el proceso más rentable, lo cual permitiría aprovechar mejor residuos celulósicos disponibles. Este trabajo describe el aislamiento de dos fragmentos de ADN que expresan actividad endo-β-1,4-glucanasa, a partir de un segmento ADN de 13Kb (clon 02080-25 aislado de una biblioteca genómica de la cepa nativa Clostridium sp IBUN22A. El aislamiento de la región codificadora se realizó a través de pruebas de inducción de la actividad, análisis por restricción del segmento y de una sub-biblioteca con la enzima Sau3A I. 325 clones fueron obtenidos, de los cuales 271 tenían inserto. El tamizaje molecular de estos últimos mostró que siete clones presentaron tamaños entre 3500pb y 7000pb y el tamizaje enzimático con carboximetilcelulosa como sustrato permitió el aislamiento de los clones pBSh-37 y pBSh-26 con la actividad endo-β-1,4-glucanasa original, de tamaños de inserto de 627pb y 879pb respectivamente. Este trabajo es el punto de partida para el aislamiento de enzimas de alto potencial biotecnológico.

  13. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  14. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  15. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  16. Estabilidad en el almacenamiento congelado de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. empacadas en atmósfera modificada con CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Luisa Medina Bracamonte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad atún rojo fresco, entero y rebanado, como todo producto pesquero fresco está restringida para los consumidores en zonas distantes a los centros de producción por su estabilidad limitada en el almacenamiento. Por ello la industria pesquera en general, en la época de mayor producción, recurre a la congelación para conservar el excedente de producción, y al empacado para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y “quemaduras por frío”. El surgimiento del Empacado en Atmósfera Modificada como alternativa para incrementar la vida útil de productos alimenticios despertó la inquietud de evaluar la estabilidad de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. fresco, congeladas y empacadas con 100 % de CO2 durante su almacenamiento a las temperaturas convencionales para su distribución y venta, -10 y -18 ºC, evaluando la estabilidad química, física, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo durante ≈ 4 meses de almacenamiento congelado. El 50 % de las rebanadas se congeló a -10 ºC (Tratamiento 1 y el 50 % restante a -18 ºC (Tratamiento 2. Las rebanadas congeladas se empacaron individualmente, el 50 % en atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 conservando la proporción 1:2 (rebanada:gas y el 50 % restante en atmósfera de aire. Se almacenaron a la temperatura correspondiente: Tratamiento 1 a -10 ºC y Tratamiento 2 a -18 ºC durante 111 días. Al final del almacenamiento el tratamiento P2 (100 % CO2 ofreció mejor barrera a la pérdida de humedad, favoreció la estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles en solución salina. Las muestras P2 tuvieron mayor aceptación sensorial, fueron las más oscuras y rojas, con menor recuento microbiológico, coincidiendo con el menor contenido en bases volátiles totales. A -10 ºC la atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 no evitó la “quemadura por frío” y los panelistas percibieron el “olor a pescado”.

  17. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  18. Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Spirulina Platensis Protein Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Sharif, M. K.; Butt, M. S.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein malnutrition and food insecurity represent serious obstructions to sustainable development, poverty reduction and food quality throughout the world. The present study has been designed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis (SP) as a protein alternative source for the utilization in food products. A protein isolate was prepared from S. platensis powder through extraction with 0.1N NaOH, precipitation at pH 3, neutralization of the dispersed precipitate to pH 6.8-7.0, and subsequent freeze drying. The S. platensis isolate amino acids compositions revealed that the total essential amino acids contribution was comparatively higher in SPI (31.16±1.43 g/100 g) as compared with SP (27.75±1.21 g/100 g). Moreover, oil and water absorption capacities, foaming and emulsifying properties, surface hydrophobicity and nitrogen solubility index were found better functional properties under laboratory conditions except emulsion properties. Conclusively, SP and its isolates might be used in various food products to curtail protein energy malnutrition. (author)

  19. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  20. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Spirulina platensis, nutritional, quality, proteins, fatty acids. ... advantages make S. platensis a good raw material for the healthy food (Anitha and ... The fat content is determined by the Soxhlet extraction method by using .... human milk and some expensive vegetable oils according to Pierlovisi ...

  1. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  2. The radioactivity of spirulina and its heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantariandraintsoa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is one of the three classes of algae that have the ability to accumulate contaminants from the environment in which they live. The main aim of this work is to study the radioactive contamination of Spirulina using gamma spectrometry and to determine its content of heavy elements using the technique of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Use of detector and Gamma Vision software, in the laboratory of nuclear analysis of the I nstitut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires -Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar), allowed us to find some amount of radioactive elements such as potassium, lead, thallium and bismuth. The elements found in the laboratory of X-ray fluorescence analysis, of the same institute, using the conventional method along with the XRF AXIL software are calcium, iron, magnesium, bromine, rubidium and strontium as well as heavy elements zinc and copper. Spirulina is rich in potassium, its activity is 98±56 Bq.Kg -1 and the average concentration of the radioactive element is 16.2 g.Kg -1 . Analysis results leads us to say that it is best to consume spirulina from well secured against pollution (greenhouse) culture and we can say that we need to improve crops in natural environments. [fr

  3. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  4. Characterization of phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Darojatun, K.; Gumilar, G. G.; Aisyah, S.; Wulandari, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Microalgae have some pigments which are potential to be used as functional colorant for foods and cosmetics industries. Here, Spirulina fusiformis is one of the major sources of a blue pigment phycocyanin which has commercial and biotechnological value for biomedical research, as well as a natural colorant for food and cosmetic industries. This study aims at investigating the characteristic of isolated C-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its stability under different temperature. A food grade phycocyanin with purity of 2.0 (A620/A280) was obtained successfully from Spirulina fusiformis cultured in seawater-based modified medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. No significant changes were observed in the spectrum absorbance of C-phycocyanin at temperature up to 60°C over 30 minutes of incubation, and was observed to significantly denaturation at 70°C and higher temperature. Incubation of the pigment at relatively high temperature resulted in a decrease in the spectrum intensities of the C-phycocyanin in a temperature-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that the optimal condition for preserving the stability of food grade phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina fusiformis is taking it at low temperature.

  5. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  6. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis, a blue green microalga, has been used since ancient times as a source of food because of its high protein content (65%) and nutritional value. Lipids isolated from S. platensis have been shown to contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linolenic acid which is a precursor of ...

  7. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Birot, Raphaëlle; Jouvencel, Diane de; Raginel, Laetitia; Rouillé, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp), LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp), LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo; Luis Octavio González Salcedo; Victoria Eugenia Quintero de Vallejo

    2006-01-01

    La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp), especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica,...

  9. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Natali F.; Lima, Eder C.; Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V.; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A.; Calvete, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. ► The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. ► The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for SP and AC, respectively. ► Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. ► SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4–99.0% and 93.6–97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  10. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  11. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan Ammu; Lim Yen-Wei; Chu Wan-Loy; Lim Phaik-Eem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protectiv...

  13. Experimental grounds for developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for production of the selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals was studied. The dependence of Se and I accumulation in Spirulina biomass during the cultivation in a nutrient medium loading of above elements was determined more precisely. The dynamics of Spirulina biomass growth was observed with nutrient medium loading of selenium. It is found that Spirulina platensis biomass quality may be used for pharmaceutical purposes

  14. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  15. Incidencia de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia humilis) con o sin asocio a guineo (Musa balbissiana ABB) en Rivas, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, N Yilber; Bustos-Pérez, Irnan; González-Martínez, Álvaro José; Chavarría-Ñamendi, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    Se analizó la incidencia de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia humilis) durante el periodo entre febrero a noviembre de 2014 bajo un Sistema Agroforestal “Taungya” en el departamento de Rivas, Nicaragua. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro y caoba asociados o no asociados a guineo (Musa balbissiana ABB). La preferencia de Chrysobothris sp. fue tres veces mayor en cedro que caoba. El daño de la larva en el tallo p...

  16. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  17. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, dry chicken manure (DCM) was used as the source of nitrogen in the production of Spirulina platensis. Experiment was conducted in two different types of nutrition. In the type I nutrition, the highest average cell increase was recorded as 289.70 filaments mL-1 in value in the type I group (DCM+urea). In the type ...

  18. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  19. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... générale, les extraits ou la poudre de Spirulina platensis ont eu des ... Mots clés: Biostimulant, croissance, Spirulina platensis, Jatropha curcas, Solanum lycopersicum .... Le test de ..... in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and.

  20. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ambrosi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  1. Spirulina platensis attenuates the associated neurobehavioral and inflammatory response impairments in rats exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Khalifa, Hesham A; Abdel-Motal, Sabry M; Mohammed, Hesham H; Elewa, Yaser H A; Mahmoud, Hend Atta

    2018-08-15

    Heavy metals are well known as environmental pollutants with hazardous impacts on human and animal health because of their wide industrial usage. In the present study, the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing the oxidative stress-mediated brain injury elicited by lead acetate exposure was evaluated. In order to accomplish this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw Spirulina for 15 d, before and simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw lead acetate [6 injections through the two weeks]. As a result, the co-administration of Spirulina with lead acetate reversed the most impaired open field behavioral indices; however, this did not happen for swimming performance, inclined plane, and grip strength tests. In addition, it was observed that Spirulina diminished the lead content that accumulated in both the blood and the brain tissue of the exposed rats, and reduced the elevated levels of oxidative damage indices, and brain proinflammatory markers. Also, because of the Spirulina administration, the levels of the depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and interleukin-10 in the lead-exposed rats were improved. Moreover, Spirulina protected the brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum) against the changes elicited by lead exposure, and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 and Caspase-3 in both cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Spirulina has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  3. Evaluación de los parámetros de crecimiento de alevines de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.) con dietas enriquecidas con dos aceites esenciales : cúrcuma (curcuma longa) y hierba luisa (cymbopogon citratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Almeida, Carlos Gabriel; Flores Vallejo, Carla Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) is a very important industry in the Ecuador, so it is necessary to make constant innovations that help improve productivity. Currently has encouraged the use of natural extracts to enhance the growth and survival of fish. For this purpose it was decided to evaluate the essential oils of Turmeric and Lemongrass added to food in a concentration of 0.4% w / w with 8 experimental units each one with 20 fingerlings, located in the laboratories of the...

  4. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  5. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp, LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp, LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp, especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica, climatización por medio de mangueras térmicas y climatización por medio de resistencias eléctricas. Se analizaron factores como funcionalidad, mantenimiento, limitaciones organizativas, espaciales, y costos.The research was developed so that the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp, fish species that more taken place in Colombia can be exploited in regions where the good conditions for its normal development are not the appropriate ones as in the high regions with temperatures below the 24 °C, applying methodologies related with the use of the solar energy. The evaluated methodologies were: air conditioning by means of solar collectors, air conditioning by means of thermal blanket, air conditioning by means of thermal hoses and air conditioning by means of electric resistances. Factors like functionality, maintenance, organizational and space limitations, and costs were analized.

  7. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  8. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  9. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  10. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10 -3 up to 10 4 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  11. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  12. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  13. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  14. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  15. Use of rotifers for the maintenance of monoalgal mass cultures of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Richmond, A.

    1987-01-01

    Zooplankton was successfully used for the biological control of unicellular algal contaminants in Spirulina mass cultures even under conditions adverse to the growth of Spirulina (maximal winter daily temperature of approximately 10 degrees C and very low bicarbonate concentration). Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) was the most successful species of zooplankton used. The interrelationships between Spirulina, green unicellular contaminant, and B. plicatilis were studied under various conditions. Two species of unicellular contaminant were used; Monoraphidium minutum was isolated from local cultures and Chlorella vulgaris, obtained from contaminated Spirulina cultures in Israel. The rotifer B. plicatilis successfully controlled the population size of both contaminants whether they were introduced in a single addition or as a daily dose. The biological control of the unicellular contaminants allows Spirulina to be cultured in a medium low in bicarbonate, thereby reducing the cost of the medium and increasing the quantity of CO2 that may be freely absorbed from the atmosphere at the optimal pH for Spirulina cultivation. (Refs. 9).

  16. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  17. Influência da ingestão de espirulina sobre o metabolismo de ratos exercitados Influencia de ingestión de Spirulina sobre el metabolismo de ratones exercitados Influence of spirulina intake on metabolism of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Puggina Rogatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram comparadas as respostas metabólicas agudas ao exercício em ratos alimentados com dieta padrão e à base de espirulina. Ratos Wistar jovens foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a dieta: controle (C (dieta padrão e espirulina (S (dieta à base de espirulina. Ao final do período experimental (cinco semanas os animais foram submetidos a uma sessão aguda de exercício de natação (20 minutos, suportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% do peso corporal para avaliação do lactato sanguíneo, glicose, insulina, proteínas, albumina e ácidos graxos livres (AGL séricos. Amostras do músculo gastrocnêmio e fígado foram utilizadas para determinação dos teores de glicogênio e lipídeos. Ambos os grupos C e S apresentaram aumento da glicemia e dos AGL, queda da insulinemia e redução dos teores de glicogênio muscular e hepático pós-exercício. A lactacidemia durante o exercício foi superior no grupo S em relação ao C. Conclui-se que o padrão de respostas ao exercício agudo dos grupos C e S foi semelhante. Contudo, a proteína da dieta pareceu influenciar aspectos do metabolismo glicídico.En el presente estudio fueron comparadas las respuestas metabólicas agudas al ejercicio en ratones alimentados con dieta padrón y a base de Spirulina. Ratones Wistar jovenes fueron divididos en dos grupos de acuerdo con la dieta: control (C (dieta padrón y Spirulina (S (dieta a base de Spirulina. Al final del período experimental (5 semanas los animales fueron sometidos a una sesión aguda de ejercício de natación (20 minutos, soportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% de su peso corporal para evaluación del lactato sanguíneo, glucosa, insulina, proteínas, albumina y ácidos grasos libres (AGL séricos. Las muestras del músculo gastrocnemio y fígado fueron utilizadas para la determinación de los tenores de glicogeno y de lípidos. Ambos grupos C e S presentaron un aumento de la glicemia y de los AGL, mantenimiento

  18. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  19. Reducción de poblaciones de Ralstonia solanacearum raza 2 (Smith en plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds con aplicación de extractos de Trichoderma sp. (Alexopoulus y Mims y bacterias antagonistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ceballos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El moko, enfermedad causada por Ralstonia solanacearum raza 2, afecta la producción de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds en Colombia, ocasionando pérdidas hasta de 100%. In vitro, se evaluó el efecto de filtrados crudos de cepas de Trichoderma sp. y dos productos comerciales como posibles reductores de poblaciones de R. solanacearum. Para cada cepa de Trichoderma spp., se empleó filtrado (40% en solución acuosa y para R. solanacearum se utilizó una dilución de 10-4 por caja de petri, en un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones para determinar el número de unidades formadoras de colonia de R. solanacearum. En invernadero, se aplicaron suspensiones de T. harzianum (Agroguard®, T. viride 14PDA3A y Ecoterra® en plantas de plátano Dominico Hartón y 30 días después se inoculó R. solanacearum en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La severidad del ataque de R. solanacearum se evaluó utilizando una escala de síntomas foliares de 0 a 6. In vitro, los extractos crudos de dos cepas y dos productos comerciales de Trichoderma spp. inhibieron el 100% de R. solanacearum. Los tratamientos con T. viride y Ecoterra® mostraron bajos niveles de control de R. solanacearum en plantas (0.63 y 1.88, respectivamente.

  20. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  1. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Dotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium experimental data (R²>0.99 and ARE<5.0% and the maximum biosorption capacities were 363.2 and 468.7 mg g-1 for tartrazine and allura red, respectively, obtained at 298 K. The negative values of ΔG and ΔH showed that the biosorption of both dyes was spontaneous, favorable and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS suggested that the system disorder increases during the biosorption process.

  2. Cinética hematopoyética en Tilapia roja ( Oreochromis sp : Modelo basado en el efecto genotóxico con radiación ionizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peñaloza

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Para elaborar un programa de biomonitoreo en peces se requiere conocer la cinética hema-topoyética en estos organismos y detectar el daño en la sangre circulante. La frecuencia deformación de micronúcleos espontánea e inducida en un tiempo determinado se necesita paraconfirmar la utilidad de estas especies para ensayos de genotoxicidad. En los peces, el órganohematopoyético es la porción cefálica del riñón. Mediante el efecto clastogénico que produce laradiación ionizante a bajas dosis se puede determinar la cinética generativa de eritrocitos.El objetivo de esta investigación es relacionar la formación de micronucleos inducida porradiación ionizante con la cinética hematopoyética en tilapia roja.

  3. Compostaje de residuos orgánicos y de lenteja de agua (Lemna SP.) con aplicación microorganismos eficaces

    OpenAIRE

    Suaña Quispe, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en el Departamento de Puno, Perú; en las instalaciones del laboratorio de Biología de la Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas durante los meses de Octubre a Diciembre del 2012, con el fin de elaborar compost a partir de residuos orgánicos domésticos y Lenteja de agua (Lemna spp.) aplicando microorganismos eficaces (EM) a tres dosis (0, 100 y 200 mi) se evaluó el tiempo de descomposición y granulometría, temperatura, pH, nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio y sodio. Se utilizó el análi...

  4. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  5. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  6. REGULACIÓN ESPACIO-TEMPORAL DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L. DURANTE SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL PATÓGENO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Ardila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la regulación espacio-temporalde la actividad enzimática y de los nivelestranscripcionales de la enzima fenilalaninaamonio liasa (PAL por sus siglas en inglésen clavel (Dianthus caryophyllusL. inoculado con el patógeno causal delmarchitamiento vascular. Se inocularoncon Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiesquejes de dos variedades con diferenciasen los niveles de tolerancia a la enfermedad–Kiss (tolerante y Uconn (susceptible–y se realizaron muestreos posinoculacióna diferentes horas, tanto en eltallo como en la raíz, con el fin de evaluarlos parámetros en estudio. Se determinóque durante la infección con el patógeno,la variedad tolerante presentó inducciónde la actividad PAL en la raíz a las 48 horasde la inoculación. Esto indica que eneste órgano de la planta se estimula la rutafenilpropanoide, responsable de la generaciónde metabolitos fenólicos presentesen una alta diversidad de fenómenos asociadosa resistencia vegetal. Considerandoque durante la evaluación de los nivelesde transcripción en este órgano de laplanta mediante la técnica semicuantitativade transcripción reversa y la posteriorreacción en cadena de la polimerasa(RT-PCR por su nombre en inglés no sepresentó aumento importante en los niveles de mRNApara esta enzima, se evidenciala participación de mecanismos de regulaciónpostranscripcional que determinanla generación de la enzima activa. Enel tallo no se presentaron cambios en laactividad enzimática ni en los nivelestranscripcionales, lo cual indica que la regulaciónde la respuesta de defensa de laplanta está determinada por el órgano involucradoen el proceso de infección.

  7. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  8. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [es

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Spirulina platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Spirulina platensis 名詞 一般 * * * *... スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Spirulina platensis

  10. Mortalidad en crías de Aotus sp. (Primates: Cebidae en cautiverio: una limitante para estudios biomédicos con modelos animales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofre Sánchez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aotus es un primate neotropical nocturno usado como modelo experimental en investigaciones biomédicas. En 1979 el Centro de Reproducción y Conservación de Primates del Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia (CRCP-PPP Iquitos- Perú, inició la cría en cautiverio del Aotus nancymae y el A. vociferans, siendo un objetivo de la crianza, la alta supervivencia de las crías. El presente estudio clasifica y describe la mortalidad en crías de un día a siete meses de edad, en el periodo 1988-2002 ocurridos en el CRCP. La información se obtuvo de los protocolos de necropsia realizados en A. nancymae (92=9% y A. vociferans (67=16%, sobre un total de 1453 nacimientos (1033 A. nancymae y 420 A. vociferans. Las causas de mortalidad son neumonías (37%, ocurridos desde la primera semana hasta un mes de edad en ambas especies; procesos gastrointestinales (26%, que afectó a crías de ambas especies de uno a cuatro meses; rechazos de los padres (18%, cuadros asociados con traumas múltiples observado en crías de un día hasta el primer mes en ambas especies; desnutrición (15%, registrado en ejemplares de ambas especies a partir del primer mes; las causas no determinadas (10% y trastornos de otros sistemas(3%.

  11. Tratamiento de las úlceras crónicas en los miembros inferiores con un equivalente cutáneo autólogo y desbridación con larvas de Lucilia sp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Reporte de un caso. Chronic lower limb ulcers treatment with autologous skin equivalent and larvae debriding (diptera calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Estrada Mira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las úlceras en los miembros inferiores constituyen una causa importante de hospitalización y deterioro en la calidad de vida de los pacientes, al interferir con sus actividades laborales y sociales. Estas lesiones obedecen a diferentes enfermedades, la más frecuente de las cuales en Medellín es la insuficiencia venosa; una vez diagnosticadas, existen muchas alternativas de tratamiento, que buscan crear un lecho apropiado para el cierre de la herida. El uso de larvas para el desbridamiento es una alternativa rápida y de bajo costo, con la cual se logra un tejido de granulación adecuado para la aplicación de equivalentes cutáneos autólogos, que constituyen una opción para pacientes refractarios a otros tratamientos. Materiales y métodos: se seleccionó y evaluó a una paciente de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión establecidos para el estudio. Para desbridar la úlcera se recurrió a la aplicación de larvas de Lucilia sp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, obtenidas a partir de huevos previamente desinfectados con hipoclorito de sodio y sembrados en un medio de cultivo con antibióticos. Se aplicaron las larvas directamente en la lesión y posteriormente se procedió a tapar esta con muselina, permitiendo la obtención de oxígeno y facilitando el drenaje del tejido necrótico. Las larvas se dejaron por 48 horas, al cabo de las cuales se retiraron con una pinza estéril y se descartaron en alcohol al 70%; luego se procedió a evaluar la limpieza de la lesión. Este procedimiento se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Entomología (GIEM de la Universidad Antioquia. Se procesó una biopsia de piel de la paciente, obtenida siguiendo un protocolo previamente establecido, para obtener queratinocitos y fibroblastos. Para el cultivo primario de queratinocitos el 90% de las células obtenidas de la biopsia se sembró en cajas de cultivo de 75 cm2, en presencia de 7 x 106 células de la línea 3T3- Swiss tratadas con mitomicina C (10 g

  12. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Lim, Yen-Wei; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2010-09-21

    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  13. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Oprea, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  14. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-08-31

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  15. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  16. Investigation of the interaction of chrome compounds with blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of CrIII with the cells of blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis in course of cultivation in a nutrient medium loaded with corresponding chrome compounds is studied. It is shown that the rate of absorption of CrVI ions by spirulina biomass from the nutrient medium is approximately two orders of magnitude lower as compared to that of CrIII ions. At the same time the presence of CrVI in a nutrient medium is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cell growth rate and by deteriorating the quality of spirulina biomass. It is established that at endogenous insertion of CrIII into the biocomplex of spirulina no change in the valence state of chromium in the nutrient medium is observed and the natural properties of the biomass do not change. On the basis of the obtained concentration dependences, the recommended doses of CrIII in the preparation 'Cr-Spirulina' within the ranges of 30-100 μg/g as a food addition, and 200-250 μg/g for a medical preventive treatment are determined. (author)

  17. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  18. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  19. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Minea, R.; Mitru, Ecaterina; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Albulescu, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  20. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

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    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  1. Kandungan Minyak Botryococcus Braunii, Nannochloropsis sp., dan Spirulina Platensis pada Umur yang Berbeda

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    Sri Amini

    2011-06-01

    cell density was reached by S. platensiswith 8.46 log cell/mL on day 13, while the highest growth rate was shown by S. platensiswith growth rate (k = 9.40 on day 3. The highest yield of oil was obtained from B. brauniion day 9 which was 14.90%.

  2. Identificación morfológica de Ehrlichia sp. en las plaquetas de pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, en Venezuela Morphologic identification of Ehrlichia sp. in the platelets of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene del Carmen de Tamí

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de infección por bacterias del género Ehrlichia en una población de pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Como se sabe, la infección por VIH suele culminar en el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA después de un período variable en que la persona queda expuesta a distintos tipos de infecciones oportunistas, cuya gravedad varía según el deterioro de su sistema inmunitario. La ehrliquiosis humana es una enfermedad infecciosa de reconocimiento reciente que se transmite por garrapatas y que es causada por especies de Ehrlichia. Se trata de microorganismos gramnegativos, intracelulares obligados, que muestran tropismo por células sanguíneas (leucocitos y plaquetas. En Venezuela se identificó por primera vez en seres humanos en 1994, con la detección de microcolonias (mórulas en el citoplasma de plaquetas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para el estudio se reunieron muestras de sangre periférica de 87 pacientes con seropositividad a VIH recibidos en el Laboratorio de Inmunología del Instituto de Oncología y Hematología, en Caracas, Venezuela, que es uno de los centros de referencia nacionales para casos de infección por VIH. Se revisaron retrospectivamente, al microscopio óptico, frotis elaborados con capa blanca sanguínea concentrada, teñidos con colorante de Wright y sellados con resina para su conservación. RESULTADO: Se identificó Ehrlichia trombocítica en 12 de los 87 sujetos del estudio, es decir, en 13,8%. CONCLUSIÓN: La identificación de Ehrlichia trombocítica en pacientes seropositivos sugiere la necesidad de tener en cuenta la ehrliquiosis como posible diagnóstico en la población con infección por VIH.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of infection by bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia in a population of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As is widely recognized, HIV infection is usually followed by the acquired

  3. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ( 13 C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of 13 C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure 13 C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard

  4. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phycocyanin extraction in Spirulina produced using agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, N.; Religia, P.; Mulyani, G.; Suryana, D.; Ichsan; Tanjung, F. A.; Arifin, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex synthesized by blue-green microalgae such as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. This pigment is used mainly as natural colouring in food industry. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of this natural pigment. The price of phycocyanin is a vital factor that dictates its marketability. The cost of culturing the algae, particularly from the substrate used for growth, is one of the main factors that determine the price of phycocyanin. Another important factor is the growth yield of the algae. In our research, agricultural waste such as charcoal produced from rice husk was utilized for the algae cultivation to replace the synthetic chemicals such as urea and triple superphosphate used the mineral medium. The use of this low cost substrate increases the cell concentration by 60 % during 8 days’ cultivation to reach 0.39 g/l. The phycocyanin extraction was performed using water at the different biomass-to-solvent ratio and shaking rates. The phycocyanin concentration and purity (A615/A280) obtained were 1.2 g/l and 0.3. These values are 40 % and 20 % lower than the value obtained from the algae produced using the synthetic chemicals. Further purification produced the extract purity required for food grade. The biomass-solvent ratio does not significantly affect the extract purity; however, the higher shaking rate during extraction reduces the purity. This finding demonstrates the potential of using rice husk as an alternative substrate to cultivate algae for phycocyanin extraction.

  6. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Zhou, Chen; Cai, Peng; Chen, Wenli; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Liang, Wei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2011-06-15

    Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH(4)NO(3), respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  8. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  9. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

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    Audrey M. Neyrinck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

  10. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

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    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  11. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalabegishvili, T.; Kirkesali, E.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by one of the many popular microorganisms - blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was studied. The complex of optical and analytical methods was applied for investigation of experimental samples after exposure to chloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) solution at different doses and for different time intervals. To characterize formed gold nanoparticles UV-vis, TEM, SEM, EDAX, and XRD were used. It was shown that after 1.5-2 days of exposure the extracellular formation of nanoparticles of spherical form and the distribution peak within the interval of 20-30 nm took place. To determine gold concentrations in the Spirulina platensis biomass, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were applied. The results obtained evidence that the concentration of gold accumulated by Spirulina biomass is rapidly growing in the beginning, followed by some increase for the next few days. The obtained substance of Spirulina biomass with gold nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical, and technological purposes

  12. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

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    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  13. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  14. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

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    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  15. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Sherif, N.H

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  16. Optimization of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina Growth: From Laboratory Scale to Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delrue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina is the most cultivated microalga worldwide. Improving its cultivation in terms of biomass productivity, quality, or production cost could significantly impact the Spirulina industry. The objectives of this paper were defined as to contribute to this goal. Spirulina biomass productivity was investigated through medium choice. A modified Zarrouk’s medium was selected as it gave higher final dry weights and longer sustained growth than Hiri’s and Jourdan’s media. Then, in order to reduce Spirulina production cost, modified Zarrouk’s medium was rationalized by testing different dilutions. It was found that modified Zarrouk’s medium could be diluted up to five times without impacting the growth rates in a 28-days batch cultivation. Higher dry weights were even observed after 21 days of batch cultivation (1.21 g/L for 20%-modified Zarrouk’s medium in comparison to 0.84 g/L for modified Zarrouk’s medium. Iron uptake was then investigated as one of the major contributors to Spirulina nutritional quality. An increase in iron content was obtained by replacing iron sulfate by iron EDTA at a concentration of 10 mgFe/L (2.11 ± 0.13 mgFe/gbiomass for EDTA-FeNa, 3 H2O at 10 mgFe/L compared to 0.18 ± 0.13 for FeSO4,6H2O at 2 mgFe/L. Impact of light intensity on Spirulina biomass productivity was also investigated in a 2 L Photobioreactor (PBR. Specific growth rates were calculated for Photosynthetically Photon Flux Densities (PPFD from 85 to 430 µmol/m2/s. At 430 µmol/m2/s, photoinhibition was not observed and the specific growth rate was maximum (0.12/day. Finally, a 40-day cultivation experiment was conducted in a 1000 L PBR giving a maximum daily areal productivity of 58.4 g/m2/day. A techno-economic analysis gave production cost two to 20 times higher for PBR (from 18.71 to 74.29 €/kg than for open ponds (from 3.86 to 9.59 €/kg depending on Spirulina productivity.

  17. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Linchuan; Zhou Chen; Cai Peng; Chen Wenli; Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei; Gu Jidong; Huang Qiaoyun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH 4 NO 3 , respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  18. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  19. Análisis microbiológico de plantas medicinales con óxido de etileno Microbiologic analysis of medicinal plants using ethylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausy Lorena Torres Rojas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de plantas curativas constituye una de las terapias médicas más antiguas y extendidas que se remonta a los tiempos prehistóricos (Wust, 2003. Cada cultura ha desarrollado sus tradiciones de medicina popular, con remedios y ritos que utilizan plantas locales. La Organización Mundial de la Salud, mediante varios comunicados ha expresado su posición con respecto a la necesidad de revalorar la utilización de las plantas medicinales dentro del ámbito sanitario, teniendo en cuenta que el 80 % de la población mundial depende de estas en lo referente a la atención primaria de salud (Alonso, 1998. Frente a esta necesidad y a la preocupación que genera ofrecer productos de alta calidad, la investigación realizada permitió evaluar algunas de las materias primas, como: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Caléndula (Calendula officinalis, Sen (Casia angustifolia Vahl, Fucus (Fucus vesiculosas L y Spirulina (Spirulina maxima, que son importantes por la gran oferta que estas tienen en el mercado. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad microbiológica y establecer si el proceso de esterilización con óxido de etileno tenía un efecto eficaz sobre la materia prima, propuesta a evaluar. Se realizó el recuento de microorganismos mesófilos aerobios, hongos, levaduras y pruebas de ausencia/presencia para microorganismos patógenos como: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella s.p, Clostridium perfringes y Staphylococcus aureus. Estas pruebas se realizaron con la utilización de medios de cultivo específicos: TSN, EMB, CETRIMIDE, XLD, B.P, OGY (hongos y levaduras y Plate Count (mesófilos aerobios. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de las muestras analizadas permitieron obtener datos significativos relacionados con la ausencia/presencia de microorganismos patógenos antes y después del proceso de esterilización, así como el recuento de mesófilos, hongos y levaduras. En las muestras analizadas antes de la esterilizaci

  20. La inoculación de plantas con Pantoea sp., bacteria solubilizadora de fosfatos, incrementa la concentración de P en los tejidos foliares Plant inoculation with Pantoea sp., phosphate solubilising-bacteria increases P concentration in leaf tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Rodés Patricia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un macronutriente mineral esencial para las plantas. Aunque puede encontrarse en los suelos en diferentes formas minerales, la baja solubilidad de estos disminuye su disponibilidad para las plantas, y el nutriente debe aplicarse como fertilizante a los cultivos. Las reservas mundiales de P son limitadas y tendrán una reducción considerable en los próximos años. Usar microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos como inoculante para los cultivos es una alternativa biotecnológica para incrementar la disponibilidad del nutriente. Pantoea sp. (cepa 9C es una bacteria endofítica fijadora de nitrógeno, aislada del interior de tallos de la caña de azúcar (Loiret et ál., 2004; este microorganismo produjo halos de solubilización con tamaños de hasta 6 mm en medio sólido NBRI-P en 7 días a 30 ºC, y en ese tiempo y condiciones solubilizó Ca3(PO42 en el medio líquido hasta acumular 1128 μg P mL-1. La bacteria sobrevivió durante 35 días en un sustrato preparado con mezcla de Vermiculita y suelo ferralítico rojo (Cambisol Ferrálico, ródico, alcanzando poblaciones de 3,2 x 1015 células g-1. Plantas de rábano (Raphanus sativus, L. var. Scarlet Globe, de alta demanda de P y crecimiento rápido, usadas como modelo y cultivadas en suelos inoculados con el microorganismo, absorbieron más P que las plantas no inoculadas, alcanzando en los tejidos foliares concentraciones ≥ 3500 ppm P base seca. Palabras clave: bacteria endofítica; solubilización de fosfatos; rábano (Raphanus sativus, L.; caña de azúcar (Saccharum híbrido.Phosphorus is an essential mineral macronutrient for plant growth and development. Although it can be found in soils in different mineral forms, its low solubility decrease its availability for plants; the nutrient should be added to crops as fertiliser. World sources of P are limited and in the near future they will suffer a remarkable decrease. Using P solubiliser microorganisms as

  1. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-01-01

    : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure bu...

  2. Pão sem gluten enriquecido com a microalga Spirulina platensis Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha. Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães não sofreram alteração com a adição de até 4% da alga, porem mostraram redução de 22% nos valores de volume e aumento de 113% na dureza quando se adicionou-se 5% (em base de farinha. Quando comparados ao pão não enriquecido, a adição de Spiriulina platensis provocou uma melhoria da qualidade nutricional dos pães, confirmada pelo aumento significativo de 39,04% do conteúdo protéico, alem de vários aminoácidos essenciais (treonina, metionina, isoleucina e leucina. Com relação a cor, os pães com Spirulina apresentaram redução de luminosidade com o aumento de adição de microalga, sendo também observada tendência de aumento de tonalidade verde. Na avaliação sensorial, não se verificou diferença significativa quanto a preferência entre os pães adicionados com 3% e 5% de Spirulina na formulação.With the objective of offering a product for people with celiac disease, due to their gluten intolerance, gluten-free bread made with rice flour was elaborated, in substitution of the wheat flour. To increase the protein content of the bread, dried Spirulina platensis, a microalga, was added to the products in the range from 2 to 5% (flour basis. The bread samples were evaluated according to their specific volume (V/W, crumb hardness, measured with a texturometer, and the crumb color. It was shown that the specific volume and crumb hardness were not affected by the addition of up to 4% of alga, but a decrease of 22% in the

  3. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis evaluated with broilers Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis avaliada com frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis, the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metabolic cages for 10 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions with five birds each. Diets consisted on a reference-ration based on corn and soybean meal and two test diets, one containing spirulina (30% and the other one with soybean meal (30%. Spiruline was superior to soybean meal for contents of dry matter (DM, gross energy (9.60%, crude protein (26.56%, ether extract (54.45%, mineral matter (42.77%, calcium (100% and total phosphorus (130.77% and also for most amino acids, except lysine, glutamate, histidine and proline. Nevertheless, spiruline presented lower values of gross fiber (83.95%, acid detergent fiber (85.12% and neutral detergent fiber (6.15. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg of DM were, respectively, 2,906 and 2,502 for the spirulina and 2,646 and 2,340 for the soybean meal and AMEn of spirulina was 6.92% higher than soybean meal.Objetivou-se determinar a composição química e energética da espirulina (Spirulina platensis, os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn em frangos de corte. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas com 90 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com peso inicial de 256 ± 5 g aos 11 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo durante dez dias, distribuídas em delineamento

  4. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  6. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; El-Shaer, E.A.; Ismaiel, M.M.S.; Shabana, E.F.; Gabr, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same

  7. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  8. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana CEPOI; Ludmila RUDI; Vera MISCU; Angela COJOCARI; Tatiana CHIRIAC; Daniela SADOVNIC

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC), radical-scavenging activity by DPPH ...

  9. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  10. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  11. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  12. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  13. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    Full Text Available The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli, in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml, against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  14. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  15. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  16. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  17. Compostos fenólicos totais, atividade antioxidante e antifúngica demultimisturas enriquecidas com a microalga Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bierhals, Vânia da Silva; Machado, Vanessa Goulart; Echevenguá, Walesca Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o conteúdo fenólico e as atividades antioxidantes e antifúngicas de multimisturas enriquecidas com Spirulina platensis, foram formuladas quatro multimisturas com farelo de arroz ou trigo, duas contendo Spirulina platensis e duas com sementes de girassol. Os compostos fenólicos foram estimados pela técnica de Folin-Ciocalteau. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada por meio de inibição do radical livre DPPH e a atividade antifúngica foi analisada por meio de ensaio de ...

  18. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  19. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  20. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Maulida Safitri; Endang Yuli Herawati; Jue Liang Hsu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51) was identified and synthetized, w...

  2. Inspiration fuels space research in Congo. Combating malnutrition with Spirulina, the green protein source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Congo, around 43% of all children under the age of five suffer from chronic malnutrition. The result is a high infant mortality rate./ Researchers from the Belgian Nuclear research Center SCK•CEN started working on the cultivation of spirulina, a type of algae rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for combating chronic malnutrition in children. This Inspiration project is the first in a series and signals the ambition of SCK•CEN to contribute towards a balanced and sustainable world.

  3. Phyocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis assisted by ultrasound irradiation: effect of time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina platensis using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was conducted by using variable of extraction time, temperature and ultrasound frequency, while ethanol was used as solvent. The results show that the yield of phycocyanin extract was 15.97% at constant frequency of 42 kHz and 11.24% at constant frequency of 28 kHz, while the soxhlet extraction method obtained yield at 11.13%. The ultrasound could reduce the extraction time from 4 hrs (conventional to 20 minutes, while the optimum temperature of extraction was found at 55°C.

  4. Changes of the delayed fluorescence characteristics in Spirulina, Anabaena and Chlorella in response to chromatic adaptation and irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znak, N.Y.; Morgun, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiency of the energy transformation for CO2 fixation (E), and kinetics of the initial O-2-mediated electron transport of Spirulina platensis (Gem. ) Geitl, and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells were measured after adaptation to various growth irradiances (I) by means of the delayed fluorescence (DF) induction curves. Maxima of the membrane potential expenses during induction period were observed at I half saturating oxygen evolution; they were shifted according to growth I remaining higher in Spirulina than in Chlorella. The alterations of absorbance and fluorescence spectra at 25 degrees C after adaptation to I demonstrated changes in composition of pigments of algae, created to compensate for the imbalance in radiation absorption between the two photosystems. For Spirulina cells, the value of E was higher after growing under low I, or under blue radiation absorbed mainly by photosystem (PS) 1 (400-500 nm) with excitation by yellow (570 nm) radiation. For Chlorella cells, it was also higher after growing under low I. Under such conditions the half-rise time for DP-phase of DF induction curve decreased, which reflected an acceleration of kinetics of the initial electron transport between photosystems. An opposite situation was observed with Spirulina cells grown under high I or yellow radiation, and Chlorella cells from high I. Enhancement of effective PS2/PS1 ratio associated with decrease of reaction centre (RC) 2/RC1 stoichiometry may because of the increase of E and high membrane energization under saturating I in algae adapted to low I

  5. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníčková, R.; Vaňková, K.; Vaníková, J.; Váňová, K.; Muchová, L.; Subhanová, I.; Zadinová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, S.; Ruml, T.; Wong, R.J.; Vítek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 1665-2681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : bilirubin * chlorophyll * heme oxygenase * phycocyanin * phycocyanobilin * Spirulina platensis * tetrapyrroles Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2014

  6. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3% had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7% had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12 and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22 by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group

  7. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  10. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  11. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  12. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  13. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan SowriArvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  14. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  15. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  16. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  17. Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis) avaliada com frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Cantarelli, Vinícius de Souza; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Silva Júnior, José Walter da; Silva, Leonardo Rafael da; Santos, Luziane Moreira dos; Pereira, Luciano José

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis), the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metab...

  18. Manual de transferencia tecnológica: Proceso de elaboración de salchichas a partir de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp) con adición de almidón de sagú (Marantha arundinacea)

    OpenAIRE

    Hleap Zapata, José Igor; Molina Cortés, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    La industrialización de los productos agropecuarios es una alternativa para buscar la solución mercantil en las comunidades rurales del país, por lo que se busca generar una unidad de negocio por medio del procesado de la tilapia roja y con esto fomentar este hábito en las comunidades agrarias a los jóvenes productores. En el interior de este documento usted encontrará un extracto del proyecto investigativo realizado en el trabajo de grado de la estudiante de Ingeniería Agroindustrial Andrea ...

  19. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is the production of biomass of S. platensis using different rates of stirring, nitrogen source, amount of micronutrients, and luminosity. A 2(4 experimental design with the following factors: stirring (120 and 140 RPM, amount of nitrogen (1.5 and 2.5 g/L, amount of micronutrients (0,25 and 0,75 mL/L (11 and 15 W, and luminosity was used. Fermentation was performed in a 500 mL conical flask with 250 mL of culture medium and 10% inoculum in an incubator with controlled stirring and luminosity. Fermentation was monitored using a spectrophotometer (560 nm, and each fermentation lasted 15 days. Of the parameters studied, luminosity is the one with the highest significance, followed by the amount of nitrogen and the interaction between stirring and micronutrients. Maximum production of biomass for 15 days was 2.70 g/L under the following conditions: luminosity15W; stirring, 120 RPM; source of nitrogen, 1.5 g/L; and micronutrients, 0.75 mL/L.A Spirulina platensis é uma cianobactéria mesofílica, fotoautotrófica, que utiliza como nutrientes os nitratos, ureia e sais de amônio. O cultivo necessita de controle de temperatura, intensidade de luz e do teor de nutrientes utilizados. Esta microalga tem sido estuda pelo seu potencial nutricional, antioxidante, terapêutico e adjuvante em tratamento de obesidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de biomassa de S. platensis em diferentes níveis de agitação, fonte de nitrog

  20. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muliterno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fonte orgânica de carbono (glicose em modo bateladaalimentada. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³ para o cultivo e as variáveis de estudo foram a concentração de glicose (0,5 gL-1 e 1,0 gL-1, a diluição do meio Zarrouk (50% e 75% e a iluminância (1800 lux e 3000 lux. A concentração celular máxima obtida foi de 5,38 gL-1 com uma velocidade específica máxima de crescimento de 0,0063 h-1, nas condições de 0,5 gL-1 de glicose, diluição do meio de 75% e iluminância de 3000 lux.The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied due to its high content (~65% of highly digestible protein as well as significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals and phycocyanin which could be useful in the human nutrition. The use of nutrients of low costs in the cyanobacterium growth could reduce the costs of production. We studied the fed-batch mixotrophic growth of the S. platensis in Zarrouk's medium with glucose (0.5 gL-1 and 1.0 gL-1 as carbon source and also investigated the effects of dilution (50% and 75%, with water and illumination (1,800 lux and 3,000 lux using a 2³ factorial design. The maximum celular concentration of 5.38 gL-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.0063 h-1 were obtained with a glucose concentration of 0.5 gL-1, 50% dilution and 1800 lux of illuminance.

  1. Ozone Application for Tofu Waste Water Treatment and Its Utilisation for Growth Medium of Microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industries produce waste water containing high organic contents and suspendid solid which is harmful if directly discharged to the environment. This waste can lead to disruption of water quality and lowering the environmental carrying capacity of waters around the tofu industries. Besides, the tofu waste water still contains high nitrogen contents which can be used for microalgae growth. This study was aimed to reduce the pollution load (chemical oxygen demand-COD of tofue wastewater by using ozone treatments and to utilize nutrients in treated tofu waste water as medium growth of microalgae. The result showed that the reduction of COD by implementation of ozone treatment followed first order kinetic. Under variation of waste concentrations between 10-40%, the degradation rate constant was in the range of 0.00237-0.0149 min-1. The microalgae was able to grow in the tofue waste medium by the growth rate constants of 0.15-0.29 day-1. This study concluded that tofu waste was highly potent for microalgae growth.

  2. Ozone Application for Tofu Waste Water Treatment and Its Utilisation for Growth Medium of Microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Tofu industries produce waste water containing high organic contents and suspendid solid which is harmful if directly discharged to the environment. This waste can lead to disruption of water quality and lowering the environmental carrying capacity of waters around the tofu industries. Besides, the tofu waste water still contains high nitrogen contents which can be used for microalgae growth. This study was aimed to reduce the pollution load (chemical oxygen demand-COD) of tofue wastewater by using ozone treatments and to utilize nutrients in treated tofu waste water as medium growth of microalgae. The result showed that the reduction of COD by implementation of ozone treatment followed first order kinetic. Under variation of waste concentrations between 10-40%, the degradation rate constant was in the range of 0.00237-0.0149 min-1. The microalgae was able to grow in the tofue waste medium by the growth rate constants of 0.15-0.29 day-1. This study concluded that tofu waste was highly potent for microalgae growth.

  3. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  4. The effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis (Oscillatoriales: Cyanobacteria on the experimental breeding of Pseudosuccinea columella (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Prepelitchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae, as Pseudosuccinea columella, are the intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis in human and livestock all over the world. A thorough knowledge of snail biology is essential for describing the transmission dynamics and for controlling this disease. Since food quality has had a significant effect on snail growth, fecundity and fertility, in this study we evaluated the use of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis as a food resource for the artificial breeding of P. columella, an invasive snail and the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Northeastern Argentina. The main purpose was to measure the effect of spirulina on fitness parameters such as survival rate, growth rate, size at first reproduction, lifetime fecundity and viable offspring. A total of 20 676 newly-laid F2 eggs were used; half of them were fed with lettuce (treatment L and the other half with lettuce plus spirulina (treatment L+S. In comparison with P. columella snails fed only with lettuce, we found that P. columella fed with lettuce plus spirulina: 1 showed higher survival rates, 2 grew faster and showed higher growth increments, 3 attained sexual maturity earlier in time (L+S:60 days vs. L:120 days and at a smaller size (L+S:4.8mm vs. L:8.2mm, 4 had a longer reproductive period (L+S:150 days vs. L:90 days, 5 produced a higher number of eggs/snail (L+S:29.6 vs. L:13.3, and 6 showed a higher offspring hatching rate (L+S:70% vs. L:40%. The supplementation of P. columella diet with commercial spirulina enhances it fitness and improved the artificial breeding of this species. Spirulina may have a direct positive effect on P. columella development by consuming it, along with an indirect positive effect by improving the water quality. This rearing technique provided large number of reproducing adults and a continuous production of offspring, which are essential for developing future experimental studies in order to

  5. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

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    Nur Maulida Safitri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51 was identified and synthetized, which exhibited 45.98 ± 1.7% at concentration 128.15 µg/mL. Therefore, S. platensis is indicated as a potential therapeutic source for combating oxidative stress.

  7. Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V B; Madyastha, K M

    2001-07-13

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is known to inactivate important cellular targets and also mediate oxidative damage in DNA. The present study has demonstrated that phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina platensis and its chromophore, phycocyanobilin (PCB), efficiently scavenge ONOO(-), a potent physiological inorganic toxin. Scavenging of ONOO(-) by phycocyanin and PCB was established by studying their interaction with ONOO(-) and quantified by using competition kinetics of pyrogallol red bleaching assay. The relative antioxidant ratio and IC(50) value clearly indicate that phycocyanin is a more efficient ONOO(-) scavenger than PCB. The present study has also shown that PCB significantly inhibits the ONOO(-)-mediated single-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 2.9 +/- 0.6 microM. These results suggest that phycocyanin, has the ability to inhibit the ONOO(-)-mediated deleterious biological effects and hence has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. PRODUKSI DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI Spirulina fusiformis YANG DIKULTUR DENGAN PENCAHAYAAN MONOKROMATIS LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-06-01

    yang bersumber dari LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah (M, biru (B, dan biru-merah (BM, serta cahaya dari lampu fluoresens sebagai kontrol (K. Puncak kepadatan sel terjadi pada hari ke-18 dengan kepadatan masing-masing sebanyak 5,56 x 104 sel/mL (M; 1,65 x 104 sel/mL (B; 4,15 x 104 sel/mL (BM; dan 4,56 x 104 sel/mL (K. Perlakuan pencahayaan LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah mencapai biomassa panen tertinggi sebesar 3,91 mg/mL dengan kandungan protein 49,77%; lemak 19,61%; karbohidrat 6,15%; serat kasar 0,00%; dan abu 24,48%. Pencahayaan dengan LED merah berpotensi diaplikasikan sebagai sumber cahaya dalam produksi Spirulina.

  9. Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Felipe da Silva; Crizel, Tainara de Morais; Silva, Camila Rubira; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de las Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha). Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães ...

  10. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  11. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  12. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  13. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

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    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  14. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Birot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced in these developing countries continues to increase to the extent that it can now be exported. Thus, associations such as Spirulidaire market a traditional, fair and supportive spirulina in France and Europe and thus promote local producers.The perception of spirulina continues to evolve with the multiplication of field initiatives and the accumulation of scientific data. New studies demonstrate that spirulina also presents clinically significant anti-viral and immuno-stimulating effects in people infected by HIV.Sur la base de sa composition en micronutriments, de son potentiel pour la santé et du fait qu’elle soit cultivable localement, la spiruline présente des avantages majeurs dans la lutte contre la malnutrition chronique. Des associations de solidarité internationale, comme Antenna Technologies et Entrepreneurs du Monde qui ont comme vocation de réduire l’extrême pauvreté et les problèmes de santé publique dans les pays en développement, ont entrepris des programmes de culture et de distribution de spiruline notamment en Afrique de l’Ouest. La qualité de la spiruline produite dans ces pays en développement ne cesse d’augmenter et est telle qu’elle permet son exportation. C’est ainsi que des associations comme Spirulidaire commercialisent une spiruline artisanale, équitable et solidaire en France et en Europe et permettent ainsi de soutenir les producteurs locaux.La perception de la spiruline ne cesse d’évoluer avec la

  15. Influência do consumo de diferentes níveis de Spirulina no desenvolvimento e perfil lipídico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Moreira Chiattoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina é uma cianobactéria que vem sendo produzida e estudada por suas propriedades nutricionais e por seus benefícios à saúde. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a influência de dietas acrescidas de diferentes concentrações de Spirulina sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e o perfil lipídico de ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, alimentados, durante 40 dias, com quatro dietas isoproteicas (10% distintas, sendo seis animais por grupo: 1 Dieta controle (AIN93G adaptada; 2 Dieta S1 (8,8% de Spirulina; 3 Dieta S2 (17,6% de Spirulina; 4 Dieta S3 (26,4% de Spirulina. Foram avaliados parâmetros nutricionais e o perfil lipídico dos animais, cujos dados foram analisados estatisticamente por Análise de Variância, seguida do teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância (p ≤ 0,05. O tratamento com 8,8% de Spirulina mostrou-se equivalente ao controle, apresentando respostas mais adequadas de CEA, medidas de crescimento e lipídios séricos. Já o S2 não foi capaz de promover um bom desenvolvimento corporal, comparado com o do controle, além de elevar os níveis de colesterol total e LDL-c. O tratamento S3 apresentou somente valores estatisticamente diferentes de HDL-c, quando comparado com os do controle (p ≤ 0,05. Conclui-se que, no tempo e condições do estudo, o tratamento S3, único com Spirulina como fonte exclusiva de proteína, foi capaz de substituir a fonte proteica padrão (caseína na dieta para roedores, promovendo o adequado desenvolvimento corporal e lipídico dos animais.

  16. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  17. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Señorans, F. Javier; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol andwater). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 ◦C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using m...

  18. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  19. Determination of antioxidant and chelating activity of protein hydrolysates from spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) obtained by simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Palma, N.; Martínez-Ayala, A.; Dávila-Ortíz, G.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  20. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  1. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamente

  2. Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, Karthic; Sudha, S S; Francis, Mebin; Sowmya, T; Rengaramanujam, J; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2013-09-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial property was studied using bacteria isolated from Spirulina products. Isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. MSK 1 (JX495945), Staphylococcus sp. MSK 2 (JX495946), Bacillus sp. MSK 3 (JX495947) and Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 (JX495948). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bacterial culture filtrate with AgNO3. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer (by measuring the color change to intense brown). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed evidence that proteins are possible reducing agents and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showing the metal silver as major signal. The structure of AgNPs was determined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Synthesized Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 40-65 nm have antimicrobial property against human pathogens like Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Among the isolates Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 alone showed good activity in both synthesis of AgNPs and antimicrobial activity. This work demonstrates the possible use of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles to combat the drug resistant problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13; Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis com isótopo estável Carbono-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: luiz_cnst@hotmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CIE/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Isótopos Estáveis Prof. Dr. Carlos Ducatti

    2017-07-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ({sup 13}C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of {sup 13}C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure {sup 13}C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard.

  4. Spirulina platensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... techniques for cultivation of useful microalgae ... cheaper nutritional sources such as ammonia and urea. (Bezerra et al., 2008; .... The analysis was conducted with .... tion effect was less marked with urea due to enzymatic.

  5. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  6. The Effect of Temperature on Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Hızarcı Uslu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sıcaklığın Spirulina platensis’in protein ve amino asit kompozisyonu üzerine etkisi. Bu çalışma, mevsime bağlı iklim değişikliğinin yaz ve kış mevsimlerinde kültüre alınan Spirulina platensis’in protein içeriği ve amino asit kompozisyonuna etkilerini incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Çalışma boyunca ışık yoğunluğu, pH ve tuzluluk günlük olarak ölçülmüş, sıcaklık ve çözünmüş oksijen gün boyunca ve gece ölçülmüştür. Yaz ve kış mevsiminde ortalama gündüz sıcaklığı sırasıyla 33,9±0,4 ºC ve 18,6±0,5 ºC olarak belirlenirken, gece sıcaklığı 29,9±0,2 °C ve 14.4±0.2°C olarak belirlenmiştir. Ortalama ışık yoğunluğu yaz mevsiminde 848,3 µmol m-2s-1 iken kışın 506,26±48 µmol m-2s-1 olmuştur. Yaz büyüme döneminde protein miktarı (72,9±03 % ve amino asit konsantrasyonu kış dönemine göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Amino asitlerden Prolin, Sistin ve Arjinin sadece kış mevsiminde gözlenmiştir

  7. Estudo epidemiológico de 55 pacientes portadores de doença vertebral metastática sintomática em Santo André - SP, Brasil Estudio epidemiológico de 55 pacientes con enfermedad metastásica sintomática de la columna vertebral en Santo André - SP, Brasil Epidemiological study of 55 patients with symptomatic metastatic spinal disease in Santo André - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Santiago Valesin Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de doença vertebral metastática sintomática de serviço público de atenção terciária na região do ABC. MÉTODO: Avaliamos de Janeiro de 2008 a Janeiro de 2011, 55 pacientes com diagnóstico de metástase vertebral e coletamos dados de idade no diagnóstico de lesão metastática, sexo, tipo de tumor, topografia vertebral e sintomatologia. A evolução da doença foi observado nas datas: biópsia da neoplasia primária; início de sintomas vertebrais; diagnóstico de doença vertebral metastática (imagem e data da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou de 28 a 85 anos; 40% homens e 60% mulheres. Os principais tumores foram carcinoma de mama (32,7%, mieloma múltiplo (25,4% e carcinoma de próstata (14,5%. Observamos 25 pacientes (45,4% com lesões na coluna torácica; 13 pacientes (23,6% lombares ou sacrais; 11 pacientes (20% difusas e 6 pacientes (10,9% cervicais. 34 pacientes (61,8% apresentavam somente dor, os demais (38,2% apresentavam também alteração neurológica. O intervalo entre a lesão primária e a manifestação clínica de lesão vertebral apresentou mediana de 190 dias; entre a sintomatologia na coluna e o diagnóstico por imagem teve mediana de 70 dias; aos submetidos a cirurgia, entre o diagnóstico e o procedimento foi de 288 dias. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos os dados epidemiológicas, compatíveis a literatura: predomínio do sexo feminino (60%, com idade média de 55 anos; metástases predominantemente toracolombares (69% por neoplasia de mama, mieloma múltiplo e próstata (72%. Observamos ampla variação no intervalo de tempo na descrição cronológica dos eventos clínico-diagnósticos e cirúrgicos.OBJETIVO: Presentar el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes con síntomas de enfermedad metastásica espinal tratados en el servicio público de atención terciaria en la región del ABC. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron 55 pacientes con diagn

  8. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  9. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina: Toxicity assessment and minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Schideman, Lance C.; Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Yan; Nair, Ken; Qian, Wanyi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient reuse and energy recovery of HTL-WW are realized. • Anaerobic digestion of HTL-WW is vital to the sustainability of algal biocrude. • An anaerobic toxicity assay was conducted to evaluate HTL-WW toxicity. • The presence of adsorbents and biofilms effectively minimized inhibition. • A portion of the toxic compounds could be removed after anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTL-WW) is significant to the sustainability of algal biofuel development for nutrient reuse and residual energy recovery. HTL-WW contains substantial amounts of residual energy but is toxic to anaerobes. With 6% HTL-WW converted from cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina), anaerobes were 50% inhibited. In this study, zeolite, granular activated carbon (GAC), and polyurethane matrices (PM) were used during a two-round anaerobic batch test with HTL-WW, and in the presence of each material, the total methane yields were 136 mL/g COD, 169 mL/g COD, and 168 mL/g COD, respectively, being 11%, 37% and 36% higher than the control. GAC was considered promising due to its highest methane yield of 124 mL/g COD at the second feeding, indicating a good recovery of adsorption capacity. The observed low methane production rates indicated the necessity for anaerobic process optimization. The physicochemical analysis of the digestates demonstrated that most of the compounds identified in the HTL-WW were degraded.

  11. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Mingxiong; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumao

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis. A novel antioxidant peptide was obtained by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay used to measure the antioxidant activity, and the sequence was determined to be Pro-Asn-Asn (343.15 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This peptide was synthesized to confirm its antioxidant properties, and it exhibited 81.44 ± 0.43% DPPH scavenging activity at 100 µg/ml, which was similar to that of glutathione (82.63 ± 0.56%). Furthermore, the superoxide anion and hydroxyl free-radical scavenging activities and the SOD activity of the peptide were 47.84 ± 0.49%, 54.01 ± 0.82%, and 12.55 ± 0.75%, respectively, at 10 mg/ml. These results indicate that S. platensis is a good source of antioxidant peptides, and that its hydrolysate may have important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  12. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  13. Phosphonate degradation by Spirulina strains: cyanobacterial biofilters for the removal of anticorrosive polyphosphonates from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Prearo, Valentina; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2011-03-07

    The ability of Spirulina spp. to metabolize the recalcitrant xenobiotic Dequest 2054(®) [hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid)], a CaSO(4) inhibitor used for boiler treatment and reverse osmosis desalination, was investigated. The compound served as sole source of phosphorus, but not of nitrogen, for cyanobacterial growth. In vivo utilization was followed by (31)P NMR analysis. The disappearance of the polyphosphonate proceeded only with actively dividing cells, and no release of inorganic phosphate was evident. However, no difference was found between P-starved and P-fed cultures. Maximal utilization reached 1.0 ± 0.2 mmoll(-1), corresponding to 0.56 ± 0.11 mmol g(-1) dry biomass, thus residual amounts were still present in the exhausted medium when the compound was supplied at higher initial concentrations. At low substrate levels metabolism rates were lower, suggesting that a concentration-driven uptake may represent a limiting step during the biodegradation process. The compound was not retained by biocolumns made with immobilized cyanobacterial cells, either alive or dead. A lab-scale pilot plant, consisting of a series of sequentially connected vessels containing an actively proliferating algal culture, was built and tested for wastewater treatment. Results showed 50% removal of the polyphosphonate added to an initial concentration of 2.5mM. Although further optimization will be required, data strengthen the possibility of using cyanobacterial strains for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of an Ultrafine Shearing Method for the Extraction of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption method, including soaking, ultrasonication, freezing-thawing, soaking-ultrafine shearing and soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication were applied to break the cell walls of S. platensis. The effectiveness of cell breaking was evaluated based on the yield of the C-phycocyanin. The results show that the maximum C-phycocyanin yield was 9.02%, achieved by the soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method, followed by soaking (8.43%, soaking-ultrafine shearing (8.89%, freezing and thawing (8.34%, and soaking-ultrasonication (8.62%. The soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method is a novel technique for breaking the cell walls of S. platensis for the extraction of C-phycocyanin.

  15. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  17. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pmaxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  18. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheevadhanarak Supapon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation.

  19. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cell-Free Extract of Spirulina platensis

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    Gaurav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the cell-free extract of Spirulina platensis. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis and finally evaluated for antibacterial activity. Extracellular synthesis using aqueous extract of S. platensis showed the formation of well scattered, highly stable, spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30–50 nm. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that biomolecules, proteins and peptides, are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilisation of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised nanoparticles exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli, MTCC-9721; Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-7299; Klebsiella pneumoniae, MTCC-9751, and Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-9542; S. epidermidis, MTCC-2639; Bacillus cereus, MTCC-9017, bacteria. The AgNPs had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI that is 31.3±1.11 in P. vulgaris. Use of such a microalgal system provides a simple, cost-effective alternative template for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials of silver in a large scale that could be of great use in biomedical applications.

  20. Effect of operating conditions on hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina over Ni/TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenying; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Wenjia; Yin, Zhaosen; Yi, Xuewen

    2018-05-04

    In this study, the effects of reaction temperature, holding time, algae/water ratio and catalyst dosage on the yield and quality of bio-oil produced via the HTL of Spirulina were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield (43.05 wt%) and energy recovery (ER) value (64.62%) were obtained at 260 °C for 30 min, with an algae/water ratio of 1/4 and a catalyst dosage of 5 wt%. The bio-oil samples were characterized by elemental analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FI-IR), and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results indicated that higher heating values (HHVs) of bio-oils were in the range of 27.28-36.01 MJ/kg, and main compounds of bio-oil were amides, esters, nitriles, hydroperoxide and alkanes. Adding of the Ni/TiO 2 catalyst can decrease the contents of oxygenated and nitrogenous compounds and promote the formation of desirable components such as esters and alkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioprocess Engineering Aspects of Biopolymer Production by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina Strain LEB 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guimarães Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biopolymers can replace environmentally damaging plastics derived from petrochemicals. We investigated biopolymer synthesis by the cyanobacterium Spirulina strain LEB 18. Autotrophic culture used unmodified Zarrouk medium or modified Zarrouk medium in which the NaNO3 content was reduced to 0.25 g L−1 and the NaHCO3 content reduced to 8.4 g L−1 or increased to 25.2 g L−1. Heterotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 with the NaHCO3 replaced by 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose (C6H12O6 or sodium acetate (CH3COONa. Mixotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 plus 16.8 g L−1 NaHCO3 with the addition of 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose or sodium acetate. The highest biopolymer yield was 44% when LEB 18 was growing autotrophically in media containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 and 8.4 g L−1 NaHCO3.

  2. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM, collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks with 100 litres of culture medium and an initial biomass concentration of 0.5 g/L. The culture media were prepared to test the effect of unsupplemented DCM, DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U, and/or 40 mg/L of sodium bicarbonate (DCM+U+B or DCM+B. The best cellular growth and highest protein production were observed for S. platensis in the biomass harvested from the culture medium containing DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U.

  3. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  4. Capacidade antioxidante da microalga Spirulina platensis em células da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae submetidas ao estressor paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Guarienti, Cíntia; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Em virtude de várias publicações terem mostrado a alta associação entre a geração de radicais livres e as doenças crônico-degenerativas, tem havido grande interesse por alimentos funcionais antioxidantes. O excesso de espécies reativas no organismo resulta em estresse oxidativo que provoca danos celulares e teciduais. A microalga Spirulina tem sido pesquisada em função de suas propriedades nutricionais e antioxidantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar a atividade antioxidante da mi...

  5. Investigation of the Structure and Element Composition of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from the Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism.

  6. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  7. Nitrogen limitation in natural populations of cyanobacteria (Spirulina and Oscillatoria spp.) and its effect on macromolecular synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; Shilo, M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural populations of the cyanobacteria Spirulina species and Oscillatoria species obtained from Israeli fish ponds were limited in growth by nitrogen availability in summer. Physiological indicators for nitrogen limitation, such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carbohydrate content, did not show clear evidence for nitrogen limited growth, since these organisms are capable of vertical migration from and to the nitrogen-rich bottom. By means of 14 C labeling of the cells under simulated pond conditions followed by cell fractionation into macromolecular compounds, it was found that carbohydrates synthesized at the lighted surface were partially utilized for dark protein synthesis at the bottom of these ponds

  8. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

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    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  9. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  10. Sequence of the gamma-subunit of Spirulina platensis : a new principle of thiol modulation of F0F1 ATP synthase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinemann, D.; Lill, H

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the gamma subunit of Spirulina platensis F0F1, the relative of the chloroplast F1 subunit responsible for thiol activation, has been cloned and sequenced. As in other cyanobacteria, a specific couple of cysteines like those involved in thiol modulation of the chloroplast enzyme was

  11. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina®, a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Balachandran, Premalatha; Christensen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Immulina®, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a potent activator of THP-1 monocytes and CD4+ T cells IN VITRO and enhances several immunological functions in mice. We further characterized Immulina® by determining that Braun-type lipoproteins are responsible for a major...

  12. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A(H1N1) virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that Immulina, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is a potent activator of innate immune cells and that Braun-type lipoproteins (a principal toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand) are the main active components within this product. In the present study, ...

  13. Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huili

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis (ASP is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328. The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport, translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and

  14. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

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    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

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    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  17. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (L-AsnA is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2 showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU, total protein (405 mg/g, specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein, and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima.

  18. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon.

  19. Composition and functional property of photosynthetic pigments under circadian rhythm in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Richa; Pathak, Jainendra; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2018-05-01

    Circadian rhythm is an important endogenous biological signal for sustainable growth and development of cyanobacteria in natural ecosystems. Circadian effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations on pigment composition have been studied in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under light (L)/dark (D) oscillation with a combination of 4/20, 8/16, 12/12, 16/8, 20/4 and 24/24 h time duration. Circadian exposure of PAR + UV-A (PA) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B (PAB) showed more than twofold decline in Chl a, total protein and phycocyanin (PC) in light phase and significant recovery was achieved in dark phase. The fluorescence emission wavelength of PC was shifted towards lower wavelengths in the light phase of PAB in comparison to P and PA whereas the same wavelength was retrieved in the dark phase. The production of free radicals was accelerated twofold in the light phase (24 h L) whereas the same was retrieved to the level of control during the dark phase. Oxidatively induced damage was alleviated by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the light phase (0-24-h L) whereas the dark phase showed significant inhibition of the same enzymes. Similar characteristic inhibition of free radicals and recovery of PC was observed inside cellular filament after circadian rhythm of 24/24 h (L/D). Circadian exposure of P, PA and PAB significantly altered the synthesis and recovery of pigments that could be crucial for optimization and sustainable production of photosynthetic products for human welfare.

  20. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis. The algal dry weight (DW was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g DW was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

  1. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-08-17

    Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  2. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  4. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  5. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  6. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen-Haur Hwang

    Full Text Available Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC, the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.

  7. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Logan, Alan C; Giddings, Sabrina D; Quilliam, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  10. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  11. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaëlle Birot; Diane de Jouvencel; Laetitia Raginel; Geneviève Rouillé

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  12. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sommella; Giulio Maria Conte; Emanuela Salviati; Giacomo Pepe; Alessia Bertamino; Carmine Ostacolo; Francesca Sansone; Francesco Del Prete; Rita Patrizia Aquino; Pietro Campiglia

    2018-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary sup...

  13. SpirPro: A Spirulina proteome database and web-based tools for the analysis of protein-protein interactions at the metabolic level in Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachak, Jittisak; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Hongsthong, Apiradee

    2015-07-29

    Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is the only cyanobacterium that in addition to being studied at the molecular level and subjected to gene manipulation, can also be mass cultivated in outdoor ponds for commercial use as a food supplement. Thus, encountering environmental changes, including temperature stresses, is common during the mass production of Spirulina. The use of cyanobacteria as an experimental platform, especially for photosynthetic gene manipulation in plants and bacteria, is becoming increasingly important. Understanding the mechanisms and protein-protein interaction networks that underlie low- and high-temperature responses is relevant to Spirulina mass production. To accomplish this goal, high-throughput techniques such as OMICs analyses are used. Thus, large datasets must be collected, managed and subjected to information extraction. Therefore, databases including (i) proteomic analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and (ii) domain/motif visualization tools are required for potential use in temperature response models for plant chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria. A web-based repository was developed including an embedded database, SpirPro, and tools for network visualization. Proteome data were analyzed integrated with protein-protein interactions and/or metabolic pathways from KEGG. The repository provides various information, ranging from raw data (2D-gel images) to associated results, such as data from interaction and/or pathway analyses. This integration allows in silico analyses of protein-protein interactions affected at the metabolic level and, particularly, analyses of interactions between and within the affected metabolic pathways under temperature stresses for comparative proteomic analysis. The developed tool, which is coded in HTML with CSS/JavaScript and depicted in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), is designed for interactive analysis and exploration of the constructed network. SpirPro is publicly available on the web

  14. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus

  15. Paciente con esquizofrenia tratado con ziprasidona + clozapina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Yanguas E.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available P es un paciente diagnosticado de esquizofrenia, sigue en un piso tutelado un programa de rehabilitación, está medicado con clozapina 500 mg/día y ziprasidona 280 mg/ día. Padece hipercolesterolemia, tabaquismo y sus hábitos alimenticios no son buenos. La medicación que utiliza desde 2007 hasta ahora se refleja en la tabla 1. El último tratamiento se le introdujo el 7 de agosto de 2012, habiendo presentado un electro cardiograma (ECG normal, pero con ligera taquicardia ventricular y prolactinemia de 44,8 ng/ml (valores normales: 2-18 ng/ml.

  16. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  17. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  19. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  20. In vitro evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract incorporated skin cream with its wound healing and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Seda; Tamburaci, Sedef; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Deliloglu Gurhan, Ismet

    2017-12-01

    Algae have gained importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their beneficial effects on skin health and therapeutical value with bioactive compounds. Spirulina platensis Parachas (Phormidiaceae) is renowned as a potential source of high-value chemicals and recently used in skincare products. This study develops and evaluates skin creams incorporated with bioactive S. platensis extract. Spirulina platensis was cultivated, the aqueous crude extract was prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity of S. platensis extract in the range of 0.001-1% concentrations for 1, 3 and 7 d on HS2 keratinocyte cells was determined. Crude extracts were incorporated in skin cream formulation at 0.01% (w/w) concentration and in vitro wound healing and genotoxicity studies were performed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the collagen activity. 0.1% S. platensis extract exhibited higher proliferation activity compared with the control group with 198% of cell viability after 3 d. Skin cream including 1.125% S. platensis crude extract showed enhanced wound healing effect on HS2 keratinocyte cell line and the highest HS2 cell viability % was obtained with this concentration. The micronucleus (MN) assay results indicated that S. platensis extract incorporated creams had no genotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that collagen 1 immunoreactivity was improved by increased extract concentration and it was strongly positive in cells treated with 1.125% extract incorporated skin cream. The cell viability, wound healing activity and genotoxicity results showed that S. platensis incorporated skin cream could be of potential value in cosmeceutical and biomedical applications.

  1. Phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater by Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt Geiteler: pigment content, production variable cost and nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater by Spirulina platensis was carried out using kitchen wastewater. A complete randomised design (CRD was created for the experiment which was performed on modified Zarrouk’s medium (Zm, 100% kitchen wastewater (100%Kw and 90% kitchen wastewater (90%Kw. Water quality, biomass production, pigment content and nutritional value of Spirulina platensis were determined from cultures harvested every 5 days for a period of 15 days. The physico-chemical properties of cultivated wastewater were: water temperature 27-28 oC, pH 8.73-9.77 and DO 0.20-7.20 mg L-1. The 100%Kw and 90%Kw produced lower BOD, COD, TP, NH3-N, ON, TKN, NO3-N, NO2-N, TON and TN compared to Zm with p< 0.05. After cultivation, the treated kitchen wastewater met the standards for safe discharge in Thailand. The highest level of -carotene of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.29 mg g-1 and 100%Kw (0.29 mg g – 1 while the highest levels of C-phycocyanin were obtained in 100%Kw (17.95 mg g -1 and 90%Kw (16.31 mg g-1. The highest production variable cost for dry weight of S. platensis was in Zm (310.6 Baht kg -1 and 90%Kw (303.6 Baht kg -1 as compared to 100%Kw (276.6 Baht kg -1, with p<0.05. The highest biomass production of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.84 g L-1 and 100%Kw (0.82 g L-1, with protein content of 54.44% and 35.86%, respectively. Implications for the use of S. platensis for phytoremediation and C-phycocyanin production using of 100%Kw and 90% Kw are discussed.

  2. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  3. Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Maria C; Piccardi, Raffaella; Ventura, Stefano; Viti, Carlo; Giovannetti, Luciana

    2003-05-01

    Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters, belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was well delineated.

  4. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisales Felipe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 °C y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 103 células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamente

  5. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  6. The Effect of a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on macrophage, PMN, and lymphocyte cell expressions in post extraction wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijantini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is the ultimate treatment option for defective teeth followed by the need for dentures. Inflammation is one phase of the healing process that should be minimized in order to preserve alveolar bone for denture support. Macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells are indicators of acute inflammation. Spirulina and chitosan are natural compounds with the potential to be anti-inflammatory agents. Purpose: This research aimed to determine macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells of animal models treated with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd post-extraction day. Methods: Animal models were randomly divided into control (K and treatment (P groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (KI, KII, KIII and PI, PII, PIII. The post-extraction sockets of the control group animals were then filled with CMC Na 3%. Meanwhile, the post-extraction sockets of the treatment group members were filled with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan. Subsequently, the number of PMN, macrophage and lymphocyte cells was analyzed by means of HE analysis on the 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. days. Statistical analysis was then performed using a T-test. Results: There was a decrease in PMN cells and an increase in macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can not only decrease PMN cells, but can also increase macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2 and 3 after tooth extraction.

  7. The effects of pH in profile of lipid and ester accumulation of arthrospira platensis (spirulina) as a potential source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Patrick A.; Ybañez, Manolito G. Jr.; Avilla, Ruel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to produce biodiesel (ester-based fuel) using the extracts of microalgae Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina). Specifically, the research focused in determining effect of pH in culturing the Spirulina and its lipid accumulation; determining the constituents present in the lipid extracts; and determining the methyl esters in the transesterified lipids. The best pH condition in culturing the algal sample was found to be at pH 10 to 11. Analysis of the extracted lipid samples revealed that pH condition in culturing medium has a significant effect on the lipid accumulation in Spirulina. Perkin Elmer Claurus 500 GC-MS system elucidated that the constituents present in the experimental samples were esterified lipids. The esters were derived from butanoic, hexadeanoic and octadecanoic acid. About 19 free fatty acids out of 23 determined compounds present were from the controlled sample which suggests that these were main precursors of the esters found in the sample were butyl, allyl nonyl, propyl tetradecyl, methylpropyl, allyl dodecyl, hexyl pentadecyl, dodecyl propyl, heptyl esters with the parent chain of fatty acids enumerated above. These showed that pH manipulations could be used as a direct transesterification of fatty acids in producing biodiesels. (author)

  8. Separation, identification and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls in dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynstova, Veronika; Sterbova, Dagmar; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech

    2018-01-30

    In this study, 14 commercial products (dietary supplements) containing alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, originated from China and Japan, were analysed. UV-vis spectrophotometric method was applied for rapid determination of chlorophylls, carotenoids and pheophytins; as degradation products of chlorophylls. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used for effective separation of these compounds, and also Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of heavy metals as indicator of environmental pollution. Based on the results obtained from UV-vis spectrophotometric determination of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), it was confirmed that Chlorella vulgaris contains more of all these pigments compared to the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. The fastest mobility compound identified in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using HPTLC method was β-carotene. Spectral analysis and standard calibration curve method were used for identification and quantification of separated substances on Thin-Layer Chromatographic plate. Quantification of copper (Cu 2+ , at 324.7 nm) and zinc (Zn 2+ , at 213.9nm) was performed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with air-acetylene flame atomization. Quantification of cadmium (Cd 2+ , at 228.8 nm), nickel (Ni 2+ , at 232.0nm) and lead (Pb 2+ , at 283.3nm) by Electrothermal Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; and quantification of mercury (Hg 2+ , at 254nm) by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  10. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  11. Aislamiento e identificación de cepas de Azospirillum sp. y evaluación de su capacidad para suplir las necesidades de nitrógeno en el cultivo de maíz (Zea mays) semihidroponico con dos sustratos diferentes bajo invernadero. Quito, Cayambe, Ecuador 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Campaña, Alex Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    The corn, (Zea mays) L. is a basic crop in ecuadorian agriculture, which is why the search for environmentally friendly nitrogen fertilization of low cost doesn’t cease to be important. One of these options is the use of bio-fertilizers, for which the nitrogen fixing bacteria Azospirillum sp. can be used. The objective of this work is to isolate and identify Azospirillum sp. stumps, and evaluate its capacity to provide the nitrogen’s needs in the semi-hydroponic crop, , (Zea mays) L. withi...

  12. SP-100 Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is expected to go through three phases: technology assessment and advancement, ground testing, and flight qualification. Currently the program is in the two- to three-year technology assessment and advancement stage. Goals are to identify the space nuclear power system concept that best meets anticipated requirements of future space missions, assess the technical feasibility of that concept, and establish a cost and schedule for developing the concept. The SP-100 Project Office has begun the implementation activities needed to meet these goals. With regard to refractory alloys, a better data base will be required before we move ahead in the program from technology assessment to ground demonstration

  13. Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Daria; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-08-03

    Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds. In the conducted research, we showed that in vitro application of Spirulina platensis contributes to the restoration of ASCs' and IECs' morphology and function through the reduction of cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhanced viability, suppressed senescence, and improved proliferation of ASCs and IECs isolated from metabolic syndrome-affected individuals were evident following exposition to Spirulina. A protective effect of the investigated extract against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration was also observed. Moreover, our data demonstrate that Spirulina extract effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vivo studies showed that horses fed with a diet based on Spirulina platensis supplementation lost weight and their insulin sensitivity improved. Thus, our results indicate the engagement of Spirulina platensis nourishing as an interesting alternative approach for supporting the conventional treatment of equine metabolic syndrome.

  14. Videojuego con Realidad Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    González Mora, César

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es el desarrollo de un videojuego deportivo que utilice realidad mixta. El videojuego se podrá utilizar con dispositivos de tipo cardboard, y utilizará realidad aumentada para la interacción del jugador con el videojuego. En el desarrollo se utilizará el motor Unity para conseguir una aplicación multiplataforma, y la librería Vuforia para implementar realidad mixta.

  15. Sistemas integrados con Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    EL YAKOUTI, MOHAMMED

    2017-01-01

    Design of a robot prototype remotely controllable from Bluetooth using Arduino. Control and testing of sensors and events interacting with Arduino and Bluetooth. Diseño de un prototipo de robot controlable remotamente con Bluetooth utilizando Arduino. Control y verificación de los sensores y eventos que interactúan mediante el Arduino y el Bluetooth. El Yakouti, M. (2017). Sistemas integrados con Arduino. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/89274. TFGM

  16. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  17. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  18. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  19. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  20. disegnare con ... Alberto Pratelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mingucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Con questa breve intervista ad Alberto Pratelli, (non a caso scelto per aprire questa nuova rubrica intendia-mo inaugurare un dialogo con personalità significati-ve del Disegno di Architettura, che consenta riflessioni dedicate alle sue varie dimensioni, oggi più che mai da approfondire. La suggestione a farlo, viene da un’idea di Pablo Rodri-guez Navarro ed abbiamo quindi pensato di avviarla proprio in questo numero, che Pablo ha accettato di curare su un tema a lui particolarmente caro.

  1. Micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, reporte de dos casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Somocurcio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta los dos primeros casos de micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, en el Perú, tratados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Se practicó resección pulmonar debido a micetoma pulmonar de donde se tomó muestras que fueron enviadas a microbiología y anatomía patológica para cultivo y estudio histopatológico. Se identificó el moho Scedosporium sp en dos pacientes con secuelas cavitarias por tuberculosis, quienes presentaron tos y hemoptisis de dos meses y tres años de evolución, respectivamente. Radiológicamente las cavidades estaban ocupadas por una "bola fúngica". La histopatología indicó presencia de abundantes hifas, indistinguibles de las de Aspergillus sp, mientras que la inmunodifusión para Aspergillus fue negativa.

  2. CAPACIDAD ANTAGONISTA DE HONGOS CELULOLÍTICOS FRENTE A Fusarium sp. Y Macrophomina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Leopoldo Tarazona Meza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad antagónica de ocho hongos celulolíticos nativos frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium sp. y Macrophomina sp. En primera instancia se determinó la cepa promisoria del hongo celulolítico, para lo cual, en caja Petri se colocó un disco de agar de 4 mm de diámetro con micelio de una cepa antagonista y en el extremo opuesto, a una distancia de cinco centímetros aproximadamente, otro disco de 4 mm con micelio de un patógeno. La capacidad antagónica se determinó por el grado de micoparasitismo y la competencia por nutrientes y espacios, registrando el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial. Con la cepa del hongo celulolítico que tuvo el mejor comportamiento antagonista se realizó un cocultivo independiente con cada patógeno, aquí se evalúo las UFC, crecidas en medio PDA. También se inoculó junto a las cepas fitopatógenas en plantas de pimiento para conocer el nivel de antagonismo en macetas. En la evaluación cualitativa, la cepa A.O-5 mostró una invasión y esporulación total en la superficie en ambos patógenos; mientras que en el cocultivo inhibe el crecimiento de los patógenos a las 96 h. Igualmente demostró su acción antagonista frente a Fusarium y Macrophomina en las plántulas de pimiento. Por lo encontrado, se estima que la cepa A.O-5 es un potencial agente antagonista de los fitopatógenos evaluados.

  3. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Señoráns, Javier

    2004-08-27

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

  4. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Wong, Ka-Hing; Yang, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Wenjie; Wu, Hualian; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC) and allophycocyanin (Te-APC), two organic tellurium (Te) species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 μg g(-1) protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2008-06-25

    Both selenium and phycocyanin have been reported to show potent cancer chemopreventive activities. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) purified from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis. The antioxidant activity of Se-PC was evaluated by using four different free radical scavenging assays, namely, the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, and erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The results indicated that Se-PC exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than phycocyanin by scavenging ABTS, DPPH, superoxide anion, and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride free radicals. Se-PC also showed dose-dependent protective effects on erythrocytes against H 2O 2-induced oxidative DNA damage as evaluated by the Comet assay. Moreover, Se-PC was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against human melanoma A375 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Induction of apoptosis in both A375 and MCF-7 cells by Se-PC was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and nuclear condensation. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms indicated that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi m) was involved in Se-PC-induced cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that Se-PC is a promising organic Se species with potential applications in cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  7. Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Effect of Polyphenol Free Spirulina maxima and Its Hydrolyzed Protein Content: Investigation on Azoxymethane Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Palma, Nikte Y; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela

    2017-07-01

    Spirulina maxima (Sm) is known to have nutritive value as well as a number of potentially useful biomedical properties. The initial purpose of this report was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the alga (without its polyphenol content), on the induction of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypts (AC) in mouse. Besides, we hydrolyzed the protein content of such mixture. Our second aim was to determine the inhibitory potential of this last plant mixture on the AOM-induced colon AC in mouse. Moreover, we also determined the effect of the two indicated Sm samples on the oxidative damage caused by AOM in the colon and liver of treated mice. The experiment lasted 5 weeks. At the end, we registered the level of AC, nitric oxide, and the lipid and protein oxidation. Our results showed the following: (1) the carcinogen increased more than 18 times the amount of the AC found in the control group. (2) On the contrary, the two tested mixtures of Sm produced a significant reduction over this damage (about 45%). (3) The two tested Sm mixtures were generally able to reduce the oxidative stress markers although with variable effects which go from 59% to 100% with respect to the control mice. Therefore, the present report established that the tested Sm fractions have mouse colon anticarcinogenic potential, partially related with their antioxidant capacity. Our report also suggested the need to further evaluate specific Sm chemicals as chemopreventive agents.

  8. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  9. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  10. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. E. Bashandy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO, and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication.

  11. Development and characterization of bioactive edible films from spider crab (Maja crispata) chitosan incorporated with Spirulina extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Mansour, Mohamed Ben; Sayari, Nadhem; Yacoubi, Lamia; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Brodu, Nicolas; Massé, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Active food packaging films based on crab chitosan and Spirulina extract (SE) were developed. The effects of the SE incorporation at different levels on physical (color, opacity water vapor and oxygen permeability) and mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) properties of chitosan films were investigated. FTIR was carried out to observe the potential modifications of the chitosan films when incorporated with SE. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of SE into chitosan films improved mechanical and barrier properties. The antioxidant activity of the chitosan/SE films was characterized by means of three different analytical assays (DPPH, FRAP and FIC). Crab chitosan edible films containing SE showed higher antioxidant activity, regardless concentrations and methods assayed. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of chitosan edible films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The chitosan/SE films were more effective (pchitosan edible films incorporated with SE showed great potential to be used for active food packaging due to its excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Conversando con Oriol Bohigas

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Domínguez, Ernesto; Moya Sala, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Interview with Oriol Bohigas [ES] Entrevista con Oriol Bohigas Redondo Domínguez, E.; Moya Sala, J. (2015). Conversando con… Oriol Bohigas. EGA. Revista de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica. 20(26):22-35. doi:10.4995/ega.2015.4061 22 35 20 26

  13. DR Con o:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could fall under the Ugandan influence. The con-. flict in the ..... The Congolese people and international community within SADC, the AU ..... ments and make peace among themselves. However, one ... friends overnight.There is a great ...

  14. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  15. Quantitative Isotope-Dilution High-Resolution-Mass-Spectrometry Analysis of Multiple Intracellular Metabolites in Clostridium autoethanogenum with Uniformly 13C-Labeled Standards Derived from Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Abdelrazig, Salah; Safo, Laudina; Henstra, Anne M; Millat, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P; Barrett, David A

    2018-04-03

    We have investigated the applicability of commercially available lyophilized spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis), a microorganism uniformly labeled with 13 C, as a readily accessible source of multiple 13 C-labeled metabolites suitable as internal standards for the quantitative determination of intracellular bacterial metabolites. Metabolites of interest were analyzed by hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple internal standards obtained from uniformly (U)- 13 C-labeled extracts from spirulina were used to enable isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in the identification and quantification of intracellular metabolites. Extraction of the intracellular metabolites of Clostridium autoethanogenum using 2:1:1 chloroform/methanol/water was found to be the optimal method in comparison with freeze-thaw, homogenization, and sonication methods. The limits of quantification were ≤1 μM with excellent linearity for all of the calibration curves ( R 2 ≥ 0.99) for 74 metabolites. The precision and accuracy were found to be within relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 15% for 49 of the metabolites and within RSDs of 20% for all of the metabolites. The method was applied to study the effects of feeding different levels of carbon monoxide (as a carbon source) on the central metabolism and Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of C. autoethanogenum grown in continuous culture over 35 days. Using LC-IDMS with U- 13 C spirulina allowed the successful quantification of 52 metabolites in the samples, including amino acids, carboxylic acids, sugar phosphates, purines, and pyrimidines. The method provided absolute quantitative data on intracellular metabolites that was suitable for computational modeling to understand and optimize the C. autoethanogenum metabolic pathways active in gas fermentation.

  16. Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-11-13

    Spirulina maxima , a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ 1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ 1-42 -induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice.

  17. Aplicación de estrategias nutricionales y su efecto en el crecimiento en el cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas,Elizabet; Ávila,Marcela; Parada,Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) durante 78 días en un fotobiorreactor tubular de 300 L de volumen. Durante este periodo se registró el crecimiento en biomasa y la respuesta del cultivo a la estrategia de adición del medio nutritivo. Utilizando como base el medio Zarrouk modificado, se elaboraron tres medios: medio inicial (MI), medio crecimiento (SA1+SA2) y medio mantenimiento (SB1+SB2) para las distintas etapas del cultivo. La entrega de los medios se efec...

  18. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  19. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sommella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  20. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Conte, Giulio Maria; Salviati, Emanuela; Pepe, Giacomo; Bertamino, Alessia; Ostacolo, Carmine; Sansone, Francesca; Prete, Francesco Del; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Campiglia, Pietro

    2018-05-11

    Arthrospira platensis , better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS) and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min) and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm) tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  1. SP mountain data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  2. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang,1 Ka-Hing Wong,2 Yufeng Yang,3 Xiaoling Li,1 Jie Jiang,1 Wenjie Zheng,1 Hualian Wu,1 Tianfeng Chen1 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Hydrobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC and allophycocyanin (Te-APC, two organic tellurium (Te species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 µg g-1 protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropanedihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress. Keywords: tellurium, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, purification, antioxidant activity

  3. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-04-01

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  4. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  5. competencia con China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena de la Paz Hernández Águila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un diagnóstico del desempeño de la industria mexicana del calzado desde la década de los ochenta hasta la actualidad. Analiza la problemática que ha enfrentado esta rama industrial a partir del proceso de apertura comercial y de la competencia en su mercado interno con productos provenientes de países asiáticos, particularmente China. Problematiza al respecto los retos y las perspectivas que a mediano plazo enfrentará este sector empresarial y sobre las posibilidades de competir en el mercado globalizado.

  6. Construir con Madera

    OpenAIRE

    Olabe-Velasco, F. (Fermín); Val-Hernández, Y. (Yolanda); Varela-de-la-Cruz, P. (Perla); Cabrero-Ballarín, J.M. (José Manuel)

    2010-01-01

    Guía divulgativa ‘Construir con madera’, elaborada por la Cátedra Madera de la Universidad de Navarra y el Gobierno de Navarra. La publicación pretende explicar de forma sencilla los beneficios y posibilidades de este material en la construcción, tanto en lo que respecta a su resistencia, comportamiento frente al fuego, durabilidad, capacidad de aislamiento, propiedades acústicas, estética, respeto al medio ambiente y sostenibilidad como fuente de energía. A modo de ejemplo, en la ...

  7. Actinomicetos mineralizadores de fosfato involucrados en la interacción radical de Glomus sp. - trébol blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milena G\\u00F3mez-Vargas

    2011-01-01

    sp. (cepa MCR24 con la técnica del p-nitrofenil fosfato. Thermobifi da sp. (cepa MCR24 presentó la menor actividad. La inoculación de solo actinomicetos presentó valores mayores de fósforo inorgánico en suelo, mientras que la concentración de fósforo a nivel foliar fue mayor cuando había co-inoculación actinomiceto-Glomus sp., a excepción de la cepa Thermobifi da sp. (cepa MCR24. La co-inoculación con los actinomicetos y Glomus sp. estimuló la producción de biomasa y el porcentaje de colonización. Se determinó la capacidad para mineralizar fósforo orgánico por los actinomicetos al asociarse con Glomus sp. de forma sinérgica y benéfi ca tanto para la planta como para la micorriza. Se realizó el análisis de la varianza y prueba de "t" ALS (P<0,05 para comparar los promedios entre los tratamientos. Se determinó el grado de relación entre el porcentaje de micorrización y el peso seco de las plantas mediante "r" Coeficiente de Correlación, donde las plantas con los microorganismos presentaron una micorrización mayor del 70%.

  8. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  9. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  10. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  11. SP/RULINA (ARTHROSPIRA: AN EDIBLE MICROORGANISM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martba Sáncbez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, helical-shaped, multicellular and green-blue microalga. The two most important species of which are Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis. For these microórgarusms cell division occurs by binary fission. Since this material contains chlorophyll a, Jike higher plants, botanists classify it as a microalgae belonging to Cyanophyceae class; but according to bacteriologists it is a bacteria dueto its prokaryotic structure. Before Columbus, Mexicans (Aztecs exploited this microorganism as human food; presently, African tribes (Kanembu use it for the same purpose. Its chemical composition includes proteins (55%-70%, carbohydrates (15%-25%, essential fatty acids (18%, vitamins, minerals and pigments like carotenes, chlorophyll a and phycocyanin. The last one is used in food and cosmetic industries. Spirulina is considered as an excellent food, lacking toxicity and having corrective properties against viral attacks, anemia, tumor growth and malnUtrition. It has been reported in literature that the use of these microalgae as animal food supplement implies enhancement of the yellow coloration of skin and eggs yo !k in poultry and flaDlÍOgos, growth acceleration, sexual maturation and increase of fertility in cattle.

  12. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  13. ALMACÉN DE CARBONO EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES CON CAFÉ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Espinoza-Domínguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de estimar el almacén de carbono en sistemas agroforestales (SAF con base en café en la región de Huatusco, zona de mayor producción de café (Coffea arabiga L. en el estado de Veracruz, México, a fin de obtener información cuantitativa sobre el potencial de mitigación de carbono en los SAF de la región. Para ello, se estimaron los reservorios de carbono en biomasa vegetal y la materia orgánica edáfica existentes en sistemas agroforestales de café-plátano, café-macadamia, café-cedro rosado, café-ganado ovino y café-chalahuite, y como referencia de una condición no agroforestal se incluyeron un bosque primario y un potrero con pradera natural. La recolección de muestras se hizo en parcelas de 4 x 25 m (100 m2, donde se colectó biomasa de vegetación herbácea y mantillo, y para el suelo la profundidad de muestreo fue de 0 a 30 cm. El sistema agroforestal que presentó la mayor cantidad de carbono aéreo, estimado con modelos alelométricos, fue café-cedro rosado (Ca + Ce, con 114 Mg C·ha-1, seguido de los sistemas café - macadamia (Ca + Ma, con 34 Mg C·ha-1; café-chalahuite (Ca + Ch, con 29 Mg C·ha-1; café-plátano velillo (Ca + Pl, con 27 Mg C·ha-1; y por último el sistema silvopastoril (Sp, con 2 Mg C·ha-1. Para el caso del carbono orgánico del suelo, el tratamiento (Ca + Ce fue el que presentó mayor contenido de carbono fácilmente oxidable en el suelo, con 58 Mg C·ha-1, y el menor fue el tratamiento potrero (P, con 50 Mg C·ha-1. Del carbono orgánico total entre los SAF el tratamiento Ca + Ce fue el que tuvo el mayor valor, con 172 Mg C·ha-1, y el tratamiento silvopastoril (Sp presentó el menor, con 65 Mg C·ha-1. De los sistemas evaluados se concluye que, en promedio, los SAF almacenan 102 Mg C·ha-1, mientras que el potrero almacena 52 t C·ha-1, y el bosque primario es el sistema que más almacena carbono total, con un valor de 355 Mg C·ha-1.

  14. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Johansson, Per; Niskanen, Taina; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    The taxonomic position of three strains from water, soil and lettuce samples was studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were reported to lack the virulence-encoding genes inv and virF in a previous study. Controversially, API 20 E and some other phenotypic tests suggested that the strains belong to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which prompted this polyphasic taxonomic study. In both the phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60) and numerical analyses of HindIII and EcoRI ribopatterns, the strains formed a separate group within the genus Yersinia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related to Yersinia aldovae and Yersinia mollaretii, but DNA-DNA hybridization analysis differentiated them from these species. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, a novel species, Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ÅYV7.1KOH2(T) ( = DSM 22769(T)  = LMG 25369(T)).

  15. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  16. Produção, aspectos nutricionais e fisiológicos de alface sob adubação foliar com Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Samara Oliveira e Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de concentrações do fertilizante orgânico a base de Spirulina platensis sobre a produção, crescimento, teores de N, P, K e sódio e sobre as trocas gasosas de alface cv. Elba em condições de campo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, constituídos das concentrações do fertilizante (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5% com seis repetições. No ponto de colheita da cultura foram avaliadas variáveis de produção e crescimento, os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e sódio, bem como, as trocas gasosas das plantas com o medidor de gás infravermelho (IRGA. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as concentrações do fertilizante, não afetaram a produção, o crescimento, os teores de nutrientes avaliados, assim como não influenciaram as trocas gasosas das plantas.Production, mineral nutrition and physiological aspects of lettuce under foliar fertilization with Spirulina platensis Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of concentrations of organic fertilizer based on Spirulina platensis on yield, growth, in N, P, K and sodium contents and on gaseous changes of lettuce cv. Elba in field conditions. Use the design of randomized blocks, with six treatments consisting of different concentrations of fertilizer (0; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 and 7.5% with six replications. At the harvest point were evaluated the growth and production, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, as well as gas exchange plant with infrared gas meter (IRGA. The results showed that the fertilizer concentrations did not affect production, growth, levels of nutrients evaluated, and did not influence the gas exchange of plants.

  17. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  18. Caracterización ecológica de lombrices nativas (Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. y Periscolex sp. bajo diferentes usos del suelo (Guaviare, Colombia Ecological characterization of nature earthworm (Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. y Periscolex sp. under different soil uses (Guaviare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Baca Anamaría

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron las poblaciones de lombrices de tierr.a de las especies Pheretimasp., Eudovoscolexsp. y Periscolex sp., presentes en un Typic Dystropept del municipio El Retorno (Guaviare, Colombia, bajo ocho tipos de usos (pradera sin pastoreo, pradera con semipastoreo, arreglo silvopastoril, cultivos de chontaduro y cacao socolado, rastrojo de cinco años, rastrojo de segundo crecimiento y bosque, utilizando 10 unidades de muestreo por cobertura y evaluando parámetros de abundancia, densidad y biomasa en relación con algunas características físico-químicas del suelo. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre las cantidades totales de huevos y adultos en el sistema silvopastoril vs. las praderas y en la pradera con semipastoreo vs. pradera sin pastoreo y de adultos en la cobertura chontaduro (Bactrys gasipaes - kudzu vs. cacao (Theobroma cacao. En varios casos, las respuestas de biomasa y densidad no fueron coincidentes. Mientras que en bosque natural las especies se distribuyen por igual, en las demás coberturas se presentan diferentes patrones de distribución. Se encontraron correlaciones entre biomasa, densidad y abundancia de lombrices con los contenidos de fósforo y magnesio y con la densidad aparente del suelo.
    Earthworm populations of Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. and Periscolex sp found in Typic Dystropepts from El Retorno (Guaviare, Colombia were evaluated for eight different soil uses. Ten experimental units were used to evaluate abundance, density and biomass, as related to soil physico-chemical characteristics. Results showed significant differences between total amount of eggs and adults under forest pasture combinet use vs grazing, and, grazing plus partially grazing vs non-pasture grazing, and, adults in chontaduro (Bactrys gasipaes - Kudzu vs cacao (Theobroma cacao covering. Biomass and densities answers did not show similar results while in undisturbed forest the species have the same pattern

  19. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE BACTERIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ASIMBIÓTICAS ASOCIADAS AL EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus sp. EN CODAZZI, CESAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Melissa Obando Castellanos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de las épocas climáticas (lluvia y sequía y del estrato de la muestra (Suelo rizosférico, raíces y hojas sobre la población de los géneros Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter y Burkholderia en el Eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Así mismo, se evalúo su capacidad en la producción de compuestos indólicos como promotores del crecimiento vegetal y su actividad de reducción de acetileno como indicador de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. Los resultados no registraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en el test de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05 en la población con respecto a la época climática. Con respecto al estrato de muestra, los aislamientos tentativos a Herbaspirillum sp. y Azospirillum sp. presentaron diferencias significativas en suelo rizosférico y raíces. Se obtuvieron 44 aislamientos de los cuales se agruparon por caracterización fenotípica como: 14 presuntivos del género Beijerinckia sp., 12 de Azotobacter sp., 8 de Derxia sp., 4 de Herbarpirillum sp., 5 de Azospirillum sp., 1 de Gluconacetobacter sp. y 1 de Burkholderia sp. Por su alto potencial fueron seleccionados y criopreservados los aislamientos C27, C26, C25 y C45, las cuales presentaron los mejores valores de eficiencia in vitro, superando valores de producción de las cepas de referencia utilizadas (A. chroococcum (AC-01 y A. brasilense (SP7.

  1. autorregulado con estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Andrés Montes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es describir la forma en la que se presentan los procesos de aprendizaje autorregulado con un grupo de estudiantes (22 estudiantes de tercer semestre de Psicología de la PUJ, Cali, en el evento de preparación para la presentación un examen. Asimismo se describen las correlaciones que ocurren entre las distintas fases de dicho proceso de autorregulación del aprendizaje. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos se ha hecho uso de una observación de desempeño en tiempo real, es decir, de la observación durante una sesión de preparación de examen de los estudiantes, en la cual se emplearon protocolos verbales para dar cuenta de lo que «pasaba por su mente» mientras estudiaban. Una entrevista semi-estructurada y una prueba objetiva. Los resultados fueron analizados a la luz del modelo mixto de procesamiento de información y constructivismo abordado por Winne(1998. Como resultado se encontró una relación significativa entre los niveles de desempeño en el proceso de ARR y el resultado del examen. Igualmente se encontraron bajos niveles de regulación en una parte importante de la muestra y un desfase significativo entre conocimiento declarativo de ARR y desempeño en el mismo

  2. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions on Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seker, Ayseguel [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysegulseker@iyte.edu.tr; Shahwan, Talal [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: talalshahwan@iyte.edu.tr; Eroglu, Ahmet E. [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmeteroglu@iyte.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Sinan [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: sinanyilmaz@iyte.edu.tr; Demirel, Zeliha [Department of Biology, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: zelihademirel@gmail.com; Dalay, Meltem Conk [Department of Bioengineering, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: meltemconkdalay@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    The biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution by Spirulina platensis was studied as a function of time, concentration, temperature, repetitive reactivity, and ionic competition. The kinetic results obeyed well the pseudo second-order model. Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models were applied in describing the equilibrium partition of the ions. Freundlich isotherm was applied to describe the design of a single-stage batch sorption system. According to the thermodynamic parameters such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}and {delta}S{sup o} calculated, the sorption process was endothermic and largely driven towards the products. Sorption activities in a three metal ion system were studied which indicated that there is a relative selectivity of the biosorbent towards Pb{sup 2+} ions. The measurements of the repetitive reusability of S. platensis indicated a large capacity towards the three metal ions.

  3. Spirulina maxima extract prevents cell death through BDNF activation against amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-04-23

    Spirulina maxima is a blue-green micro alga that contains abundant amounts of proteins (60-70%), vitamins, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). It has been shown to reduce oxidative stress, and prevent diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, it is unclear whether Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE), chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aβ 1-42 -induced cell death. SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC suppressed the Aβ 1-42 -induced increase in poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage and reduced Aβ 1-42 -induced decreases in glutathione and its associated factors. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection, was increased by SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC in Aβ 1-42 -treated cells. SM70EE treatment decreased oxidative stress and cell death in response to Aβ 1-42 treatment, while simultaneously suppressing PARP cleavage and increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH) and its associated factors. Moreover, SM70EE lowered the levels of APP and BACE1, two major factors involved in APP processing, and increased BDNF expression during Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. We suggest that SM70EE prevents cell death caused by Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity via the activation of BDNF signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Picarola margalefii, gen. et sp. nov., a new planktonic coccolithophore from NW Mediterranean waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lluïsa Cros; Marta Estrada

    2004-01-01

    [ES] Un cocolitóforo atribuido a un género nuevo, Picarola gen. nov., y descrito como una especie nueva, Picarola margalefii, sp. nov., ha sido hallado en el Mediterráneo noroccidental. La descripción de la nueva especie se basa en observaciones realizadas con Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido. Los cocolitos de Picarola margalefii sp. nov. son murolitos que tienen un margen alto y estrecho y un área central que presenta una cruz con un largo proceso central de cuatro caras. Se confirmó su na...

  5. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  6. Violencia con el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campillo Motilva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La violencia doméstica es tan antigua como la humanidad misma y se reconocen la violencia infantil, contra la mujer y al anciano, fundamentalmente; siendo este último grupo una población en ascenso por las mayores expectativas de vida de los últimos años. Como resultado de ello, el número de casos de abuso en el anciano se incrementará y el impacto de este abuso sobre la salud debe ser considerado de forma adecuada. La gama de maltratos es variadísima e incluye el abuso físico, emocional, financiero, sexual, por negligencia, negación a brindarle ayuda y otras formas más. Los ancianos con deterioro cognitivo son los más vulnerables. El médico en la atención primaria de salud es un pilar importante en la prevención y educación de este problema.Domestic violence is as old as humanity itself. Child, women and elderly abuse are mainly recognized. The elderly group is increasing due to the higher life expectancy experimented during the last years. As a result, the number of battered elderly will grow and the impact of this abuse on health should be adequately considered. The range of abuse is very wide and it includes physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, negligence, rejection to give assistance and others. The elderly with cognitive deterioration are the most vulnerable. The physician at the primary health care level is an important milestone in the prevention and education of this problem.

  7. Seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores rurales del departamento de Sucre, Colombia Seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in rural workers of Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ríos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determinar la seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio escriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, que pretendió determinar la seroprevalencia e Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en 90 trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Se estableció la presencia de anticuerpos séricos anti-IgM específicos anti-Leptospira por la técnica de ELISA indirecta. Para la determinación de Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. se uso la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. La población evaluada estaba compuesta por 27 (30% ordeñadores, 21 (23% jornaleros, 18 (20% profesionales del campo y 24 (27% que realizaban otras actividades. Ventidós (24% muestras resultaron positivas en alguna de las pruebas. De éstas, 12 (13,3% fueron positivas para Leptospira sp., 7 (7,8% para Rickettsia sp. y 3 (3,3% ara Ehrlichia sp. Conclusión. Este fue el primer estudio que se llevó a cabo en el departamento de Sucre y permitió demostrar que existe una prevalencia importante de Leptospira p.,Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp.. Los factores de riesgo ocupacional fueron factores determinantes en la seropositividad.Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in agricultural workers of Sucre. Methods. A descriptive prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in ninety rural workers of Sucre. Presence of serum antibodies anti-IgM specific anti-Leptospira by indirect ELISA was established. For the determination of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia indirect inmunoflorescence was used. Results.The population was composed by 27 (30% milkers, 21 (23% day workers, 18 farm professionals (20% and 24 (26% workers in others activities. A total of 22 (24% samples were positive to some test. Twelve (13.3% were positive to Leptospira sp., seven (7.8% to Rickettsia sp

  8. Proteasas extracelulares producidas por bacterias marinas aisladas de aguas contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 26 cepas de bacterias marinas con actividad proteolítica fueron aisladas de agua de mar contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros; las mismas que se evaluaron en base al crecimiento y formación de halos de actividad en Agar Marino suplementados con caseína al 1%, pH 8,0 e incubados a 25 ºC por 72 h. Cinco cepas, seleccionadas por presentar los mejores halos de actividad fueron evaluadas a su vez por su crecimiento y producción de proteasas a diferentes concentraciones de NaCl, rangos de temperatura y pH; siendo consideradas finalmente como bacterias halotolerantes, psicrotróficas y alcalófilas moderadas. Estas cepas también fueron evaluadas por su actividad proteolítica específica sobre la caseína, siendo la cepa CM48 (Pseudomonas sp. la que presentó la mejor actividad específica (17,38 U/mg a las 72 horas, y seguidas por las cepas CM45 (Alcaligenes sp. (12,09 U/mg y tres cepas de Aeromonas sp. (CM43, CM44 y CM46 con valores de 12,02; 10,07 y 10,10 U/mg respectivamente.

  9. SP-100 reactor cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, A.D.

    1991-09-01

    There are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor for 2 yr in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in the reactor experiment (RX) cell surrounded by an inert gas atmosphere. It is proposed that the reactor test cell could contain removable-water- shielding tanks to reduce the residual activation dose rates in the test cell after the tests are completed. This reduction will allow the facility to be considered for other uses after the SP-100 tests are completed. The radiation dose rates in the test cell were calculated for several configurations of water-shielding tanks to help evaluate this concept

  10. Molecular exploration of the highly radiation resistant cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Hanène; Leys, Natalie; Wattiez, Ruddy

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium able to use sunlight to release oxygen from water and remove carbon dioxide and nitrate from water. In addition, it is suited for human consumption (edible). For these traits, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of the life support system MELiSSA for recycling oxygen, water, and food during future long-haul space missions. However, during such extended missions, Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 will be exposed to continuous artificial illumination and harmful cosmic radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate how Arthrospira will react and behave when exposed to such stress environment. The cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was exposed to high gamma rays doses in order to unravel in details the response of this bacterium following such stress. Test results showed that after acute exposure to high doses of 60Co gamma radiation upto 3200 Gy, Arthrospira filaments were still able to restart photosynthesis and proliferate normally. Doses above 3200 Gy, did have a detrimental effect on the cells, and delayed post-irradiation proliferation. The photosystem activity, measured as the PSII quantum yield immediately after irradiation, decreased significantly at radiation doses above 3200 Gy. Likewise through pigment content analysis a significant decrease in phycocyanin was observed following exposure to 3200 Gy. The high tolerance of this bacterium to 60Co gamma rays (i.e. ca. 1000x more resistant than human cells for example) raised our interest to investigate in details the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this amazing resistance. Optimised DNA, RNA and protein extraction methods and a new microarray chip specific for Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 were developed to identify the global cellular and molecular response following exposure to 3200 Gy and 5000 Gy A total of 15,29 % and 30,18 % genes were found differentially expressed in RNA

  11. Cytological and Biochemical Effects of St. John’s Wort Supplement (A Complex Mixture of St. John’s Wort, Rosemary and Spirulina on Somatic and Germ Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aleisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available St. John’s wort supplement (SJWS composed of an herbal mixture of St. John’s Wort (SJW, Rosemary (RM and Spirulina (SP is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin. However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1 determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2 investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn

  12. Acne polimorfo: tratamiento con Implacen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pérez Armas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el estudio de 40 pacientes con acné polimorfo, los que fueron atendidos en la Consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley", en el período comprendido de enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1989. Se revisa la literatura médica sobre los diversos métodos y medicamentos utilizados en la terapéutica de esta dermatosis. Se describe el esquema de tratamiento empleado con implacén en 30 pacientes; los 10 restantes se trataron con placebo; se compara dicho esquema con los tradicionales y se observan mejores resultados con nuestro estudio. Se destaca la ausencia de recaídas, así como el resultado del tratamiento de acuerdo con el sexo.A study was performed in 40 patients presenting with polymorphic acne who were attended in the Dermatology Department of "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Clinicosurgical and Teaching Hospital from January, 1988 to December, 1989. A review of the literature was made seeking for the different methods and drugs used for the treatment of this dermatosis. The treatment schedule with the use of implacen in 30 patients is described. Such therapeutic schedule was compared with traditional ones and better results were observed with the use of implacen. The fact that there were no relapses is highlighted, as well as the result of treatment according to sex.

  13. con mala calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Martín-Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.

  14. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent compositions, and various other fields and can be extracted from plants and algae. To extract, separate and purify chlorophyll a from associated pigments such as xanthophylls, carotenes, and pheophytins, very costly processes are reported. The present approach is perfectly adequate for use in Chemistry experiments for undergraduate students.

  15. Enraizamiento in vitro de Dioscoreas sp. In vitro rootting of Dioscoreas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarma Alfredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Universidad de Córdoba en el año 2000 con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del ácido naftalenacético (ANA en el medio de cultivo sobre el enraizamiento in vitro de tres cultivares de ñame (Dioscorea sp.. Se estudió el efecto de cuatro concentraciones del regulador de crecimiento (0, 0.3, 0.6 y 0.9 mg/1 sobre tres cultivares de ñame (Diamantes-22, 003 y 005. Se empleó un experimento trifactorial con diseño aleatorio y 20 repeticiones; cada unidad experimental estuvo conformada por un recipiente de vidrio que contenía el medio de cultivo y el explante (segmento nodal. Las variables consideradas fueron número y grosor de raíces, oxidación del medio de cultivo y producción de callo. Los resultados indicaron que tanto la hormona como el genotipo tuvieron efecto sobre todas las variables consi­deradas en el estudio y que la interacción fue importante (PThe Universidad de Córdoba s Vegetal Tissue Culture Laboratory evaluated the effect of naphthalenacetic acid (NAA on in vitro rooting of three yam cultivars (Dioscorea sp. in 2000. The effect of four hormone levels (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mg/1 was studied on three yam cultivars (Diamantes-22,003 and 005. A random experimental design was used employing 4x3 factorial arrangement and 20 repetitions; each experimental unit consisted of a glass receptacle containing the culture medium and the explant (one segment nodal. The variables considered were the number of roots and their thickness, culture medium oxidation and callus production. Findings showed that both the hormone and genotype had an effect on all those variables considered in the study and interaction was significant (P <0.05 for callus production and culture medium oxidation. The 005 cultivar showed the greatest root number and thickness values. It was also determined that when a 0.6 and 0.9 mg/1 dose of auxin was applied, root production and

  16. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Frisvad, Jens C; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178(T) = IBT 23262(T)), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171(T) = IBT 23253(T)), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149(T) = IBT 23247(T)), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135(T) = IBT 23229(T)) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216(T) = IBT 23203(T)) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium daleae and Penicillium brasilianum. An overview of the phylogeny of this taxonomically difficult group is presented, and 33 species are accepted. Each of the five novel species had a unique extrolite profile of known and uncharacterized metabolites and various compounds, such as penicillic acid, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics.

  17. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos

  18. Consórcios de pepino e alface em cultivo protegido: viabilidade agroeconômica

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Bráulio Luciano Alves [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e rentabilidade dos consórcios de pepino, em duas densidades populacionais, com dois grupos de alface (crespa e americana), em ambiente protegido, realizados em duas épocas de cultivo, agosto a novembro de 2005 e fevereiro a maio de 2006, foram realizados oito experimentos na Unesp, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. Cada experimento constou de nove tratamentos, resultante de quatro cultivos consorciados (estabelecidos em quatro épocas de transplante da alface...

  19. Tratamiento con inmunoterapia específica en niños con Rinitis Alérgica y/o Asma Bronquial. Área Norte. 2005 - 2007.

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Iraida Morera Franco; Rigoberto Antonio García Chang; María Mercedes Gómez Paz

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal durante el período Enero 2005_ Enero 2007 en el Policlínico Norte del municipio Sancti Spíritus. El universo estuvo constituido por el total de niños con edades de 2_15 años con enfermedades alérgicas, a los que se realizó pruebas de alergia e indicó tratamiento con inmunoterapia específica por vía subcutánea, la muestra estuvo formada por 75 pacientes con asma bronquial, rinitis alérgica y/o ambas enfermedades, con el objetivo de determinar ...

  20. Detection of Salmonella sp in pork carcasses in slaughterhouses in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatierra R, Guillermo; Pinto J, Chris; Inga E, Edwin; Siuce M, Juan; Calle E, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue detectar la frecuencia de Salmonella sp, median- te técnicas de aislamiento, en carcasas porcinas destinadas al consumo humano. Se muestrearon 300 carcasas beneficiadas en dos camales de Lima Metropolitana, Perú. Las muestras fueron tomadas mediante hisopados sobre la piel de la cabeza, vientre, lomo y pierna, representando en total 1200 submuestras. Estas fueron transportadas al laborato- rio en tubos Falcon con agua peptonada tamponada, donde fueron proc...

  1. Neues vom Heringsparasiten Ichthyophonus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Seit dem Massensterben von Heringen entlang der schwedischen Südküste im Sommer 1991, aufgrund einer Infektion mit dem parasitischen Pilz Ichthyophonus sp., wird der Gesundheitszustand der Heringsbestände in den europäischen Seegebieten intensiv überwacht. Diese Untersuchungen, an denen sich auch die Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei beteiligt, werden koordiniert von der "Arbeitsgruppe über Pathologie und Krankheiten mariner Organismen" des Internationalen Rates für Meeresforschung (IC...

  2. con dietas suplementadas con Cromo-L-metionina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 48 cerdos (Sus scrofa domesticus; 24 machos castrados y 24 hembras cruzados (Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace de 3,5 a 4,0 meses de edad y 60,0 ± 5,0 kg PV en finalización. Se alimentaron con dietas isoproteícas (14,5 % PC e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal EM/kg de MS, adicionadas con Cr-L-metionina (MiCroPlex® (0, 200, 400 y 600 ppb. El experimento tuvo una duración de 45 días y se realizó de agosto a noviembre del 2002 en las instalaciones de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, localizada en Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Al tener los animales aproximadamente 95 kg PV, se tomó muestra de 15 ml de sangre por cada animal para determinar la concentración de glucosa, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, proteinas totales y colesterol. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 4; dos para el factor sexo y cuatro para nivel de cromo. Los metabolitos en suero no fueron afectados (P>0,05 por el factor sexo. La glucosa en suero disminuyó (P<0,05 y el colesterol incrementó (P<0,05 con cromo en la dieta. Se concluye que el Cr incrementa el metabolismo de glucosa y disminuye el de colesterol, con lo cual puede haber energía disponible para síntesis de proteína la cual es necesaria para el crecimiento de los animales

  3. Recubrimiento de acero con polidopamina

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Rodríguez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Se ha obtenido recubrimientos de polidopamina en acero mecánicamente resistentes y con tiempos de obtención relativamente pequeños a través de la polimerización de la dopamina bajo diferentes condiciones.

  4. A study of acute phase and transport protein synthesis in undernourished men using simulated infection and uniformly 15N-labelled Spirulina Platenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Soares, M.J.; Sekhar, R.V.; Reeds, P.J.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that acute phase protein synthesis is accelerated and transport protein synthesis is decelerated in adult men in whom the stress of infection is superimposed upon undernutrition. As a pilot study, four chronically undernourished men and two well-nourished controls were studied on two occasions separated by four days; the second session was conducted 24 hours after the administration of typhoid vaccine. Basal urine and blood samples were collected and then subjects were given priming oral doses of 15 N-Spirulina (13.5mg/kg body weight) and oral doses (3.5mg/kg body weight) every 30 min for the next six hours. Meals were aliquoted during the dosing period. Blood samples were collected at four, five and six hours. 15 N enrichment in different fractions of plasma i.e., albumin, non-albumin and amino acids, was measured by combustion GC-IRMS. Total urinary nitrogen was measured by Kjeldahl. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Down-regulation of histamine-induced endothelial cell activation as potential anti-atherosclerotic activity of peptides from Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-10-09

    Histamine, a potent inflammatory mediator, has been known to cause the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this sense, two bioactive peptides P1 (LDAVNR; 686Da) and P2 (MMLDF; 655Da) purified from gastric enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima were examined for their protective effects against early atherosclerotic responses induced by histamine in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Interestingly, both P1 and P2 exhibited inhibitory activities on the production and expression of IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, P1 and P2 inhibited the production of adhesion molecules including P-selectin and E-selectin, and thus reducing in vitro cell adhesion of monocyte onto endothelial cells. In addition, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed to reduce in the presence of P1 or P2. Notably, the inhibitory activities of P1 and P2 were found due to down-regulating Egr-1 expression via histamine receptor and PKCδ-dependent MAPKs activation pathway. These results suggest that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima are effective to suppress histamine-induced endothelial cell activation that may contribute to the prevention of early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid mutation of Spirulina platensis by a new mutagenesis system of atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP and generation of a mutant library with diverse phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Fang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to improve the carbohydrate productivity of Spirulina platensis by generating mutants with increased carbohydrate content and growth rate. ARTP was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant library of S. platensis with diverse phenotypes. Protocol for rapid mutation of S. platensis by 60 s treatment with helium driven ARTP and high throughput screening method of the mutants using the 96-well microplate and microplate reader was established. A mutant library of 62 mutants was then constructed and ideal mutants were selected out. The characteristics of the mutants after the mutagenesis inclined to be stable after around 9(th subculture, where the total mutation frequency and positive mutation frequency in terms of specific growth rate reached 45% and 25%, respectively. The mutants in mutant library showed diverse phenotypes in terms of cell growth rate, carbohydrate content and flocculation intensity. The positive mutation frequency in terms of cellular carbohydrate content with the increase by more than 20% percent than the wild strain was 32.3%. Compared with the wild strain, the representative mutants 3-A10 and 3-B2 showed 40.3% and 78.0% increase in carbohydrate content, respectively, while the mutant 4-B3 showed 10.5% increase in specific growth rate. The carbohydrate contents of the representative mutants were stable during different subcultures, indicating high genetic stability. ARTP was demonstrated to be an effective and non-GMO mutagenesis tool to generate the mutant library for multicellular microalgae.

  7. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  8. Mutagenic potential of Cordia ecalyculata alone and in association with Spirulina maxima for their evaluation as candidate anti-obesity drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Rechiutti, B M; Mendes, T B; Ito, E T; Souza, E B

    2014-07-07

    Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders, and can be currently considered as an epidemic. Although there are few weight reduction drugs available on the market, some new drug candidates have been proposed, including Cordia ecalyculata, a Brazilian plant with anorectic properties, and Spirulina maxima, a cyanobacterium with antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activity. In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic potential of C. ecalyculata at doses of 150, 300, and 500 mg/kg alone and in association with S. maxima at doses of 75, 150, and 250 mg/kg, respectively, through an in vivo micronucleus test, using mice of both sexes, and an in vitro micronucleus test and comet assay, using human peripheral blood. For all tests, cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. The results showed that treatment of 300 mg/kg C. ecalyculata and the combination treatment of 500 mg/kg C. ecalyculata with 250 mg/kg S. maxima resulted in anorectic effects. The mutagenic tests did not reveal any clastogenic or genotoxic activity for any treatment, indicating that these candidates could be marketed as weight-reduction drugs. Moreover, the drugs contain chemo-preventive substances that can protect against tumorigenesis, which has been associated with obesity.

  9. Evaluación de la estabilidad de Trichoderma sp. y Azotobacter sp. conservados por diferentes métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sarmiento Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Evaluation of the stability of Trichoderma sp. and Azotobacter sp.  preserved by different methods Resumen En el Laboratorio de Microbiología Aplicada de la Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander (Cúcuta, Colombia constantemente ingresan al Banco de Cepas, cultivos microbianos de interés biotecnológico, especialmente del sector agrícola, los cuales son utilizados en las actividades de docencia e investigación.  Por esta razón, existe el interés de mantener viables a través del tiempo estos cultivos microbianos, para lo cual se realizó en esta investigación, la evaluación de la estabilidad de los aislados de Trichoderma sp. y Azotobacter sp., utilizando  las técnicas de conservación  en viales con solución salina estéril (0,85% NaCl en refrigeración (4°C y temperatura ambiente (30°C, suelo estéril en refrigeración (4°C, comparados con la metodología de repiques sucesivos como tratamiento control.  Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas según el Test de Duncan (P≤0,05 en  la tasa de supervivencia microbiana entre los métodos de conservación. Sin embargo, se observó en las técnicas de viales con solución salina  estéril y suelo estéril mantenidos en refrigeración, mayor estabilidad en la concentración celular durante los cuatros meses de evaluación, sin registrar contaminación en los cultivos.  Así mismo, se registró un óptimo crecimiento macroscópico de los cultivos microbianos y sus características microscópicas se mantuvieron estables en estos dos métodos de conservación.  Por esta razón, se seleccionaron como técnicas de conservación de estos microorganismos, teniendo en cuenta además, ventajas como la facilidad de la técnica, disponibilidad de equipos, materiales y personal con los que se cuenta en el laboratorio.  Palabras clave: banco de cepas, conservación de microorganismos, viabilidad celular, Trichoderma sp., Azotobacter sp. Abstract In the

  10. VALOR NUTRICIONAL DEL HENO DE TRANSVALA INOCULADO CON EL HONGO Pleurotus ostreatus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el valor nutricional del heno de Transvala utilizado en la producción del hongo comestible Pleurotus ostreatus. El heno fue analizado antes de inocular el hongo y después de la cosecha. Se determinó: materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, extracto etéreo (EE, ceniza (Ce, digestibilidad in vitro de la MS (DIVMS, carbohidratos no fibrosos (CNF, fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, lignina, nitrógeno ligado a la fibra detergente neutro (N-FDN y a la fibra detergente ácida (N-FDA, nutrimentos digestibles totales (NDT (1X, energía digestible (ED, energía metabolizable (EM, energía neta de lactancia (ENl, energía de mantenimiento (ENm y energía neta de ganancia (ENg. Sobresalen niveles bajos de PC, DIVMS y NDT; y valores altos de lignina, FDN y FDA. El contenido de MS, FDN, hemicelulosa (He, lignina, CNF y EE presentó diferencias significativas, debidas al crecimiento del hongo. La variación en calidad en estas variables fue de (- 48,75%, (- 24,76%, (- 80,22%, (- 27,94%, (+ 51,52% y (- 26,13%, respectivamente. La mejoría en la calidad nutricional del heno, después de la cosecha del hongo, no es tan significativa como para cambiar la perspectiva en su uso dentro de la ración total de rumiantes, por lo que el beneficio del heno se basa más en aspectos físicos que nutricionales.

  11. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  12. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Oviedo S.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  13. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo S. Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  14. Comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. em consórcio silvicultural.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisilvio Pes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho foi realizado no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e teve por objetivo determinar o comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. cultivada em sistema de consórcio silvicultural. A metodologia adotada constituiu-se da implantação de três tratamentos, correspondentes aos sistemas de consórcio erva-mata x Pinus sp., erva-mate x bracatinga e erva-mate x capoeira. A análise dos resultados levou às seguintes conclusões: os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento da erva-mate são obtidos nos consórcios com bracatinga e Pins sp. e, o pior, na caopeira; as variações externas dos fatores do meio são amenizadas pelas outras espécies do consórcio; índices elevados de luminosidade não promovem maior produção de matéria seca, nem os índices muito baixos.

  15. Introduction to the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the "Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model". The overall goal of the SP programme of research, in accordance with long-established principles in science, has been the simplification and integration of observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human learning, perception, and cognition. In broad terms, the SP system is a brain-like system that takes in "New" infor...

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  17. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  18. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial, con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los Opiliones de Guinea Ecuatorial y su Región Continental (antiguamente conocida como Río Muni no habían sido previamente estudiados. El material recogido en 1996 ha proporcionado 22 especies, de las que diez pertenecen a la familia Assamiidae y son objeto de este trabajo: Chilon robustus gen. nov., sp. nov. y Mbinia xenophora gen. nov., sp. nov. (Erecinae, Podauchenius longipes sp. nov. y Rhabdopygus funilignorum sp. nov. (Hypoxestinae, Ayenea trimaculata gen. nov., sp. nov., Montalenia forfícula gen. nov., sp. nov. y Niefanga spinosa gen. nov., sp. ov. (Polycoryphinae, Binderia longipes sp. nov., Seuthes inermis sp. nov. y Seuthessus coriscanus sp. nov. (Selencinae. Se considera a Ayenea, Montalenia y Niefanga como un nuevo grupo supragenérico basado en la presencia de un par de orificios en el lado dorsal del pene y un grueso opérculo genital con mecanismo de apertura. Se añaden claves para la identificación de especies de los taxones tratados, así como fotografías a color de ambos sexos (excepto la hembra de B. longipes. En el Parque Nacional de Monte Alén se han encontrado ocho especies; solamente faltan de allí dos selencinos, aparentemente costeros.The Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae from Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea, with the description of eight new species. The Opiliones from Equatorial Guinea’s Continental Region (formerly Río Muni had not been studied previously. A collection made in 1996 produced 22 species, ten of which belong to the Assamiidae and are studied herein: Chilon robustus and Mbinia xenophora gen. nov., sp. nov. (Erecinae; Podauchenius longipes and Rhabdopygus funilignorum sp. nov. (Hypoxestinae; Ayenea trimaculata gen. nov., sp. nov., Montalenia forficula gen. nov., sp. nov. and Niefanga spinosa gen. nov., sp. nov. (Polycoryphinae; Binderia longipes sp. nov., Seuthes inermis sp. nov. and Seuthessus coriscanus sp. nov. (Selencinae. We consider Ayenea, Montalenia and Niefanga an informal suprageneric

  19. pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Herrera Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación fundamenta en la clínica psicoanalítica el estudio de dos casos de tres personas diagnosticadas con IRT que reciben tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en razón a que dadas las características y el aumento de los reportes que se presentan, ya esto se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal es describir las características dinámicas del proceso de duelo en pacientes con IRT en un centro de terapia renal de la ciudad de Cartagena. El procedimiento metodológico empleó un diseño de tipo cualitativo; la investigación se desarrolló con un diseño clínico mediante el estudio de casos, y fundamentada en la hermenéutica psicoanalítica. Todo esto respaldado en la historia clínica, la entrevista semiestructurada individual y familiar, los test proyectivos, test del dibujo de la figura humana Machover y TAT de Murray, para la debida integración de los análisis. Se concluye que predominan funciones fallidas de los progenitores y que son individuos provenientes de familias psicosomáticas, que utilizan la enfermedad para obtener un beneficio secundario.

  20. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  1. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  2. Selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage: the nitrogenation of alkynes to amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong; Feng, Peng; Ou, Yang; Shen, Tao; Wang, Teng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-07-22

    Breakthrough: A novel catalyzed direct highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond functionalization of alkynes to amides has been developed. Nitrogenation is achieved by the highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage of aryl-substituted alkynes. The oxidant-free and mild conditions and wide substrate scope make this method very practical. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. First report of Anisakis sp. in Epinephelus sp. in East Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha; Diana Agustiani Wuri; Julianty Almet; Yuni Riwu; Christin Melky

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present research was conducted to identify the prevalence of Anisakis sp. as fish-borne zoonoses in Epinephelus sp. in territorial waters of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Materials and methods: A total of 50 fish (Epinephelus sp.) were collected from Kupang Fish Market in East Nusa Tenggara. Identification of Anisakis sp. was performed based on morphological observations considering shape of ventriculus, boring tooth, and mucron using binocular microscope. Results: Prev...

  4. Extracción del ADN de Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    Sixta T. Martínez; Carlos Y. Soto

    2010-01-01

    Se estudia la utílización de dos métodos para la extracción del ADN del Fusarium o.xy.sporum f.sp. Dianthi. En los dos métodos la pared del hongo se rompió con nitrógeno líquido, uno de ellos empleó como solución extractora bromuro de cetiltrimetil amonio (BCTA) y el otro una solución de sacarosa con altas concentraciones de protcasa y EDTA. Para la desproteinización ambos métodos utilizaron soluciones de fcnol-clorofonno y enzimas proteolítícas. El ADN obtenido se digirió con enzimas d...

  5. EFECTO DE POBLACIONES DE Meloidogyne sp. EN EL DESARROLLO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número de nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf. Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogy- ne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos.

  6. Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deok-Chun; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-03-01

    Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T), were isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized to determine their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates shared 99.5 % sequence similarity. Strains T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) were shown to belong to the Proteobacteria and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity to Pseudoxanthomonas broegbernensis DSM 12573(T) (98.1 %), Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) (97.4-97.5 %), Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis 12-3(T) (96.5-96.6 %), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis ATCC BAA-404(T) (95.7 %) and Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 33913(T) (96.3-96.5 %). The sequence similarity values with respect to any species with validly published names in related genera were less than 96.5 %. The detection of a quinone system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and a fatty acid profile with C(15 : 0) iso as the predominant acid supported the assignment of the novel isolates to the order 'Xanthomonadales'. The two isolates could be distinguished from the established species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas by the presence of quantitative unsaturated fatty acid C(17 : 1) iso omega9c and by their unique biochemical profiles. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization clearly demonstrated that T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) represent separate species. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that T7-09(T) (=KCTC 12208(T)=IAM 15116(T)) and TR6-08(T) (=KCTC 12207(T)=IAM 15115(T)) be classified as the type strains of two novel Pseudoxanthomonas species, for which the names Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  7. Preferencia alimenticia del ácaro depredador Balaustium sp. en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Karen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la preferencia de presas de Balaustium sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artrópodos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogotá. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de Balaustium sp. y se registró el número de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determinó la preferencia de los tres estados móviles del ácaro depredador Balaustium sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de Trialeurodes vaporariorum, huevos, ninfas y adultos de Tetranychus urticae, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de Frankliniella occidentalis. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observó que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de T. vaporariorum. La presa preferida por las larvas de Balaustium sp. fue los huevos de T. urticae con una proporción de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de T. vaporariorum (0,537 o de T. urticae (0,497 y los adultos de Balaustium sp. prefrieron los huevos de T. vaporariorum (0,588.

  8. Production of the α and β Subunits of Spirulina Allophycocyanin and C-Phycocyanin in Escherichia coli : A Comparative Study of Their Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdkiatikul, Thiti; Suwanwong, Yaneenart

    2014-07-01

    Allophycocyanin and c-phycocyanin have been reported to be potent antioxidants. In this work, the genes encoding the apo-proteins of allophycocyanin α (ApcA), allophycocyanin β (ApcB), c-phycocyanin α (CpcA), and c-phycocyanin β (CpcB) from Spirulina platensis were cloned, and the recombinant proteins were produced in Escherichia coli to study their antioxidant effects. All four recombinant phycocyanins could be produced in the soluble form and purified to more than 97% purity. The results of radical scavenging assays showed that the Trolox equivalent values for peroxyl radical scavenging by the ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, and CpcB proteins were 1.81 ± 0.2 µM, 1.98 ± 0.22 µM, 0.95 ± 0.15 µM, and 1.49 ± 0.15 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for hydroxyl radical scavenging of ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, CpcB, and Trolox were 269 ± 9 µg/mL, 190 ± 5 µg/mL, 129 ± 8 µg/mL, 108 ± 4 µg/mL, and 195 ± 12 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicated that allophycocyanin exhibited higher activity than c-phycocyanin in scavenging peroxyl radicals, whereas c-phycocyanin exhibited higher activity than allophycocyanin in scavenging hydroxyl radicals. All of the apo-phycocyanin subunits possessed strong antioxidant activities and can be further developed and applied to the food and drug industries. However, the selection of the most useful antioxidant should depend on the type of targeted free radical to obtain the highest efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C., E-mail: kdas@engr.uga.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo [Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-06-23

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  10. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis Assisted by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agregán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW and total phenolic compounds (TPC (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE/100 g DW yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be

  12. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  13. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  14. Kultivasi Scenedesmus SP. Pada Medium Air Limbah

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaroe, Mujizat

    2011-01-01

    Proses fotosintesis pada mikroalga membutuhkan CO2 dan cahaya matahari serta nutrien untuk pertumbuhannya. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. pada medium air limbah bertujuan guna mencukupi kebutuhan mikroalga akan nutrien dan mengurangi masukan dari bahan kimia yang terkandung dalam air limbah tersebut ke lingkungan. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. dilakukan selama tujuh hari pada medium air limbah industri tanpa penambahan nutri...

  15. Spirulina maxima Extract Reduces Obesity through Suppression of Adipogenesis and Activation of Browning in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Jin; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-06-01

    Obesity predisposes animals towards the metabolic syndrome and diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Spirulina maxima is a microalga with anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective activities, but the anti-obesity effect of Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has not yet been fully established. We investigated the effect of SM70EE on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning using in vitro and in vivo obesity models. SM70EE treatment reduced lipid droplet accumulation by the oil red O staining method and downregulated the adipogenic proteins C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2, and the lipogenic proteins SREBP1, ACC, FAS, LPAATβ, Lipin1, and DGAT1 by western blot analysis. In addition, the index components of SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin, reduced adipogenesis and lipogenesis protein levels in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice administered with SM70EE demonstrated smaller adipose depots and lower blood lipid concentrations than control HFD-fed mice. The lower body mass gain in treated SM70EE-administrated mice was associated with lower protein expression of adipogenesis factors and higher expression of AMPKα-induced adipose browning proteins PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1. SM70EE administration ameliorates obesity, likely by reducing adipogenesis and activating the thermogenic program, in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese mice.

  16. Conversando con...Momoyo Kaijima

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alonso, Carlos; Álvarez Isidro, Eva; Torres Barchino, Ana

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Momoyo Kaijima es profesora en la Facultad de Arte y Diseño de la Universidad de Tsukuba en la Prefectura de Ibaraki y profesora visitante en la ETH de Zürich, en Royal Academy of Fine Arts, en Rice School of Architecture y en Harvard GSD. A lo largo de los años, Atelier Bow Wow ha colaborado con Krešimir Rogina, arquitecto de Zagreb y socio de la firma internacional Penezic&Rogina, en la realización del Grožnjan International Summer School of Architecture, siendo Rogina el nexo indispen...

  17. Guide til gode spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henning

    Spørgeskemaundersøgelser bliver ofte brugt til at dokumentere forskellige forhold og begrunde politiske beslutninger. Men resultaterne kan være forbundet med stor usikkerhed. Det kræver omhu og stor sproglig formåen at udarbejde spørgeskemaer. Seniorforsker Henning Olsen har i flere år arbejdet med...... viden om, hvordan folk forstår sproglige meddelelser og genkalder sig informationer. I guiden behandles emner som fx styrende problemstillinger og spørgsmåls fokus og neutralitet, formulering af åbne eller lukkede spørgsmål og svarkategorier, tematiske spørgeforløb, aflastning af svarpersoners...

  18. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3- 14 C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO 2 . Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that [3- 14 C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  19. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  20. INTERAKSI ANTARA Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP. DAN Pseudomonas SP. SERTA KAPASITAS ANTAGONISMENYA TERHADAP Phytophthora CapsicilN VITRO*[Interaction Among Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP., Pseudomonas SP. and Antagonism Capacities Against Phy

    OpenAIRE

    Suharna, Nandang

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study has been done to know antagonism capacities of three isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, two isolates of Penicillium sp.and one isolate of Pseudomonas sp.against Phytophthora capsici in vitro and interaction among those six antagonists.The highest antagonism capacity possessed by Penicillium sp. KN1, respectively followed by Penicillium sp.KN2,Pseudomonas sp. GH1 and the three T. harzianum isolates. Except for those three T. harzianum isolates, the two Penicillium sp.isolat...

  1. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Saare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  2. Food irradiation - pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation for food preservation is a much-disputed topic, both among experts and among consumers. Pros and cons of this issue were discussed in detail at the consumers' forum. Professor Dr. Johannes Friedrich Diehl, Director of the Institute for Biochemistry of the Food Research Centre, Karlsruhe, is a well-known supporter of the new method of food preservation; he sees advantages in the radiopreservation of food because, for example, losses due to inedibility are reduced, the danger of salmonellosis is decreased, just as the use of chemicals. He thinks this method to be without danger to health, shown by many years of experience. Opponents to food irradiation like Prof. Dr. Konrad Pfeilsticker, Professor for food science and food chemistry at the Bonn University deem the method to be unnecessary and raise the problem of qualitative changes caused in the food. In the course of the discussions, the pros and cons seemed to balance each other out. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. De paseo con los Bourbaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Escudero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Setenta y siete años después de la fundación del grupo Bourbaki, procedemos a una reflexión que puede ser útil para los estudiantes que acaso no sepan de su existencia, ni tan siquiera los de matemáticas. Sería interesante conocer que a este grupo se le debe el signo del vacío como conjunto. Con todo lo discutible que sea el método Bourbaki en su reinterpretación de la matemática, no cabe duda de su importante repercusión hasta el punto de que ha marcado una época. Hay un antes y un después tras su irrupción, ningún matemático de primera fila de la segunda mitad del siglo XX fue ajeno a su influjo, para encabezarlo o para reprobarlo. Comenzaron como una juvenil extravagancia, pero repleta de conocimientos y con decidida voluntad de aprehender el rigor de forma exhaustiva.

  4. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Negrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio terapéutico junto con el control de peso, en caso de sobrepeso u obesidad, constituyen el núcleo central del tratamiento. Los autocuidados individuales y por los familiares son fundamentales en el control del día a día del paciente. El uso de terapias físicas, ayudas técnicas (bastón, etc. y de fármacos tipo analgésicos simples, opioides y antiinflamatorios tiene evidencias demostradas en el control del dolor, mejora la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del paciente y una clara recomendación de uso en el tratamiento de la artrosis. La cirugía conservadora y la de reemplazo articular se indican en los casos en los que no se logran los objetivos terapéuticos en casos concretos.

  5. Efecto de la Infección de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en Hospederos Alternos / Effect of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea Infection on Alternate Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Ivón Magaly Arcila Aristizábal; Elena Paola González Jaimes; Catalina María Zuluaga Amaya; Mauricio Alejandro Marín Montoya; José Miguel Cotes Torres

    2014-01-01

    Resumen. Como una de las posibles medidas de manejo deaplicación práctica para la reducción de inóculo de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en suelos infestados con quistosoros del patógeno, se evaluó la incidencia de su infección en diferentes plantas hospederas durante tres siembras consecutivas. Las siembras se realizaron en macetas que contenían 2 kg de suelo previamente inoculados con una concentración de 1x105quistosoros.g-1 de suelo; las cosechas de las plantas se realizaron c...

  6. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  7. Cons ICARUS, TIGER and Fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Vrečko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like the scientists of their time, Russian artists in the 1920s considered gravity the central problem – a view which points to the close harmony between modern physics and the avant-garde. It was only with the constructivist movement that the Icarus revolution grasped the principles of the “mobile philosophy” (3.651 which was almost at the same time recognised by modern physics as well. The static view of the world became obsolete, space and time were no longer absolute values. It was necessary to transcend Euclidean geometry, shake off the political ʻshackles on one’s hands’ and surrender to Lisicki’s imaginary space, where “At 2000 metres in the air / there is no more perspective” (Integrals 276.  Kosovel’s Icarus project accorded with Tatlin’s, and both of them accorded with the quintessential aims of the constructivist movement. It is no accident that Kosovel wished to name one of his poetry collections The Dream of Icarus. Poems on the Icarus theme, such as “Cons Icarus”, “Evacuation of the Spirit”, “Eh, Hey”, “A Heart in Alcohol” etc. belong to the group of Kosovel’s conses which follow his “mobile philosophy” (3.650 and “letters growing into space” (Int. 282.  The question “Man, do you want up in the air?” (Int. 128 will remain a question until the moment when man is finally ready to transcend the existing boundary and dive “beyond”. Hence Kosovel’s clear-cut contrast between the “green windows of an illuminated / express on a viaduct”, which moves horizontally and is, like a water current, subject to the earth’s gravity, and “the spirit in space”, whose direction of motion is “the perpendicular of the spirit”, atectonicity. “The spirit burns in space”: fire is an element that knows vertical movement alone, the only one of the elements to outgrow and transcend the earth’s gravity, therefore it is associated with another mythological figure important for

  8. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  9. Factores de riesgo asociados al suicidio en el municipio Sancti Spíritus en el quinquenio 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Yurien Negrín Calvo; Jorge Luis Toledo Prado; José Andrés Cabrales Escobar; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Amparo Muro García; Esther Oria Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento: el suicidio se ha mantenido entre las diez primeras causas de muerte en Cuba, sin que aún estén establecidas sus determinantes. Objetivo: identificar los factores de riesgo que se asocian con el suicidio consumado en personas mayores de 19 años. Métodos: se diseñó un estudio de casos y testigos con 81 casos y 162 testigos mayores de 19 años del municipio de Sancti Spíritus, durante el quinquenio 2005-2009. Las variables incluidas en el estudio fueron: edad en años cumplidos, sexo,...

  10. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  11. Fare astronomia con piccoli telescopi

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Non sono necessariamente richiesti strumenti mastodontici per produrre risultati scientificamente validi nel campo dell’astronomia. Anche l’astrofilo dotato di un piccolo telescopio, con un diametro di soli 8-9 cm, può contribuire alla scienza del cielo realizzando utili osservazioni del Sole, della Luna, dei pianeti, delle comete, degli asteroidi, delle stelle doppie o variabili, delle nebulose e degli ammassi stellari. Il manuale di M.K. Gainer spiega quale sia la dotazione minima (un piccolo telescopio, un computer, una semplice fotocamera digitale), come utilizzarla, e quali siano le tecniche appropriate da adottare nelle osservazioni. Offre inoltre schemi per interpretare e ridurre i dati raccolti, nonché schede da compilare e da spedire ai centri di raccolta internazionali. Questo libro è il passaporto grazie al quale l’astrofilo può entrare a pieno titolo nel mondo affascinante della scienza astronomica.

  12. BIORREMEDIACIÓN DE UN SUELO CON DIESEL MEDIANTE EL USO DE MICROORGANISMOS AUTÓCTONOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIETA RAMÍREZ OLGA MARIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se aisló y caracterizó bioquímica y molecularmente un consorcio bacteriano capaz de degradar los diferentes hidrocarburos presentes en un combustible diesel,conformado por los siguientes géneros: Enterobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Sanguibacter soli, Arthrobacter sp y Flavobacterium sp, a partir de un suelo contaminado con diesel a escala de laboratorio, y tratado mediante 2 tecnologías de biorremediación: atenuación natural y bioestimulación. Se definió como parámetro de control la concentración de Hidrocarburos Totales del Petróleo (HTP y para el cual, se obtuvo una reducción en la concentración en un periodo de 4 meses de 36,86% para atenuación natural y 50,99% para bioestimulación. La medición de la eficiencia de remoción de hidrocarburos se cuantificó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a masas (GC-MS.

  13. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  14. Tratamiento con inmunoterapia específica en niños con Rinitis Alérgica y/o Asma Bronquial. Área Norte. 2005 - 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Iraida Morera Franco

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal durante el período Enero 2005_ Enero 2007 en el Policlínico Norte del municipio Sancti Spíritus. El universo estuvo constituido por el total de niños con edades de 2_15 años con enfermedades alérgicas, a los que se realizó pruebas de alergia e indicó tratamiento con inmunoterapia específica por vía subcutánea, la muestra estuvo formada por 75 pacientes con asma bronquial, rinitis alérgica y/o ambas enfermedades, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento del tratamiento con inmunoterapia específica se aplicó el método porcentual para el análisis de resultados, donde el grupo etáreo que predominó fue de 2 _5 años, más del 65 % de los pacientes tratados refirieron mejoría de los síntomas las causas más frecuentes de abandono de tratamiento fue la aparición de infecciones intercurrentes, no ocurrió reacción anafiláctica en ninguno de los casos estudiados, el tratamiento con inmunoterapia puede reducir el uso de otros tratamientos asociados como Intal, antihistamínicos, broncodilatadores y esteroides.

  15. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  16. Superhard sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772. The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  17. Crecimiento y composición bioquímica de limnothrix sp. a diferentes salinidades y concentraciones de nitrato

    OpenAIRE

    Lemus, Nathalie; Guevara Acosta, Miguel Angel; Lodeiros, César; Vásquez, Aleikar; Freites, Luis; Licet, Berenice

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Growth and biochemical composition of Limnothrix sp. at different salinities and concentrations of nitrateTítulo corto: Crecimiento y composición bioquímica de Limnothrix sp.ResumenSe evalúo el efecto de la salinidad  (15, 25 y 35 UPS) y concentración de nitrato (4, 8 y 16 mmoles L-1) sobre el crecimiento y composición bioquímica de la  cianobacteria Limnothrix sp. (LAEP- 52) con miras a su explotación para fines biotecnológicos. La cianobacteria se cultivó durante 20 días...

  18. Isolation of the opdE gene that encodes for a new hydrolase of Enterobacter sp. capable of degrading organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino-Flores, Concepción; Dantán-González, Edgar; Vázquez-Ramos, Alejandra; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Díaz-Méndez, Rafael; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, Maria Luisa; Ramos-Quintana, Fernando; Ortiz-Hernández, Maria Laura

    2012-06-01

    Microbial enzymes that can hydrolyze organophosphorus compounds have been isolated, identified and characterized from different microbial species in order to use them in biodegradation of organophosphorus compounds. We isolated a bacterial strain Cons002 from an agricultural soil bacterial consortium, which can hydrolyze methyl-parathion (MP) and other organophosphate pesticides. HPLC analysis showed that strain Cons002 is capable of degrading pesticides MP, parathion and phorate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA amplification were performed for strain characterization and identification, respectively, showing that the strain Cons002 is related to the genus Enterobacter sp. which has a single chromosome of 4.6 Mb and has no plasmids. Genomic library was constructed from DNA of Enterobacter sp. Cons002. A gene called opdE (Organophosphate Degradation from Enterobacter) consists of 753 bp and encodes a protein of 25 kDa, which was isolated using activity methods. This gene opdE had no similarity to any genes reported to degrade organophosphates. When kanamycin-resistance cassette was placed in the gene opdE, hydrolase activity was suppressed and Enterobacter sp. Cons002 had no growth with MP as a nutrients source.

  19. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  20. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  1. SP (4,R) symmetry in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A classification of nuclear states according to the noncompact sympletic Lie algebras sp(2n,R), n = 1, 2, 3, is investigated. Such a classification has recently been shown to be physically meaningful. This classification scheme is the appropriate generalization fo Elliott's SU 3 model of rotational states in deformed light nuclei to include core excitations. A restricted classification according to the Lie algebra, sp(4,R), is motivated. Truncation of the model space to a single sp(4,R) irreducible representation allows the inclusion of states possessing very high excitation energy. An sp(4,R) model study is performed on S = T = 0 positive-parity rotational bands in the deformed light nuclei 16 O and 24 Mg. States are included in the model space that possess up to 10h ω in excitation energy. Results for the B(E2) transition rates compare favorable with experiment, without resort to effective charges

  2. Progress in SP-100 tribological coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.J.; Roy, P.; Schuster, G.B.; Busboom, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor will operate at temperatures up to 1500K in high vacuum. To address the SP-100 needs, a tribology development program has been established at GE to investigate candidate coating materials. Materials were selected based on their high thermodynamic stability, high melting point, compatibility with the substrate, and coefficients of thermal expansion similar to niobium-1% zirconium-the candidate structural material for SP-100. An additional requirement was that the deposition processes should be commercially available to coat large components. This paper presents the details regarding the SP-100 Tribology Development Program including background information, specific bearing requirements, basis for coating material selection, testing methods and the initial results covering the early years of this program

  3. Depresion en pacientes con alteraciones del tiroides

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic-Grguric´, Ljiljana; Filakovic´, Pavo; Barkic´, Jelena; Mandic´, Nikola; Karner, Ivan; Smoje, Juraj

    2003-01-01

    Nuestro estudio fue realizado en un grupo de 53 mujeres con disfunción tiroidea y 28 mujeres con depresión mayor. Empleamos la Escala de la Depresión de Hamilton, la Escala de Autoevaluación de la Depresión de Zung y la Escala sobre la Impresión Clínica Global. Los resultados del estudio demuestran que la mayoría de los pacientes con disfunción tiroidea se mostraron clínicamente significativos en cuanto al trastorno depresivo. Los episodios depresivos son más frecuentes en pacientes con hipot...

  4. Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 2

    OpenAIRE

    ESTÉVEZ MONTERO, RAÚL; Lloret Mauri, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Es una pieza audiovisual creada con el objeto de atraer la atención de los niños de muy corta edad con el ajedrez y familiarizarlos con todas sus piezas y movimientos. Es una animación dirigida a un público infantil presentada por dibujos animados en 2D, en la que se ha intentado respetar en todo momento el argot de la comunidad ajedredística. En este video se presenta la segunda parte. Estévez Montero, R.; Lloret Mauri, J. (2016). Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 2. http://hdl.handle.net/1...

  5. Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 1

    OpenAIRE

    ESTÉVEZ MONTERO, RAÚL; Lloret Mauri, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Es una pieza audiovisual creada con el objeto de atraer la atención de los niños de muy corta edad con el ajedrez y familiarizarlos con todas sus piezas y movimientos. Es una animación dirigida a un público infantil presentada por dibujos animados en 2D, en la que se ha intentado respetar en todo momento el argot de la comunidad ajedredística. En este video se presenta la primera parte. Estévez Montero, R.; Lloret Mauri, J. (2016). Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 1. http://hdl.handle.net/1...

  6. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  7. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  8. Plantas cubanas con efecto antiinflamatorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ivis Regalado Veloz

    Full Text Available La actividad antiinflamatoria suscita gran interés científico en el área farmacológica, debido a que muchas enfermedades en su evolución cursan por procesos inflamatorios (artritis reumatoide, ateroesclerosis, cáncer, diabetes, gota, asma, dermatitis, trastornos neurodegenerativos y diversas dolencias menores. Las enfermedades inflamatorias constituyen un problema de salud importante, debido a la falta de medicamentos eficaces y seguros para su uso por periodos prolongados. Hoy en día se trabaja en la búsqueda de alternativas de antiinflamatorios más seguros, en el que las plantas medicinales, una de las formas más antiguas de tratamiento, constituyen una elección a considerar. En este trabajo se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, sobre especies de plantas que crecen en Cuba que le reportan propiedades farmacológicas como antinflamatorios. En la revisión de la literatura se utilizó la base de datos Medline (vía PubMed, así como revistas nacionales desde el periodo de 2000 hasta el presente, con las palabras claves "inflamación" y "plantas cubanas antiinflamatorias" o "actividad antiinflamatoria" y "plantas medicinales".

  9. Hospitalidad, con y sin papeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Penchaszadeh

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es vincular el trabajo sobre el archivo de Jacques Derrida con la experiencia de la hospitalidad. Se intentará mostrar que, por un lado, se trata siempre de los papeles, de la legitimidad que éstos otorgan o no tanto a nivel filosófico (deseo de poseer los papeles que autoricen tal o cual decisión interpretativa, como a nivel político ("tener papeles" como el principio básico de todo derecho a tener derechos, de todo derecho a la comunidad. Mas también, por otro lado, se intentará pensar aquello que arruina la idea misma de tener o no tener (papeles, la idea de propiedad, aquello que hace imposible fundar una decisión o identidad en última instancia y, por ende, una soberanía, una frontera. La hospitalidad, la llegada inminente del otro, representa un desafío político y ético para la filosofía: pues no se trata de un saber, sino de una experiencia transformando el sustrato del nos-otros, del ser común.

  10. Itinerari Musicali con la Wiild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nanni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Wiild, acronimo di Wiimote Lavagna Digitale, è uno strumento didattico che utilizza il telecomando della Wii, il famoso gioco della Nintendo, insieme a un software libero, rendendolo così estremamente versatile. Non vincolato a software proprietario, il suo utilizzo è legato alla capacità dell’insegnante di ripartire dalla didattica, dalle risorse selezionate e dall’epistemologia di ogni singola disciplina, trovando così nel proprio contesto un ruolo per le tecnologie. Il contributo presenta ipotesi di lavoro per l’educazione musicale nella scuola secondaria di primo grado che si sviluppano sia attraverso lo studio del rapporto suono/segno con affinità pittoriche e successiva codificazione grafica, sia attraverso un’attività di laboratorio in cui co-costruire percorsi storico-musicali. La Wiild diventerà davvero utile ed efficace nel momento in cui, affiancando le risorse selezionate dal docente, verrà utilizzata senza essere notata, giocando un ruolo di strumento tecnologico «normale e trasparente».

  11. Prevalence of Sarcocystis sp. in cattle, sheep and goats in abattoirs of Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Julia; Leguía, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Se ha realizado el presente estudio para determinar la prevalencia de Sarcocystis sp. en vacunos, ovinos y caprinos utilizando el método del tríquinoscopio con muestras de tejido cardíaco y esófago. Los resultados mostraron que de 85 muestras de tejido cardíaco de ganado vacuno, 76 fueron positivas (89.5%); de 134 muestras de ganado ovino 122 fueron positivas (91.04%) mientras que de 63 muestras de ganado capriino solo en 33 (52.4%) se encontró la presencia del parásito. En cuanto a las...

  12. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  13. Bases tratadas con cemento, en California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bases tratadas con cemento para autopistas se inició en el Estado de California en 1938, empleándose para carreteras con determinadas condiciones de tráfico. Inicialmente, se especificó el uso obligatorio de plantas mezcladoras para asegurar el debido control de las proporciones adecuadas.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE NITROGÊNIO NO CULTIVO DE Spirulina maxima EM DOIS NÍVEIS DE TEMPERATURA: Parte II: PRODUÇÃO DE LIPÍDIOS INFLUENCE OF THE NITROGEN LEVEL IN THE CULTIVATION OF Spirulina maxima IN TWO LEVELS OF TEMPERATURES: PART II: "PRODUCTION OF LIPIDS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Verthein Tavares de MACEDO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina maxima foi cultivada em meios com 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposto por PAOLETTI et al [10] e considerado meio padrão, em meios com 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N e em ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N nas temperaturas de 25°C e 35°C. A composição da biomassa celular seca apresentou a 35°C um aumento médio dos lipídios totais, de 2,8 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 2,9 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A 25°C apresentou um aumento médio de 3,1 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 3,2 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A biomassa em forma de gel de cada tratamento foi recolhida e feita a extração dos lipídios totais, os quais foram pesados em base seca. As análises estatísticas dos resultados, em estimativa não linear com superfície de resposta e regressão múltipla com análise de resíduos, mostraram para o aumento dos lipídios totais uma função linear com a temperatura (T e não linear com o nitrogênio (N, ajustando-se a um modelo onde o coeficiente de regressão R=0,99459 e a equação LIPT = A+B²T+CN ².The micraolgae Spirulina maxima was cultivated in medium with 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposed by Paoletti et al [10] and considered standard medium, in media with 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N and in absence of nitrogen (0,0N in temperatures of 25°C and 35°C. The composition of the dry cellular biomass presented to 35°C a medium increase of the total lipids, of 2,8 times of the middle with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 2,9 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. To 25°C it presented a medium increase of 3,1 times of the medium with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 3,2 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. The biomass in form of gel of each treatment was picked up and made the extraction of the total lipids, which were heavy in base evaporate. The statistical analyses of the results, in estimate non lineal with answer surface and

  15. İki Farklı Spirulina platensis Suşunun Büyüme Özelliklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenker Kılıç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikroalgal biyoteknoloji kapsamında sıklıkla kullanılan türlerden Spirulina platensis’in üretimi son yıllarda ülkemizde de başarıyla gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, düz ve spiral formda olan iki farklı Spirulina suşunun büyüme karakteristikleri incelendi. Ayrıca, klorofil ve kuru ağırlık ölçümlerinde pratiklik sağlayacak spektrofotometrik ölçümler çalışıldı. Deneme süresince, hücre sayıları haricinde tüm parametrelerin birbirine benzerlik gösterdiği saptandı. Denemenin başında spiral/düz form oranı 2.43 iken bu oran deneme sonunda 5.53’e yükseldi. Spektrofotometrik ölçümler, kültürlerde büyümenin izlenmesinde pratiklik sağlaması bakımından önemlidir. Bu kapsamda, 680 nm’de ölçülen absorbans değeri ile kuru ağırlık ve klorofil a miktarları arasında önemli bir ilişki olduğu saptandı (p

  16. Fuerza manual de adultos con discapacidad intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cabeza Ruiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar una descripción de la fuerza de prensión manual de hombres y mujeres con discapacidad intelectual (DI y comparar los resultados con valores de referencia de otras personas con y sin discapacidad intelectual. Método. El presente trabajo es un estudio transversal observacional, financiado por la Fundación SAMU, en el que se evaluaron a 122 personas con DI (86 hombres y 36 mujeres durante el desarrollo de unas jornadas de carácter recreativo en las que participaron varias asociaciones de atención a este colectivo. La batería de test utilizada fue el Alpaha-Fit Test Battery for Adults. Resultados. Se presentan los resultados relacionados con las variables de fuerza del miembro superior (Hand Grip Strength por grupos de edad (20-24, 25- 29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59 años. Los datos muestran valores que oscilan desde los 31 kg en los hombres más jóvenes con DI hasta los 13.3 kg del grupo más maduro de mujeres. Estos hallazgos son similares a los valores de referencia de población con DI española. Sin embargo, son muy inferiores a los obtenidos por la población sin discapacidad de la misma edad. Conclusión. Los resultados evidencian el menor rendimiento de las personas con DI en pruebas de fuerza de prensión manual por lo que se hace evidente la necesidad de llevar a cabo programas de ejercicio físico o deporte con las personas con DI.

  17. PREVALENCIA DE Staphylococcus epidermidis Y Staphylococcus aureus EN PACIENTES CON CONJUNTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hernández-Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, se evaluaron clínica y bacteriológicamente 131 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de conjuntivitis. A cada participante se le tomó muestra de secreción ocular, para la coloración de Gram y cultivo; además, se probó la susceptibilidad de los aislamientos frente a Oxacilina (Ox, Gentamicina (GM, Vancomicina (Va, Trimetoprim Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetraciclina (Te, Cefalothin (CF, Ceftriaxone (CRO y Ciprofloxacina (CIP. El 53% de los cultivos bacteriológicos fueron positivos, donde el 87% de los aislamientos correspondieron a Gram positivos, siendo los más frecuentes Staphylococcus epidermidis (43%, Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Streptococcus sp. (15%, Enterococcus (7%, Corynebacterium sp. 5%. Se observó multirresistencia frente a 3 ó más antibióticos en S. epidermidis (44% y S.aureus (42%. La alta frecuencia de estos microorganismos y la multirresistencia encontrada en este estudio, determinan la importancia que tienen, como posibles patógenos oculares, y la necesidad de implementar las pruebas de susceptibilidad bacteriana en el ámbito oftalmológico. Este es el primer estudio publicado en Colombia sobre la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, el cual seguramente originará la iniciación de posteriores investigaciones, encaminadas a determinar el verdadero papel de estos microorganismos, en el proceso infeccioso ocular.

  18. Mucormicosis rinocerebral en paciente con cefalea y diabetes mellitus Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in diabetic patient with headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Botero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 52 años, con antecedentes personales de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en tratamiento con metformín quien consultó por cefalea intensa y congestión nasal. Se diagnosticó una pansinusitis que no respondió al manejo médico. Fue evaluado por medicina interna y otorrinolaringología y se encontraron costras secas, negras, en los cornetes y meatos mediante la fibronasolaringoscopia. Se practicó una resonancia magnética en la que se reportó una lesión en la región temporal izquierda asociada a edema vasogénico. Se programó para drenaje del absceso el cual se realizó sin complicaciones; en el estudio de histopatología se informó la presencia de hifas aseptadas que correspondían a Rhizopus sp. Se inició su manejo con anfotericina B para la mucormicosis rinocerebral con respuesta adecuada y se dio de alta por mejoría de su enfermedad.We report the case of a 52 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus under metformin therapy that presented with acute headache and nasal congestion. Pansinusitis was diagnosed which did not respond to medical treatment. He was evaluated by the internal medicine and otorrinolaringology departments. In the fibronasolaringoscopy exam black necrotic scars were found in turbinates and meatus. A magnetic resonance was ordered which evidenced a lesion in the left temporal region associated to vasogenic edema. The patient was programmed for abscess drainage without any complications; the histopathological report informed the presence of non septated hyphae compatible with Rhizopus sp. The patient began to receive amphotericyn B for a rhinocerebral mucormycosis with optimal response and was discharged with improvement of his clinical picture.

  19. Efectos de rizosfera, microorganismos y fertilización en la biorremediación y fitorremediación de suelos con petróleos crudo nuevo e intemperizado

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Chávez, E; Rivera-Cruz, MC; Izquierdo-Reyes, F; Palma-López, DJ

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el potencial de un consorcio microbiano constituido por bacterias (Pseudomonas sp y Serratia marcescens y hongos (Aspergillus sp y Trichoderma sp) y de fertilizante inorgánico incorporados al suelo en la biorremediación, y el potencial del pasto egipto (Brachiaria mutica) y de la leguminosa guaje (Leucaena leucocephala) en la fitorremediación de un suelo contaminado con petróleos nuevo (PN) recién incorporado al suelo y el intemperizado (PI) procedente de derrames crónicos de petról...

  20. Experiencias de haber crecido con un padre/madre con trastorno mental severo (TMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vivanco B, Gabriela; Grandón F, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La experiencia de vivir con personas que presentan un Trastorno Mental Severo (TMS) es difícil para las familias, en especial para los hijos quienes han sido poco estudiados. El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer cómo la experiencia de haber vivido con un padre o madre con un trastorno mental severo influyó en la infancia, adolescencia y adultez joven de sus hijos e hijas. Método. Se analizan las experiencias de convivencia con un padre/madre con TMS en 10 hijos (6 hombres...

  1. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozaki, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuro; Samadfam, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  3. Efectividad de siete productos antimancha contra ceratocystis sp. en madera de hevea brasiliensis muell arg. (hule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuentes Salinas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objeto de conocer la eficacia de siete productos antimancha que se comercializan en México, contra el hongo manchador Ceratocystis sp. en madera aserrada de Hevea brasiliensis (hule, mediante el método de los discos, conjuntamente con la norma ASTM D 4445-91. Los productos están elaborados a partir de pentaclorofenato de sodio, tres de ellos, siendo Osmotox, Pentatox y Biotox; tres más están hechos a base de metil bistiocianato y 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol y son Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071, y el séptimo solamente contiene 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol, siendo el Busan 1118. La concentración mínima observada para evitar el manchado de la madera (crecimiento cero en un tiempo de 4 semanas, para cada uno de los productos ensayados se obtuvo para Osmotox de 4.68 %, para Pentatox de 2.82 %, para Biotox de 3.24 %, para Busan 1118 de 2.00 % y para Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071 una concentración menor a 0.25%. Tomando en cuenta los precios comerciales de cada producto y de acuerdo con las concentraciones mínimas efectivas para crecimiento cero obtenidas, el tratamiento con Busan 1071 es el más económico y más efectivo.

  4. Extracción del ADN de Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta T. Martínez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la utílización de dos métodos para la extracción del ADN del Fusarium o.xy.sporum f.sp. Dianthi. En los dos métodos la pared del hongo se rompió con nitrógeno líquido, uno de ellos empleó como solución extractora bromuro de cetiltrimetil amonio (BCTA y el otro una solución de sacarosa con altas concentraciones de protcasa y EDTA. Para la desproteinización ambos métodos utilizaron soluciones de fcnol-clorofonno y enzimas proteolítícas. El ADN obtenido se digirió con enzimas de restricción EcoRI y Hindlll. Se corroboró que cl ADN estaba libre de los contaminantes más frecuentes en hongos, como proteínas y carbohidratos por medio de ultracentrifugación en cloruro de cesio (CsCI. La extracción con BCTA presentó los mejores rendimientos.

  5. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  6. Efecto de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole en la producción de fresa (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexander Luis-Ayala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cundinamarca ha sido un gran productor de fresa(Fragaria sp,en comparación con los demás departamentos de Colombia; pero uno de sus mayores limitantes es la pérdida de fruta causada por el moho gris, enfermedad desarrollada por el agente Botritis cinerea; por esta razón, se aplicó Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole® a los cultivos, en tres dosis, y se compararon con un testigo regional, Carbendazim®, teniendo como variables de estudio: producción, calidad, grados Brix, pH, acidez titulable y la incidencia de la enfermedad sobre el cultivo. Los resultados obtenidos y analizados por medio del software SAS y aplicando las pruebas de comparación de Tukey demostraron que la dosis de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole® de 80cc/200L presentó la mayor producción de fruta de segunda, tercera y total, y la menor cantidad de fruta dañada, junto con la dosis de 120cc/200L. La menor producción total y por calidad se obtuvo con la dosis de Carbendazim® (250cc/200L. En cuanto a los grados Brix, no se encontraron diferencias significativas, pero sí un aumento durante las cuatro semanas de cosecha. Los valores más altos de pH y ATT se obtuvieron con las dosis de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole®, y los menores valores, con las aplicaciones de Carbendazim® (250cc/200L.Se recomienda hacer aplicaciones de estos ingredientes en el manejo de la enfermedad moho gris.

  7. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  8. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzacco, D [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1992-08-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4{pi} detector array for advanced {gamma}-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4{pi} calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs.

  9. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzacco, D.

    1992-01-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4π detector array for advanced γ-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4π calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs

  10. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  11. El maltrato en las personas con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Revuelta, Lucerga

    2014-01-01

    El maltrato no solo se realiza por acción sino también por omisión, la indiferencia hacia la persona con discapacidad es una forma de maltrato muy frecuente. Por ejemplo, ignorar y desatender las necesidades de la persona con discapacidad o, al contrario, la sobreprotección son maneras de maltrato. Cuando a un niño con discapacidad el padre o cuidador le hace todo, el niño se siente agredido pues le están incapacitando más de lo que su enfermedad ya lo hace.

  12. Hiperalgesia asociada al tratamiento con opioides

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gil Martín; M. Moreno García; J. Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández; T. Molina García

    2014-01-01

    La hiperalgesia inducida por opioides es una reacción paradójica caracterizada por una percepción intensificada de dolor relacionada con el uso de estos medicamentos en ausencia de progresión de la enfermedad o de síndrome de retirada. A diferencia de los casos de tolerancia, definida como pérdida de potencia analgésica durante el uso prolongado de opioides, no se produce mejoría con el escalado de dosis. La hiperalgesia inducida por opioides se ha manifestado en pacientes con dosis de manten...

  13. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  14. Paciente con tumor de cuerpo carotideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuska Forteza Sáez

    Full Text Available Los tumores de cuerpo carotideo (paragangliomas son neoplasias altamente vascularizadas, muy poco frecuentes y generalmente benignas, originadas en los quimiorreceptores del cuerpo carotideo. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 54 años, con aumento de volumen cervical derecho, asintomático, con estudio preoperatorio y angiografía realizados por tomografía axial computarizada, que resultan compatibles con tumor de cuerpo carotideo. Se realiza disección subadventicial, informando la biopsia paraganglioma. El tumor fue completamente resecado, sin evidencia de recurrencia y sin complicaciones.

  15. Sobrevivencia, metamorfosis y crecimiento de larvas del camarón Penaeus californiensis (Decapoda: Peneidae alimentadas con diferentes microalgas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Naranjo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una prueba experimental en un Centro de Producción Ostrícola en Bahía de Kino, Sonora, con el fin de evaluar el efecto de diferentes microalgas en el desarrollo de larvas de camarón café Penaeus californiensis. Las microalgas evaluadas fueron la diatomea Chaetoceros gracilis y los fitoflagelados Isochrysis galbana y Dunalliella sp., solas o en combinación y adición de nauplios de Artemia sp. a partir del estadio de zoea III, excepto en un tratamiento donde no se adicionó Artemia sp. Se utilizaron 24 unidades experimentales (tres por tratamiento, consistentes en garrafones plásticos de 16 l de capacidad, una densidad de siembra de 50 nauplios/l, una temperatura de 25°C controlada mediante calentadores sumergibles de 50 watts y una salinidad de 35 ppmil. C. gracilis produjo la mejor sobrevivencia (55%, siguiendole la combinación de C. gracilis con Dunaliella sp. (48%, la más baja sobrevivencia fue para el tratamiento donde se utilizó Dunaliella sp. fueron evidentes un retraso en la velocidad de metamorfosis para los tratamientos donde C. gracilis no fue utilizada y diferencias significativas (pThe effect of three microalgae, Chaetoceros gracilis, Isochrysis galbana, and Dunalliella sp. on the larval development of yellowleg shrimp Penaeus californiensis, was evaluated in the Oyster Production Center of Bahia Kino, Sonora, México. The effects of each microalgae (1 individually, (2 combined and (3 mixed with Artemia nauplii (from zoea III stage, were considered. Twenty four experimental units (three 16.0 l plastic bottles per treatment were used. During the experiment temperature was maintained around 25°C, and salinity around 35 ppt. The stocking density of nauplii was 50/l. The best survival was obtained with C. gracilis (55%, followed by the combination of C. gracilis and Dunalliella sp (48%. The worst survival was obtained in the treatment with Dunalliella sp. An evident delay in the metamorphosis times was observed in

  16. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  17. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, R.A.; Terrill, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

  18. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  19. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... and 9789(SP), Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 14, 2011 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). OMB...

  20. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  2. Presa con revestimiento asfáltico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfit, D. P.

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available La presa denominada Montgomery se halla situada sobre el río South Platte River, a unos 8 km aguas arriba de la ciudad de Alma, del Estado de Colorado (EE. UU., y en la ladera oriental de la cordillera Continental Divide. El cuerpo o dique de esta presa está constituido por piedra, revestida con una capa de hormigón asfáltico en el paramento de contacto con el agua.

  3. Trastornos temporomandibulares en pacientes con maloclusiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soto Cantero

    Full Text Available Introducción: existe una prevalencia de trastornos oclusales en gran medida relacionados con la presencia de disfunción temporomandibular. Objetivo: determinar el grado de disfunción temporomandibular según el Índice de Maglione en correspondencia con la prevalencia de maloclusiones en el área de salud del policlínico "Turcios Lima". Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal, en la consulta de ortodoncia, de junio del 2008 a junio del 2009. De un universo constituido por los 280 pacientes que acudieron al servicio de ortodoncia en el período señalado con presencia de maloclusiones, se seleccionó una muestra de 84 pacientes por muestreo aleatorio simple, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión y exclusión realizados por criterios de expertos. Resultados: presentaban disfunción temporomandibular 74 pacientes y dentro de ellos 44 (52,4 % tenían disfunción grado II (Moderada. El 97 % de los pacientes con relación molar de clase II, presentaban disfunción temporomandibular. El 42,9 % de los pacientes con una maloclusión, presentaban disfunción grado I. El 60 % de los pacientes con dos maloclusiones presentaban disfunción grado II y el 66,7 % de los pacientes con tres maloclusiones, presentaban disfunción grado III. La mayor cantidad de pacientes tuvieron disfunción grado II (Moderada. Conclusiones: el mayor por ciento de los pacientes con disfunciones presentó una clase II molar y a medida que aumentó el número de maloclusiones aumentó también la severidad de la disfunción.

  4. Infeccion natural de Speothos venaticus (Carnivora: Canidae por estadios adultos de Lagochilascaris sp. Natural infection of Speothos venaticus (Carnívora: Canidae by adult Lagochilascaris sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio S. Volcán G.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Un ejemplar adulto macho de Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842 fue muerto accidentalmente en una vía de penetración rural, situada en la región Noroeste del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, en el Municipio donde desde hace 16 años vive una paciente con lagochilascariasis. El animal conservado durante un mes por congelación y desprovisto de su piel y cabeza fue autopsiado, hallándose en la tráquea dos especímenes adultos hembras y grávidos de Lagochilascaris sp., los cuales presentaban algunas características morfológicas de sus partes blandas diferentes a Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; entretanto, distintivos estables como son la forma de los interlabios, la localización de la vulva y particularmente el tamaño y número de las depresiones de la cáscara de los huevos, inclinan a pensar que se trata de aquel parásito, a pesar de no haberse hallado vermes machos que permitiesen el estudio de las espículas y su ducto eyaculador. Fueron localizadas en cortes histológicos de laringe y tráquea profundamente situadas, secciones de formas degeneradas con características atribuíbles a Lagochilascaris sp.An adult male Speothos venaticus Lund (bush dog was found killed on a rural road in the Northeast of Bolívar State, in a locality where a patient with lagochilascariasis has lived for the past 16 years. The animal was frozen for 1 month, and after removal of the head and skin, was autopsied. Two adult gravid females of Lagochilascaris sp. were found in the trachea. Certain morphological characteristics of the soft parts differed from the description given for Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; however, stable characters, such as the form of the interlabials, the location of the vulva, and particulary the size and number of depressions of the egg shell appear to indicate that the worms are of the above mentioned species. Unfortunately, no males were found for study of the spicules and ejaculatory duct. In histological sections of the larynx

  5. RadCon: A Radiological Consequences Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.; Domel, R.U.

    2000-05-01

    RadCon estimates the dose received by user selected groups in the population from an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. The exposure pathways considered are external exposure from the cloud and ground and internal exposure from inhalation and ingestion of contaminated food. Atmospheric dispersion modelling is carried out externally to RadCon.Given a two dimensional time varying air and ground concentration of radioactive elements, RadCon allows the user to: view the air and ground concentration over the affected area, select optional parameters and calculate the dose to people,display the results to the user, and change the parameter values. RadCon offers two user interfaces: 1) the standard graphical user interface which is started using Java DoseApp at the command line, or by setting up a shortcut to this command (particularly when RadCon is installed on a PC) and 2) the text based interface used to generate information for the model inter-comparison exercise . This is initiated using Java BIOMASS at the command line, or an equivalent shortcut. The text based interface was developed for research purposes and is not generally available. Appendices A, B and C provide a summary of instructions on setting up RadCon. This will generally be carried out by the computer support personnel

  6. Adolescente femenino con granulomatosis de Wegener fulminante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Scheffler-Mendoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescente femenino de 13 años de edad, originaria de Guerrero, grupo étnico mixteco, padres analfabetos y con poco entendimiento del español. Sin otros antecedentes de importancia para el padecimiento. Inició un mes previo con la aparición de una pápula hipercrómica en párpado superior derecho que en los 10 días previos al ingreso aumentó de volumen generando proptosis. Al interrogatorio se negó dolor, lagrimeo, fiebre, o pérdida de peso. Ingresó con fiebre (39.0°C, palidez generalizada, proptosis derecha con exposición de córnea y conjuntiva, eritema periorbitario, movimientos oculares y agudeza visual disminuidos (i.e. contaba dedos a 1 m, pupila con tendencia a midriasis, hiperreactividad a la luz, y fondo de ojo con papila hiperémica edematosa y tortuosidad peripapilar. El resto de exploración no mostró datos relevantes. Se hospitalizó para iniciar tratamiento antimicrobiano parenteral de amplio espectro (i.e. ceftriaxona y vancomicina y abordar proptosis unilateral.

  7. Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., Gilliamella bombi sp. nov. and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov.: Four novel Gilliamella species isolated from the bumblebee gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jessy; Cnockaert, Margo; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Vandamme, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Spectra of five isolates (LMG 28358 T , LMG 29879 T , LMG 29880 T , LMG 28359 T and R-53705) obtained from gut samples of wild bumblebees of Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus terrestris were grouped into four MALDI-TOF MS clusters. RAPD analysis revealed an identical DNA fingerprint for LMG 28359 T and R-53705 which also grouped in the same MALDI-TOF MS cluster, while different DNA fingerprints were obtained for the other isolates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the four different strains identified Gilliamella apicola NCIMB 14804 T as nearest neighbour species. Average nucleotide identity values of draft genome sequences of the four isolates and of G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were below the 96% threshold value for species delineation and all four strains and G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were phenotypically distinct. Together, the draft genome sequences and phylogenetic and phenotypic data indicate that the four strains represent four novel Gilliamella species for which we propose the names Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., with LMG 28358 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., with LMG 28359 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombi sp. nov., with LMG 29879 T as the type strain and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov., with LMG 29880 T as the type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  9. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  10. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. ...

  11. Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov., Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov., Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. and Rhodotorula pini sp. nov., yeasts isolated from monoterpene-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carolina H; Smit, Martha S; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2011-09-01

    Recent rDNA sequencing of 25 isolates from a previous study, during which limonene-utilizing yeasts were isolated from monoterpene-rich environments by using 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes as sole carbon sources, led to the identification of four hitherto unknown Rhodotorula species. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain indicated that two isolates (CBS 8499(T) and CBS 10736) were identical and were closely related to Rhodotorula cycloclastica, a previously described limonene-utilizing yeast. These novel isolates differed from known yeast species and could be distinguished from R. cycloclastica by standard physiological tests. The other three isolates represent three novel Rhodotorula species, closely related to Sporobolomyces magnisporus. These three species could also be distinguished from other Rhodotorula species by standard physiological tests. Based on these results, we suggest that the new isolates represent novel species, for which the names Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8499(T)  = NRRL Y-48408(T)), Rhodotorula pini sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10735(T)  = NRRL Y-48410(T)), Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8598(T)  = NRRL Y-48407(T)) and Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8594(T)  = NRRL Y-48719(T)) are proposed. R. eucalyptica and R. pini can also utilize limonene.

  12. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  13. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  14. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    / 1000 felter= 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729), (p= 0.020)). Der var ingen statistisk forskel mellem optisk scanning (fejl/ 1000 felter= 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258)) og manuel dobbelt indtastning (p=1.000). Konklusioner: Optisk scanning er et godt alternativ til manuel dobbelt indtastning for spørgeskema med......Formål og baggrund: Patient rapporterede outcomes i form af spørgeskemaer bruges i øgende grad i sundhedssektoren både i klinisk praksis og forskning. Ofte bruges spørgeskemaer i papirformat. Manuel dobbelt indtastning er defineret som guld standard for overføring af data til et elektronisk format......, men processen er tidkrævende. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer med automatisk registrering af svar kan være et alternativ, men videre validering af metoden er nødvendig. Design: 200 patienter blev tilfældigt udvalgt fra en kohorte på 5777 patienter der tidligere havde svaret på to forskellige...

  15. Aerococcus sp. with an antimycobacterial effect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In this study, we reported data on a strain that was isolated from different areas of Fez. (Morocco), which ... sp. The antibacterial activity of the genus Aerococcus have .... able to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from eubacteria.

  16. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  17. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol

    2014-01-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid...

  18. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  19. Caracterización de actinobacterias raras, degradadoras de lignocelulosa: demostración de actividad lacasa en dos aislados de Tsukamurella sp y Cellulosimicrobium sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Luis Revollo Escudero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Characterization of lignocelluloses-degrading rare actinobacteria: Demostration of laccase activity in two isolates of Tsukamurella sp and Cellulosimicrobium sp Resumen: Las características fisicoquímicas de la lignina y su compactación con la celulosa han dificultado la explotación biotecnológica de enormes cantidades de biomasa vegetal. Las lacasas constituyen una subfamilia de oxidasas multicobre que intervienen en la despolimerización de la lignina. Si bien han sido ampliamente caracterizadas en los hongos, los estudios de la diversidad y las funcionalidades de las lacasas en los procariotas se han centrado especialmente en isoformas enzimáticas de Streptomyces sp. En este trabajo se aislaron 20 cepas de actinobacterias del suelo. La actividad lacasa de 17 de ellas fue evidenciada en ensayos cualitativos con guayacol y dos cepas seleccionadas fueron caracterizadas en detalle. Las pruebas morfológicas y el análisis de las secuencias del gen 16S rRNA apuntan a que estos dos aislados pertenecen a los géneros Tsukamurella y Cellulosimicrobium. En cultivo sumergido con agitación, AC01 (Tsukamurella sp. expresó una máxima actividad de oxidación de ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolin-6-sulfonato de 108 U/L. Por otra parte, AC18 (Cellulosimicrobium sp. que había exhibido una actividad oxidativa de guayacol superior a las 16 cepas restantes y demostró ser resistente a niveles tóxicos de cobre, logró un valor máximo de oxidación del ABTS de 0,56 U/L. Estos resultados sugieren que en el aislado AC18 operaría un fenómeno de especificidad de sustrato o de inductor, regulador de la expresión y de la actividad lacasa cuantificable. La caracterización genómica y funcional de las lacasas de nuevas actinobacterias lignocelulósicas ampliará la gama de centros redox con aplicaciones biotecnológicas específicas, además de facilitar el establecimiento de sus relaciones evolutivas con las eucariotas

  20. RadConEd: A Graphical Data Editor for the Radiological Consequences Model, RadCon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.; Domel, R.U.

    2000-05-01

    This document describes the application, RadConEd, which has been designed and implemented to enable users of the RadCon system to update these parameter files. The RadCon system is written in the Java programming language, and as such provides portability across computer platforms. The software described in this report was developed in line with the portability requirements of RadCon, thus providing a uniform user interface across computer platforms and bypassing the need of using system editors. In addition a number of data integrity measures were implemented

  1. Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2002-05-01

    Two aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains F20T and RXM(T), are described taxonomically. On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic properties, the isolates are proposed as novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. (type strain F20T = VKM B-2238T = NCIMB 13778T) and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov. (type strain RXMT = VKM B-2239T = NCIMB 13779T).

  2. Analisis Fosfor pada Cacing Tanah (Megascolex sp. dan Fridericia sp.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Cut Shafa

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm is natural resource which can be used for medication due to its highly amount of minerals. One of these minerals is phosphorus. The aim of this research are to identify, determine and know the difference content of phosphorus in Megascolex sp. and Fridericia sp. Qualitative analysis shows positive results with addition of ammonium molybdate 4% and BaCl2 5%. Quantitative analysis was done using visible spectrophotometer with ascorbic acid method, measuring blu-colored molybdenum ...

  3. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  4. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  6. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  7. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  8. Enfermedad coronaria en pacientes con psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Masson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicaciones previas asociaron la psoriasis con la enfermedad coronaria. Desconocemos si en nuestro país o región existe dicha asociación. Se realizó un estudio transversal analizando los datos de la historia clínica electrónica de un sistema de salud de Buenos Aires. Analizamos todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de psoriasis entre el 1 de enero de 2003 y el 31 de julio de 2011 y los comparamos con un grupo control, en una relación 2:1, obtenido en forma aleatoria del mismo sistema de salud, apareados por edad y sexo. Determinamos la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de enfermedad coronaria. Analizamos la asociación entre la enfermedad coronaria y la psoriasis mediante análisis uni y multivariado. Se incluyeron 3 833 sujetos (1 286 pacientes con psoriasis y 2 547 controles. La prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (50% vs. 38%, p < 0.001, tabaquismo (25% vs. 17%, p < 0.001, diabetes (12% vs. 8%, p < 0.001 y enfermedad coronaria (4.98% vs. 3.06%, p = 0.003 fue mayor en los sujetos con psoriasis en comparación con el grupo control. Independientemente de la edad, la presencia de diabetes, hipertensión arterial o tabaquismo, hubo una asociación significativa entre la enfermedad coronaria y la psoriasis (OR 1.48, IC95% 1.04-2.11, p = 0.03. En conclusión, en esta población de Buenos Aires, los pacientes con psoriasis tuvieron una mayor prevalencia de diabetes, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo y enfermedad coronaria. La asociación entre la psoriasis y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de los factores de riesgo explorados.

  9. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  10. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

    2008-06-15

    Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation.

  12. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  13. Two new species of suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov. epizoic on ostracods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Two, species of protozoic suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov., are described. These were found attached on the body of the marine ostracod, Cypridina dentata (Muller), collected from the shelf and slope...

  14. Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... oxidation of sulphide and ammonia, and the trapping of other odour-causing compounds was observed. An attempt was made to achieve ... manipulation of the biological processes may offer a conceptual basis for the more ... oxidation, blending and aeration followed by flocculant-assisted settling of a por-.

  15. Adaptación cultural al español y validación psicométrica del Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (SDSCA en personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caro-Bautista

    2016-08-01

    Conclusiones: El SDSCA-Sp en una versión válida en la práctica clínica y en investigación para evaluar autocuidados en diabetes mellitus tipo 2 con propiedades clinimétricas similares a las obtenidas en estudios previos.

  16. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of nano-carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.S.; Wu, B.J.; Deng, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Guo, Y.B. [The Third People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Leng, Y.X., E-mail: yxleng@263.net [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, N. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphitization occurs during the long-term service of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) modified artificial joint. Then, DLC wear debris, which are carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios and sizes ranging from the nano- to micro-meter scale produced. In this paper, to promote the application of DLC coating for artificial joint modification, the cytotoxicity of DLC debris (nano-carbon particles, NCs) with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios was studied. The microstructure and physical characteristics of NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Meanwhile, osteoblasts and macrophages were applied to characterize the cytotoxicity of the NCs. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results indicated that cells incubated with NCs of different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios had greater osteogenic capacity, and these particles caused a weaker immune response in comparison with CoCrMo particles. Taken together, the results indicated that NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios presented a good cytocompatibility than CoCrMo particles. But no significant differences were observed among NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios. The better cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly attributable to their surface charge. - Highlights: • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios have been successfully prepared by annealing treatment. • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios show good osteogenic capacity and lower immune response. • The good cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly dependent on its surface charge.

  18. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Unsal-Istek, Tuba; Cansever, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel

  19. Caracterización de procesos cognitivos de memoria, lenguaje y pensamiento, en estudiantes con bajo y alto rendimiento académico: Memory, Language and Thought in Students with Low and High Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Quintero, Edilberto; Escobar Melo, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo presenta la caracterización de los procesos de memoria, lenguaje y pensamiento de cuatro grupos de estudiantes con bajo, medio, alto y superior rendimiento académico, entre los años de primero y quinto de primaria, con un rango entre seis y once años de edad, de un centro educativo de Bogotá-Colombia. Se aplicaron diez sub-pruebas del WISC–IV, para describir dichos procesos. El rendimiento académico se corroboró mediante informes escolares. Los resultados se procesaron con el SP...

  20. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conzuelo González, Viridiana Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.