... inflammation Reactive gastritis may also be called reactive gastropathy when it causes little or no inflammation. The causes of reactive gastritis may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a type of over-the-counter medication. Aspirin ...
Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid
Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.
Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C
Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.
Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.
Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported. (orig.)
Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.
Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported.
Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with destruction of parietal cells of the corpus and fundus of the stomach. The known consequence is vitamin B12 deficiency and, consequently, pernicious anemia. However, loss of parietal cells reduces secretion of gastric acid which is also required for absorption of inorganic iron; thus, iron deficiency is commonly found in patients with autoimmune gastritis. This usually precedes vitamin B12 deficiency and is found mainly in young women. Patients with chronic iron deficiency, especially those refractory to oral iron therapy, should therefore be evaluated for the presence of autoimmune gastritis.
Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo
RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las
María Paola Yumbay Yallica
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar como los estilos de vida inciden en la gastritis de los estudiantes de Segundo Semestre de Enfermería de la Facultad Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. Material y métodos: El estudio es no experimental con un diseño descriptivo de corte transversal, se relacionan con las variables involucradas, además es de corta duración en un periodo corto de tiempo, el instrumento utilizado fueron dos encuestas a treinta personas, la primera encuesta sobre la variable independiente refiriéndonos a los estilos de vida con diez preguntas y la segunda encuesta sobre la variable dependiente que es la gastritis con diez preguntas. Resultados: Se obtuvo como resultados que no tienen horarios fijos de alimentación por lo cual producirán o tendrán el riesgo de contraer no solo la gastritis sino también otras patologías que dañaran su organismo y producirán su muerte. Conclusión: La mala nutrición puesto a que es el proceso mediante el cual los seres vivos incorporan, modifican y eliminan sustancias procedentes del exterior, absorbidas durante el proceso digestivo. La gastritis es la inflamación del revestimiento del estómago, puede ser de tipo agudo, de aparición rápida y resolución en pocos días, o de tipo crónico, en cuyo caso puede persistir durante años y producir úlcera péptica. En algunos casos, ésta puede llevar a la formación de úlceras y aumentar el padecer cáncer de estómago.
Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco
Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter
Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Urban, B.A.; Fishman, E.K.; Kuhlman, J.E.; Jones, B.
This paper reports on the CT scans of patients with Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) infection and histologic gastritis reviewed to determine if the inflammatory changes can mimic the CT appearance of gastric neoplasm. Records were obtained of 288 consecutive cases of biopsy-confirmed. Helicobacter pylori gastritis, spanning a 21-month period from July 1988 to March 1990. Abdominal CT scans had been performed in 70 of these cases and were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Seven of the 70 cases of confirmed Helicobacter pylori gastritis were suggestive of malignancy on CT
Anido Escobar, Vivianne María
La Enfermedad por reflujo gastro-esofágico se desarrolla cuando el contenido del estómago refluye al esófago y causa síntomas molestos y/o complicaciones. La esofagitis erosiva y el esófago de Barrett son sus formas más reconocidas. La manometría esofágica estudia los fenómenos que suceden a nivel de la barrera antirreflujo y facilitan el desarrollo de la enfermedad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar los factores de motilidad de la esofagitis erosiva y el esófago de Barrett y...
Mihály, Emese; Micsik, Tamás; Juhász, Márk; Herszényi, László; Tulassay, Zsolt
Alterations of the stomach mucosa in response to different adverse effects result in various morphological and clinical symptoms. Gastric mucosa alterations can be classified on the bases of diverse viewpoints. It makes this overview difficult, that identical toxic effects may cause different mucosal changes and different toxic agents may produce similar mucosal appearance. The more accurate understanding of the pathological processes which develop in the stomach mucosa needs reconsideration. The authors make an attempt to define gastritis and gastropathy in order to classify and present their features. Gastritis is a histological definition indicating mucosal inflammation. Acute gastritis is caused by infections. The two most important forms of chronic gastritis are metaplastic atrophic gastritis with an autoimmune origin and Helicobacter pylori inflammation. Gastropathy is the name of different structural alterations of the mucosa. Its most important feature is the paucity of inflammatory signs. Gastropathies can be divided into 4 categories based on the nature of the underlying pathological effect, on its morphological appearance and the way of the development. Differential diagnosis is an important pathological and clinical task because different treatment methods and prognosis.
Full Text Available Sebagian besar masyarakat menganggap bahwa penyakit sistem pencernaan (gastritis adalah dikarenakan pola makan yang salah atau tidak teratur. Untuk memperbaiki pola makan maka diperlukan pengetahuan yang baik dan perilaku yang positif karena akan mempengaruhi bagaimana seseorang melakukan tindakan pencegahan agar gastritis tidak terjadi. Tujuanan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pengetahuan tentang penyebab gastritis dengan perilaku pencegahan gastritis pada Mahasiswa S.1 Keperawatan Universitas Muhamadiyah Banjarmasin. Subjek yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa S.1 Keperawatan dengan sampel sebanyak 277 responden yang diambil menggunakan tehnik accidental sampling dan uji statistik menggunakan Spearman Rank. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah ada hubungan antara pengetahuan tentang penyebab gastritis dengan perilaku pencegahan gastritis dengan nilai P = 0,000 < Î± 0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diharapkan masyarakat dan khususnya mahasiswa dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan penyebab gastritis.
Tytgat, G. N.
Once again this year, developments in the field of ulcers and gastritis have been entirely dominated by findings relating to Helicobacter pylori. However, interest in H. pylori can be expected to decline, since the prevalence of the infection is rapidly decreasing in the developing world - to the
Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo
Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling.
Ahn, Sang Won; Juhn, Jae Ryang; Cha, Seong Sook; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje Medical College Paik HospitalYonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare entity of infectious gastritis caused by gas-forming organisms and only 32 cases have been reported. CT is helpful in the diagnosis particularly in mild cases that there is only a small amount of gas. Typical CT findings of emphysematous gastritis are gas bubbles within the irregular thickened gastric wall and dilated stomach filled with secretions, debris and a large amount of gas. We report a case that was diagnosed by CT and operation.
Yang, Ik; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lim, Joo Won
Syphilitic involvement of the stomach often takes the appearance of neoplastic conditions. We describe the radiological findings of syphilitic gastritis. A 36 year old man was diagnosed with gastric cancer by upper GI and CT, but syphilitic gastritis was confirmed by endoscopy and upper GI series performed after penicillin therapy. We report a case of syphilitic gastritis presented as advanced stomach cancer by clinical, endoscopic and radiological study
Yang, Ik; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lim, Joo Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Syphilitic involvement of the stomach often takes the appearance of neoplastic conditions. We describe the radiological findings of syphilitic gastritis. A 36 year old man was diagnosed with gastric cancer by upper GI and CT, but syphilitic gastritis was confirmed by endoscopy and upper GI series performed after penicillin therapy. We report a case of syphilitic gastritis presented as advanced stomach cancer by clinical, endoscopic and radiological study.
Ahn, Sang Won; Juhn, Jae Ryang; Cha, Seong Sook; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Chung, Duck Hwan
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare entity of infectious gastritis caused by gas-forming organisms and only 32 cases have been reported. CT is helpful in the diagnosis particularly in mild cases that there is only a small amount of gas. Typical CT findings of emphysematous gastritis are gas bubbles within the irregular thickened gastric wall and dilated stomach filled with secretions, debris and a large amount of gas. We report a case that was diagnosed by CT and operation.
Full Text Available In the article the data on the study of the etiological factors of various types of chronic gastritis in children are presented. Based on revealing of the auto antibodies to parietal gastric cells in 40,0% of children autoimmune gastritis (a type gastritis is diagnosed. Helicobacterr pylori infection is revealed in 44,8% of children. In 27,6% of children type c gastritis is diagnosed. Autoimmune gastritis in children has been linked to the active phase of chronic epsteinbbarr virus infection. the etiological factors of nonautoimmune gastritis are Helicobacter pylori infection (type b gastritis and multiple duodenogastric refluxes (type c gastritis.Key words: children, chronic gastritis, etiological factors, autoimmune gastritis, nonautoimmune gastritis, active phase of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, Helicobacter pylori infection.
Full Text Available Artem Minalyan,1 Jihane N Benhammou,1 Aida Artashesyan,1 Michael S Lewis,2 Joseph R Pisegna1 1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Parenteral Nutrition, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: At present there is no universally accepted classification for gastritis. The first successful classification (The Sydney System that is still commonly used by medical professionals was first introduced by Misiewicz et al in Sydney in 1990. In fact, it was the first detailed classification after the discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982. In 1994, the Updated Sydney System was proposed during the International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis followed by the publication in The American Journal of Surgical Pathology by Dixon et al. Using the new classification, distinction between atrophic and nonatrophic gastritis was revised, and the visual scale grading was incorporated. According to the Updated Sydney System Classification, atrophic gastritis is categorized into multifocal (H. pylori, environmental factors, specific diet and corpus-predominant (autoimmune. Since metaplasia is a key histological characteristic in patients with atrophic gastritis, it has been recommended to use the word “metaplastic” in both variants of atrophic gastritis: autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG and environmental metaplastic atrophic gastritis. Although there are many overlaps in the course of the disease and distinction between those two entities may be challenging, the aim of this review article was to describe the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment in patients with AMAG. However, it is important to mention that H. pylori is the most common etiologic factor for the development of gastritis in the world. Keywords: autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anemia, gastric carcinoid
Kwak, Ji Eun; Chang, Sun Hee; Kim, Hanseong; Chi, Je G.; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yang, Jeon Ho; Lee, June Sung; Moon, Young-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee
The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of Helicobacter heilmannii-associated gastritis and to compare H. heilmannii-associated gastritis with H. pylori-associated gastritis. We reviewed 5,985 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens. All cases of chronic gastritis with Helicobacter infection were evaluated with the Updated Sydney System, and the grades of all gastritis variables were compared between H. heilmannii-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastritis groups. There were 10 cases of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis (0.17%) and 3,285 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis (54.9%). The organisms were superficially located within the mucous layer without adhesion to epithelial cells. Interestingly, in one case many intracytoplasmic H. heilmannii organisms were observed in parietal cells with cell damage. A case of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma concomitant with H. heilmannii infection was detected. Compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis, H. heilmannii-associated gastritis showed less severe neutrophilic activity (pgastritis devoid of erosion or ulcer (p=0.0309). In conclusion, we present the detailed clinicopathologic findings of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis. H. heilmannii-associated gastritis is uncommon and milder than H. pylori-associated gastritis, however it may be noteworthy with respect to the development of MALT lymphoma. PMID:17297253
Švagelj, Dražen; Terzić, Velimir; Dovhanj, Jasna; Švagelj, Marija; Cvrković, Mirta; Švagelj, Ivan
Human gastric diseases have shown significant changes in the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. The aim of this study was to detect Mn-SOD activity and expression in the tissue of gastric mucosa, primarily in chronic gastritis (immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis, without other pathohistological changes) and to evaluate their possible connection with pathohistological diagnosis. We examined 51 consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were classified based on their histopathological examinations and divided into three groups: 51 patients (archive samples between 2004-2009) with chronic immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis (mononuclear cells infiltration were graded as absent, moderate, severe) divided into three groups. Severity of gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Gastric tissue samples were used to determine the expression of Mn-SOD with anti-Mn-SOD Ab immunohistochemically. The Mn-SOD expression was more frequently present in specimens with severe and moderate inflammation of gastric mucosa than in those with normal mucosa. In patients with normal histological finding, positive immunoreactivity of Mn-SOD was not found. Our results determine the changes in Mn-SOD expression occurring in the normal gastric mucosa that had undergone changes in the intensity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rubio, J. L.
Full Text Available Land use changes, including land abandonment, and forest fires have been two key factors that have characterized the evolution of Mediterranean ecosystems. This work studies the evolution in the hydrologic characteristics and the erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil, which has undergone during years changes in its forest use and the fire impact, are shown. This soil is in recovering stage since year 1996. The study has been carried out in the Experimental Station of Porta-Coeli in a system of four erosion plots (40 x 8 m of closed type. The hydrologic behaviour and erosive parameters have been studied in each rain event during period 2006-2008. The temporal variability of soil moisture contents have been also studied through the characterization of its response curves regarding different episodes of rain, analyzing its relation with runoff generation.
En las últimas décadas, dos de los factores más importantes que han caracterizado la evolución en los ecosistemas mediterráneos han sido los cambios de uso del suelo, incluyendo el abandono de cultivos, y los incendios forestales. En este trabajo se presenta la evolución de las características hidrológicas y de la respuesta erosiva de un suelo forestal mediterráneo que ha sufrido durante años cambios en su uso y el impacto de incendios forestales. Actualmente la zona de estudio se encuentra en recuperación desde el año 1996. El trabajo se ha desarrollado en la Estación Experimental de Porta-Coeli en un sistema de cuatro parcelas (40 x 8 m de erosión de tipo cerrado. Se ha determinado su comportamiento hidrológico y sus parámetros erosivos en cada episodio de lluvia durante el período 2006-2008. También se ha estudiado la variabilidad temporal del contenido de humedad del suelo a través de la caracterización de sus curvas-respuesta en diferentes episodios de lluvia, y se analiza su relación con la generación de escorrentía.
Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward
Abstract Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables. One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications. Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP. There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results. PMID:28422853
Haot, J; Jouret, A; Willette, M; Gossuin, A; Mainguet, P
Lymphocytic gastritis is a new histopathological entity characterised by a dense lymphocytic infiltration of surface and pit gastric epithelium. Previous retrospective work has suggested that lymphocytic gastritis is related to an endoscopic form of gastropathy comprising enlarged folds, nodules and erosions, commonly denoted as varioliform gastritis. In the present prospective study, the relationship is clearly shown; nearly 82% (54/66) of the varioliform gastritis observed in four different endoscopy units correspond histologically to lymphocytic gastritis. The correlation is even better if cases showing strictly antral localisation are excluded (53/55) - that is, more than 96%. The histological concept of lymphocytic gastritis seems, however, to extend beyond varioliform gastritis as of 67 cases of lymphocytic gastritis diagnosed during the period under study, one third had no particular endoscopic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2323590
Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.
Ueno, Masayuki; Shimodate, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Motowo
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) sometimes causes gastritis, especially in immunocompromised patients, but whether CMV gastritis promotes the development of gastric cancer is unknown. Here, we report a case of gastric cancer that developed in the presence of CMV gastritis, which had been present for at least 4 years and was refractory to treatment. An 80-year-old woman had noted epigastric discomfort and appetite loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a shallow geographical ulcer extending from the upper body to the pylorus. Histological findings of the biopsy and serology were suggestive of CMV gastritis. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test was positive, suggesting co-infection with CMV and H. pylori. Her gastritis was unimproved with repeated antiviral therapy and eradication of H. pylori. Thirty months later, wide-spread gastric cancer had developed. We suggest the possibility that the addition of chronic inflammation of CMV infection to H. pylori-induced gastritis facilitated the development of gastric cancer.
Conclusiones: El riesgo estimado de cáncer gástrico en pacientes con GCAHpI en el entorno clínico estudiado fue relativamente bajo y 5% de los pacientes tenían un fenotipo histopatológico asociado con un riesgo elevado de desarrollar cáncer gástrico.
Conclusiones: Sobre la base de los datos analizados se concluye que los niños con gastritis folicular tienen más probabilidad de tener Hp con respecto a los que no presentan gastritis. Los resultados pueden ser extrapolados a otras poblaciones similares, debiendo ser evaluado cada escenario para que esto no se convierta en un problema de salud pública en unos años.
Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.
Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.
Martha M. Gámez Escalona
Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La investigación tiene como objetivos conocer la frecuencia de infección por Helicobacter pylori en los niños con gastritis crónica antral, estimar las diferencias en el comportamiento histológico de esta entidad en los niños con infección por Helicobacter pylori y sin ella, e identificar la posible relación entre la edad y las características histológicas de la gastritis crónica antral por Helicobacter pylori. MÉTODO. Se tomó como universo de estudio la totalidad de biopsias gástricas procesadas en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Holguín, entre enero de 1991 y diciembre del 2004. Se determinó una muestra de 192 niños con diagnóstico histológico de gastritis crónica antral. Las biopsias fueron reevaluadas para detectar infección por Helicobacter pylori y su densidad de colonización junto a la actividad y la gravedad de las lesiones de la gastritis. RESULTADOS. Se encontró infección por Helicobacter pylori en el 67,7 % de los pacientes. Las formas activas predominaron en los casos con infección por Helicobacter pylori (116/130 a diferencia de quienes no tenían infección (5/62. Se identificó una relación estadísticamente significativa (p INTRODUCTION. The objective of this investigation is to know the frequency of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori in children with chronic antral gastritis, to estimate the differences in the histological behavior of this entity in children with infection due to Helicobacter pylori and without it, and to identify the possible relation existing between age and the histgological characteristics of chronic antral gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori. METHODS. All the gastric biopsies processed in the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Holguin from January 1991 to December 2004 were included in the study group. A sample of 192 children with histological diagnosis of chronic antral gastritis was determined. The biopsies were reevaluated to detect Helicobacter
Beatriz N. Biccas
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Existe uma noção geral de que indivíduos obesos desenvolvem mais freqüentemente a doença do refluxo gastroesofagiano, sendo a orientação de perder peso parte integrante do seu tratamento. Entretanto, uma base científica para esta associação não está plenamente estabelecida. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência de obesidade e sobrepeso em pacientes com sintomas típicos de refluxo, com e sem esofagite erosiva. Analisar a prevalência de hérnia hiatal e a intensidade do refluxo anormal em relação ao índice de massa corporal nos dois grupos de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas retrospectivamente 362 pHmetrias de pacientes com pirose, todos com endoscopia digestiva alta prévia, definindo-se esofagite erosiva pela presença de erosões esofagianas macroscópicas e hérnia de hiato quando à junção esôfago-gástrica estava 2 cm ou mais acima do pinçamento diafragmático. Pacientes com esôfago de Barrett ou estenose péptica foram excluídos. A população foi dividida em três grupos de acordo com o índice de massa corpórea: peso normal, com índice de massa corporal entre 20 e 24,9, sobrepeso, com 25 e 29,9 e obesos com índice superior a 30. O diagnóstico de refluxo gastroesofagiano anormal com sua intensidade foi avaliado de acordo com os resultados de pHmetrias, analisados nos grupos de pacientes com e sem esofagite erosiva em relação ao índice de massa corporal. RESULTADOS: Entre os 362 pacientes, havia 148 (41% com e 214 (59% sem esofagite erosiva, sendo a pHmetria anormal em 100% e 57% dos pacientes, retrospectivamente. Entre os 148 (61% do sexo masculino, mediana de idade de 50 anos, 41 (28% apresentavam peso normal, 82 (55% sobrepeso e 25 (17% eram obesos. Havia 88 (60% com hérnia hiatal, sendo 29 (71% dos pacientes com peso normal, 45 (55% dos com sobrepeso e 14 (56% dos obesos. Nos 121 indivíduos sem esofagite erosiva e com pHmetria anormal, diagnosticados como doentes com doença do refluxo não-erosiva
Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y
Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.
Shipman, P.J.; Drury, P.
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis that results from infection of the stomach wall by gas-forming organisms. Diagnosis of this commonly fatal condition rests on radiological demonstration of gas within the stomach wall. This can be observed on plain radiographs or CT scans of the abdomen. Only by prompt diagnosis and treatment can mortality be avoided. A new case of empysematous gastritis, diagnosed on CT scan by the demonstration of both intramural and portal venous gas, is presented and the literature is reviewed. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z
Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.
Neuhold, A.; Polterauer, P.; Fruehwald, F.; Neuhold, N.; Seidl, G.
To assess the sensitivity of radiology in diagnosis of gastritis within 2 hours endoscopy and biopsy of the stomach and double contrast barium meal were performed. The diagnosis was established of the morphologic picture of the areae gastricae, which were sufficient visible in 33 out of 50 cases (66%). In 7 patients radiologic findings were normal, 13 patients showed superficial gastritis, 10 patients had superficial gastritis with signs of atrophy and in 3 patients there was an erosive gastritis. In all 33 patients (100%) there was a complete correlation of radiologic and endoscopic findings, in 24 out of 33 cases (73%) even correlation between radiologic and histologic classification. These results are discussed and confrontated with literatures.
Neuhold, A.; Polterauer, P.; Fruehwald, F.; Neuhold, N.; Seidl, G.; Vienna Univ.; Vienna Univ.
To assess the sensitivity of radiology in diagnosis of gastritis within 2 hours endoscopy and biopsy of the stomach and double contrast barium meal were performed. The diagnosis was established of the morphologic picture of the areae gastricae, which were sufficient visible in 33 out of 50 cases (66%). In 7 patients radiologic findings were normal, 13 patients showed superficial gastritis, 10 patients had superficial gastritis with signs of atrophy and in 3 patients there was an erosive gastritis. In all 33 patients (100%) there was a complete correlation of radiologic and endoscopic findings, in 24 out of 33 cases (73%) even correlation between radiologic and histologic classification. These results are discussed and confrontated with literatures. (orig.) [de
Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Cho, So Yeon
Gastritis cystica profunda is an uncommon benign mass that usually occurs on the gastric side of the site of a gastroenterostomy, but has also been known to develop in which has not been operated on. We report the case of stomach a 51-years-old man with pathologically proven gastritis cystica profunda. This patient had not undergone gastric surgery CT showed a well-defined, 3cm sized, cystic mass at the gastric antrum
Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Cho, So Yeon [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)
Gastritis cystica profunda is an uncommon benign mass that usually occurs on the gastric side of the site of a gastroenterostomy, but has also been known to develop in which has not been operated on. We report the case of stomach a 51-years-old man with pathologically proven gastritis cystica profunda. This patient had not undergone gastric surgery CT showed a well-defined, 3cm sized, cystic mass at the gastric antrum.
Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro
Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.
Shiota, Seiji; Thrift, Aaron P; Green, Linda; Shah, Rajesh; Verstovsek, Gordana; Rugge, Massimo; Graham, David Y; El-Serag, Hashem B
There are data to suggest the existence of non-Helicobacter pylori gastritis. However, the risk factors and clinical course for H pylori-negative gastritis remain unclear. We aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of H pylori-negative gastritis in a large multiethnic clinical population. We conducted a cross-sectional study among patents scheduled for an elective esophagastroduodenoscopy or attending selected primary care clinics and eligible for screening colonoscopy at a single Veterans Affairs medical center. We identified cases of H pylor-negative gastritis, H pylori-positive gastritis, and H pylori-negative nongastritis, where gastritis was defined by the presence of neutrophils and/or mononuclear cells. Risk factors for H pylori-negative gastritis were analyzed in logistic regression models. A total of 1240 patients had information from all biopsy sites, of whom 695 (56.0%) had gastritis. H pylori-negative gastritis was present in 123 patients (9.9% of all study subjects and 17.7% of all patients with gastritis). Among all patients with gastritis, African Americans were statistically significantly less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have H pylori-negative gastritis (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43). Conversely, PPI users were more likely to have H pylori-negative gastritis than H pylori-positive gastritis compared with nonusers (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-3.49). The cumulative incidence of gastric erosions and ulcers were higher in patients with H pylori-negative gastritis than H pylori-negative nongastritis. We found that H pylori-negative gastritis was present in approximately 18% of patients with gastritis. The potential for H pylori-negative gastritis to progress or the risk of gastric cancer of those with gastric mucosal atrophy/intestinal metaplasia remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... November 2012 Print this issue Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Send us your comments ... protective response to injury or infection. is called gastritis, and it can cause long-term problems. Some ...
Relação entre o tamanho de hérnia hiatal e tempo de exposição ácida esofágica nas doenças do refluxo erosiva e não-erosiva Relationship between the size of hiatal hernia and esophageal acid exposure time in erosive and non-erosive reflux disease
Luiz João Abrahão Jr.
Full Text Available RACIONAL: Nos últimos anos, estudos têm demonstrado a importância da hérnia hiatal na etiopatogenia da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico, atuando por vários mecanismos, sendo enfatizado que quanto maior a hérnia, maior seria a possibilidade de refluxo e esofagite. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar por parâmetros de pHmetria prolongada, se a presença de hérnias volumosas se correlaciona com maior intensidade do refluxo, em pacientes com a doença do refluxo erosiva e doença do refluxo não-erosiva. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foram revistas as pHmetrias prolongadas anormais consecutivas de pacientes em investigação de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (pirose como queixa principal e analisadas as percentagens de tempo total (%TT, em posição ereta (%TE e posição supina (%TS com pH 5 cm. RESULTADOS: Cento e noventa e dois pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão, sendo 115 com doença do refluxo erosiva e 77 com doença do refluxo não-erosiva. No primeiro grupo, 94 (81% pacientes apresentavam hérnias hiatais não-volumosas, enquanto que 21 (19% apresentavam hérnias hiatais volumosas. No grupo com doença do refluxo não-erosiva, 66 (85% pacientes apresentavam hérnia hiatal não-volumosa e 11 (15% hérnia hiatal volumosa. Na doença do refluxo erosiva, as %TT, %TE e %TS foram de 13,1 + 7,1, 13,4 + 7,4 e 12,3 + 11,5 nas hérnias hiatais não-volumosas, aumentando para 20,2 + 12,3, 17,8 + 14,1 e 20,7 + 14,1 nas hérnias hiatais volumosas, respectivamente, sendo este aumento estatisticamente significante nos tempos total e supino. Na doença do refluxo não-erosiva, as %TT, %TE e %TS foram de 9,6 + 4,8, 10,8+ 6,8 e 8,6 + 7,3 nas hérnias hiatais não volumosas e de 14,6 + 13,3, 11,2 + 7,5 18,1 + 21,0 nas hérnias volumosas, respectivamente, com significância semelhante à anterior. CONCLUSÃO: As hérnias volumosas aumentam o tempo de exposição ácida esofágica exclusivamente na posição supina nos pacientes com doença do refluxo
Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.
Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement.
Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L
Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.
Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes chronic active gastritis. The pattern of gastritis is related to the disease outcome. This study aimed to determine the predominant gastritis pattern in Nigerian dyspeptic patients with a view to predicting gastroduodenal disease outcomes. Methods: Patients referred ...
Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken
Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.
Du, Yiqi; Bai, Yu; Xie, Pei; Fang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaozhong; Hou, Xiaohua; Tian, Dean; Wang, Chengdang; Liu, Yandi; Sha, Weihong; Wang, Bangmao; Li, Yanqing; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Yan; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Jianming; Li, Youming; Huang, Minghe; Han, Shengxi; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xu; Xie, Pengyan; Wang, Zhangliu; Cui, Lihong; Sheng, Jianqiu; Luo, Hesheng; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ning; Nie, Yuqiang; Zou, Yiyou; Xia, Bing; Fan, Zhining; Chen, Zhitan; Lin, Sanren; Li, Zhao-Shen
Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy.
Background Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. Methods A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Results Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. Conclusions The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy. PMID:24502423
Smythe, M A; Zarowitz, B J
To present recent advances in stress gastritis prophylaxis in the critically ill and review considerations in selection of a prophylactic agent. Information was obtained from MEDLINE search, reference lists from articles identified in search, and from review articles. Emphasis was placed on controlled trials conducted within the last 5 years. All literature was assessed for methodology, results, and conclusions. Results of prospective, randomized trials, and meta-analyses are summarized. Histamine2-receptor antagonists, antacids, and sucralfate appear equally effective in preventing stress gastritis in the critically ill. A definitive cause-effect relationship between histamine2-receptor antagonists and increased incidence of nosocomial pneumonia has not yet been established. The indications for using a prophylactic agent and consideration in selecting an agent should include an evaluation of the following: risk factors for gastritis including the type of intensive care patient, comparative efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, cost, and ease of administration. The least expensive, safest agent requiring minimal monitoring is sucralfate. Prevention of stress gastritis has never been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality significantly. Controversies still exist regarding the need to provide prophylaxis, the choice of an agent, and the relative importance of previously identified risk factors. Further well-designed studies are needed before consensus can be reached.
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno
Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728
Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo
Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling. PMID:26576102
Liu, Yi; Ponsioen, Cyriel I. J.; Xiao, Shu-Dong; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.
Background and aim. Helicobacter pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis and gastric cancer. There are significant geographical differences between the clinical manifestation of H. pylori infections. The aim of this study was to compare gastric mucosal histology in relation to age among H.
Gastritis is a digestive disorder caused by diet. Nearly 10 percent of people worldwide suffer from gastritis. In Indonesia, the incidence of gastritis was 40.8 percent. Food consumption which is a trigger factor of gastritis are the high consumption of protein in the daily diet, spicy foods and drinking coffee. This study aimed to identify risk factors of food consumption history that could increase gastric acidity as a risk factor of gastritis. The observational study with case control design conducted to 32 respondents devided into 2 groups, gastritis and non-gastritis group. Independent variables were protein consumption history, consumption of chili sauce, and drinking coffee habits. Sampling has done using systematic random sampling and food history was assessed using Dietary History form and Food Frequency semi quantitative form. The results showed that most of the gastritis respondents were female (78,12%, at the age range of 20-30 years (40,63%, and had suffered gastritis > 3 years (43,75%. The risk estimation results indicated that the significant variables as risk factors of gastritis were frequency of milk consumption (p=0,034, OR=6,600 and the amount of chili sauce consumption (p=0,037, OR=11,667. Respondents with frequent history of milk consumption had 6,6 times greater risk for experiencing gastritis than those infrequent history of milk consumption, and respondents who had history of chili sauce consumption habits > 3 tsp per consumptionhad 11,667 times greater risk for experiencing gastritis than those who consumed chili sauce habits less than that. Patients with gastritis should limit their milk consumption especially when ate with other heavy foods; and also limit consumption of chili sauce because it can stimulate excessive production of gastric acid that can iritate the gastric mucosa. Keywords: diet history, gastric acid, gastritis
Rugge, M; Fassan, M; Pizzi, M; Zorzetto, V; Maddalo, G; Realdon, S; De Bernard, M; Betterle, C; Cappellesso, R; Pennelli, G; de Boni, M; Farinati, F
Among Western populations, the declining incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection coincides with a growing clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. To describe the histological phenotype of autoimmune gastritis, also to test the prognostic impact of OLGA staging in the autoimmune setting. A single-institutional series (spanning the years 2003-2011) of 562 consecutive patients (M:F ratio: 1:3.7; mean age = 57.6 ± 14.4 years) with serologically confirmed autoimmune gastritis underwent histology review and OLGA staging. Helicobacter pylori infection was ascertained histologically in 44/562 cases (7.8%). Forty six biopsy sets (8.2%) featured OLGA stages III-IV; they included all four cases of incidental epithelial neoplasia (three intraepithelial and one invasive; three of these four cases had concomitant H. pylori infection). There were 230 (40.9%) and 139 (24.7%) cases, respectively, of linear and micro-nodular enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia; 19 (3.4%) type I carcinoids were detected. The series included 116 patients who underwent repeated endoscopy/biopsy sampling (mean time elapsing between the two procedures = 54 months; range 24-108). Paired histology showed a significant (P = 0.009) trend towards a stage progression [the stage increased in 25/116 cases (22%); it remained unchanged in 87/116 cases (75%)]. In autoimmune gastritis, the cancer risk is restricted to high-risk gastritis stages (III-IV), and is associated mainly with concomitant H. pylori infection. OLGA staging consistently depicts the time-dependent organic progression of the autoimmune disease and provides key information for secondary gastric cancer prevention strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Polydorides, Alexandros D
The histologic finding of chronic inflammation in an endoscopic mucosal biopsy of the stomach (chronic gastritis) is very common and usually reflects the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, infectious organisms are not always present in biopsy material, and some cases of chronic gastritis do not result from H. pylori infection. Thus, the differential diagnosis of this finding is an important one for pathologists to keep in mind. This review presents the three most common and clinically significant causes of chronic, noninfectious gastritis, namely, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, lymphocytic gastritis, and gastric involvement in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn disease. For each entity, a brief discussion of its etiology and pathogenesis, a review of the clinical and endoscopic features, and a description of the microscopic findings are presented in the context of the differential diagnosis of chronic gastritis with emphasis on helpful histopathologic hints and long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Remley, K.B.; Mann, F.A.; Simons, M.A.
In a retrospective review of biphasic upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract examinations in 300 consecutive patients with abdominal pain, blood loss, nausea and vomiting, weight loss or dysphagia, the author evaluated the frequency of radiographic findings suggestive of gastritis. Forty-eight patients had undergone endoscopy within 1 week of upper GI tract examination. ''Best findings'' were defined by receiver operating characteristic wave analysis of individual findings, including aphthous lesions, serrated or nodular folds, marginal spiculation, and luminal constriction. Most false negative studies were in the fundus or proximal body; most false positive studies were in the antrum. They present a pictorial dictionary of findings and data for use of ''best findings'' to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of gastritis
Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.
Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis
Alvarado-Lezama, Julio; Espinosa-González, Omar; García-Cano, Eugenio; Sánchez-Córdova, Gabriela
Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the mucorales order, which affects mostly immunocompromised patients. The association with emphysematous gastritis is rare and often fatal produced by gas -forming bacteria. We report the case of a trauma patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis complicated with gastric mucormycosis associated with emphysematous gastritis. A male aged 32 who is involved in a car accident, who suffered head trauma, is admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting diabetic ketoacidosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. An endoscopy was performed and an erosive esophagitis Class C, ischemia and gastric necrosis was found. A computed tomography scan showed emphysematous gastritis and gastric necrosis. He underwent total gastrectomy with a histopathology report of gastric mucormycosis. After the surgical procedure the patient died because of sepsis secondary to pulmonary mucormycosis Mucormycosis is a rare fungical disease which infrequently affects the gastrointestinal tract, being the stomach the most affected site. The mortality is high if the diagnosis is not done promptly and appropriate treatment is given. Suspecting its existence is necessary in patients with immunocompromised status to diagnose and provide timely treatment to increase survival, because of its high mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.
Simanenkov, V I; Vyalov, S S
The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called 'off-label' use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.
Full Text Available Objective. Gastric acid plays an important part in the prevention of bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. If these bacteria have an ability of hydrogen (H2 fermentation, intraluminal H2 gas might be detected. We attempted to measure the intraluminal H2 concentrations to determine the bacterial overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods. Studies were performed in 647 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy. At the time of endoscopic examination, we intubated the stomach and the descending part of the duodenum without inflation by air, and 20 mL of intraluminal gas samples of both sites was collected through the biopsy channel. Intraluminal H2 concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. Results. Intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas was detected in 566 (87.5% and 524 (81.0% patients, respectively. The mean values of intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas were 8.5±15.9 and 13.2±58.0 ppm, respectively. The intraduodenal H2 level was increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis, whereas the intragastric H2 level was the highest in patients without atrophic gastritis. Conclusions. The intraduodenal hydrogen levels were increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis. It is likely that the influence of hypochlorhydria on bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine is more pronounced, compared to that in the stomach.
Full Text Available Background: TNF- α is a cytokine that plays an active role in the pathogenesis of gastritis. The correlation of TNF-α levels in the gastric mucosa with the severity of gastritis has long been known. However, few studies have assessed TNF-α levels in serum of gastritis patients. This study aims to evaluate correlation between serum TNF-α level with the degree of gastritis based on histopathology. Method: A cross sectional study on eighty gastritis patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria underwent serum TNF-α examination, endoscopy, and biopsy. Rapid urease test was used for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The severity of gastritis based on lymphocyte infiltration, neutrophil infiltration, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia according to Updated Sydney System. Univariate and bivariate analysis (Chi-square, fisher's exact, spearman correlation, and independent T-test were done using SPSS version 22. Results: There were 41.25% patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. Serum TNF-α levels in the infected group were significantly higher compared to negative H. pylori (p < 0.05. There was significant positive correlation between serum TNF-α levels and degree of gastritis based on lymphocyte infiltration (r = 0.333; p = 0.003. Conclusion: There was a significant positive correlation between serum TNF-α level with the severity of gastritis based on lymphocyte infiltration.
Ley, C; Mohar, A; Guarner, J; Herrera-Goepfert, R; Figueroa, L S; Halperin, D; Parsonnet, J
Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas usually are preceded by chronic atrophic gastritis. Studies of gastric cancer prevention often rely on identification of this condition. In a clinical trial, we sought to determine the best serological screening method for chronic atrophic gastritis and compared our findings to the published literature. Test characteristics of potential screening tests (antibodies to Helicobacter pyloni or CagA, elevated gastrin, low pepsinogen, increased age) alone or in combination were examined among consecutive subjects enrolled in a study of H. pylori and preneoplastic gastric lesions in Chiapas, Mexico; 70% had chronic atrophic gastritis. English-language articles concerning screening for chronic atrophic gastritis were also reviewed. Sensitivity for chronic atrophic gastritis was highest for antibodies to H. pylori (92%) or CagA, or gastrin levels >25 ng/l (both 83%). Specificity, however, was low for these tests (18, 41, and 22%, respectively). Pepsinogen levels were highly specific but insensitive markers of chronic atrophic gastritis (for pepsinogen I gastritis screening. However, no screening test was both highly sensitive and highly specific for chronic atrophic gastritis.
Ben Slama, Sana; Ben Ghachem, Dorra; Dhaoui, Amen; Jomni, Mohamed Taieb; Dougui, Mohamed Hédi; Bellil, Khadija
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis presents a risk of cancer related to atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Two recent classifications OLGA (Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment) and OLGIM (Operative Link on Gastritic Intestinal Metaplasia assessment) have been proposed to identify high-risk forms (stages III and IV). The aim of this study is to evaluate the OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in H pylori gastritis. A descriptive study of 100 cases of chronic H pylori gastritis was performed. The revaluation of Sydney System parameters of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, of gastric antrum and corpus, allowed identifying respectively the stages of OLGA and OLGIM systems. The progressive risk of our H pylori gastritis was 6% according to OLGA staging and 7% according to OLGIM staging. Significant correlation was revealed between age and OLGA staging. High-risk gastritis according to OLGIM staging was significantly associated with moderate to severe atrophy. High-risk forms according to OLGA staging were associated in 80% of the cases to intestinal metaplasia. OLGA and OLGIM systems showed a highly significant positive correlation between them with a mismatch at 5% for H pylori gastritis. The OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in addition to Sydney System, allow selection of high risk forms of chronic gastritis requiring accurate observation.
Background: Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. Objectives: To determine the ...
Tsukasa, Shintaro; Samejima, Tomoyuki; Ohi, Hidehisa
Abnormal gastric wall configurations in 27 cases of cause-unknown acute gastritis were studied roentgenographically with reference to their causative origins. Studies were made on roentgenograms (abnormal gastric wall configurations), endoscopic findings and extension of lesions of the subjected cases. Gastric contour showed 'staying', 'thumbprinting', 'undulate configuration' and 'squarish undulation', while 'chimney-like' finding suggestive of poor gastric wall stretch was observed in the whole antral region as well. The widened angulus ventriculi and expanded pyloric ring (insufficient constriction) were also seen. In some cases the lesion extended over to the duodenum and, as in the cases of acute gastritis, duodenal wall 'staying', 'thumbprinting' and varied duodenal wall undulation were seen in addition to edema and morphological changes of the Kerkring's folds. The lesions in the studied patients mostly extended from an epicenter of the antrum upward to the gastric corpus and downward near to Vater's papilla in the descending part of the duodenum. The affected regions were clearly distinguishable. It has been known that above-described roentgenographical findings in our studied patients were similar in part to those known in experimental studies carried out on animals with ischemic digestive tract. This strongly suggests that some of our patients had developed the disease due to ischemic causes. There were some discrepancies between roentgenographical (abnormal gastric wall configuration) and endoscopic findings in some studied patients. It has been our belief that abnormal gastric wall configuration reflects lesions in the inner part of the wall and, accordingly, roentgenographical examinations, as well as endoscopy, should be performed for the purpose of making correct diagnosis. It is also to be emphasized that angiography should be carried out on patients with relapsing acute gastritis without any specific cause. (author)
Baik, D. I.; Jaun, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Han, C. Y.
A chronic gastritis is common and clinically significant, but specific findings were rarely described in UGIS. And the authors attempted to clarify the area gastrica of the stomach related to the chronic gastritis. The authors reviewed 'Areae gastricae' micromucosal patterns of stomach, retrospectively with double contrast barium meal study in 16 cases, histologically proven cases of chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980. Here the commonest site of chronic gastritis is evident in 12 cases in pyloric gland area, and a sixe of area gastrica shows above 2.5mm in longest diameter with combinding morphology, regular to irregular, 3 to 1 and coarse barium accumulations of intervening sulci. The chronic gastritis could be suggested with this better technique of UGIS
Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Fujioka, Toshio
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major pathogen of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are recognized as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. Many studies reported that H. pylori eradication had the preventive effect of gastric cancer. Moreover many studies mentioned the improvement of gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia. Two meta-analysis indicated the improvement of atrophic gastritis but not of intestinal metaplasia. In our study, intestinal metaplasia improved at lesser curvature of the corpus six years after eradication. H. pylori eradication has benefit for gastric cancer prevention provably due to improvement of the precancerous lesion such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Especially, H. pylori eradication before the appearance of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia has been considered to be effective in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, improvement or elimination of chronic gastritis with H. pylori eradication might have possibility of gastric cancer inhibition.
Baik, D. I.; Jaun, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Han, C. Y. [Inje Medical College Paik Hospital (Korea, Republic of)
A chronic gastritis is common and clinically significant, but specific findings were rarely described in UGIS. And the authors attempted to clarify the area gastrica of the stomach related to the chronic gastritis. The authors reviewed 'Areae gastricae' micromucosal patterns of stomach, retrospectively with double contrast barium meal study in 16 cases, histologically proven cases of chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980. Here the commonest site of chronic gastritis is evident in 12 cases in pyloric gland area, and a sixe of area gastrica shows above 2.5mm in longest diameter with combinding morphology, regular to irregular, 3 to 1 and coarse barium accumulations of intervening sulci. The chronic gastritis could be suggested with this better technique of UGIS.
Julio César Fernández Travieso
Uno de los trastornos que con más frecuencia afecta a la población mundial lo constituyen las enfermedades gastrointestinales, las cuales se encuentran entre las primeras causas de muerte, al estar incluidas entre ellas el cáncer colorectal y el gástrico. Entre las enfermedades gastrointestinales más comunes se encuentra la gastritis, padecimiento de etiología multifactorial que puede originarse por diversas causas, entre las que se incluyen las infecciones por bacterias como Helicobacter pyl...
Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.
OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524
Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim
Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835
Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y; Kramer, Jennifer R; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B
Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P=0.06). We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known.
Jean Le'Clerc Nicolás
Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El sangramiento digestivo alto continúa siendo un problema de salud, y junto al abdomen agudo, las heridas y los traumatismos es prácticamente la razón de ser de una guardia de cirugía. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes con este diagnóstico ingresados en el Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico «Joaquín Albarrán», entre enero del 2006 y diciembre del 2007 (2 años. RESULTADOS. Las edades más frecuentes estuvieron entre los 70 y 79 años, y fue más frecuente el sexo masculino y el antecedente de enfermedad cardiovascular. La melena fue la principal manifestación clínica. La endoscopia solo se realizó en el 25,16 % de los casos, y en ella se observó principalmente duodenitis y gastritis. Como medidas terapéuticas más comunes se practicaron la hidratación y el uso sondas de Levine. Solo el 20,48 % de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento contra Helicobacter pylori. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días o más. CONCLUSIONES. Las medidas generales de apoyo hemodinámico y la estrecha vigilancia de los pacientes pueden lograr salvaguardar sus vidas aunque no se disponga de un diagnóstico certero. La infección por Helicobacter pylori y su asociación a lesiones erosivas o ulcerosas de la mucosa gastroduodenal no ha sido totalmente asimilada en el pensamiento médico de los cirujanos. La función de la cirugía es cada vez menor en la terapéutica del sangramiento digestivo alto, a pesar de ser uno de los pilares fundamentales para enfrentarlo.INTRODUCTION. High digestive bleeding remains as health problem and together with acute abdomen, wounds and traumatisms is practically the main responsibility of a surgery rounds. METHODS. A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in a sample including all patients with this diagnosis admitted in "Joaquín Albarrán" Clinical Surgical
Taskov, A.; Krastin, A.
A series of 602 patients are studied according to a standard protocol including double contrast examination, taking films with dosed compression and complete filling (accordingly 3+3+1 radiographs). A barium suspension at concentration 200.0 BaSO 4 in 100 ml water is used as a positive contrast medium, and effervescent powder or pills - as a negative contrast. Erosive gastritis is diagnosed in 48 patients (7.9%) of which 38 present complete erosions (79.2%), 6 (12.6%) - incomplete, and 4 (8.3%) - mixed erosions. In 35 cases (72.9%) erosions are differentiated in double-contrast films, while in 21 (43.8%) - in those with compression. The advantage of the double contrast technique consists in visualization of erosions of the body of the stomach and discovering of incomplete erosions. In 483 patients a comparative assessment is done of the X-ray and endoscopic findings. There are recorded 5 false-positive and 25 false-negative radiological results. The sensitivity of the X-ray study in terms of erosive gastritis amounts to 59.7%. 15 refs., 4 figs. (orig.)
Kwak, Soon Hyuk; Bae, Il Hun; Park, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kamg, Min Ho; Ryu, Dong Hee; Lee, Ho Chang
Gastritis cystica polyposa is an uncommon benign lesion that normally occurs on the gastric side of a gastroenterostomy site but is rarely found in patients without a prior history of stomach surgery. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with gastrodeuodenal intussusception due to gastritis cystica polyposa that developed in an unoperated stomach. CT revealed gastroduodenal intussusception and a cystic and solid mass with fat density in the second portion of the duodenum. Surgery and a pathologic examination confirmed gastritis cystica polyposa.
Kwak, Soon Hyuk; Bae, Il Hun; Park, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kamg, Min Ho [Dept. of Radilogy, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dong Hee [Dept. of Surergy, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Chang [Dept. of Pathology, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)
Gastritis cystica polyposa is an uncommon benign lesion that normally occurs on the gastric side of a gastroenterostomy site but is rarely found in patients without a prior history of stomach surgery. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with gastrodeuodenal intussusception due to gastritis cystica polyposa that developed in an unoperated stomach. CT revealed gastroduodenal intussusception and a cystic and solid mass with fat density in the second portion of the duodenum. Surgery and a pathologic examination confirmed gastritis cystica polyposa.
Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio
AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.
Full Text Available Collagenous gastritis (CG is an uncommon condition known in the pediatric age. It is characterized by the presence of subepithelial collagen bands (> 10 μm associated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stomach's lamina propria. Symptoms manifested by patients with CG may be common with many other disorders. It typically manifests with epigastralgia, vomiting, and iron deficiency during pre-adolescence. This condition's pathophysiology remains unclear. In contrast to adults, where association with collagenous colitis and other autoimmune conditions is more common, pediatric involvement is usually confined to the stomach. Drugs of choice include proton pump inhibitors and corticoids. A case is reported of a 12-year-old girl with abdominal pain and ferritin deficiency who was diagnosed with CG based on gastric biopsy and experienced a favorable outcome.
Caruana, V.; Swayne, L.C.; Salaki, J.S.
We present a case of emphysematous gastritis initially detected with 111In oxine-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy and subsequently confirmed by computed tomography. Early aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy resulted in a successful clinical outcome
Lebwohl, B; Green, P H R; Genta, R M
Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is an uncommon entity with varying symptoms and endoscopic appearances. This condition, as well as two forms of H. pylori-negative gastritis [chronic active gastritis (CAG) and chronic inactive gastritis (CIG)], appears to be more common in patients with coeliac disease (CD) based on single-centred studies. To compare the prevalence of LG, CAG and CIG among those with normal duodenal histology (or nonspecific duodenitis) and those with CD, as defined by villous atrophy (Marsh 3). We analysed all concurrent gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens submitted to a national pathology laboratory during a 6-year period. We performed multiple logistic regression to identify independent predictors of each gastritis subtype. Among patients who underwent concurrent gastric and duodenal biopsy (n = 287,503), the mean age was 52 and the majority (67%) were female. Compared to patients with normal duodenal histology, LG was more common in partial villous atrophy (OR: 37.66; 95% CI: 30.16-47.03), and subtotal/total villous atrophy (OR: 78.57; 95% CI: 65.37-94.44). CD was also more common in CAG (OR for partial villous atrophy 1.93; 95% CI: 1.49-2.51, OR for subtotal/total villous atrophy 2.42; 95% CI: 1.90-3.09) and was similarly associated with CIG (OR for partial villous atrophy 2.04; 95% CI: 1.76-2.35, OR for subtotal/total villous atrophy 2.96; 95% CI: 2.60-3.38). Lymphocytic gastritis is strongly associated with coeliac disease, with increasing prevalence correlating with more advanced villous atrophy. Chronic active gastritis and chronic inactive gastritis are also significantly associated with coeliac disease. Future research should measure the natural history of these conditions after treatment with a gluten-free diet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
S. Kazem Nezam
Full Text Available Background: Bile gastritis (gastropathy is a kind of gastritis which is caused by reflux of bile contents through duodenum on stomach. It can occur spontaneously without any former gastric surgeries which affect sphincter of pylorus. The positive impact of some certain drugs such as prokinetic agents e.g. metoclopramide, Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, cholestyramine and sucralfate in treating bile gastritis has been confirmed. This study has been conducted in order to analyze the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, which is a harmless drug, on patients with the bile gastritis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, all patients with dyspepsia who were qualified to undertake endoscopy were enrolled and then 60 patients with bile gastritis were selected for the study. The patients were divided into two groups; a group was treated by UDCA, omeprazole and sucralfate and another one was treated with placebo, omeprazole and sucralfate for two weeks. Finally, at the end of the third week of treatment patients were examined.Results: A total of sixty 19-70 year-old patients (Mean: 46 years old included in this study. At the end of the study, there was not found any meaningful difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, heartburn intensity, severity of bloating, vomiting and early satiety; however, each group independently showed improvement of the mentioned indices after termination of the treatment (p=0.0005.Conclusion: Adding UDCA to the standard treatment (sucralfate is not clinically effective in curing the bile gastritis.
Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra
Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
Fatema, J; Khan, A H; Uddin, M J; Rahman, M H; Saha, M; Safwath, S A; Alam, M J; Mamun, M A
This cross sectional study was designed to see association of chronic gastritis including its type with H. pylori infection. Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic examination having histopathological evidence of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study and was done in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College from July 2011 to June 2012. Biopsies were taken from antrum, body and fundus in all patients. Histopathological examinations were done using H-E stain and for detection of H. pylori, rapid urease test, anti-H.pylori antibody test and histopathological test with modified Giemsa stain were done. Patients having results positive in at least two methods were considered infected by H. pylori. Total 80 dyspeptic patients having chronic gastritis were evaluated. Out of them 67(83.8%) had H. pylori infection and 13(16.2%) were H. pylori negative. Among all patients 57(71.2%) had pangastritis and 23(28.8%) had antral gastritis with female and male predominance respectively. H. pylori infection was present in 49(86.0%) cases of pangastritis and 18(78.3%) cases of antral gastritis. H. pylori infection was a little higher among males (34, 50.7%) females (33, 49.3%). H. pylori infection is the predominant cause of chronic gastritis and pangastritis is the major type.
Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.
Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter
To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J.; Tytgat, K. M.; Jalali, S.; Goodacre, R. L.; Hunt, R. H.
We carried out a review of the literature on Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) to determine whether or not symptoms related to these conditions can be measured reliably and whether or not any study to date has shown that treatment alters symptoms. Search
Haot, J; Hamichi, L; Wallez, L; Mainguet, P
Lymphocytic gastritis is a histopathological entity characterised by the accumulation of small lymphocytes in the surface and foveolar epithelium. In order to investigate the correlation between endoscopy and histology in this condition, 192 observations selected on the basis of a presumed diagnosis of erosive or varioliform gastritis were reviewed. Ninety two instances corresponded to lymphocytic gastritis, while 100 did not show any particular microscopic feature and were labelled non-specific gastritis. There was a good correlation (48 of 58) between the diagnosis of the so-called varioliform gastritis and the histological evidence of lymphocytic gastritis. The correlation was even better when nodules, erosions, and enlarged folds were considered. Lymphocytic gastritis has a typical endoscopical appearance consisting of nodules, erosions, and large folds predominating in the gastric body. This contrasts with non-specific gastritis, which affects the antrum and produces erosions on a flat mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3198002
O. V. Smirnova
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is the most common disease of gastro-intestinal tract. Precancerous potential is among most important epidemiological features of chronic gastritis. Immune system plays a distinct role in transformation from precancerous state to malignancy. In this context, the aim of our work was a study of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in patients with chronic superficial gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The work presents results of comprehensive laboratory examination of patients with chronic gastritis (CG (a total of 85 persons. 25 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG, and 50 patients with gastric cancer (GC at the age of 19 to 70 years were enrolled. Control group included 115 healthy donors without gastrointestinal complaints at the age of 19 to 67 years. The study was performed with venous blood samples taken from cubital vein into Vacutainer tubes with sodium heparin (5 U/mL prior to starting any pathogenic treatment. Evaluation of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence was performed for 90 minutes at a 36-channel “CL 3606” chemiluminescence analyzer (Russia. In our study, patients with gastric cancer showed clear unidirectional changes in chemiluminescent activity of neutrophilic granulocytes (NG. When measuring spontaneous and induced NG chemiluminescence, we diagnosed a decreased phagocytic activity characterized by prolonged time-to-peak and area under the curve for spontaneous and induced CL, thus presuming longer activation time required in cases of reduced phagocytic function. The NG activity in patients with chronic gastritis is not impaired, but, similar changes of time-to-peak and area under were detected. Chemiluminescent activity of NG is increased in the group of CAG patients, and, considering similar changes in activation time and area under the curve, NG also produce greater amount of reactive oxygen species. Thus, for all H
Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.; Ominsky, S.; Cello, J.P.
Sixty-eight patients with various types of gastritis, 23 patients with normal stomachs, and four patients with other gastric diseases were examined in a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of single-contrast (SC) and double-contrast (DC) upper gastrointestinal examinations in the evaluation of gastritis. All patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy followed first by DC and then by SC radiography. The respective sensitivities of SC and DC radiography were 58% and 72% for all examinations and 59% and 77% for adequate examinations only. The respective specificities were 59% and 55% based on all examinations. Useful radiographic features included polypoid defects and erosions detected by both methods, abnormal folds and flattened margins detected by the SC technique, and narrowed lumen and crenulated margins detected by the DC technique. In 93% of all cases, the correct diagnosis was based on two or more of these radiographic features. According to this study, the radiographic sensitivity in the detection of gastritis is reliable only in cases of moderate-to-severe disease and only when based on findings of the DC examination. Neither SC nor DC radiography should be used as the primary screening method for patients with suspected gastritis, and the radiographic diagnosis should be restricted to the terms ''erosive'' or ''nonerosive gastritis.''
Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan
Elderly patients with autoimmune gastritis might have different symptoms than those of young patients. The aim of the present study was to compare presented symptoms and laboratory parameters associated with autoimmune gastritis in both old and young age groups. A total of 355 patients with autoimmune gastritis were stratified into two groups: 65 years or older (n = 119, mean age 69.47 ± 5.027 years), and under 65 years (n = 236, mean age 45.79 ± 10.51 years). These two groups were then evaluated and compared by means of clinical symptoms, concurrent autoimmune diseases, serum gastrin, vitamin B 12 and chromogranin A levels, and the presence of enterochromograffin-like cell hyperplasia. Among 119 older patients, 35 had dyspeptic symptoms, and 84 patients were referred for vitamin B 12 and/or iron deficiency. In the younger group (n = 236), there were more patients who had dyspeptic symptoms (36 vs 200, P gastritis that are older and younger than 65 years-of-age. Elderly patients with autoimmune gastritis were investigated more commonly for vitamin B 12 and/or iron deficiency. Polyautoimmunity and multiple autoimmune syndrome were more common, and serum gastrin and chromogranin A levels were significantly higher in older patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1090-1095. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Islek, Ali; Yilmaz, Aygen; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Erin, Nuray
To investigate the roles of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in chronic gastritis and duodenitis in children. Biopsy samples from the gastric and duodenal mucosa of 52 patients and 30 control subjects were obtained. Samples were taken for pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme activity measurements and quantitative measurements of tissue peptide levels. We observed differential effects of the disease on peptide levels, which were somewhat different from previously reported changes in chronic gastritis in adults. Specifically, SP was increased and CGRP and VIP were decreased in patients with gastritis. The changes were more prominent at sites where gastritis was severe, but significant changes were also observed in neighboring areas where gastritis was less severe. Furthermore, the degree of changes was correlated with the pathological grade of the disease. The expression of CD10, the enzyme primarily involved in SP hydrolysis, was also decreased in patients with duodenitis. Based on these findings, we propose that decreased levels of VIP and CGRP and increased levels of SP contribute to pathological changes in gastric mucosa. Hence, new treatments targeting these molecules may have therapeutic and preventive effects.
Yamada, Masayoshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Oda, Ichiro; Mojtahed, Kaveh; Nonaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Matsubara, Akiko; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka; Shimoda, Tadakazu
Although many gastric cancers arise in chronic gastritis, the association between adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction and the status of background gastritis remains unclear. We aim to investigate the histological status of gastritis in the background fundic gland mucosa of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. The present study included 121 consecutive patients with superficial adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction obtained by surgical and/or endoscopic resection. We re-evaluated the histogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction, including the background fundic gland mucosa using the Updated Sydney System. The prevalence of histologic atrophic gastric mucosa with gastritis (positive gastritis), non-atrophic gastric mucosa without gastritis (negative gastritis) and Barrett's adenocarcinoma was examined. Histologic-positive gastritis was found in 67 (55%) of all patients, in 24 (38%) of 63 Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients and in 43 (74%) of 58 non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients (P gastritis patients `and younger age in non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma without gastritis patients were shown. There were no differences in clinicopathological features related to the gastritis status in Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. Reflux esophagitis was observed in most (81%) of all patients, and 32 (74%) of the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma with gastritis patients. In the 67 positive gastritis patients, the mean Updated Sydney System scores of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were 1.45 and 1.10, respectively, and these scores were higher in the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients than in the Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. This study suggests that about half of the patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction harbor histological gastritis. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is considered to be a heterogeneous entity, including Barrett's esophagus-related, positive gastritis-related, and
Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M
Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...
Kishino, Maiko; Nakamura, Shinichi; Shiratori, Keiko
Differentiated gastric cancer generally develops in the atrophic gastric mucosa, although undifferentiated cancer is sometimes encountered in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. We characterized the endoscopic features of undifferentiated gastric cancer in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. Stage IA early gastric cancer was diagnosed in 501 patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2003 and March 2012. The endoscopic and pathological findings were compared among 29 patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis, 104 patients with undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate atrophic gastritis and 223 patients with well-differentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis. Endoscopic atrophic gastritis was classified according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification as no gastritis, C-1 and C-2 (mild), C-3 and O-1 (moderate) or O-2 and O-3 (severe). The tumors were larger and showed deeper mural invasion in the patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis than in those with well-differentiated cancer and severe gastritis or undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate gastritis. On endoscopy, undifferentiated cancer associated with severe gastritis was often red in color. It is often difficult to diagnose early undifferentiated gastric cancer, especially in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. The present study characterized the important endoscopic features of such tumors.
Chernin, V V; Dzhulaĭ, G S
To evaluate specific features of the course of chronic gastritis (CG), morphofunctional condition of gastric mucosa, vegetative regulation, adrenergic and cholinergic shifts, histamine metabolism and effects of exogenic and endogenic risk factors in CG patients; to study clinicopathogenetic variants of CG. A total of 311 CG patients aged from 16 to 72 years were studied. They were divided into three groups by their gastric mucosa condition. The control group consisted of 30 healthy donors. The following parameters were studied: visual and histological condition of gastric mucosa, total acidity, the levels of free hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bioelectric gastric activity, general autonomic tonicity, cholinesterase activity. Three clinicopathogenetic variants of the disease have been identified. Variant 1 was characterized by a recurrent course, subjective manifestation of the disease only in exacerbation, surface (primarily antral) mucosal affection, normal or enhanced secretory and motor functions of the stomach, adequate reaction of acid production to caffeine and histamine stimulation, parasympathicotonia, absolute hyperhistaminemia, relative hypoacetylcholinemia, subnormal urinary excretion of adrenalin. Variant 2 manifested with rare recurrences, longer and more severe exacerbations, frequent spontaneous and provoked aggravations, moderate focal atrophy of the mucosa, secretory insufficiency with adequate reaction to histamine and minor to caffeine stimuli, hypomotor gastric dyskinesia, vegetative eutonia, normohistaminemia, absolute hypoacetylcholinemia, subnormal urinary excretion of noradrenaline. Variant 3 runs without definite remissions and exacerbations, with continuous abdominal pain and dyspepsia, frequent spontaneous aggravations, marked extended mucosal atrophy with secretory insufficiency up to achlorhydria, no stimulation of acid production in response to caffeine and histamine, gastric hypomotility, sympathicotonia, absolute hypohistaminemia
Chaloupka, J.C.; Gay, B.B. Jr.
Within this decade it has been determined that primary gastritis in both children and adults is frequently associated with infection of the gastric mucosa with Campylobacter pylori. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in which the mucosa of the gastric antrum is typically most severely involved. Other regions of the stomach may be involved and associated peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenal bulb are frequent. A case of C. pylori gastritis is reported in which involvement of the gastric fundus and body produced severe rugal hypertrophy that resembled Menetrier's disease. (orig.)
Mazigh Mrad, Sonia; Abidi, Kamel; Brini, Ines; Boukthir, Samir; Sammoud, Azza
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is a common and universally distributed bacterial infection. It is predominantly acquired in childhood. To assess the relationship between endoscopic nodular gastritis and Hp infection. A retrospective study was conducted in children who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for chronic abdominal pain. All children who had five gastric biopsies for histologic analysis, urease test and Hp culture were included in the study. The Sensitivity and sensibility of nodular gastritis were determined and different parameters were studied according the presence or not of nodular gastritis(age, gender, Hp status, gastritis score and lymphoid follicles). 49 children, mean age 6.9 ± 3 years (range 1-12 years) were eligible for the analysis. Hp Infection was diagnosed in 35 out of the 49 children (71.5 %). Nodular gastritis was recorded in 16 out of 49 children and in 14 infected children and 2 out of 14 non infected children (p=0.07), 40% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, and 36,4% negative predictive value. The parameters associated significantly to the presence of nodular gastritis were older age: (p=0.04), Hp infection: (p=0.01), chronic gastritis: (p=0.05), active gastritis: (p=0.02), follicular gastritis: (p=0.005), higher gastritis score: (p=0.005). Completely normal gastric mucosal histology was never found in infected children with antral nodularity. Among all infected children, the gastritis score was significantly higher when there was a nodular gastritis and follicular gastritis was significantly associated to nodular gastritis. The endoscopic pattern of antral nodularity identifies children with Hp infection, and active chronic follicular gastritis.
Venerito, Marino; Varbanova, Mariya; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Reinhold, Dirk; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Jechorek, Doerthe; Weigt, Jochen; Link, Alexander; Malfertheiner, Peter
To assess characteristics of oxyntic gastric atrophy (OGA) in autoimmune gastritis (AIG) compared with OGA as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients undergoing oesophagogastroduodenoscopy from July 2011 to October 2014 were prospectively included (N=452). Gastric biopsies were obtained for histology and H. pylori testing. Serum gastrin-17 (G17), pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII and antibodies against H. pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A protein were determined in all patients. Antibodies against parietal cells and intrinsic factor were determined in patients with advanced (moderate to severe) OGA. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated for serum biomarkers and compared with histology. Overall, 34 patients (8.9%) had advanced OGA by histology (22 women, age 61±15 years). Current or past H. pylori infection and AIG were present in 14/34 and 22/34 patients, respectively. H. pylori-negative AIG patients (N=18) were more likely to have another autoimmune disease (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 29.8), severe corpus atrophy (OR 10.1; 95% CI 1.9 to 54.1) and corpus intestinal metaplasia (OR 26.9; 95% CI 5.3 to 136.5) compared with H. pylori-positive patients with advanced OGA. Antrum atrophy was present in 39% of H. pylori-negative AIG patients. The diagnostic performance of G17, PG I and PGI/II was excellent for AIG patients (AUC=0.83, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively), but limited for H. pylori-positive patients with advanced OGA (AUC=0.62, 0.75 and 0.67, respectively). H. pylori-negative AIG has a distinct clinical, morphological and serological phenotype compared with advanced OGA in H. pylori gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Togo, Ren; Ishihara, Kenta; Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
Since technical knowledge and a high degree of experience are necessary for diagnosis of chronic gastritis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems that analyze gastric X-ray images are desirable in the field of medicine. Therefore, a new method that estimates salient regions related to chronic gastritis/non-gastritis for supporting diagnosis is presented in this paper. In order to estimate salient regions related to chronic gastritis/non-gastritis, the proposed method monitors the distance between a target image feature and Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based hyperplane for its classification. Furthermore, our method realizes removal of the influence of regions outside the stomach by using positional relationships between the stomach and other organs. Consequently, since the proposed method successfully estimates salient regions of gastric X-ray images for which chronic gastritis and non-gastritis are unknown, visual support for inexperienced clinicians becomes feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Tytgat, K M; Jalali, S; Goodacre, R L; Hunt, R H
We carried out a review of the literature on Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) to determine whether or not symptoms related to these conditions can be measured reliably and whether or not any study to date has shown that treatment alters symptoms. Search strategies consisted of online Medline searching, a forward search of three articles using the Science Citation Index, a manual search of five gastroenterological journals, and a fully recursive search of cited references. Inclusion and quality criteria were applied to all retrieved studies. Nine of 23 studies did not fulfill the inclusion criteria. Of the 14 studies analyzed, two measured symptoms reliably. Neither showed a therapeutic benefit on symptoms. The difficulties encountered in conducting such studies and the methods of recording symptoms reliably are discussed. We conclude that to date, no treatment is of proven benefit in the relief of symptoms associated with C. pylori gastritis and NUD.
K. Sugano (Kentaro); J. Tack (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); D.Y. Graham (David Y.); E. El-Omar; S. Miura (Soichiro); K. Haruma (Ken); M. Asaka (Masahiro); N. Uemura (Naomi); P. Malfertheiner
textabstractObjective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander JO; Malatjalian, Dickran A; Desormeau, Leon M; Pereira, Leo V
A patient with a ‘Gastrospirillum hominis’ infection in the stomach is described. ‘Gastrospirillum hominis’ belongs to the genus Helicobacter and is a rare cause of gastritis in the human stomach. It can be recognized by its distinctive morphological appearance on histology.
Sander JO Veldhuyzen van Zanten
Full Text Available A patient with a ‘Gastrospirillum hominis’ infection in the stomach is described. ‘Gastrospirillum hominis’ belongs to the genus Helicobacter and is a rare cause of gastritis in the human stomach. It can be recognized by its distinctive morphological appearance on histology.
Gomes, Alexandre; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Prestes, Manoel Alberto; Costa, Maiza da Silva; Petisco, Roberta Dombroski; Ramos, Gabriela Piovezani
Studies with latest technologies such as endoscopy with magnification and chromoendoscopy showed that various endoscopic aspects are clearly related to infection by Helicobacter pylori (HP). The description of different patterns of erythema in gastric body under magnification of images revived interest in identifying these patterns by standard endoscopy. To validate the morphologic features of gastric mucosa related to H. pylori infection gastritis allowing predictability of their diagnosis as well as proper targeting biopsies. Prospective study of 339 consecutive patients with the standard videoendoscope image analysis were obtained, recorded and stored in a program database. These images were studied with respect to the presence or absence of H. pylori, diagnosed by rapid urease test and/or by histological analysis. Were studied: a) normal mucosa appearance; b) mucosal nodularity; c) diffuse nonspecific erythema or redness (with or without edema of folds and exudate) of antrum and body; d) mosaic pattern with focal area of hyperemia; e) erythema in streaks or bands (red streak); f) elevated (raised) erosion; g) flat erosions; h) fundic gland polyps. The main exclusion criteria were the use of drugs, HP pre-treatment and other entities that could affect results. Applying the exclusion criteria, were included 170 of the 339 patients, of which 52 (30.58%) were positive for HP and 118 negative. On the positive findings, the most associated with infection were: nodularity in the antrum (26.92%); presence of raised erosion (15.38%) and mosaic mucosa in the body (21.15%). On the negative group the normal appearance of the mucosa was 66.94%; erythema in streaks or bands in 9.32%; flat erosions 11.86%; and fundic gland polyps 11.86%. Endoscopic findings are useful in the predictability of the result and in directing biopsies. The most representative form of HP related gastritis was the nodularity of the antral mucosa. The raised erosion and mucosa in mosaic in the body
Shichijo, Satoki; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Niikura, Ryota; Hayakawa, Yoku; Yamada, Atsuo; Koike, Kazuhiko
Histological gastritis is associated with gastric cancer, but its diagnosis requires biopsy. Many classifications of endoscopic gastritis are available, but not all are useful for risk stratification of gastric cancer. The Kyoto Classification of Gastritis was proposed at the 85th Congress of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society. This cross-sectional study evaluated the usefulness of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis for risk stratification of gastric cancer. From August 2013 to September 2014, esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and the gastric findings evaluated according to the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in a total of 4062 patients. The following five endoscopic findings were selected based on previous reports: atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness. A total of 3392 patients (1746 [51%] men and 1646 [49%] women) were analyzed. Among them, 107 gastric cancers were diagnosed. Atrophy was found in 2585 (78%) and intestinal metaplasia in 924 (27%). Enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness were found in 197 (5.8%), 22 (0.6%), and 573 (17%), respectively. In univariate analyses, the severity of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, diffuse redness, age, and male sex were associated with gastric cancer. In a multivariate analysis, atrophy and male sex were found to be independent risk factors. Younger age and severe atrophy were determined to be associated with diffuse-type gastric cancer. Endoscopic detection of atrophy was associated with the risk of gastric cancer. Thus, patients with severe atrophy should be examined carefully and may require intensive follow-up. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Sun, Xiaoming; Cai, Hongxing; Li, Zhouru; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Wenjiang; Dong, Guokai; Kuai, Jinxia; He, Yihui; Jia, Jing
Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the human stomach regularly leads to chronic gastric inflammation. The cytokine gene interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in influencing the pathology of inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. Currently, several studies have been carried out to investigate the association of IL-1β-511 (rs16944) and IL-1β-31 (rs1143627) polymorphisms with gastritis risk; however, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the effect of IL-1β polymorphisms on gastritis susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods: Up to March 15, 2016, 2205 cases and 2289 controls were collected from 12 published case–control studies. Summarized odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-1β-511 and IL-1β-31 polymorphisms and gastritis risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses and logistic meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results: The results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β-31 might be associated with the gastritis risk, especially in the Caucasian population, while SNPs in the IL-1β-511 might not be. Conclusion: Our studies may be helpful in supplementing the disease monitoring of gastritis in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanisms might inspire interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups. PMID:28151895
Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar
In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.
Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.
Objective Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. Methods A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRC were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (≥25 µg/l), low SPGI, and histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.47–1.05) and among those with histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.55–1.34). Conclusions Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers. PMID:19838812
Comparison of the human gastric microbiota in hypochlorhydric states arising as a result of Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis, autoimmune atrophic gastritis and proton pump inhibitor use.
Bryony N Parsons
Full Text Available Several conditions associated with reduced gastric acid secretion confer an altered risk of developing a gastric malignancy. Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a precursor of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumours, whereas proton pump inhibitor (PPI use does not affect stomach cancer risk. We hypothesised that each of these conditions was associated with specific alterations in the gastric microbiota and that this influenced subsequent tumour risk. 95 patients (in groups representing normal stomach, PPI treated, H. pylori gastritis, H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and autoimmune atrophic gastritis were selected from a cohort of 1400. RNA extracted from gastric corpus biopsies was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq. Samples from normal stomachs and patients treated with PPIs demonstrated similarly high microbial diversity. Patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis also exhibited relatively high microbial diversity, but with samples dominated by Streptococcus. H. pylori colonisation was associated with decreased microbial diversity and reduced complexity of co-occurrence networks. H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis resulted in lower bacterial abundances and diversity, whereas autoimmune atrophic gastritis resulted in greater bacterial abundance and equally high diversity compared to normal stomachs. Pathway analysis suggested that glucose-6-phospahte1-dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase were over represented in H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis versus autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and that both these groups showed increases in fumarate reductase. Autoimmune and H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis were associated with different gastric microbial profiles. PPI treated patients showed relatively few alterations in the gastric microbiota compared to healthy subjects.
Eccles, Richard; Duckworth, Carrie A.; Varro, Andrea
Several conditions associated with reduced gastric acid secretion confer an altered risk of developing a gastric malignancy. Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a precursor of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumours, whereas proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use does not affect stomach cancer risk. We hypothesised that each of these conditions was associated with specific alterations in the gastric microbiota and that this influenced subsequent tumour risk. 95 patients (in groups representing normal stomach, PPI treated, H. pylori gastritis, H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and autoimmune atrophic gastritis) were selected from a cohort of 1400. RNA extracted from gastric corpus biopsies was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq). Samples from normal stomachs and patients treated with PPIs demonstrated similarly high microbial diversity. Patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis also exhibited relatively high microbial diversity, but with samples dominated by Streptococcus. H. pylori colonisation was associated with decreased microbial diversity and reduced complexity of co-occurrence networks. H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis resulted in lower bacterial abundances and diversity, whereas autoimmune atrophic gastritis resulted in greater bacterial abundance and equally high diversity compared to normal stomachs. Pathway analysis suggested that glucose-6-phospahte1-dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase were over represented in H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis versus autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and that both these groups showed increases in fumarate reductase. Autoimmune and H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis were associated with different gastric microbial profiles. PPI treated patients showed relatively few alterations in the gastric microbiota compared to healthy subjects. PMID:29095917
Genta, R M; Sonnenberg, A
Helicobacter-negative gastritis is diagnosed when no organisms are detected in a gastric mucosa with typical features of Helicobacter gastritis (Hp-gastritis). If Helicobacter-negative gastritis consisted mostly of 'missed' Helicobacter infections, its prevalence should represent a constant percentage of these infections in a population, and their clinico-epidemiological features would overlap. To compare the epidemiologic patterns of Hp-positive and Hp-negative gastritis. From a pathology database, we extracted demographic, clinical and histopathological data from patients with gastric biopsies (1.2008-12.2013). We allocated patients to high (≥12%) and low (≤6%) H. pylori prevalence regions defined by ZIP code-based data. The prevalence of H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis by sex, age and state were expressed as a per cent of the total study population stratified accordingly. Of 895 323 patients, 10.6% had Hp-gastritis and 1.5% Helicobacter-negative gastritis. Hp-gastritis, but not Helicobacter-negative gastritis, was more common in males than females (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.16-1.19). While Hp-gastritis was more prevalent in high than in low-prevalence areas (OR 3.65, 95% CI: 3.57-3.74), Helicobacter-negative gastritis was only minimally affected by the underlying H. pylori prevalence (1.7% vs. 1.5%). The age-specific prevalence of Hp-gastritis peaked in the 4th to 5th decades; Helicobacter-negative gastritis exhibited a low and relatively flat pattern. The geographic distribution of H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis showed no significant correlation. Intestinal metaplasia was found in 13.0% of patients with Hp-gastritis and in 6.1% of those with Helicobacter-negative gastritis (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.40-0.47). These data suggest that Helicobacter-negative gastritis is, in the vast majority of cases, a nosologically and epidemiologically distinct entity that deserves further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mourad, Walid A.; El-Husseiny, Gamal; Shoukri, Mohamed; Rezeig, Mohamed; Chianzentonieu, N.; Amin, Tarek
Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis has been linked to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA), especially when assciated with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and atypia/dysplasia (A/D). We examined p53 expression, ploidy and proliferative activity and assessed H.pylori infection in relationship to IM and A/Din case of gastritis not associated with GA and in cases of GA. We examined 53 gastric biopsies from patients with gastritis not associated with GA, including patients with IM and/or A/D (n=35) and with gastritis associated with IM and/or A/D (n=21). Thirty-six distal gastrectomy specimens from patients with GA constituted a third group of patients. A scoring system that encompassed the presence or absence of H.Pylori, degree of gastritis, IM and/or A/D, p53, MIB-1prolefarative index (MPI) and ploidy was estimated in the cases of gastritis and in cancer associated mucosa (CAM) and the adenocarcinoma from patients withGA. Patients with GA had a higher median age than those with gastritis without IM and more were males (ratio 2.2:1). H.pylori was detected in 75% (40/53) of gastritis specimen and in 55% (20/36) of GA cases. There was a statistically significant difference between the incidence of gastritis without IM and/or A/D and CAM (p=0.01). p53 expression was seen in 67% of the cases (14/21) of gastritis with IM and/or A/D and only in 5% (2 cases ) of gastritis without IM (p=0.0005). A statistically significant difference in MPI was seen between CAM and GA (p=0.01) and gastritis without IM and/or A/D and gastritis with IM(p=0.004). Cases of gastritis without IM and/or or A/D has a median score of 8 while cases of gastritis with IM and/or A/D had a median score of 12 (p=0.0003). CAM had a median score of 13, which was significantly different than gastritis without IM and/or A/D(p=0.0003) The presence of IM and/or A/D can be used in H.pylori -associated gastritis as as starting point to further investigate high risk lesions. Those showing p53 expression
Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables.One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications.Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP.There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results.
Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord
Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Hyo; Um, Seung In; Nam, Yoonjin; Park, Sun Young; Dong, Je Hyun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Sang Joon
The effects of ceremide analogues on esophagitis and gastritis in rats were examined. Gastritis induced by indomethacin was significantly reduced after CY3325 and CY3723 treatment, whereas other analogues had no effect. The amount of malondialdehyde in gastritis was significantly reduced by CY3325 or CY 3723. CY3325 or CY 3723 decreased the glutathione levels in gastritis. The myeloperoxidase level in gastritis is increased, and its increment was decreased by CY3325 and CY3723. In reflux esophagitis, the ulceration was decreased by CY3325, CY3723. The gastric volume and acid output are reduced, whereas the pH value is increased by CY3325 or CY3723 after esophagitis. These results suggest that ceramide analogues, CY3325 and CY3723, can prevent the development of gastritis and reflux esophagitis in rats.
Soonami Choi; Yun Jeong Lim; Sue Kyung Park
AIM: To conduct a retrospective study to determine the risk factors for development of metaplastic gastritis in Korean population.METHODS: The database of 113449 subjects who underwent a gastroscopy for the purpose of a regular check-up at center for health promotion, Samsung medical center during 5 years was collected and retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 5847 subjects who had endoscopically diagnosed as a metaplastic gastritis or 10076 normal as well as answered to questionnaire were included for present study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups; Group Ⅰ, normal and Group Ⅱ, metaplastic gastritis. Age, gender, Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) seropositivity, body mass index (BMI),family history of cancer, smoking, alcohol consumption,total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating) were retrieved from questionnaire or electronic medical record and compared between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ.RESULTS: The prevalence of group Ⅱ was 11%(13578/113449) increasing its prevalence with age(P= 0.000). But, there was no significant association between 2 groups in BMI, family history of cancer,alcohol consumption, total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating). Old age (P=0.000), male gender (P=0.000),H pylori seropositivity (P= 0.010) and current smoker (P= 0.000) were significantly more common in group Ⅱ at multiple logistic regression model.CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that old age, male gender,Hpyloriseropositivity and smoking were risk factors for metaplastic gastritis, precancerous lesion of gastric cancer.
Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y
Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.
Paradis, Alain; Gourdeau, Marie; Lambert, Suzanne; Lavoie, Sylvain; Lemire, Suzanne; Parent, Claude; Cantin, Réjean
ln order to evaluate the association between Camphlobacter pylori and gastritis, two biopsies were taken from the duodenal bulb, antrum, body and fundus (and from lesions if there were any) in 100 consecutive patients referred to this gastroscopic clinic For each site, one biopsy was for histology and C pylon detection by Warthin-Starry staining, and the second biopsy was for culture. In addition, for each patient a gastric brushing was Gram stained. Twenty-one patients were ex...
Wilton, G.P.; Wahl, R.L.; Juni, J.E.; Froelich, J.W.
Gastritis is a common condition, with a variety of causes, that is diagnosed most often by barium upper gastrointestinal tract series or endoscopy. The authors report a case in which gastritis without active bleeding was apparent in scintiscans obtained during the evaluation of GI bleeding using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (TcRBC). The scintigraphic findings that suggest gastritis are described
Nasser, Soumana C; Slim, Mahmoud; Nassif, Jeanette G; Nasser, Selim M
To investigate the influence of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exposure on the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Chronic PPI use is associated with masking of H. pylori infection. Patients with H. pylori infection are predisposed to gastric and duodenal ulcers, and long-term infection with this organism has been associated with gastric mucosal atrophy and serious long-term complications, such as gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Three hundred patients diagnosed with gastritis between January 2008 and April 2010 were included in our study. The computerized medical database of these patients was reviewed retrospectively in order to assess whether the type of gastritis diagnosed (H. pylori vs non-H. pylori gastritis) is influenced by PPI exposure. H. pylori density was graded as low, if corresponding to mild density following the Updated Sydney System, or high, if corresponding to moderate or severe densities in the Updated Sydney System. Patients were equally distributed between males and females with a median age at the time of diagnosis of 50 years old (range: 20-87). The histological types of gastritis were classified as H. pylori gastritis (n = 156, 52%) and non-H. pylori gastritis (n = 144, 48%). All patients with non-H. pylori gastritis had inactive chronic gastritis. Patients with no previous PPI exposure were more likely to be diagnosed with H. pylori gastritis than those with previous PPI exposure (71% vs 34.2%, P gastritis and leads to a significant drop in H. pylori densities and to an increased risk of intestinal metaplasia. The use of PPIs masks H. pylori infection, promotes the diagnosis of non-H. pylori inactive chronic gastritis diagnosis, and increases the incidence of intestinal metaplasia.
Phull, P S; Price, A B; Stephens, J; Rathbone, B J; Jacyna, M R
AIM: To compare the histological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori positive chronic gastritis in patients with and without associated duodenitis. METHODS: Gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia. Severity of gastritis and density of H pylori infection were graded according to the Sydney system. RESULTS: Of the 69 patients studied, 15 had normal histology, 22 had chronic gastritis only (77.3% H pylori positive), 21 had duodenitis (90...
Haot, J; Hamichi, L; Wallez, L; Mainguet, P
Lymphocytic gastritis is a histopathological entity characterised by the accumulation of small lymphocytes in the surface and foveolar epithelium. In order to investigate the correlation between endoscopy and histology in this condition, 192 observations selected on the basis of a presumed diagnosis of erosive or varioliform gastritis were reviewed. Ninety two instances corresponded to lymphocytic gastritis, while 100 did not show any particular microscopic feature and were labelled non-speci...
Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong
To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.
Skaria, Tom; Wessler, Silja; Cover, Timothy L.; Posselt, Gernot; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara
Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by mitochondria to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of this switching for the development of gastric carcinoma and what connection it may have to Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut, a primary cause of gastric cancer, are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in two types of human gastric carcinomas (“intestinal” and “diffuse”), bacterial gastritis with and without metaplasia, and chemically induced gastritis by using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of HP infection on several key mitochondrial proteins. Complex I expression was significantly reduced in intestinal type (but not diffuse) gastric carcinomas compared to adjacent control tissue, and the reduction was independent of HP infection. Significantly, higher complex I and complex II expression was present in large tumors. Furthermore, higher complex II and complex III protein levels were also obvious in grade 3 versus grade 2. No differences of OXPHOS complexes and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were found between bacterially caused and chemically induced gastritis. Thus, intestinal gastric carcinomas, but not precancerous stages, are frequently characterized by loss of complex I, and this pathophysiology occurs independently of HP infection. PMID:28744336
Feichtinger, René G; Neureiter, Daniel; Skaria, Tom; Wessler, Silja; Cover, Timothy L; Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Posselt, Gernot; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara
Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by mitochondria to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of this switching for the development of gastric carcinoma and what connection it may have to Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut, a primary cause of gastric cancer, are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in two types of human gastric carcinomas ("intestinal" and "diffuse"), bacterial gastritis with and without metaplasia, and chemically induced gastritis by using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of HP infection on several key mitochondrial proteins. Complex I expression was significantly reduced in intestinal type (but not diffuse) gastric carcinomas compared to adjacent control tissue, and the reduction was independent of HP infection. Significantly, higher complex I and complex II expression was present in large tumors. Furthermore, higher complex II and complex III protein levels were also obvious in grade 3 versus grade 2. No differences of OXPHOS complexes and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were found between bacterially caused and chemically induced gastritis. Thus, intestinal gastric carcinomas, but not precancerous stages, are frequently characterized by loss of complex I, and this pathophysiology occurs independently of HP infection.
Rogers, Arlin B
Histopathology is a defining endpoint in mouse models of experimental gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma. Presented here is an overview of the histology of gastritis and gastric cancer in mice experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori or H. felis. A modular histopathologic scoring scheme is provided that incorporates relevant disease-associated changes. Whereas the guide uses Helicobacter infection as the prototype challenge, features may be applied to chemical and genetically engineered mouse models of stomach cancer as well. Specific criteria included in the combined gastric histologic activity index (HAI) include inflammation, epithelial defects, oxyntic atrophy, hyperplasia, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and dysplasia or neoplasia. Representative photomicrographs accompany descriptions for each lesion grade. Differentiation of genuine tumor invasion from pseudoinvasion is highlighted. A brief comparison of normal rodent versus human stomach anatomy and physiology is accompanied by an introduction to mouse-specific lesions including mucous metaplasia and eosinophilic droplets (hyalinosis). In conjunction with qualified pathology support, this guide is intended to assist research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and medical professionals from affiliated disciplines in the interpretation and histologic grading of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinoma in mouse models.
Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, 3 H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of 3 H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease. (J.P.N.)
Yagami, Y. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)
Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, /sup 3/H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease.
Lahner, Edith; Sbrozzi-Vanni, Andrea; Vannella, Lucy; Corleto, Vito Domenico; Di Giulio, Emilio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Annibale, Bruno
Atrophic gastritis of the corporal mucosa is a frequent cause of hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia is implicated in colorectal cancer development. To assess whether hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is associated with a higher risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Among 441 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients, 160 who were aged >40 and underwent colonoscopy for anaemia, diarrhoea or colorectal cancer-screening were retrospectively selected. Each patient was age- and gender-matched with a normogastrinemic control with healthy stomach. Controls had colonoscopy, gastroscopy with biopsies and gastrin assessment. 160 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients and 160 controls were included. 28 atrophic gastritis patients and 36 controls had neoplastic colorectal lesions (p=0.33). Patients and controls did not differ for frequency of colorectal adenomas (10.6% vs. 13.1%, p=0.60) or cancer (6.9% vs. 9.4%, p=0.54). Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis was not associated with a higher probability of developing colorectal cancer (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34-3.16). Age >50 years (OR 3.86) but not hypergastrinemia (OR 0.61) was associated with colorectal cancer. Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is not associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer. Atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia is not associated with an increased risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Closer surveillance of colonic neoplasia in atrophic gastritis patients seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.
Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.
Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.
Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir
Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of chronic gastritis is infection with Helicobacter pylori. Identifying the relationship between intensities of colonization and activity of gastritis helps the clinician in more effective treatment and posttreatment follow-ups. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, endoscopic gastric biopsy samples of 544 patients who complained symptoms of dyspepsia for more than three months referring to the laboratory were studied. To determine the colonization rate of H. pylori and other pathological findings, Giemsa and H&E stains were, respectively, used. Results. Among 544 subjects, 47 (8.64% patients had no gastritis, 203 (37.32% had mild gastritis, 278 (10.51% suffered moderate gastritis, and 16 (2.94% had severe gastritis. In this study, patients with mild H. pylori colonization rates had the highest level of mild activity (33.52%; in contrast, those with severe H. pylori colonization had the highest level of severe activity (43.75%. 93.96% of people with severe H. pylori colonization suffered from moderate and severe chronic gastritis. There is a significant statistical relationship between the intensity of H. pylori colonization and histopathological findings including intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, and lymphoid follicle formation. Conclusions. According to the present study, with increasing intensity of H. pylori colonization, chronicity and activity of gastritis and its complications increase.
Kalinovskij, V.P.; Gamayumova, V.B.; Shumakov, A.R.; Khanson, K.P.
Blood serum in stomach cancer and chronic gastritis has been compared. A sharp decrease in pepsinogen 1 level both in cancer and gastritis patients was found as compared with healthy subjects. Pepsinogen 1 level in poorly-differentiated tumor (37.4 ng/ml) was lower than in well-differentiated one (58.2 ng/ml) [ru
Full Text Available Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia was 36-46%. In Jakarta and Surabaya, the prevalence were 85,7%-93,9%. Helicobacter pylori infection play role in pathogenesis of pectic ulcers, chronic gastritis, carcinoma of gaster and gastric lymphoma. Epidemiologic study showed 80% of carcinoma of gaster related with H pylori infection.This study analyzed expression of anti-Helicobacter pylori in chronic gastritis, precancer lesion , and carcinoma of gaster. This study was a observational descriptive study with case control design. Thirty (30 samples from paraffin bloc that were diagnosed with chronic gastritis, precancer lesion, and carcinoma of gaster at Dokter Kariadi hospital in 2013 was stained by hematoxylin eosin, giemsa and immunohistochemistry of anti-helicobacter pylori. Data was analyzed by descriptive analysis. Thirty (30 samples were diagnosed as gastritis chronis 13 (43,3% , pra cancer lesion(36.6%, and carcinoma(20.1%. Chronic gastritis can be occurred at all age and no distinct difference on sex, while gastric carcinoma predominant in male older than 40 years. Expresion of Helicobacter pylori on chronic gastritis was 84.6%, precancer lesion was 54.5%, and gastric carcinoma was 83.3%. The Giemsa stain gave 23.3% false positive and 20% false negative. Helicobacter pylori expression can be showed in chronic gastritis, precancer lesion, and gastric carcinoma. Keywords: Chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma, Helicobacter pylori
Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Boer, W.A. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.
BACKGROUND: A high level of gastric acid secretion is considered to be a risk factor for reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus. Corpus gastritis may have a protective effect on the oesophagus, because of decreased gastric acid output. AIM: To determine if corpus gastritis is associated with
Mezhueva, P F; Novozhilova, L I
Multiple modality treatment of erosive gastritis (100 cases) in Essentuki spa combined oral intake of mineral water (spring N 4) with carbon dioxide baths and pelotherapy. Therapeutic effect was achieved in all the patients: the erosions disappeared in 49% and reduced in 51% of those treated. The conclusion is made on effectiveness of such combined therapy in chronic erosive gastritis.
Han, Fang; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Qian; Liang, Qiao-Yi; Zhang, Zhe; Cao, Hai-Chao; Yu, Jun; Fan, Dai-Ming; Nie, Yong-Zhan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Yuan, Yuan
Promoter methylation (PM) of RING-finger protein (RNF) 180 affects gastric cancer (GC) prognosis, but its association with risk of GC or atrophic gastritis (AG) is unclear. We investigated relationships between RNF180 PM and GC or AG, and the effects of Helicobactor pylori (H.pylori) infection on RNF180 PM. This study included 513 subjects (159 with GC, 186 with AG, and 168 healthy controls [CON]) for RNF180 PM analysis, and another 55 GC patients for RNF180 gene expression analysis. Methylation was quantified using average methylation rates (AMR), methylated CpG site counts (MSC) and hypermethylated CpG site counts (HSC). RNF180 promoter AMR and MSC increased with disease severity. Optimal cut-offs were GC + AG: AMR > 0.153, MSC > 4 or HSC > 1; GC: AMR > 0.316, MSC > 15 and HSC > 6. Hypermethylation at 5 CpG sites differed significantly between GC/AG and CON groups, and was more common in GC patients than AG and CON groups for 2 other CpG sites. The expression of RNF180 mRNA levels in tumor were significantly lower than those in non-tumor, with the same as in hypermethylation than hypomethylation group. H.pylori infection increased methylation in normal tissue or mild gastritis, and increased hypermethylation risk at 3 CpG sites in AG. In conclusion, higher AMR, MSC and HSC levels could identify AG + GC or GC. Some RNF180 promoter CpG sites could identify precancerous or early-stage GC. H.pylori affects RNF180 PM in normal tissue or mild gastritis, and increases hypermethylation in 3 CpG sites in AG.
Nielsen, Jennifer A; Roberts, Cory A; Lager, Donna J; Putcha, Rajesh V; Jain, Rajeev; Lewin, Matthew
Lymphocytic gastritis (LG), characterized by marked intra-epithelial lymphocytosis in the gastric mucosa, has been frequently associated with both celiac disease (CD) and H. pylori gastritis. The aim of this study was to review and correlate the morphology of LG with the presence of CD and H. pylori. Gastric biopsies diagnosed with LG from 1/1/2006 to 8/1/2013 at our institution and corresponding small bowel biopsies, when available, were reviewed for verification of the diagnosis and to assess for the presence of H. pylori and CD. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for H. pylori was performed on all gastric biopsies. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical record. Fifty-four of the 56 cases that met inclusion criteria demonstrated significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis as the predominant histologic abnormality; however, none were associated with H. pylori infection by IHC staining. Two cases that also showed a prominent intra-epithelial and lamina propria neutrophilic infiltrate were both positive for H. pylori and were excluded from further study. Of the 36 small bowel biopsies available, 19 (53%) showed changes in CD. LG is not a distinct clinicopathologic entity, but a morphologic pattern of gastric injury that can be secondary to a variety of underlying etiologies. When restricted to cases with lymphocytosis alone, LG is strongly associated with CD and not with active H. pylori infection. However, cases that also show significant neutrophilic infiltrate should be regarded as "active chronic gastritis" and are often associated with H. pylori infection. A morphologic diagnosis of LG should prompt clinical and serologic workup to exclude underlying CD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching
AIM: To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups. PMID:22228968
Gonçalves, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Emília; Palha, Ana M; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela; Lopes, Ana Isabel
To characterize clinical, laboratorial, and histological profile of pediatric autoimmune gastritis in the setting of unexplained iron deficiency anemia investigation. A descriptive, observational study including pediatric patients with a diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis (positive parietal cell antibody and gastric corpus atrophy) established in a 6 year period (2006-2011) in the setting of refractory iron deficiency anemia (refractoriness to oral iron therapy for at least 6 mo and requirement for intravenous iron therapy) investigation, after exclusion of other potentially contributing causes of anemia. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and anti-secretory therapy were also excluded. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical files, including: demographic data (age, gender, and ethnic background), past medical history, gastrointestinal symptoms, familial history, laboratorial evaluation (Hb, serum ferritin, serum gastrin, pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II, B12 vitamin, intrinsic factor autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies, and anti-transglutaminase antibodies), and endoscopic and histological findings (HE, Periodic Acid-Schiff/Alcian blue, gastrin, chromogranin A and immunochemistry analysis for CD3, CD20 and CD68). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, median, and standard deviation). We report a case-series concerning 3 girls and 2 boys with a mean age of 13.6 ± 2.8 years (3 Caucasian and 2 African). One girl had type I diabetes. Familial history was positive in 4/5 cases, respectively for autoimmune thyroiditis (2/5), sarcoidosis (1/5) and multiple myeloma (1/5). Laboratorial evaluation on admission included: Hb: 9.5 ± 0.7 g/dL; serum ferritin: 4.0 ± 0.9 ng/mL; serum gastrin: 393 ± 286 pg/mL; low pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II ratio in 1/5 patients; normal vitamin B12 levels (analyzed in 3 patients). Endoscopy findings included: duodenal nodularity (2/5) and gastric fold softening (2/5), and histological evaluation showed
Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min
Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach
Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min [Severance Hospital/Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach.
Regimeire Freitas Aquino
Vermelho distrófico típico (LVdf, a diferentes padrões de chuvas erosivas naturais. A unidade experimental foi constituída de uma parcela com declive de 0,15 m m-1, no CXbd, e 0,12 m m-1, no LVdf, com aproximadamente 26 m² (3 x 8,67 m, sendo ambas delimitadas por chapas galvanizadas. Na parte inferior das parcelas, foram instaladas calhas coletoras para conduzirem a enxurrada para dois tanques, interligadas por um divisor tipo Geib. Para o cálculo da erosividade, utilizando o EI30, foram usados registros contínuos de dados pluviométricos, obtidos da Estação Climatológica de Lavras. A amplitude de registro desses dados foi de 10 mm de precipitação com acurácia de 0,2 mm, tempo de registro de 24 h e unidade de medida de 20 min. As chuvas erosivas, com precipitação maior que 10 mm, intensidade máxima maior que 24 mm h-1, em 15 min, ou energia cinética maior que 3,6 MJ, foram separadas em razão do ponto de ocorrência do pico de maior intensidade de precipitação em padrões avançado, intermediário e atrasado. Dentre as 139 chuvas erosivas para o CXbd, 60 % concentraram-se no padrão avançado, com perdas de solo de 415,9 Mg ha-1 e perdas totais de 776,0 Mg ha-1. Já para o LVdf, das 93 chuvas correspondentes, 58 % caracterizaram-se no padrão avançado, representando 37,8 Mg ha-1 de perda de solo e 50,9 Mg ha-1 de perdas de solo totais. As maiores perdas de solos foram observadas para o padrão de chuva avançado, notadamente para o CXbd. A umidade do solo antecedente à chuva e ao pico de maiores perdas de solos foi evidenciada para o padrão de chuva avançado, especialmente para o CXbd. No Cambissolo, as maiores perdas de solo por evento de chuva ocorreram no padrão avançado, sendo influenciado pela permeabilidade do solo.
Koh, Hong; Noh, Tae-Woong; Baek, Seoung-Yon
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Materials and Methods A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores. Results In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%). Conclusion Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection. PMID:17461522
Dîrnu, Rodica; Secureanu, F A; Neamţu, Carmen; Totolici, B D; Pop, O T; Mitruţ, P; Mălăescu, D Gh; Mogoantă, L
Chronic gastritis has a high incidence in adults, causing progressive destruction of glandular structures, favoring the development of gastric atrophy. The association of chronic gastritis with intestinal type metaplasia of gastric mucosa has a poor outcome as intestinal metaplasia is regarded as a precancerous lesion. Metaplasia is common in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and also heavy smokers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The study was conducted on a total of 1218 patients, aged between 5 and 90 years, who presented for dyspeptic disorders in the period 2007-2010 and were examined clinically and endoscopically. During the gastroscopic examination, fragments of gastric mucosa were collected for the histopathological study and for highlighting the H. pylori infection. For the histopathological study, the Hematoxylin-Eosin and PAS-Alcian Blue stains were performed, while for the immunohistochemical study the anti-TAG72 and anti-PCNA antibodies were used. A diagnosis of gastritis was established in 615 patients, representing approximately 50.5% of all cases. Most cases with gastritis were found in people of middle age. Gastritis was present in almost all age groups, from teenagers to the elders. Of the 615 cases of gastritis, urease test was positive in 353 patients, representing approximately 57.40% of all patients with gastritis. Histopathological examination identified the presence of intestinal metaplasia in 61.60% of patients with chronic gastritis, mostly complete metaplasia. PCNA immunohistochemistry revealed that cell proliferation processes are intensified in intestinal metaplasia. This study highlights the importance of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and H. pylori infection in the etiopathogeny of gastric cancer.
Sokmensuer, Cenk; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Yeniova, Ozgur; Ersoy, Osman; Aydinli, Musa; Yonem, Ozlem; Harmanci, Ozgur; Onal, Eda Demir; Altinok, Gulcin; Batman, Figen; Bayraktar, Yusuf
There is no widely accepted histopathological definition for nodular gastritis. In this study we aim to uncover the pathologic entity responsible for the nodular appearance and to find clues about the clinical implications of nodular gastritis. Antral biopsy specimens of 160 patients with nodular gastritis and 133 patients without nodular gastritis were examined by an experienced pathologist for dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory activity, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, intestinal metaplasia, and lymphoid follicle/aggregate formation, and comparative analysis was performed between the two groups of patients. The presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis was more frequent in patients with nodular gastritis (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups regarding the other pathological features such as presence of dysplasia, inflammatory activity, intestinal metaplasia, lymphoid hyperplasia, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes may contribute to formation of macroscopical nodules in this peculiar type of gastritis. Nodular gastritis would not indicate a new therapeutic approach in addition to the current measures for Helicobacter pylori infection.
Haroon, S.; Faridi, N.; Lodhi, F. R.; Mujtaba, S.
Objective: To determine the frequency of precancerous lesions in endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from July 2008 to January 2009. Methodology: Over 6 months, 375 endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with age group of 15-65 years having endoscopic chronic gastritis were included. From final biopsy report, basic information like patient demographics and presence of precancerous lesions i.e. activity (chronic active gastritis), atrophy (atrophic gastritis), intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were recorded on proforma. Results were described as proportions and frequency. Results: The frequency of precancerous lesions in endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis in Karachi was markedly high. Most common lesion was chronic active gastritis as depicted by activity (48.3%); dysplasia (1.3%) was the least common. Proportion of more aggressive precancerous lesions were markedly higher in older age group (> 40 years). Conclusion: The precancerous lesions are frequent in endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis. (author)
Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou
Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.
Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira
Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Porowska, Barbara; Colacci, Enzo; Trentino, Paolo; Annibale, Bruno; Severi, Carola
Outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection is different according to gastritis extension (i.e. antrum-restricted gastritis or pangastritis). The aim of this study is to evaluate whether different gastritis patterns are associated with specific gastrointestinal symptoms or clinical signs that could be suggestive of the topography of gastritis. 236 consecutive symptomatic outpatients were recruited in two tertiary centers. They filled in a validated and self-administered Rome III modular symptomatic questionnaire, and underwent gastroscopy with histological sampling. 154 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were included. Clinical presentation did not differ between antrum-restricted gastritis and pangastritis, gastro-esophageal reflux disease being present in 48.2 and 54.1 % of patients and dyspepsia in 51.8 and 45.9 %, respectively. However, pangastritis statistically differed from antrum-restricted gastritis in that the presence of clinical signs (p gastritis pattern whereas their association with signs, accurately detected, is indicative for the presence of pangastritis.
Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao
To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.
Toyoshima, Osamu; Tanikawa, Chizu; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Watanabe, Hidenobu; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Sakitani, Kosuke; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Seto, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Koichi
SNP rs2294008 in Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) and decreased PSCA expression are associated with gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of rs2294008 and PSCA expression in the gastritis-gastric cancer carcinogenic pathway. We conducted a case-control association study of H. pylori-infected gastritis and gastric cancer. rs2294008 was associated with the progression to chronic active gastritis (P = 9.4 × 10–5; odds ratio = 3.88, TT + TC vs CC genotype), but not with H. pylori infection per se nor with the progression from active gastritis to gastric cancer. We also assessed the association of rs2294008 with PSCA mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa at various disease stages and found that rs2294008 was associated with PSCA expression (P = 1.3 × 10–12). H. pylori infection (P = 5.1 × 10–8) and eradication therapy (P gastritis compared with mild gastritis only among T allele carriers. Our findings revealed the regulation of PSCA expression by host genetic variation and bacterial infection might contribute to gastritis progression after H. pylori infection. PMID:29423095
Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan
Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.
Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang
Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.
Hagino, Daisuke; Arai, Yuko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Inoue, Kumiko; Takechi, Kimihiro
We report a case of radiation gastritis in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A 61-year-old woman received irradiation of a metastatic lesion of the second lumbar vertebra. Six months later she complained of fatigue and presented with severe anemia, and her diagnosis was hemorrhagic radiation gastritis. She was treated endoscopically, but that failed to control the bleeding, making it necessary to resect surgically. The incidence of radiation gastritis is very low because the stomach is rarely within the treated field, but it is of importance to be aware that the stomach is by no means more radioresistant than other organs. (author)
Hagino, Daisuke; Arai, Yuko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Inoue, Kumiko; Takechi, Kimihiro [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)
We report a case of radiation gastritis in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A 61-year-old woman received irradiation of a metastatic lesion of the second lumbar vertebra. Six months later she complained of fatigue and presented with severe anemia, and her diagnosis was hemorrhagic radiation gastritis. She was treated endoscopically, but that failed to control the bleeding, making it necessary to resect surgically. The incidence of radiation gastritis is very low because the stomach is rarely within the treated field, but it is of importance to be aware that the stomach is by no means more radioresistant than other organs. (author)
Hayashi, Seishu; Imamura, Jun; Kimura, Kiminori; Saeki, Shunichi; Hishima, Tsunekazu
Small, round, yellowish-white nodules (YWN) are frequently observed in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of these YWN. Participants comprised 211 patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis, ranging in age from 23 to 86 years. YWN were detected in 23% of participants, more frequently in women (33%) than in men (12%; P gastritis, and represented histological lymphoid follicles. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Usmani, Sharjeel; Alshammari, Alshaima
111 In-pentetreotide [ 111 In-octreoscan] is the most widely used radiolabeled somatostatin analog for evaluating neuroendocrine tumor overexpression of somatostatin receptors. False-positives studies of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy have been reported and often the cause is unexplained but assumed to be due to high number of somatostatin receptors in other pathologies. Causes of false-positives include visualization of the gallbladder, nasal mucosa and pulmonary hilar areas in respiratory infections, thyroid abnormalities, accessory spleens, recent Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA's) and activity at the site of a recent surgical incision. In infection or inflammation the cause of false-positive uptake is probably the result of tracer binding by somatostatin receptors on the inflammatory leukocytes. In this case report, we report, a 44-year-old male patient with false-positive 111 In-pentetreotide uptake due to gastritis
Malik, G. M.; Bhat, M. Youssuf; rather, Ab. Rashid; Basu, Javaid Ahmad; Qureshi, Khursheed Ahmad
Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric ulcer an additional biopsy was taken from the edge of the ulcer to exclude its malignant nature. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) organism was diagnosed using three different test methods, viz. Histology (using Giemsa Stain), Microbiology (Gram Stain) and Biochemistry (using one minute Endoscopy Room Test). Histological diagnosis of H. pylori was taken as the “gold standard” for the presence of H. pylori organism. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made using Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain and the gastritis was classified as active chronic gastritis and superficial chronic gastritis. Results: Out of 30 peptic ulcer disease patients with associated antral gastritis, 27 (90%) were positive for H. pylori on histological examination (13 superficial chronic gastritis and 14 active chronic gastritis) whereas out of 8 healthy volunteers with histological evidence of chronic antral gastritis, H. pylori was observed in 7 individuals (87.50%) (4 active chronic gastritis and 3 superficial chronic gastritis). Conclusion: A highly significant association between H. pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis both in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy volunteers of Kashmir was found in this study. Association between H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis was 90% in peptic ulcer group and 87.50% in healthy population (P<0.005). PMID:18493464
Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is known to be the must common cause of chronic gastritis having some endoscopic and pathologic characteristies as determinated by the Sydney System for Gastritis Classification. The aim of our case report was to point out the relationship between an endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and the presence of H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis. Case report. Our patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic complaints and was diagnosed as having nodular antritis, but also underwent urease test and hystopathologic examination of antral mucosa, to determine the presence and density of H. pylori infection and the presence and severity of gastritis. After a course of anti H. pylori treatment, dyspepsia improved and new biopsy specimens obtained two months and six months afterwards revealed no pathological findings. Conclusion. The case report supported the association of H. pylori infection of lymphoid follicles with nodular gastric mucosis.
Qvist, N; Rasmussen, L; Axelsson, C K
Twenty-five patients with dyspepsia were included. In 19 patients with a median age of 48 (range, 20-72) years endoscopy and histologic examination of biopsy specimens from the antrum and corpus of the stomach showed Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis as the only pathologic finding. In six...... patients with a median age of 42 (range, 32-56) years H. pylori-negative gastritis was found. After an overnight fast the patients underwent an ambulatory duodenal motility study for 6-8 h. Twenty-five young healthy men served as the control group. In patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis the duration...... (22-89 min) in the control group. The duration of phase III and the whole MMC cycle was similar in the two groups. However, in the patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis the values of the duration of the different phases of the MMC were similar to those of the patients with H. pylori...
Huang, Y; Sun, J; Wang, X; Tao, X; Wang, H; Tan, W
Digestive disorders represent the most common metformin side effects for type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of these metformin side effects is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether asymptomatic chronic gastritis could influence metformin tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Demographic, anthropometric, ultrasound and laboratory data were obtained from 144 metformin naïve patients with diabetes. The diagnosis of chronic gastritis was based on endoscopic and histopathological examination, and H. pylori infection was assessed based on (13) C urea breath test (UBT). All subjects started metformin at 500 mg/day and increasing progressively to 1500 mg/day over 4 weeks. A score of gastrointestinal side effects (abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, bloating and anorexia) was assessed each week, and metformin dose was adjusted as appropriate. Based on endoscopy, 64 patients were categorized as non-gastritis subjects and 80 as chronic gastritis subjects. At baseline, there is no statistical difference in gastrointestinal symptoms between two groups. With metformin, the mean scores for gastrointestinal symptoms in the non-gastritis and gastritis subjects were 1·02 ± 1·71 vs. 2·18 ± 2·05 (P = 0·001), 0·20 ± 0·65 vs. 0·50 ± 0·89 (P = 0·022), 0 vs. 0·06 ± 0·24 (P = 0·024) and 1·08 ± 1·03 vs. 1·71 ± 1·66 (P = 0·028). The mean final metformin dose used by gastritis subjects was 706·24 ± 568·90 mg, significantly less than the mean dose used by non-gastritis subjects (1101·56 ± 578·58 mg, P = 0·001). After adjustment for age and sex, the odds ratio (OR) for a final metformin dose of less than 1500 mg/day was found to be 2·76 (95% CI 1·38-5·53, P = 0·004) for chronic gastritis subjects. The OR for a final metformin dose of less than 1000 mg/day was found to be 3·98 (95% CI 1·91-8·27, P = 0·001) for chronic gastritis subjects. Our data suggest that pre-existing non-symptomatic gastritis was associated with metformin
Gray, Brian M.; Fontaine, Clinton A.; Poe, Sara A.
Disease due to the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori varies in severity from asymptomatic to peptic ulcer disease and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that one source of this variation is an abnormal host response. The goal of this study was to use a mouse model of H. pylori gastritis to investigate the roles of regulatory T cells (Treg) as well as proinflammatory T cells (Th1 and Th17) in gastritis, gastric T cell engraftment, and gastric cytokine production. Our results support published data indicating that severe gastritis in T cell recipient mice is due to failure of Treg engraftment, that Treg ameliorate gastritis, and that the proinflammatory response is attributable to interactions between several cell subsets and cytokines. We confirmed that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is essential for induction of gastritis but showed that IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells are not necessary. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) also contributed to gastritis, but to a lesser extent than IFN-γ. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-17F were also elevated in association with disease. These results indicate that while H. pylori-specific CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ are both essential for induction of gastritis due to H. pylori, IFN-γ production by T cells is not essential. It is likely that other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17F and TNF-α, shown to be elevated in this model, also contribute to the induction of disease. We suggest that gastritis due to H. pylori is associated with loss of immunoregulation and alteration of several cytokines and cell subsets and cannot be attributed to a single immune pathway. PMID:23264048
Zendehdel, Nasrin; Massarrat, Sadegh; Sheykholeslami, Arghavan; Rakhshani, Naser; Saeidi, Sandra; Rafiee, Reza; Nobakht, Hosein; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Saliminejhad, Mehrdad; Dooghaie Moghadam, Masoud; Nasiri, Jafar; Azimi, Kourosh; Fakhar, Reza; Babaei, Mehdi; Didehvar, Reza; Mohammadi, Nosratollah; Tavazoee, Mehdi; Malekzadeh, Reza
Studies on gastric mucosal histological findings among first degree relatives (FDR) of gastric cancer (GC) patients are scarce. The aim is to evaluate the topography and the severity of gastritis among FDR of GC patients. A total of 989 subjects who were FDR of GC patients, ages 40-65 years underwent gastroscopies. When no gross lesion was found, five specimens were evaluated according to the Sydney Classification and one for urease testing in order to determine the type of gastritis and its severity. Of the 989 subjects, 107 had significant lesions, including two with GC and one with esophageal cancer. The 864 subjects who had complete morphological data taken from five gastric areas (two from the antrum and three from the corpus) comprised 419 males (mean age 48.5±7 years) and 445 females (mean age 47±6.4 years). The H. pylori rate was 76.6%. Normal mucosa was seen in 6.9%, antrum-restricted gastritis in 7.4%, antrum-predominant gastritis in 63.5% and corpus-predominant gastritis in 20% (both had >80% H. pylori infection) and corpus-restricted gastritis in 2%. More atrophy was seen in the antrum and corpus of FDR females than males. The severity did not differ between those with one or more GC patients' relatives. Forty-nine percent of FDR had atrophy and 9.4% intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the corpus. After the age of 40, there was progression of intestinal metaplasia from 12.2 to 27.3% in the antrum and from 6.7% to 26.2% in the corpus during two decades. No high grade dysplasia was found in this mid-age population. Only one-fifth of FDR have H. pylori-induced corpus-predominant gastritis who are at risk for cancer and suitable for eradication. Corpus-restricted gastritis is a rare disease in this area.
Wee, A; Kang, J Y; Teh, M
This study aimed to examine the association between Helicobacter pylori, histological gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in gastric cancers of different histological types. A total of 169 gastrectomy specimens received in one pathology department were studied. Altogether 156 were adenocarcinomas (intestinal type 87, diffuse type 50, mixed type 19). Gastritis occurred in 137 of 163 body specimens (84%) and in 126 of 131 antral specimens (96%). Its presence was unrelated to tumour histology. ...
Kokkola, Arto; Rautelin, Hilpi; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Sipponen, Pentti; Färkkilä, Martti; Haapiainen, Reijo; Kosunen, Timo U.
Patients with atrophic corpus gastritis and elevated Helicobacter pylori antibody titers but 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) and histology results negative for H. pylori were randomized into eradication therapy or follow-up only. Antibody levels decreased significantly in six out of seven patients in the eradication group, while in the follow-up group, the titers declined in only one out of eight patients. In patients with atrophic corpus gastritis, positive serology results may indicate an on...
Efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole in the treatment of non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease: Influence of infection by Helicobacter pylori Eficacia de lansoprazol a dosis bajas en el tratamiento de la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico no erosiva: Influencia de la infección por Helicobacter pylori
M. Castro Fernández
being aware of urease test results. Results: 41 patients (80.3% reported that treatment had satisfactorily controlled their symptoms, and 34 patients (66.6% had a maximum of one episode of mild heartburn in the last week. Forty-two (42 patients (82.3% had infection by H. pylori. No significant differences were observed in the response to treatment between patients with or without H. pylori infection. Conclusions: with the limitations of a pilot study, these results suggest that lansoprazole 15 mg/day is an effective treatment in the control of NERD symptoms, that it may be a good initial therapeutic strategy, and that, according to data available, H. pylori infection has no significant effect on the response to treatment.Introducción: los inhibidores de la bomba de protones (IBP son los fármacos más eficaces en la curación de la esofagítis péptica y en el control de los síntomas de la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE. En la mayoría de los pacientes con ERGE no se detecta esofagitis al practicarse endoscopia presentando una ERGE con endoscopia negativa o no erosiva (ERNE. La influencia de la infección H. pylori en la evolución de la ERGE es controvertida, ya que mientras que unos estudios le asignan una acción protectora, otros se la niegan. Hemos realizado un ensayo clínico para valorar la eficacia de lansoprazol 15 mg/día en el control inicial de los síntomas de la ERNE y, como objetivo secundario, la influencia de la infección H. pylori en la respuesta al tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: se realiza un ensayo clínico piloto, unicéntrico, simple ciego en cuanto a la medicación experimental, no conocida por los pacientes, y doble ciego en cuanto a la información de la infección por H. pylori. Se incluyeron inicialmente 60 pacientes con ERNE que presentaban al menos dos días con pirosis diurna o nocturna en cada una de las dos últimas semanas. Se excluyeron 9 pacientes por incumplimiento del protocolo del estudio. Los 51 pacientes
Zhang, Lin; Hou, Yanhong; Wu, Kai; Li, Dan
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years) were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12), which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules
Zhang, Lin; Hou, Yanhong; Wu, Kai; Li, Dan [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The 309 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years) were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12), which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules.
Full Text Available Gastritis is a major disease that has the potential to grow as gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is a very common cancer, and it is related to a very high mortality rate in Korea. This disease is known to have various reasons, including infection with Helicobacter pylori, dietary habits, tobacco, and alcohol. The incidence rate of gastritis has reported to differ between age, population, and gender. However, unlike other factors, there has been no analysis based on gender. So, we examined the high risk factors of gastritis in each gender in the Korean population by focusing on sex. We performed an analysis of 120 clinical characteristics and genome-wide association studies (GWAS using 349,184 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the results of Anseong and Ansan cohort study in the Korea Association Resource (KARE project. As the result, we could not prove a strong relation with these factors and gastritis or gastric ulcer in the GWAS. However, we confirmed several already-known risk factors and also found some differences of clinical characteristics in each gender using logistic regression. As a result of the logistic regression, a relation with hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia therapy, hypotensive or antihypotensive drug, diastolic blood pressure, and gastritis was seen in males; the results of this study suggest that vascular disease has a potential association with gastritis in males.
Xue, Heng; Ge, Hui-Yu; Miao, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jin-Rui; Cui, Li-Gang
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of gastric cancer and gastritis, with histological results as reference standard. From September 2011 to August 2014, 82 patients (50 males and 32 females; mean age ± SD, 59.5 ± 15.0 years; range 19-91 years) with gastric cancer or gastritis were included in this Ethics Committee-approved prospective study. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and CEUS were applied to distinguish the two lesions, and both qualitative and quantitative features were evaluated. Of the 82 histopathologic-proven lesions, 58 were cancer and 24 were gastritis. For US, the gastric wall stratification was not preserved in about one-third of cancer (21/58, 36.2%) compared with gastritis (0/24, 0%) (p gastritis (19/24, 79.2%, p gastritis. CEUS has the potential to make the diagnosis more accurate.
Full Text Available Introduction: Gastritis is a common condition with many etiologies and the classification of the same poses a great challenge to the pathologist. Aim: This study was undertaken to classify gastritis according to the Sydney system guidelines including graded and non-graded variables and simultaneously find association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori with each of these variables. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 biopsies of chronic superficial gastritis received over a period of two years were studied, prospectively. Histology was evaluated with Hematoxylin and eosin, and Giemsa stains, and Gomori′s staining method for demonstration of reticulin fibres. Rapid Urease test results obtained from gastroenterology department were compared with histopathology. Chi-square test was used to analyze the correlation between the various variables. Results: Gastritis cases showed a male preponderance and the most common presenting complaint was dyspepsia. H. pylori gastritis usually shows increased neutrophilic activity but can also present with increased mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and lymphoid follicles in chronic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia and atrophy indicates the chronicity of the disease. H. pylori were noted in the areas away from the metaplastic gastric epithelium. Conclusion: The study showed that histopathology is the most sensitive test for diagnosing H. pylori on endoscopic biopsies. Though, rapid urease test kit gives gastroenterologist a rapid diagnosis, its specificity is low, and hence should be combined with histopathology, which is the gold standard for diagnosis.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies about aquaporin 3 (AQP3 in the gastrointestinal tract were carried out on both in vivo and in vitro. The role of AQP3-mediated water transport in human gastrointestinal tract is still unclear. Our aim in this study was to explore the expression of AQP3 gene in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG atients and to determine its possible function in the development of gastritis.
METHODS: Twenty-two outpatients diagnosed as CSG and 12 outpatients diagnosed as CAG were selected randomly. Ten cases of healthy individuals were selected as normal control group. In all cases, AQP3 gene expression of gastric mucosa was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR.
RESULTS: The AQP3 gene expression was significantly higher in gastric mucosa of CSG and healthy individuals than that in CAG (P<0.01. However, there was no significant difference in the AQP3 gene expression between helicobacter pylori positive patients and helicobacter pylori negative patients (P>0.05.
CONCLUSIONS: AQP3 expression might play certain role in the occurrence and development of gastritis.
KEY WORDS: Aquaporin 3, chronic superficial gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis.
This paper discussed with the feasibility of using 3 H-TdR autoraoiography in vitro incubation to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis. The results showed that gastric mucosa labelling indices measured by autoradiography can reflect the property, severity and clincal conditions of chronic gastritis quantitatively. The methodology is raliable and reproducible. It was suggested that labelling indices may serve as a cytokinetic parameter to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis
Drs. Oktoruddin Harun
Full Text Available Gastritis is usually regarded as a thing paltry but gastritis was the beginning of a a disease that can be big problem for us. Based on the previous research at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District were found scene gastritis from 10 patients 7 had less knowledgeable 1 respondents had knowledge cased and 2 respondents had good of knowledge. It is suspected that the incidence of gastritis has to do with knowledge and education level of the patients. The purpose of this research is to identify corelation betwen knowledge and education level of the patients outpatient with the gastritis at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District. Research methodology used survey analytic correlative with design cross sectional .Data analyzed by univariat and bivariat with statistics chi square test. Population in this research were out patients Public Health Center sindangbarag. The sample 120 respondents with total of sampling. The results of the study were corelation knowledge of to gastritis incident based on the analysis of bivariat by using test chi-square computerized the results of statistical corel tests obtained p value 0.013 0.05 so H0 rejected. While relations education level with the gastritis incident based on the results of the analysis bivariat test chi-square use computerized obtained the results of statistical tests obtained p value 0.0001 0.05 so H0 rejected it could be concluded a significant between knowledge and the level of education with the gastritis incident corelation at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District it is advised that need to effort to promotional and preventive especially with regard to knowledge of gastritis as information about gastritis and counseling on a preventive manner gastritis that can reduce or prevent disease gastritis.
Kuo, Chao-Hung; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Wu, Deng-Chang; Wang, Yuan-Chuen
Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, is abundant in celery, parsley, chamomile, passionflower, and other vegetables and fruits. Celery is recognized as a medicinal vegetable in Oriental countries to traditionally treat inflammation, swelling, blood pressure, serum lipid, and toothache. In this study, we investigated apigenin treatment effects on Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression in Mongolian gerbils. Five to eight-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori for four weeks without (atrophic gastritis group) or with N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (gastric cancer group) in drinking water, and were then rested for two weeks. During the 7th-32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 7th-52th (gastric cancer group) weeks, they were given various doses (0-60 mg/kgbw/day) of apigenin. At the end of the 32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 52th (atrophic gastritis group) week, all Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed using the CO2 asphyxia method. The histological changes of Helicobacter pylori colonization, neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils were examined using immunohistochemistry stain and Sydney System scoring. Apigenin treatments (30-60 mg/kgbw/day) effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin treatment (60 mg/kgbw/day) significantly decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori-induced histological changes of neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin has the remarkable ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression as well as possessing potent anti-gastric cancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Caruso, R A; Fedele, F; Di Bella, C; Mazzon, E; Rigoli, L
The recognition and removal of apoptotic inflammatory cells by tissue macrophages and non-professional phagocytes, in a process called efferocytosis, is required for resolution of inflammation and is actively anti-inflammatory. We have previously demonstrated phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by tumor cells in human gastric carcinoma, but to date, there have been no studies investigating this process in chronic active Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Biopsy specimens from 28 subjects with or without H. pylori infection and active inflammation were examined and graded according to the updated Sydney system. Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and Terminal Deoxynucleotidyltransferase-Mediated UTP End Labeling staining were used to identify apoptosis. H. pylori infection was detected by histology and by molecular assay in 16 out of 28 cases. DNA from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies was amplified using primers specific for cagA, for the cag "empty site" as well as for the s and m alleles of vacA. The more virulent cagA-positive strains were found in five out of nine patients with chronic active gastritis. The vacA s1/m1 and s2/m1 genotypes were more common in nine patients with chronic active gastritis, while the vacA s2/m2 genotype was more frequent in seven patients with chronic inactive gastritis. Apoptotic neutrophils were also detected within the cytoplasmic vacuoles of the foveolar cells of nine cases with chronic active gastritis. Transmission electron micrographs revealed further apoptotic neutrophils within spacious phagosomes of foveolar cells in a similar manner to those described in late-phase efferocytosis both in vivo and in vitro. These new observations expand the morphological spectrum of gastritis in patients infected with more virulent H. pylori strains, compatible with an anti-inflammatory role for the gastric epithelial cells in their removal of apoptotic neutrophils during active chronic gastritis.
Wang, Xu; Ling, Li; Li, Shanshan; Qin, Guiping; Cui, Wei; Li, Xiang; Ni, Hong
Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of gastrin-17 (G-17) for the early detection of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). An extensive literature search was performed, with the aim of selecting publications that reported the accuracy of G-17 in predicting CAG, in the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP. To assess the diagnostic value of G-17, the following statistics were estimated and described: sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 894 patients and 1950 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of these studies were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45–0.51) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77–0.81), respectively. The DOR was 5.93 (95% CI: 2.93–11.99), and the AUC was 0.82. G-17 may have potential diagnostic value because it has good specificity and a moderate DOR and AUC for CAG. However, more studies are needed to improve the sensitivity of this diagnostic tool in the future. PMID:27149493
Hojo, M; Miwa, H; Ohkusa, T; Ohkura, R; Kurosawa, A; Sato, N
It is still disputed whether gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia improves after the cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. To clarify the histological changes after the cure of H. pylori infection through a literature survey. Fifty-one selected reports from 1066 relevant articles were reviewed. The extracted data were pooled according to histological parameters of gastritis based on the (updated) Sydney system. Activity improved more rapidly than inflammation. Eleven of 25 reports described significant improvement of atrophy. Atrophy was not improved in one of four studies with a large sample size (> 100 samples) and in two of five studies with a long follow-up period (> 12 months), suggesting that disagreement between the studies was not totally due to sample size or follow-up period. Methodological flaws, such as patient selection, and statistical analysis based on the assumption that atrophy improves continuously and generally in all patients might be responsible for the inconsistent results. Four of 28 studies described significant improvement of intestinal metaplasia [corrected]. Activity and inflammation were improved after the cure of H. pylori infection. Atrophy did not improve generally among all patients, but improved in certain patients. Improvement of intestinal metaplasia was difficult to analyse due to methodological problems including statistical power.
Hugh James Freeman
Full Text Available Detection of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopic gastric biopsies has been associated with a variety of diseases, including ulcers and gastritis. Although the natural history of H pylori in the gastric mucosa is unknown, antibiotic regimens have been used for eradication. Gastric biopsies from 6050 endoscopic procedures done by a single gastroenterologist from 1981 to 1994 were evaluated. Of these, 2860 from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1994 had silver-stained biopsies to facilitate H pylori detection, and at least two upper endoscopic procedures were done with gastric biopsies in 188 patients. Twelve of the 188 patients with an initially positive H pylori gastric biopsy became H pylori-negative without antibiotic treatment for H pylori or other infection; 10 received omeprazole and two received no drug treatment. In two of the 12 patients recurrent H pylori in the gastric mucosa was also documented. These findings indicate that H pylori may disappear and reappear in the gastric mucosa with no specific antibiotic eradication regimen, although omeprazole may eradicate H pylori in vivo in some patients. The natural history of H pylori in gastric biopsies is poorly understood. Improved understanding, especially regarding the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal ulcerative and inflammatory disease processes, is essential before recommendations for specific antibiotic eradication regimens can be made.
Villanacci, Vincenzo; Casella, Giovanni; Lanzarotto, Francesco; Di Bella, Camillo; Sidoni, Angelo; Cadei, Moris; Salviato, Tiziana; Dore, Maria Pina; Bassotti, Gabrio
Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is a gastric pathologic condition affecting the mucosa of the fundus and the body and eventually leading to hypo-achlorhydria. We report our clinical and pathological experience with AIG. Data from patients with a diagnosis of AIG seen in the period January 2002-December 2012 were retrieved. Only patients with complete sets of biopsies were analyzed. Data from 138 patients were available for analysis. Pernicious anemia was present in 25% of patients, iron deficiency anemia was found in 29.7% of patients, hypothyroidism in 23% of patients, type 1 diabetes in 7.9% of patients, and vitiligo in 2.8% of patients. Parietal cell antibodies were positive in 65% of patients, and no patient had serology positive for celiac disease. All gastric biopsies showed glandular atrophy associated with enterochromaffin-like (ECL)-cells hyperplasia, features limited to the mucosa of the fundus and body, and focal glandular intestinal metaplasia. Helicobacter pylori was negative in all cases. AIG was strongly associated with anemia; atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and ECL hyperplasia in the gastric fundus and body are hallmarks of this condition.
Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux oesophagitis treated with long term omeprazole reverses gastritis without exacerbation of reflux disease: results of a randomised controlled trial
E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); N. Havu; A. Walan; M. Lamm; G.F. Nelis; E.C. Klinkenberg-Knol; P. Snel; D. Goldfain; J.J. Kolkman (Jeroen); H.P. Festen; J. Dent; P. Zeitoun
textabstractBACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori gastritis may progress to glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, conditions that predispose to gastric cancer. Profound suppression of gastric acid is associated with increased severity of H pylori gastritis. This prospective
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is characterized by gastric mucosal inflammation due to autoimmune responses or infection, frequently with Helicobacter pylori. Gastritis with H. pylori background can cause gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L, which sometimes further transforms into diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. However, gastric DLBCL can also be initiated de novo. The mechanisms underlying transformation into DLBCL are not completely understood. We analyzed immunoglobulin repertoires and clonal trees to investigate whether and how immunoglobulin gene repertoires, clonal diversification and selection in gastritis, gastric MALT-L and DLBCL differ from each other and from normal responses. The two gastritis types (positive or negative for H. pylori had similarly diverse repertoires. MALT-L dominant clones presented higher diversification and longer mutational histories compared with all other conditions. DLBCL dominant clones displayed lower clonal diversification, suggesting the transforming events are triggered by similar responses in different patients. These results are surprising, as we expected to find similarities between the dominant clones of gastritis and MALT-L and between those of MALT-L and DLBCL.
Full Text Available Background. A trial of empirical acid-suppressive therapy is the usual practice for most patients with symptoms of gastritis in primary care. Aim. To assess the relative efficacy of Troxipide and Ranitidine in patients with endoscopic gastritis over a four-week period. Methods. In all, 142 patients were randomized to Troxipide (100 mg tid or Ranitidine (150 mg bid for a period of four weeks. The severity of the signs of endoscopic gastritis at baseline and week 4 using a four-point scale and the subjective symptom severity at baseline and week 2 & week 4 using a Visual analog scale (VAS were documented. Results. Troxipide was found to be superior to Ranitidine for both, the complete resolution and improvement of endoscopic gastritis. Higher proportion of patients showed complete healing of erosions (88.14%, oozing (96.77%, and edema (93.88% with Troxipide as compared to Ranitidine (<.01. Patients receiving Troxipide also showed a greater improvement in the VAS scores for abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn (<.01. Both the drugs were found to be well tolerated. Conclusion. In patients with endoscopic gastritis, Troxipide, with its superior rate of improvement, resolution of signs, and subjective clinical symptoms, can be considered as an alternative to the commonly used antisecretory agents.
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa and has multiple etiologies. Here we discuss the pathological alterations induced by Helicobacter pylori (HP leading to chronic gastritis and the epigenetic bases underlying these changes. We review the histology of the normal gastric mucosa and overview the role of HP in the multistep cascade of GC. We attempt to define the role of the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA staging system in assessing the risk of GC. The epigenetic bases of chronic gastritis, mainly DNA methylation, are presented through examples such as (i the methylation of the promoter region of E-cadherin in HP-induced chronic gastritis and its reversion after HP eradication and (ii the association of methylation of the promoter region of Reprimo, a p53-mediated cell cycle arrest gene, with aggressive HP strains in high risk areas for GC. In addition, we discuss the finding of RPRM as a circulating cell-free DNA, offering the opportunity for noninvasive risk assessment of GC. Finally, the integration of OLGA and tissue biomarkers, by systems pathology approach, suggests that severe atrophy has a greater risk for GC development if, in addition, overexpressed p73. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01774266.
Santarelli, Luca; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Candelli, Marcello; Cremonini, Filippo; Nista, Enrico C; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio
At present there are no well-established pharmacological approaches in the management of post-cholecystectomy alkaline reactive gastritis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sucralfate versus rabeprazole or no treatment on dyspeptic symptoms and endoscopic/histological signs in a population of patients with a history of cholecystectomy and evidence of alkaline reactive gastritis. Sixty dyspeptic patients fulfilling the following criteria of inclusion took part in this study: (1) a history of cholecystectomy; (2) no use of anti-inflammatory steroidal and non-steroidal drugs, or abuse of alcohol; (3) evidence of abundant gastric bile reflux at endoscopy; (4) endoscopic signs of chronic gastritis; (5) histological signs of chronic gastritis; and (6) absence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated by means of a self-administered validated questionnaire. Patients included in the study were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for 3 months: sucralfate, rabeprazole, observation. Patients were re-evaluated at the end of the treatment. Sucralfate and rabeprazole therapies were both able to significantly reduce epigastric pain, heartburn, bloating and halitosis. Endoscopic/histological signs were lower in both treatment groups compared to the observation group. Both sucralfate and rabeprazole therapies are effective treatment options in the patients with alkaline gastritis when compared with observation.
Luis Valencia Torres
Full Text Available Dos pacientes con colitis ulcerativa fueron tratados con prednisona en una dosis de 30 a 5 mlgr. diarios durante un período de tiempo de cuarenta y cinco días y cuatro meses, respectivamente. Ambos pacientes tenían rayos X de estómago y duodeno negativos, así como cifras de uropepsina normal antes del tratamiento. Ambos presentaron durante el curso del tratamiento episodios epigástricos agudos, con signos radiológicos de gastritis y aumento apreciable en las cifras de uropepsina. Igualmente mejoraron al instalarse un régimen antiulceroso. Un paciente obtuvo cicatrización completa de las ulceraciones y el otro una mejoría apreciable.
Jang, Tae Jung
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. Recent studies have shown that CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune response to H. pylori. Persistent H. pylori-associated gastritis is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the number of Tregs in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, examined the relationship between it and histopathological findings and compared it with that of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This study was based on the analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from 126 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis, 16 cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis, 17 cases of gastric dysplasia, and 25 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The number of Tregs was elevated in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation and the number of lymphoid follicles. It was significantly elevated in adenocarcinomas compared to chronic gastritis and gastric dysplasia. In summary, the number of Tregs is increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Manojlovic, Nebojsa; Babic, Dragana; Filipovic-Ljeshovic, Ivana; Pilcevic, Dijana
Immune response against Helicobacter pylori is important for the course and outcome of infection. We conducted study looking for the difference in anti H. pylori IgG and IgA between patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer, superficial and atrophic gastritis. For this study, 133 patients infected with H. pylori were enrolled: 50 with superficial gastritis, 42 with atrophic gastritis and 41 with gastric cancer. Anti H. pylori IgG and IgA ELISA tests were performed. The difference in antibody titers of IgG and IgA, frequency of IgA > IgG ratio and combination of low IgG and IgA > IgG ratio were analyzed. The patients with gastritis had higher titer of IgG that the patients with gastric cancer (p gastritis had higher titer of IgA than the patients with gastric cancer (p IgG ratio is more frequent in patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with superficial gastritis (p IgG is more frequent in the patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with gastritis (p cancer elicit different anti H. pylori IgG and IgA response than the patients with superficial and atrophic gastritis. Low IgG and IgA predominance seems characteristic for gastric cancer.
S. A. Kalmykov
Full Text Available Purpose: to make physical rehabilitation program for patients with chronic gastritis type B, promotes normalization of gastric secretory function and prolong the period of remission. Objectives of the study was to assess the dynamics of gastric secretory function and functional status of the autonomic nervous system in patients with the chronic gastritis type B . Material: the study involved 37 women with a diagnosis of the chronic gastritis type B, increased acid gastric function. Results: it was established the positive influence of corrective exercises for the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, regulated breathing exercises based on the tone of the autonomic nervous system in combination with massage and diet therapy on the state of gastric secretory function. Conclusions : it is recommended to carry out therapeutic physical culture in the form of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic exercises, self-study.
Since National Health Insurance covered eradication therapy for H. pylori infected gastritis, all patients with H. pylori infection could be received eradication under insurance. Cure of H. pylori infection improves histological gastritis, also atrophic change, and intestinal metaplasia. Prevention of H. pylori associated diseases such as gastric cancer is expected. According to Insurance instruction, it is carried out in order of endoscopic diagnosis of chronic gastritis, diagnosis of H. pylori infection, and eradication treatment. Endoscopic examination prior to H. pylori diagnosis is necessary for screening of gastric cancer. Endoscopic finding of RAC (regular arrangement of collecting venules) in the angle of stomach suggests lack of infection with H. pylori, disappearance of RAC suspects H. pylori infection.
Pizzi, Marco; Saraggi, Deborah; Fassan, Matteo; Megraud, Francis; Di Mario, Francesco; Rugge, Massimo
Irrespective of its etiology, long-standing, non-self-limiting gastric inflammation (mostly in Helicobacter pylori-associated cases) is the cancerization ground on which epidemic (intestinal-type) gastric carcinoma (GC) can develop. The natural history of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma encompasses gastritis, atrophic mucosal changes, and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). The topography, the extent and the severity of the atrophic changes significantly correlate with the risk of developing both IEN and GC. In recent years, both noninvasive (serological) tests and invasive (endoscopy/biopsy) procedures have been proposed to stratify patients according to different classes of GC risk. As a consequence, different patient-tailored GC secondary prevention strategies have been put forward. This review summarizes the histological features of H. pylori-related gastritis and the natural history of the disease. Histological and serological strategies to assess GC risk as well as the clinical management of atrophic gastritis patients are also discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zak, M Iu
122 patients with osteoarthrosis, who have in the past medical history verified chronic gastritis (50 males and 72 females) at the age from 42 to 64 have been examined. Control group was comprised of 40 patients with osteoarthrosis without gastroduodenal zone pathology in the past medical history. For arthralgia relief patients were prescribed meloxicam (average dose--12.5 - 1.39 mg daily) or nimesulide (average dose--150 ± 14.91 mg daily). As a result of this research it was determined that administration of selective NSAID (meloxicam and nimesulide) in patients with chronic gastritis in the past medical history raised the risk of NSAID gastropathy/dyspepsia 2.9 times (P 0.05) of erosive gastropathy. Patients with chronic gastritis in the past medical history when taking NSAID with the purpose of gastropathy prevention are recommended to undergo gastroprotective therapy.
Vanderlocht, Joris; van der Cruys, Mart; Stals, Frans; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth; Damoiseaux, Jan
Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gastritis is a common but a serious disease with a potential risk of developing carcinoma. Helicobacter pylori infection is reported as the most common cause of gastritis, but other genetic and genomic factors exist, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Association studies between SNPs and gastritis disease are important, but results on epistatic interactions from multiple SNPs are rarely found in previous genome-wide association (GWA studies. In this study, we performed computational GWA case-control studies for gastritis in Korea Associated Resource (KARE data. By transforming the resulting SNP epistasis network into a gene-gene epistasis network, we also identified potential gene-gene interaction factors that affect the susceptibility to gastritis.
Cakmakci, Emin; Ucan, Berna; Colak, Bayram; Cinar, Hasibe Gokçe
The purpose of this study was to find out whether transabdominal sonography may have a predictive role for detection of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in the antrum. A total of 108 patients and 54 control participants were allocated into 3 groups: group 1, controls without any symptoms or findings of antral gastritis and H pylori infection; group 2, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis in the absence of documented H pylori infection; and group 3, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis and documented H pylori infection. These groups were compared in terms of demographics, antral wall thickness, mucosal layer (together with muscularis mucosa) thickness, and mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio. The groups had no statistically significant differences with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. However, it turned out that both antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers were thicker and the mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio was higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (P > .001). In addition, group 3 had statistically significantly thicker antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers and a significantly increased mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio than group 2 (P gastritis caused by H pylori infection is associated with characteristic features such as thickening of antral walls and mucosal layers on sonography. These novel clues may be useful in the diagnosis of gastritis, and unnecessary interventions and measures can be avoided in some cases. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Full Text Available BackgroundSuppression of gastric acid by proton pump inhibitors is associated with the increase of Lactobacillus in human gut microbiota. Gastric acid secretion is also suppressed by Helicobacter pylori infection and following atrophic gastritis. However, few studies have examined the association between H. pylori infection and Lactobacillus species in gut microbiota particularly in Japan.MethodsA total of 1,123 adult subjects who participated in a health survey in Hirosaki City were studied. Infection of H. pylori was defined by both serum antibody and stool antigen test. The presence and the severity of atrophic gastritis were defined by the serum level of serum pepsinogens. Using 16S ribosomal RNA amplification from fecal samples, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was calculated, and the composition ratio of each Lactobacillus species was surveyed.ResultsThe relative abundance of the Lactobacillus in H. pylori-infected subjects with severe atrophic gastritis was higher comparing with those in subjects with mild atrophic gastritis and without atrophic gastritis (0.591 vs 0.068% and 0.033%, respectively; p < 0.001 and also that of non-infected subjects (0.033%; p < 0.001. In H. pylori non-infected subjects, both gender and age were not associated with the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in fecal samples. The proportion of Lactobacillus salivarius was high in H. pylori-infected subjects while that of Lactobacillus acidophilus was high in non-infected subjects.ConclusionLactobacillus in human gut microbiota could be influenced by H. pylori infection and severity of atrophic gastritis in Japanese subjects.
Luciano Lobo Gatti
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. It colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and persists for decades if not treated. Helicobacter pylori infection affects more than half of the world's population and invariably results in chronic gastritis. The cagA gene is present in about 60 to 70% of H. pylori strains; it encodes a high-molecular-weight protein (120 to 140 kDa and several investigators have noted a correlation between strains that possess cagA and the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation. We examined the relation between cagA status in H. pylori strains and chronic gastritis with inflammatory processes in children from Marília, São Paulo, Brazil. One-hundred-twenty-one children were analyzed histopathologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect H. pylori and cagA. We then looked for an association between cagA presence and inflammatory infiltration. Using histology and PCR, we found 47% H. pylori positive infection; 29 children were diagnosed with chronic gastritis, while 28 showed normal mucosa by histopathological analysis. CagA presence was genotyped in both groups, and an inflammatory infiltrate was studied in all infected children with chronic gastritis. We found cagA strains in 20 of 29 (69% children with chronic gastritis and 18 of 28 (64% with normal mucosa, demonstrating a strong relationship between the strains and the inflammatory process. We found a positive association between an inflammatory process associated with H. pylori of cagA+ strains and chronic gastritis development.
Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin
To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve ( R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy associated with vitamin B12
Park, Joongwon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Sill Moo
Objectives: We conducted an analysis of correlation between histological grading of chronic gastritis and the presence of H. pylori infection to investigate if H. pylori influences histological severity of chronic gastritis in Korean patients with peptic ulcers. Methods: Gastroscopic antral biopsy specimens and peripheral venous blood were taken from 80 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was identified microscopically in sections with Giemsa staining and quantitative grading of cultured H. pylori was reported on a scale 0 to 3. The histopathological features of biopsy specimens were reported according to the Sydney classification of chronic gastritis. Serum gastritis and pepsinogen concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: H. pylori was identified in 62.5% (20 of 32 GU, 30 of 48 DU) of the study group. Gastric clonization rate of H. pylori did not increased with age. Forty of 50 biopsy specimens with H. pylori and also 23 of 30 biopsy specimens without H. pylori showed active chronic gastritis. There was no significant correlation overall between the presence of H. pylori and histological grading of chronic gastritis, including activity, and also no association was found between the quantitative grading of H. pylori and the histological grading of chronic gastritis. With and without H. pylori, a mean of serum gastritis concentration (79.4±43.0 pg/ml and 80.2±31.9 pg/ml) showed no significant difference, but a mean of serum pepsinogen concentration (87.7±41.6 ng/ml and 119±34.4 ng/ml) showed significant difference between the populations with and without H. pylori (p=0.001) Conclusions: The influence of H. pylori on histological grading of chronic gastritis in Korean is less than that in prior studies of Western countries, and further investigation of pathogenesis of H. pylori in chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration is necessary. PMID:7495770
Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl
Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Hemorrhagic gastritis is a possible late toxicity outcome after radical radiotherapy but it is nowadays a very rare condition and most likely depends on other clinical factors. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman with a symptomatic solitary extramedullary intra-abdominal plasmacytoma and multiple gastric comorbidities, treated with external beam radiotherapy. Despite the good response to radiotherapy, the patient experienced multiple gastric bleeding a few months later, with the need of multiple treatments for its control. In this paper we will discuss in detail all aspects related to the different causes of hemorrhagic gastritis.
Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav1 is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS, infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies ("humming bird" compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1. Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1 to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87 and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells.
Full Text Available Juan L Romero-Flores,1 Justo A Fernandez-Rivero,1 Erika Marroquín-Fabian,1 Félix I Téllez-Ávila,2 Beatriz A Sánchez-Jiménez,1 Eva Juárez-Hernández,3 Misael Uribe,1 Norberto C Chávez-Tapia1,3 1Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, 3Translational Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The term nodular is not included in the Sydney classification and there is no widely accepted histopathological definition. It has been proposed that the presence of antral nodularity could predict Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis (NG for H. pylori infection after a rigorous standardization process, and to describe the associated histopathological characteristics. Materials and methods: Endoscopic images of patients submitted to endoscopy with biopsy sampling were included. Endoscopic images were distributed among six endoscopists. The analysis was performed sequentially in three rounds: the first round assessed the interobserver variability, the second evaluated the intraobserver variability, and the third calculated the interobserver variability after training. A correlation analysis between endoscopic and histopathological findings was performed. Results: A total of 917 studies were included. In the first analysis of interobserver variability, a poor kappa value (0.078 was obtained. The second evaluation yielded good intraobserver variability, with kappa values of 0.62–0.86. The evaluation of interobserver variability after training revealed an improvement in the kappa value of 0.42. A correlation was found between endoscopic images and histopathological reports. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between NG and H. pylori, but only after rigorous evaluation. The use of
Liu, Hong; Chen, Yue-Tong; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xin-Zu
Abstract Background: To investigate the associations of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and atrophic gastritis (AG) with pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: A literature search in PubMed was performed up to July 2017. Only prospective cohort and nested case–control studies enrolling cancer-free participants were eligible. Incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained during the follow-up. The risks of pancreatic cancer were compared between persons infected and noninfected with Hp, or between those with and without AG status at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios were combined. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed, and publication bias was estimated. Results: Three cohort studies and 6 nested case–control studies, including 65,155 observations, were analyzed. The meta-analyses did not confirm the association between pancreatic cancer risk and Hp infection (OR = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81–1.47) or AG status (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.80–1.72). However, particular subpopulations potentially had increased risks of pancreatic cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-negative strains of Hp might be a causative factor of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05–1.62), but a sensitivity analysis by leave-one-out method did not fully warrant it (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.93–1.56). In 1 nested case–control study, AG at stomach corpus in Hp-negative subpopulation might have increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but with a poor test power = 0.56. Publication biases were nonsignificant in the present meta-analysis. Conclusion: Based on current prospective epidemiologic studies, the linkage of pancreatic cancer to Hp infection or AG status was not warranted on the whole. Nevertheless, prospective studies only focusing on those specific subpopulations are further required to obtain better power. PMID:28816977
Sampieri, Clara L
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the etiologic agent of gastritis; it has been estimated that 50 % of the world's population could be infected by this bacteria. Gastritis may progress to chronic atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). Several matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP) as well as disintegrins and metalloproteases (ADAM) have been reported as being involved in gastritis. Among other processes, these protein families participate in remodeling the extracellular matrix, cell signaling, immune response, angiogenesis, inflammation and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This systematic review analyzes the scientific evidence surrounding the relationship between members of the MMP, TIMP and ADAM families and infection by H. pylori in gastritis, considering both in vitro and in vivo studies. Given the potential clinical value of certain members of the MMP, TIMP and ADAM families as molecular markers in gastritis and the association of gastritis with GC, the need for further study is highlighted.
Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164) uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test) and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG) were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; pgastritis with atrophy increased regardless of biopsy site (for normal, mild, moderate, and severe gastritis with atrophy, the sensitivity of histology Giemsa stain was 100%, 100%, 88%, and 66%, respectively, and 100%, 97%, 91%, and 66%, respectively, for rapid urease test). In moderate to severe antrum or body gastritis with atrophy, additional corpus biopsy resulted in increased sensitivity to 16.67% compare to single antrum biopsy. Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results. PMID:23272897
Rugge, M; de Boni, M; Pennelli, G; de Bona, M; Giacomelli, L; Fassan, M; Basso, D; Plebani, M; Graham, D Y
Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) still ranks among the high-incidence, highly lethal malignancies. Atrophic gastritis is the cancerization field in which GC develops. The current histological reporting formats for gastritis do not include any (atrophy-based) ranking of GC risk. To test the gastritis OLGA-staging (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment) in prognosticating neoplastic progression. Ninety-three Italian patients were followed up for more than 12 years (range: 144-204 months). Clinical examinations, pepsinogen serology, endoscopy and histology (also assessing Helicobacter pylori status) were performed both at enrolment (T1) and at the end of the follow-up (T2). All invasive or intra-epithelial gastric neoplasia were consistently associated with high-risk (III/IV) OLGA stages. There was a significant inverse correlation between the mean pepsinogen ratio and the OLGA stage (test for trend; P gastritis OLGA-staging conveys relevant information on the clinico-pathological outcome of gastritis and therefore for patient management. According to OLGA-staging and H. pylori-status, gastritis patients could be confidently stratified and managed according to their different cancer risks.
Tim G. J. de Meij
Full Text Available Sarcina ventriculi is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic coccus, with a characteristic morphology. Only 22 cases of human infections by this microorganism, including 7 in children, have been reported in literature so far. Affected subjects usually present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and delayed gastric emptying. However, life-threatening complications, like emphysematous gastritis and gastric perforation have also been described. Gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction have been considered as a potential etiologic factor. All pediatric cases described thus far presented with concomitant gastrointestinal pathology, such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, celiac disease, infection with Giardia lamblia or Candida spp. Here, we report two children with S. ventriculi infection, in whom the diagnosis was established by typical histological findings in mucosal biopsies. The first child presented with hematemesis due to ulcerative esophagitis and gastritis, the second child with a history of esophageal stricture had ulcerative gastritis. Confirmation of S. ventriculi infection is feasible by molecular microbiota detection methods, since this microorganism cannot be detected by classical culture techniques. Prompt treatment with antibiotics could prevent life-threatening complications.
Siregar, G. A.; Sari, D. K.; Sungkar, T.
The main pathogenesis of gastritis is inflammation that closely related to free radicals. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a free radical biomarker and is found to increase in gastritis patients. However, these studies are generally performed on experimental animals as well as MDA examination in gastric mucosa. This study aim was to determine the association of degrees of gastritis (degree of lymphocyte infiltration, neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia) with plasma MDA level. A cross-sectional study of 80 consecutive gastritis patients who came to an endoscopic unit of Adam Malik General Hospital in Medan, Indonesia, from May–September 2017. Assessed for severity of chronic inflammatory, neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia refers to Updated Sydney System. Plasma MDA levels were examined using an HPLC MDA kit. Univariate analysis, bivariate (chi-square and Fisher exact test), and multivariate (binary logistic regression test) were programmed with SPSS version 22. There was no significant association between degree of lymphocyte infiltration with MDA level. There were significant associations between degree of neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia with MDA level (p=0.039, 0.003, 0.021; respectively). The moderate+severe degree of neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were associated with high level of MDA.
Jang, Sungil; Bak, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen, causing various gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been reported that combining N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with conventional antibiotic therapy increases the success rate of H. pylori eradication. We evaluated the effect of NAC itself on the growth and colonization of H. pylori, and development of gastritis, using in vitro liquid culture system and in vivo animal models. H. pylori growth was evaluated in broth culture containing NAC. The H. pylori load and histopathological scores of stomachs were measured in Mongolian gerbils infected with H. pylori strain 7.13, and fed with NAC-containing diet. In liquid culture, NAC inhibited H. pylori growth in a concentration-dependent manner. In the animal model, 3-day administration of NAC after 1 week from infection reduced the H. pylori load; 6-week administration of NAC after 1 week from infection prevented the development of gastritis and reduced H. pylori colonization. However, no reduction in the bacterial load or degree of gastritis was observed with a 6-week administration of NAC following 6-week infection period. Our results indicate that NAC may exert a beneficial effect on reduction of bacterial colonization, and prevents the development of severe inflammation, in people with initial asymptomatic or mild H. pylori infection.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis may progress to high risk gastropathy and cancer. However, the pathological progression has not been characterized in detail. H. pylori induce persistent inflammatory infiltration. Neutrophils are unique in that they directly infiltrate into foveolar epithelium aiming the proliferative zone specifically. Neutrophilic proliferative zone foveolitis is a critical pathogenic step in H. pylori gastritis inducing intensive epithelial damage. Epithelial cells carrying accumulated genomic damage and mutations show the Malgun (clear) cell change, characterized by large clear nucleus and prominent nucleolus. Malgun cells further undergo atypical changes, showing nuclear folding, coarse chromatin, and multiple nucleoli. The atypical Malgun cell (AMC) change is a novel premalignant condition in high risk gastropathy, which may progress and undergo malignant transformation directly. The pathobiological significance of AMC in gastric carcinogenesis is reviewed. A new diagnosis system of gastritis is proposed based on the critical pathologic steps classifying low and high risk gastritis for separate treatment modality. It is suggested that the regulation of H. pylori-induced neutrophilic foveolitis might be a future therapeutic goal replacing bactericidal antibiotics approach.
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno
Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.
Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L
Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.
Myint, Thein; Shiota, Seiji; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ni, New; Aye, Than Than; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio
AIM: To survey the detailed analyses for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric mucosal status in Myanmar. METHODS: A total of 252 volunteers with dyspeptic symptoms (155 female and 97 male; mean age of 43.6 ± 14.2 years) was participated in Yangon and Mandalay. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on 5 different tests including rapid urease test, culture, histology, immunohistochemistry and serology. Histological scores were evaluated according to the update Sydney system and the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment system. Pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.0%. There was no relationship between age and infection rate. Even in young group (less than 29 years old), the H. pylori infection rate was relatively high (41.9%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in Yangon than that of Mandalay. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. All 7 subjects with peptic ulcer were infected with H. pylori. Although H. pylori-positive subjects showed stronger gastritis than H. pylori-negative subjects, most cases had mild gastritis. CONCLUSION: We revealed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar. The H. pylori infection was a risk factor for peptic ulcer and stronger gastritis. PMID:25605987
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory condition of the gastric mucosa, which may include glandular alterations. It is most frequently caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, a smaller proportion is related to chemical agents and autoimmune mechanisms. Chronic gastritis may lead to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, depending on environmental factors, bacterial strain and host immune response. The vast majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are the final step in a complex cascade process of cancerogenesis involving sequential steps of precancerous lesions – atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.The process of cancerogenesis is associated with progressive genetic and epigenetic alterations, these being more frequent in dysplasia than in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Despite extensive research of gastric cancerogenesis, there are no molecular markers to be used for detecting patients at risk for cancer development.Biopsy remains among the most reliable ways of detecting gastric precancerous lesions. Apart from the correct histologic diagnosis, the assessment of topography is important. Biopsies must be taken according to the updated Sydney protocol. For further classifying patients at risk for gastric cancer, two systems have been developed: OLGA (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment and OLGIM (Operative Link for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment.Slovenian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Slovenian Society for Pathology and Forensic Medicine have accepted guidelines for endoscopic and histologic management of patients with gastric precancerosis. The aim of these recommendations is to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage and to improve survival of patients with gastric cancer in Slovenia.
This thesis sheds light on the clinical utility of serum markers of gastric atrophy, pepsinogen and gastrin, in general practice in the Dutch province of Zeeland. The biomarkers were used in studies on atrophic corpus gastritis, as surrogate outcome of gastric cancer. Attention was paid to
Han, Xue; Jiang, Kui; Wang, Bangmao; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Shu
Chronic gastritis frequently progresses into precancerous intestinal metaplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. Rebamipide is a free radical scavenger and we assessed its efficacy on clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, pathologic grade, and immunohistochemistry in chronic gastritis patients. 178 eligible patients were randomized into treatment and control groups. Both groups followed an optimized lifestyle for 26 weeks, but the treatment group was additionally medicated with rebamipide 0.1 g three times per day. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by the Modified Lanza Scoring (MLS) and histological changes were evaluated by the Updated Sydney System Score (USSS). Gastric mucosa immunohistochemistry in the treatment group was performed using the intestinal metaplasia markers caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) detection. There were significant outcome differences between the treatment and control groups regarding the clinical symptom scores (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, P = 0.0001), gastric mucosal lesion scores (0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, P = 0.002), and inflammation (P gastritis patients and decreased the expression rates of CDX2 and TFF3 in gastric cells.
Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1 is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6% atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.
Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039
Sun, Xiaoming; Cai, Hongxing; Li, Zhouru; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Wenjiang; Dong, Guokai; Kuai, Jinxia; He, Yihui; Jia, Jing
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the human stomach regularly leads to chronic gastric inflammation. The cytokine gene interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in influencing the pathology of inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. Currently, several studies have been carried out to investigate the association of IL-1β-511 (rs16944) and IL-1β-31 (rs1143627) polymorphisms with gastritis risk; however, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the effect of IL-1β polymorphisms on gastritis susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis. Up to March 15, 2016, 2205 cases and 2289 controls were collected from 12 published case-control studies. Summarized odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-1β-511 and IL-1β-31 polymorphisms and gastritis risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses and logistic meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. The results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β-31 might be associated with the gastritis risk, especially in the Caucasian population, while SNPs in the IL-1β-511 might not be. Our studies may be helpful in supplementing the disease monitoring of gastritis in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanisms might inspire interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups.
Matak, Pavle; Heinis, Mylène; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Corriden, Ross; Cuvellier, Sylvain; Delga, Stéphanie; Mounier, Rémi; Rouquette, Alexandre; Raymond, Josette; Lamarque, Dominique; Emile, Jean-François; Nizet, Victor; Touati, Eliette; Peyssonnaux, Carole
Helicobacter pylori infection triggers chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa that may progress to gastric cancer. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the central mediators of cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels (hypoxia), but they have emerged recently as major transcriptional regulators of immunity and inflammation. No studies have investigated whether H. pylori affects HIF signaling in immune cells and a potential role for HIF in H. pylori-mediated gastritis. HIF-1 and HIF-2 expression was examined in human H. pylori-positive gastritis biopsies. Subsequent experiments were performed in naive and polarized bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild-type (WT) and myeloid HIF-1α-null mice (HIF-1(Δmyel)). WT and HIF-1(Δmyel) mice were inoculated with H. pylori by oral gavage and sacrificed 6 mo postinfection. HIF-1 was specifically expressed in macrophages of human H. pylori-positive gastritis biopsies. Macrophage HIF-1 strongly contributed to the induction of proinflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-1β) and inducible NO synthase in response to H. pylori. HIF-2 expression and markers of M2 macrophage differentiation were decreased in response to H. pylori. HIF-1(Δmyel) mice inoculated with H. pylori for 6 mo presented with a similar bacterial colonization than WT mice but, surprisingly, a global increase of inflammation, leading to a worsening of the gastritis, measured by an increased epithelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, myeloid HIF-1 is protective in H. pylori-mediated gastritis, pointing to the complex counterbalancing roles of innate immune and inflammatory phenotypes in driving this pathology. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Rodríguez, Cecilia; Medici, Marta; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela
To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) CRL 1190 fermented milk on chronic gastritis in Balb/c mice. Balb/c mice were fed with the fermented milk for 7 d after inducing gastritis with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 d). Omeprazole was included in this study as a positive therapeutic control. The gastric inflammatory activity was evaluated from gastric histology and inflammation score, number of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma (INFgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cytokine-producing cells in the gastric mucosa, and thickness of the mucus layer. Animals receiving treatment with the EPS-producing S. thermophilus CRL 1190 fermented milk showed a conserved gastric mucosa structure similar to that of healthy animals. Inflammation scores of the fermented milk-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the gastritis group (0.2 + or - 0.03 vs 2.0 + or - 0.6, P mucus gel layer (2.2 + or - 0.6 vs 1.0 + or - 0.3; 5.1 + or - 0.8 vs 1.5 + or - 0.4 in the corpus and antrum mucosa, respectively, P milk suspension of the purified EPS from S. thermophilus CRL1190 was also effective as therapy for gastritis. This study suggests that fermented milk with S. thermophilus CRL 1190 and/or its EPS could be used in novel functional foods as an alternative natural therapy for chronic gastritis induced by ASA.
Siavoshi, F; Asgharzadeh, A; Ghadiri, H; Massarrat, S; Latifi-Navid, S; Zamani, M
The frequency of Helicobacter pylori vacA alleles, cagA, and jhp0947 and their association with types and advanced forms of gastritis in 143 first-degree relatives of gastric cancer (GC) patients was assessed. The subjects included 64/143 with antral-predominant gastritis, 68/143 with pangastritis, and 11/143 with corpus-predominant gastritis, with or without atrophy or intestinal metaplasia (IM). Further classification included the severity of atrophy or IM. Group I (40/143) included the subjects with moderate-marked atrophy or IM, group II (58/143) those with no atrophy or IM, and group III (45/143) with mild atrophy or IM. The frequency of vacA s1 was 79.7%, vacA s2 20.3%, m1 49.7%, m2 50.3%, cagA 76.2%, and jhp0947 58%. The most prevalent combination was vacAs1 cagA (+) (65.7%) (P=0.001). Of the 143 subjects, 85 (59.4%) showed atrophy or IM, and 40/85 (47%) developed the moderate-marked atrophy or IM. No significant correlation was found between genotypes and the types of gastritis, non-atrophy, atrophy, or IM and severe forms of atrophy or IM (P>0.05). It is proposed that H. pylori genotype status might not be considered as an important determinant of the types and advanced forms of gastritis in the first-degree relatives of GC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Ji, Jiajia; Qian, Qirong; Lu, Lungeng; Fu, Hualin; Jin, Weilin; Cui, Daxiang
Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6%) atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.
Full Text Available CD95 (Fas/APO-1-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in immunological regulation and is related to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Immunoexpression of CD95 has been reported to frequently occur in low grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas, especially of post-germinal center histogenesis, among which those originating in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. However, there is no report comparing in situ immunoexpression of this marker in lymphomas and the hyperplastic lymphoid reaction (chronic gastritis related to Helicobacter pylori infection. The purpose of the present research was to compare the intensity of lymphoid CD95 immunoexpression in 15 cases of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis and 15 gastric MALT lymphomas. CD95 (anti-CD95 was detected by an immunoperoxidase technique in paraffin sections using the catalyzed amplification system. Graduation of reaction intensity (percentage of CD95-positive cells was semiquantitative, from 1+ to 4+. Nine cases of chronic gastritis were 4+, five 2+ and one 1+. Three lymphomas were 4+, three 3+, four 2+, four 1+, and one was negative. Although 14 of 15 lymphomas were positive for CD95, the intensity of the reaction was significantly weaker compared to that obtained with gastric tissue for patients with gastritis (P = 0.03. The difference in CD95 immunoexpression does not seem to be useful as an isolated criterion in the differential diagnosis between chronic gastritis and MALT lymphomas since there was overlapping of immunostaining patterns. However, it suggests the possibility of a pathogenetic role of this apoptosis-regulating protein in MALT lymphomas.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP infection is implicated in gastric and extra-gastric diseases. While gastritis-related chronic inflammation represents a known trigger of metabolic disturbances, whether metabolic syndrome (MetS is affected by gastritis status remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of HP-related gastritis on the risk of MetS.We retrospectively enrolled patients undergoing screening for MetS between 2014 and 2015. Investigations included HP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody assays to detect HP infection, and serum pepsinogen assays to evaluate atrophic gastritis status. The risk of MetS was evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses with two covariates: serum HP infection status (IgG levels and atrophic gastritis status (two criteria were applied; pepsinogen I/II ratio < 3 or both pepsinogen I levels ≤ 70 μg/L and pepsinogen I/II ratio < 3.Of 1,044 participants, 247 (23.7% were HP seropositive, and 62 (6.0% had MetS. HP seronegative and seropositive patients had similar risks of MetS. On the other hand, AG (defined in terms of serum PG I/II <3 was significant risk of MetS (OR of 2.52 [95% CI 1.05-7.52]. After stratification according to HP IgG concentration, patients with low HP infection status had the lowest MetS risk (defined as an odds ratio [OR] adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking and physical activity status. Taking this result as a reference, patients with negative, moderate, and high HP infection status had ORs (with 95% confidence intervals [CI] of 2.15 (1.06-4.16, 3.69 (1.12-16.7, and 4.05 (1.05-26.8.HP-associated gastritis represents a risk factor for MetS. Research should determine why low and not negative HP infection status is associated with the lowest MetS risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between
Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin
AIM To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). METHODS A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. RESULTS Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve (R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. CONCLUSION Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy
Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial
Full Text Available Objective: To observe the change and clinical significance of serum PG in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG. Methods: ELISA was used to detect the peripheral blood PG level in patients confirmed with CAG, gastric polyps, and gastric cancer who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2015 to January, 2016. The normal individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group. The peripheral blood PG level in patients with various gastric diseases was observed. Results: The serum PG Ⅰ expression and PG I/PG Ⅱ in the gastritis group were significantly lower than those in the gastric polyps group and control group, but were significantly higher than those in the gastric cancer group; while PG Ⅱ expression was significantly higher than that in the gastric polyps group and control group, but was significantly lower than those in the gastric cancer group. PG Ⅰ expression and PG I/ PG Ⅱ in the gastric polyps group were significantly higher than those in the gastritis group and gastric cancer group, while PG Ⅱ expression was significantly lower than that in the gastritis group and gastric cancer group. PG Ⅰ expression and PG I/ PG Ⅱ in the gastric cancer group were significantly lower than those in the other three groups, while PG Ⅱ expression was significantly higher than that in the other three groups. The serum PG Ⅰ expression in patients with positive HP infection in the gastritis group and gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in patients with negative HP infection, but the comparison of PG I/ PG Ⅱ was not statistically significant. The serum PG Ⅰ expression and PG I/ PG Ⅱ in patients with negative and positive HP infection in the gastritis group were significantly higher than those in patients with negative and positive HP infection in the gastric cancer group; while PG Ⅱ expression was significantly was significantly lower than that in the gastric cancer group
Lahner, Edith; Bernardini, Giulia; Possenti, Silvia; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Santucci, Annalisa; Annibale, Bruno
Atrophic body gastritis is considered an outcome of H. pylori infection at high risk for gastric cancer. Immunoproteomics has been used to detect H. pylori antigens, which may act as potential markers for neoplastic disease and may be used in specific serological tests. We used immunoproteome technology to identify H. pylori antigens, recognized by sera from patients with atrophic body gastritis. Here, we performed 2DE protein maps of H. pylori strain 10K, probed against single sera from 3 groups of H. pylori-positive patients (atrophic body gastritis; intestinal-type gastric cancer; peptic ulcer) and negative controls. Immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. A total of 155 immunoreactive spots were detected corresponding to 14.1% of total spots detected in our reference map of H. pylori strain 10K. Sera from atrophic body gastritis (40.5±2%) and gastric cancer patients (25.9±1.8%) showed a significantly higher and stronger mean immunoreactivity versus H. pylori antigens compared to peptic ulcer patients (11.2±1.3%). The average intensity of immunoreactivity of sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients was significantly stronger compared to peptic ulcer patients. Sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients differentially recognized 17 H. pylori spots. Immunoproteome technology may discriminate between different H. pylori-related disease phenotypes showing a serological immunorecognition pattern common to patients with gastric cancer and atrophic body gastritis, its precursor condition. This tool may be promising for developing specific serological tests to identify patients with gastritis at high risk for gastric cancer, to be evaluated in prospective investigations. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Kiss, S; Zsikla, V; Frank, A; Willi, N; Cathomas, G
Helicobacter-negative gastritis has been increasingly reported. Molecular techniques as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may detect bacterial DNA in histologically negative gastritis. To evaluate of Helicobacter PCR in gastric biopsies for the daily diagnostics of Helicobacter-negative gastritis. Over a 5-year period, routine biopsies with chronic gastritis reminiscent of Helicobacter infection, but negative by histology, were tested by using a H. pylori specific PCR. Subsequently, PCR-negative samples were re-evaluated using PCR for other Helicobacter species. Of the 9184 gastric biopsies, 339 (3.7%) with histological-negative gastritis and adequate material were forwarded to PCR analysis for H. pylori and 146 (43.1%) revealed a positive result. In 193 H. pylori DNA-negative biopsies, re-analysis using PCR primers for other Helicobacter species, revealed further 23 (11.9%) positive biopsies, including 4 (2.1%) biopsies with H. heilmannii sensu lato. PCR-positive biopsies showed a higher overall inflammatory score, more lymphoid follicles/aggregates and neutrophils (P gastritis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kennedy, L; Mahoney, D H; Redel, C A
Recurrent abdominal pain is a common complaint in children with sickle cell disease. Helicobacter pylori gastritis has recently been described in association with recurrent abdominal pain in children. A case report is given of a 16-year-old black male with hemoglobin SS disease presenting with recurrent abdominal pain and hematemesis. Endoscopic exam of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed gastritis, and biopsy confirmed H. pylori infection. Serology studies demonstrated increased anti-H. pylori antibody titers. The young man responded well to treatment, with resolution of his symptoms. Helicobacter pylori infection is a new diagnostic consideration for children with recurrent abdominal pain and should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with sickle cell disease, especially when abdominal pain is recurrent and accompanied by vomiting. Larger case studies will be necessary to determine the true incidence of H. pylori in children with sickle cell disease and recurrent abdominal pain.
Weiss Stan L
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The causes of diffuse abdominal pain following pelvic surgery are numerous. We present a rare case of acute abdominal pain in a woman in the post-partum period. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain immediately after a cesarean section. The patient was acutely ill and toxic with a fever of 38.8°C, a pulse of 120 beats per minute and a distended abdomen with absent bowel sounds. A computed tomography scan showed air in the wall of the stomach and portal venous system. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics, bowel rest and total parenteral nutrition. Conclusion It is rare for a case of emphysematous gastritis associated with portal venous air to be treated successfully without surgery. To the best of our knowledge, to date there has been no reported association of emphysematous gastritis with neurofibromatosis.
Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Chen Granhum; Yeh Shinhwa
Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests ( 14 C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low 14 C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal 14 C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)
Kao Chiahung (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Wang Shyhjen (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Chen Granhum (Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Yeh Shinhwa (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China))
Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests ([sup 14]C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low [sup 14]C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal [sup 14]C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)
Furukawa, Koichi; Ho, Nichyau; Kuroda, Ken; Ikarashi, Kentarou; Hata, Koujirou; Tukioka, Satosi
A 72-year-old woman underwent irradiation of 46 Grey in total dose, for lumbago of the advanced pancreatic cancer in August 2000. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe anemia in February 2001 with occasionally positive fecal occult blood. Endoscopy revealed erosive gastric mucosa diffuse in the lower body of the stomach, which resulted from radiation. We applied argon plasma coagulation (APC) in March 2001 and succeeded in hemostasis of the widely spreading radiation hemorrhagic gastritis. The progress of the severe anemia improved without cicatricial stenosis. As the coagulation of the APC is limited in the surface mucosa, APC is an easy and effective treatment for radiation hemorrhagic gastritis. (author)
Sarvari, Karoly Peter; Vasas, Bela; Kiss, Ildiko; Lazar, Andrea; Horvath, Istvan; Simon, Marianna; Peto, Zoltan; Urban, Edit
A 76-year-old female patient was admitted to the Level I Emergency Department of University of Szeged with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The clinical assessment with laboratory tests and radiological investigations confirmed severe sepsis associated with intravascular hemolysis and multiorgan failure and acute pancreatitis. On the abdominal CT, besides of other abnormalities, the presence of gas bubbles in the stomach, small intestines and liver were seen. The gastric alterations pointed to emphysematous gastritis. Despite of the medical treatment, the patient's condition quickly deteriorated and eight hours after admission the patient died. The autopsy evaluation revealed systemic infection of abdominal origin caused by gas-producing Gram-positive bacteria, and the post-mortem microbiological cultures confirmed the presence of Cloctridium perfringens in many abdominal organs. Emphysematous gastritis seemed to be the primary infectious focus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohammad Reza Zali
Full Text Available Gastritis cystic polyposa is a rare and peculiar polypoid lesion arising at a gastroenterostomysite,and almost always on the gastric side.It is characterized by elongationof the gastric foveolae along with hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of the gastricglands extending into the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in a47-year-old woman without any history of gastric operation revealed a pedunculatedpolyp approximately 2 cm in diameter, in a background of erythematous gastric foldsalong the anterior wall of the fundus. Polypectomy was performed, with endoscopicimpression of hyperplastic or fundic gland polyp,without any complications.Histopathological findings were consistent within gastritis cystic polyposa(GCP. Amild Helicobacter pylori colonization in gastric pits was seen. GCP could occur in anunoperated stomach and treated by endoscopic polypectomy. However,removal andhistopathologic confirmation of these lesions are necessary.
Krueger, Sabine; Roessner, Albert; Kuester, Doerthe
Laboratory mice have become one of the best animal species for mechanistic studies in gastrointestinal research. Their abundant genetic information, the way of causing carcinogenesis easily by transgenic and gene knockout techniques, limited effort in time and costs, and their practicability provide advantages over other animal models. Meanwhile, several murine practical models have been established for the investigation of the initiation, expansion, and progression of gastritis and gastric carcinoma, for assessing the effects of bacterial, genetic and environmental factors, and for evaluating therapeutic and preventive strategies in gastric diseases. This article gives a review of murine models of gastritis and gastric cancer, placing emphasis on the models associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and techniques used in our laboratory. We discuss matters of murine gastric anatomy, as well as techniques of infection, tissue preparation, and histology. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Martínez-López, Juan L.E.; Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.
Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger. PMID:24448220
Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae
Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin, so gastrointestinal symptoms are very rare; these described in the literature are merely nausea and vomiting. Severe complications in the gastrointestinal tract caused by tetrodotoxin have not been radiologically reported. US and CT show thickening of the gastric wall and contraction of the lumen, and upper gastrointestinal series show shortening, lobulation and irregularity of the lesser and greater curvature of the body and antrum similar to the findings of corrosive gastritis
Mack, D.; Sherman, P.
A 14-year-old athletic boy with a 1-year history of decreased exercise tolerance presented with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Panendoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract were normal. However, persistent uptake of radionuclide using a 99m technetium-sucralfate scan suggested inflammation localized to the stomach. Mucosal biopsies demonstrated acute and chronic gastritis that was not associated with the presence of Campylobacter pylori
Saka, Akiko; Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Nimura, Satoshi
As atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as a result of Helicobacter pylori are considered risk factors for gastric cancer, it is important to assess their severity. In the West, the operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) and operative link for gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) staging systems based on biopsy have been widely adopted. In Japan, however, narrow-band imaging (NBI)-magnifying endoscopic diagnosis of gastric mucosal inflammation, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia has been reported to be fairly accurate. Therefore, we investigated the practicality of NBI-magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) for gastritis staging. We enrolled 55 patients, in whom NBI-ME was used to score the lesser curvature of the antrum (antrum) and the lesser curvature of the lower body (corpus). The NBI-ME score classification was established from images obtained beforehand, and then biopsy specimens taken from the observed areas were scored according to histological findings. The NBI-ME and histology scores were then compared. Furthermore, we assessed the NBI-ME and histology stages using a combination of scores for the antrum and corpus, and divided the stages into two risk groups: low and high. The degree to which the stage assessed by NBI-ME approximated that assessed by histology was then ascertained. Degree of correspondence between the NBI-ME and histology scores was 69.1% for the antrum and 72.7% for the corpus, and that between the high- and low-risk groups was 89.1%. Staging of gastritis using NBI-ME approximates that based on histology, and would be a practical alternative to the latter. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Mejia, C R; Vera, C A; Huiza-Espinoza, L
For the last 15 years, infection from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been recognized in gastritis pathogenesis, and is known to trigger an important inflammatory response in these patients. To determine the association between follicular gastritis and H. pylori infection in children seen at a public hospital in Peru. An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on all the children treated at the Hospital Nacional Docente Madre "Niño San Bartolomé" in Lima, Peru, within the time frame of 2011-2012. All the personal data from the patients' medical histories and endoscopic procedures were collected. The crude prevalence ratios (PR) were obtained and adjusted (aPR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), using generalized linear models with the binomial family and log link function. A total of 123 children met the study criteria. Forty-eight (39%) of the study sample were girls and the mean age of the children was 12 years. H. pylori was present in 44% of the sample and 9% presented with more than 100 bacteria per field (classified as +++). Thirty-five percent of the children had esophagitis due to concomitant reflux. The presence of H. pylori was associated with follicular gastritis (Pgastritis had a greater likelihood of having H. pylori than those that did not present with gastritis. These results can be extrapolated to other similar populations and should be evaluated in each setting so that this does not become a public health problem within the next few years. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Zhuang, Yuan; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Xiao-fei; Peng, Liu-sheng; Li, Bo-sheng; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Na; Li, Wen-hua; Shi, Yun; Chen, Weisan; Pang, Ken C; Zeng, Ming; Mao, Xu-hu; Yang, Shi-ming; Guo, Hong; Guo, Gang; Liu, Tao; Zuo, Qian-fei; Yang, Hui-jie; Yang, Liu-yang; Mao, Fang-yuan; Lv, Yi-pin; Zou, Quan-ming
Helper T (Th) cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Th22 cells represent a newly discovered Th cell subset, but their relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA analyses were performed to examine cell, protein and transcript levels in gastric samples from patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Gastric tissues from interleukin (IL)-22-deficient and wild-type (control) mice were also examined. Tissue inflammation was determined for pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory protein production. Gastric epithelial cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for Th22 cell function assays. Th22 cells accumulated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Th22 cell polarisation was promoted via the production of IL-23 by dendritic cells (DC) during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation within the gastric mucosa. This inflammation was characterised by the CXCR2-dependent influx of MDSCs, whose migration was induced via the IL-22-dependent production of CXCL2 by gastric epithelial cells. Under the influence of IL-22, MDSCs, in turn, produced pro-inflammatory proteins, such as S100A8 and S100A9, and suppressed Th1 cell responses, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis. This study, therefore, identifies a novel regulatory network involving H. pylori, DCs, Th22 cells, gastric epithelial cells and MDSCs, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within the gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this Th22-dependent pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy in the therapy of H. pylori-associated gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Human and animals studies support the idea that there is a gender-related co-morbidity of pain-related and inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with psychological disorders. This co-morbidity is the evidence for the existence of GI-brain axis which consists of immune (cytokines), neural (vagus nerve) and neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathways. Psychological stress causes disturbances in GI physiology, such as altered GI barrier function, changes in motility and secretion, development of visceral hypersensitivity, and dysfunction of inflammatory responses. Whether GI inflammation would exert impact on psychological behavior is not well established. We examined the effect of experimental gastritis on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats, and evaluated potential mechanisms of action. Gastritis was induced by adding 0.1% (w/v) iodoacetamide (IAA) to the sterile drinking water for 7 days. Sucrose preference test assessed the depression-like behavior, open field test and elevated plus maze evaluated the anxiety-like behavior. IAA treatment induced gastric inflammation in rats of either gender. No behavioral abnormality or dysfunction of GI-brain axis was observed in male rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were apparent and the HPA axis was hyperactive in female rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Our results show that gastric inflammation leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats via the neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathway, suggesting that the GI inflammation can impair normal brain function and induce changes in psychological behavior in a gender-related manner through the GI-to-brain signaling. PMID:24345032
Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin, so gastrointestinal symptoms are very rare; these described in the literature are merely nausea and vomiting. Severe complications in the gastrointestinal tract caused by tetrodotoxin have not been radiologically reported. US and CT show thickening of the gastric wall and contraction of the lumen, and upper gastrointestinal series show shortening, lobulation and irregularity of the lesser and greater curvature of the body and antrum similar to the findings of corrosive gastritis.
Rosania, R; Varbanova, M; Wex, T; Langner, C; Bornschein, J; Giorgio, F; Ierardi, E; Malfertheiner, P
Gastric premalignant conditions, atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are characterized by an increase of proliferation and a reduction of apoptosis in epithelial cells. The epithelial cell kinetics in AG and IM in gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epithelial cell turnover and expression of proliferation and apoptosis-related genes in gastric cancer (GC) and adjacent mucosa with atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia (AG/IM GC+), as well as in atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia mucosa of patients without GC (AG/IM GC-) and in control biopsy samples of non-transformed gastric mucosa (Control). We selected 58 patients (M: F = 34:24; age range 20-84 years, median 61.06 years) with 4 well defined histological conditions: 20 controls with histological finding of non-transformed gastric mucosa, 20 patients with AG or IM (AG/IM GC-), and 18 patients with intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) and AG or IM in the adjacent mucosa (3 cm from the macroscopic tumour margin, AG/IM GC+). We performed an immunohistochemical staining of Ki67 and TUNEL and quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression of PCNA and Bax/Bcl-2. The immunohistochemical expression of Ki67 and TUNEL in AG/IM GC- was significantly increased compared to not transformed gastric mucosa (p gastritis and IM in presence of cancer, as well as intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma.
Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Maekita, Takao; Yamashita, Satoshi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ando, Takayuki; Niwa, Tohru; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao
Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of diffuse-type cancer. Methylation levels in stomach mucosae of 78 healthy volunteers were determined by real-time methylation-specific PCR or bisulfite pyrosequencing. Examined loci were the promoter CpG islands of six genes (FLNc, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, HRASLS, and LOX) and the CpG sites of non-coding repetitive elements (Alu and Satα) that are reportedly altered by H. pylori infection. Activity of H. pylori-related gastritis was evaluated using two serum markers: H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen II. Methylation levels of the six CpG islands were consistently increased, and those of the two repetitive elements were consistently decreased in a stepwise manner with the activity of gastric inflammation as represented by serum marker levels. Each serum marker level was well correlated with the overall DNA methylation status of stomach mucosa, and these two serologic markers were additive in the detection of the mucosa with severely altered DNA methylation. Alteration in mucosal DNA methylation level was closely correlated with activity of H. pylori-related gastritis as evaluated by serum markers. The observed correlation between altered DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis appears to be one of the relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diffuse-type cancer.
Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Shiota, Seiji; Binh, Tran Thanh; Mahachai, Varocha
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to identify H. pylori genotypes and to examine their associations with geographical regions and gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010--March 2012 were enrolled. Two biopsy specimens (one each from the antrum and corpus) were obtained for CLO testing and only CLO test-positive gastric tissue were used to extract DNA. PCR and sequencing were identified for variants of the cagA and vacA genotypes. Some 119 Laos patients (36.2%) were found to be infected with H. pylori including 83 with gastritis, 13 with gastric ulcers (GU), 20 with duodenal ulcers (DU) and 3 with gastric cancer. cagA was detected in 99.2%. East-Asian-type cagA (62%) and vacA s1c (64.7%) were predominant genotypes in Laos. vacA s1c-m1b was significantly higher in GU than gastritis (53.8% vs. 24.1%; P-value=0.04) whereas vacA s1a-m2 was significantly higher in DU than gastritis (40.0% vs. 16.9%; P-value=0.03). East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1c were significantly higher in highland than lowland Lao (100% vs. 55.8%; P-value=0.001 and 88.2% vs. 61.5%, P-value=0.03 respectively). H. pylori is a common infection in Laos, as in other countries in Southeast Asia. The cagA gene was demonstrated in nearly all Laos patients, cagA and vacA genotypes being possible important factors in explaining H. pylori infection and disease outcomes in Laos.
Martínez-López, Juan L E; Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M
Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger.
Halme, L; Kärkkäinen, P; Rautelin, H; Kosunen, T U; Sipponen, P
The frequency of gastric Crohn's disease has been considered low. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with Crohn's disease. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed on 62 consecutive patients suffering from ileocolonic Crohn's disease. Biopsy specimens from the antrum and corpus were processed for both histological and bacteriological examinations. H pylori antibodies of IgG and IgA classes were measured in ...
Roka, Kleoniki; Roubani, Aikaterini; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Chouliaras, Giorgos
Recent studies have shown that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are less likely to be infected with Helicobacter pylori compared with non-IBD patients. We aimed to study the prevalence of H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastritis in newly diagnosed children with IBD in comparison to those with non-IBD in Greece. All children who underwent first esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy between 2002 and 2011 were retrospectively included. Four groups were studied: patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), IBD unclassified (IBDU), and non-IBD individuals (non-IBD). Helicobacter pylori infection was defined by positive culture or by positive histology and CLO test. Those children with negative or not available culture and only one positive test (histology or CLO) were further evaluated by urea breath test, and the positives were also included in the infected group. We studied 159 patients with IBD (66 CD, 34 UC, and 59 IBDU) and 1209 patients in non-IBD individuals. Helicobacter pylori gastritis was less frequent in the IBD group (3.8% vs 13.2% in the control group, p gastritis were 3.3 times more likely to belong in the IBD group compared with H. pylori-positive patients (p = .006). Occurrence of H. pylori gastritis is less frequent in children with IBD compared with controls. Our study confirms an inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. Future studies are needed to distinguish between a true protective role of H. pylori and a confounding effect due to previous antibiotic use in children with IBD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wei, Yue; Ma, Li-Xin; Yin, Sheng-Jun; An, Jing; Wei, Qi; Yang, Jin-Xiang
To assess the clinical effects and safety of Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZ) for the treatment of chronic gastritis (CG), three English databases and four Chinese databases were searched through the inception to January 2015. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HQJZ with placebo, no intervention and western medicine were included. A total of 9 RCTs involving 979 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that HQJZ plus conventional medicine was more effective in improving overall gastroscopy outcome than western medicine alone for treatment of chronic superficial gastritis with the pooling result of overall improvement [OR 3.78 (1.29,11.06), P = 0.02]. In addition, the combination of HQJZ with antibiotics has higher overall effect rate than antibiotics alone for the treatment of CG [OR 2.60 (1.49,4.54), P = 0.0007]. There were no serious adverse events reported in both the intervention and controlled groups. HQJZ has the potential of improvement of the patients' gastroscopy outcomes, Helicobacter pylori clearance rate, traditional Chinese Medicine syndromes, and overall effect rate alone or in combination use with conventional western medicine for chronic atrophic gastritis. However, due to poor methodological quality, the beneficial effect and safeties of HQJZ for CG could not be confirmed. PMID:26819622
Ahmad, F.; Khan, I.
Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and gastric malignancies as gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Its definitive diagnosis is based on histopathology. Routine H and E stain is not very effective in its detection, immune-stains and fluorescent stains are costly. Need for simple cheap and sensitive stain has always been a topic of hot debate and extensive research. Method: paraffin embedded blocks of all adult patients diagnosed as chronic gastritis/gastric ulceration with no accompanying gastric pathology as hypertrophic gastropathys, and neoplasias were taken into study. Three sections of 4 micron were cut and stained with routine H and E, Giemsa, and Cresyl fast violet. Results: Total number of patients was 50. Out of these 37 (74%) were males and 13 (26%) were females. Mean age of the patients was 50.4 years. Thirty-four percent (34%) were positive in normal H and E stain, 68% were positive in Giemsa and 76% were positive in Cresyl fast violet. Conclusion: Cresyl fast violet is a good stain for diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. (author)
Chen, Qi; Lu, Hong
The Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis has had a great effect on the field of H. pylori studies worldwide. For the first time H. pylori gastritis was defined entirely as an infectious disease and H. pylori-associated dyspepsia as a new category of organic dyspepsia apart from functional dyspepsia, together with a proposed diagnostic algorithm. Accordingly, the report states that the eradication of H. pylori should be regarded as the first-line treatment for dyspepsia. Moreover, H. pylori eradication before the development of pre-neoplastic changes is recommended to reduce the risk of more serious complications of H. pylori gastritis. Despite the recommendations of this new global consensus, the task of transforming them into feasible and practical recommendations for individual countries will require them to become region-specific, which requires further discussion. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Samaka, R.M.; Abdou, A.G.; Abd El-Wahed, M.M.; Kandil, M.A.; El-Kady, N.M.
Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is the inducible form of cyclooxygenase enzyme. Cox-2 is induced in numerous processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Purpose: Assessment of Cox-2 expression in chronic gastritis s and gastric carcinoma. Material and Methods: Sixteen chronic gastritis (CG) and 43 gastric carcinoma cases were subjected to an immunohistochemical approach using anti Cox-2 antibody. Results: All CG cases displayed positive epithelial Cox-2 expression with only 25% positivity for stromal expression. Eighty six percent of gastric carcinoma showed epithelial Cox-2 expression that was significantly correlated with lymph node involvement (p=0.01), advanced stage (p=0.01), high micro vessel density (MVD) (p=0.0001), vascular invasion (p=0.002), peri neural invasion (p=0.0 I) and low apoptotic count (p<0.0001). Stromal Cox-2 expression was seen in 79% of gastric carcinoma cases and was significantly associated with low apoptotic count (p=0.0007), vascular invasion (p=0.001) and high micro vessel density (MVD) (p=0.0003). Only stromal Cox2 expression was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma than chronic gastritis (p=0.0001). Conclusions: Cox-2 appears to be involved in gastric carcinoma progression as it promotes angio genesis, suppresses apoptosis and facilitates invasion and metastasis Double expression of Cox-2 in gastric carcinoma epithelium and stroma and significant association between them demonstrate a paracrine cross effect between stromal and malignant epithelium
Tala, Z. Z.; Siregar, G. A.; Siregar, G. P.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with leads to oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa. GPX is one of human antioxidative defense system allows the elimination of excess ROS. A cross-sectional study was in 80 consecutive gastritis patients who came to the endoscopic unit of Adam Malik General Hospital and PermataBunda Hospital in Medan, Indonesia, from May–September 2017, to determine the difference of GPX serum level between positive and negative infected H. pylori. the diagnosis of gastritis used Histopathology. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determined circulating GPX. It used Univariate and bivariate analysis (Mann Whitney U test). There were 50 patients (62.5%) infected with H. pylori. GPX levels in patients with positive H. pylori gastritis were lower than those of negative H. pylori but did not differ significantly. In conclusion, there were no significant differences in GPX level between positive and negative infected H. pylori patients.
Full Text Available The decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in children in the world gave rise to a new pathological finding termed as Hp-negative gastritis. Unfortunately, the term “Hp-negative gastritis” has not been identified as a pathological process and has the status of a “second cousin”; in most publications it was never mentioned as a subject to be dealt with, but was “left over” data that was never the topic of the manuscripts’ discussions. Only recently has the topic captured the attention of the pathologists who described this phenomenon in adults, yet the pathological and/or clinical spectrum or significance of this phenomenon has not been adequately investigated. In the current manuscript we describe Hp-negative gastritis in children, summarize its clinical prevalence and touch upon the possible etiology, pathology, and/or therapeutic implication. Overall, this review has concluded that Hp-negative gastritis is a pathological phenomenon in children that needs further investigation, and to date, as the title suggests, is a new clinical enigma that needs to be considered.
Sampieri, Clara Luz; de la Peña, Sol; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; León-Córdoba, Kenneth
To assess expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in gastric cancer, superficial gastritis and normal mucosa, and to measure metalloproteinase activity. MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalization was carried out using three different factors. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative gelatin zymography (qGZ). 18S ribosomal RNA (18SRNA) was very highly expressed, while hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase-1 (HPRT-1) was moderately expressed. MMP2 was highly expressed, while MMP9 was not detected or lowly expressed in normal tissues, moderately or highly expressed in gastritis and highly expressed in cancer. Relative expression of 18SRNA and HPRT-1 showed no significant differences. Significant differences in MMP2 and MMP9 were found between cancer and normal tissue, but not between gastritis and normal tissue. Absolute quantification of MMP9 echoed this pattern, but differential expression of MMP2 proved conflictive. Analysis by qGZ indicated significant differences between cancer and normal tissue in MMP-2, total MMP-9, 250 and 110 kDa bands. MMP9 expression is enhanced in gastric cancer compared to normal mucosa; interpretation of differential expression of MMP2 is difficult to establish.
Mason, Katie L; Erb Downward, John R; Falkowski, Nicole R; Young, Vincent B; Kao, John Y; Huffnagle, Gary B
The indigenous bacterial microbiome of the stomach, including lactobacilli, is vital in promoting colonization resistance against Candida albicans. However, there are gaps in our understanding about C. albicans gastric colonization versus disease, especially during the postantibiotic recovery phase. This study compared the gastric responses to C. albicans strains CHN1 and SC5314 in microbiome-disturbed and germfree mice to elucidate the contribution of the indigenous microbiota in C. albicans colonization versus disease and yeast-bacterium antagonism during the post-cefoperazone recolonization period. C. albicans can prevent the regrowth of Lactobacillus spp. in the stomach after cefoperazone and promote increased colonization by Enterococcus spp. Using a culture-independent analysis, the effects of oral cefoperazone on the gastric bacterial microbiota were observed to last at least 3 weeks after the cessation of the antibiotic. Disturbance of the gastric bacterial community by cefoperazone alone was not sufficient to cause gastritis, C. albicans colonization was also needed. Gastritis was not evident until after day 7 in cefoperazone-treated infected mice. In contrast, in germfree mice which lack a gastric microbiota, C. albicans induced gastric inflammation within 1 week of inoculation. Therefore, the gastric bacterial community in cefoperazone-treated mice during the first week of postantibiotic recolonization was sufficient to prevent the development of gastritis, despite being ineffective at conferring colonization resistance against C. albicans. Altogether, these data implicate a dichotomy between C. albicans colonization and gastric disease that is bacterial microbiome dependent.
Angelini, G; Castagnini, A; Rizzoli, R; Pasini, A F; Lavarini, E; Brocco, G; Scuro, L A
Altered gastro-duodenal motility seems to be a major factor of alkaline gastritis. Therefore prokinetic drugs have been extensively used for the treatment of this disease. Aim of this study has been to compare the effects of domperidone with those of a more recent drug of the orthopramide class, clebopride. Thirty patients affected by reflux gastritis have been randomly allocated to one of the two treatments. Clinical symptoms, endoscopic and histologic appearance of gastric mucosa, gastric pH and bile acid concentration in gastric juice have been evaluated before and after a four week course of therapy. A statistically significant improvement was observed for the clinical symptoms in the subjects treated with clebopride. Even if no statistical difference has been pointed out for the other parameters between and within the two groups, a slight trend in favour of clebopride was observed. It is concluded that clebopride is at least as effective as domperidone for the treatment of reflux gastritis but that more prolonged studies and different administration schedules are requested for a better evaluation.
Edwin Hurtado Orobio
Full Text Available Se estudió si las aristas traseras de las juntas longitudinales de una losa de piso, fija al fondo de un canal con flujo supercrítico, convierten energía cinética en energía de presión en el rango de números de Froude de 2,84 a 10,12. En cada prueba, se midió la presión en 16 puntos de su cara inferior, con transductores piezoresistivos en tres líneas longitudinales: una central con 8 sensores y dos laterales, a lado y lado de la primera, con cuatro sensores cada una. De esta forma, se determinó la distribución de las presiones medias debajo de la losa ensayada, similar a las usadas en obras civiles para evitar la acción erosiva de la turbulencia de un flujo supercrítico. El análisis de las presiones medidas muestra que, aún cuando las caras superiores del piso del canal y del bloque protector estén en el mismo plano horizontal, las aristas traseras de las juntas longitudinales transforman energía de velocidad en energía de presión. Así, se ha detectado un factor que interviene en la generación de la fuerza hidrodinámica que levanta revestimientos de diverso tipos de estructuras, hasta ahora ignorado en el estudio de este problema.
Carbonell, C.; Ogbac, R.V.
Full text: Gastritis is simply defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In post-RAI patients, this is one of the most common complications that are encountered. Some patients may even require repetitive administration of high doses of radioactive iodine (I-131). Small doses of radiation (up to 1500 R) cause reversible mucosal damage, whereas higher radiation doses cause irreversible damage with atrophy and ischemic-related ulceration. Reversible changes consist of degenerative changes in epithelial cells and nonspecific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria. Higher amounts of radiation cause permanent mucosal damage, with atrophy of fundic glands, mucosal erosions, and capillary hemorrhage. Associated submucosal endarteritis results in mucosal ischemia and secondary ulcer development. Recurrent gastritis, if left untreated, may be a predisposing factor for gastric malignancy. Methods:A total of thirty post-RAI subjects were evaluated for signs and symptoms of gastritis and were divided into 3 groups which were given drugs for gastritis (H2-receptor antagonist, proton pump inhibitor, and sucralfate). Survey forms were distributed to evaluate the presence of nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain (graded according to severity of pain), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Results were tallied accordingly. Results and Discussion: In a total of 3 subjects who were given sucralfate, all of them did not experience any nausea and vomiting. One subject experienced mild epigastric discomfort and another subject was able to experience a non-specific symptom of abdominal bloatedness. (Note: Subjects are still for completion) In theory, radiation irritates the mucosa causing inflammation and mucosal damage which is further irritated by gastric acid secretion. The administration of H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors only inhibit gastric acid secretion while existing inflammation of mucosa due to high doses of radiation is left untreated. However
Genta, R M; Turner, K O; Sonnenberg, A
Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) can lead to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. To investigate in a cross-sectional study these changes among different socioeconomic and ethnic groups within the USA. We used the Miraca Life Sciences database, an electronic depository of clinicopathological records from patients distributed throughout the USA, to extract data from 487 587 patients who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy between 1/2008 and 12/2014. We then classified patients into ethnic and socioeconomic categories using previously validated algorithms, as well as ZIP code-based information derived from the 2011-2012 US Census. The prevalence of Hp increased significantly until the age-group 40-49, before it leveled off and started a gradual decrease. The prevalence of chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia increased significantly with age. The prevalence of Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and atrophy decreased significantly with the percentage of Whites per ZIP code. The prevalence of all four diagnoses also decreased significantly with rising levels of income or college education. Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were more common among Hispanics and the influence of income or college education less pronounced than in the entire population. Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were also more common among East-Asians, Hp and atrophy decreasing with rising income but remaining unaffected by levels of college education. Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors influence the occurrence of Hp gastritis, and its progression to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Avvakumova, N V; Chibyeva, L G; Vasiliev, N N
Chronic gastritis with syndrome, functional dyspepsia (SFD) is one of the most pressing problems in medicine. Certain scientific and practical interest is the elucidation of the frequency and clinical manifestations of functional dyspepsia in patients hospitalized in the gastroenterology department YAGKB and frequency combinations of chronic gastritis (including H. pylori) with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and morphological features of the chronic gastritis with syndrome pattern of functional dyspepsia in native-born and people of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), and to assess the effectiveness of treatment, depending on the gastric acid and H. pylori. This study examined 105 patients with functional dyspepsia, including 41 patients with epigastric pain syndrome and 64 patients with postprandial distress syndrome. Considered groups of patients were homogeneous for age, gender, by ethnicity. Of the 105 patients included in the study, I group were 57 indigenous people (80% of them--Yakutia), 11 group--48 people visiting (Caucasians). Clinical presentation and course of chronic gastritis with functional dyspepsia in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) have a number of distinctive features: epigastric pain syndrome occurs in 26.8% of patients and 73.2% of the indigenous population of the visitor, the intensity of pain in the root is much lower than that of visitors--12 and 85% respectively. Postprandial distress syndrome was diagnosed in 71.9% of patients and 28.1% of the indigenous newcomers. At endoscopy in all patients with functional dyspepsia diagnosed chronic gastritis. The native inhabitants of the most common mixed gastritis (54.5%), the newcomers--superficial gastritis (66.7%). The found features of a current of functional dyspepsia can be further the basis for the individualized and differentiated approaches to treatment of this disease.
Hnatyszyn, Andrzej; Wielgus, Karolina; Kaczmarek-Rys, Marta; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Mikolajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Stanczyk, Jerzy; Dziuba, Ireneusz; Mikstacki, Adam; Slomski, Ryszard
Epidemiological investigations indicated association of the Helicobacter pylori infections with the occurrence of inflammatory conditions of the gastric mucosa and development of chronic gastritis and intestinal type of gastric cancer. IL1A and IL1B genes have been proposed as key factors in determining risk of gastritis and malignant transformation. The aim of this paper was to evaluate association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and intestinal type of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. Patients subjected to analysis represent group of 144 consecutive cases that suffered from dyspepsia with coexisting infection of H. pylori and chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or gastric cancer. Molecular studies involved analysis of -889C>T polymorphism of IL1A gene and +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene. Statistical analysis of association of polymorphism -889C>T of gene IL1A with changes in gastric mucosa showed lack of significance, whereas +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene showed significant association. Frequency of allele T of +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene was higher in group of patients with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or intestinal type of gastric cancer (32.1 %) as compared with population group (23 %), χ(2) = 4.61 and p = 0.03. This corresponds to odds ratio: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.4. Our results indicate that +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene increase susceptibility to inflammatory response of gastric mucosa H. pylori-infected patients and plays a significant role in the development of chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and the initiation of carcinogenesis.
Shenouda, Michael M; Harb, Shady ElGhazaly; Mikhail, Sameh A A; Mokhtar, Sherif M; Osman, Ayman M A; Wassef, Arsany T S; Rizkallah, Nayer N H; Milad, Nader M; Anis, Shady E; Nabil, Tamer Mohamed; Zaki, Nader Sh; Halepian, Antoine
Laparoscopic single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB) is increasingly performed for morbidly obese patients. This pilot study aims primarily at evaluating the incidence of bile gastritis after SAGB. The occurrence of reflux oesophagitis and reflux symptoms were also assessed. This study included 20 patients having no reflux symptoms. All patients underwent a SAGB as a primary bariatric procedure by a single surgeon. Patients included consented to have an upper GI endoscopy done at 6 months postoperatively. Gastric aspirate was sent for bilirubin level assessment. Gastric and esophageal biopsies were submitted for histopathology and campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test. In our study, the rate of bile gastritis was 30%. In 18 patients, the level of bilirubin in gastric aspirate seems to be related to the degree of mucosal inflammation. The remaining two patients had microscopic moderate to severe gastritis with normal aspirate bilirubin level. Two patients with bilirubin level in aspirate more than 20 mg/dl had severe oesophagitis, gastritis with erosions, and metaplasia. Relationship between bilirubin level and histopathological findings of gastric biopsy examination was statistically significant with a P value of 0.001. The incidence of bile gastritis in this cohort is higher than reported in the literature, and this may be worrying. The correlation between endoscopic findings and patients' symptoms is poor. Bilirubin level and pH in aspirate might be useful tools to confirm alkaline reflux. Its level might help to choose candidates for revision surgery after SAGB. This needs further validation with larger sample size.
Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig
Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age 8.3±4.8y) with chronic gastritis (36 H. pylori +, 46 H. pylori -) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers CDX2, ephrin type-B receptor 4, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7/82 (9%) and intestinal metaplasia in 5/82 (6%) by routine histology, while 6 (7%) additional children (3 H. pylori +) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without intestinal metaplasia. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (p<0.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H. pylori + biopsies (p<0.0001), while intestinal metaplasia and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H. pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95 % (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the work-up of pediatric gastritis. PMID:24656654
Full Text Available Abstract Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164 uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; p Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results.
Lv, Yi-Pin; Teng, Yong-Sheng; Mao, Fang-Yuan; Peng, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Yu-Gang; Kong, Hui; Wang, Ting-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Long; Hao, Chuan-Jie; Chen, Weisan; Yang, Shi-Ming; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Han, Bin; Ma, Qiang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Zhuang, Yuan
Interleukin (IL)-induced inflammatory responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis. IL-33 represents a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases, but its relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Here, we found that gastric IL-33 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori, which is positively correlated with bacterial load and the degree of gastritis. IL-33 production was promoted via extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway activation by gastric epithelial cells in a cagA-dependent manner during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation and bacteria burden within the gastric mucosa. Gastric epithelial cell-derived IL-33 promoted TNF-α production from mast cells in vitro, and IL-33 increased TNF-α production in vivo. Increased TNF-α inhibited gastric epithelial cell proliferation, conducing to the progress of H. pylori-associated gastritis and bacteria colonization. This study defined a patent regulatory networks involving H. pylori, gastric epithelial cell, IL-33, mast cell, and TNF-α, which jointly play a pathological effect within the gastric circumstances. It may be a valuable strategy to restrain this IL-33-dependent pathway in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis.
van Bohemen, C. G.; Langenberg, M. L.; Rauws, E. A.; Oudbier, J.; Weterings, E.; Zanen, H. C.
The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by
Dhar, Poshmaal; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip
The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent of a range of gastrointestinal pathologies including peptic ulcer disease and the major killer, gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection with this bacterium induces a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa (gastritis). It is this gastritis that, over decades, eventually drives the development of H. pylori-associated disease in some individuals. The majority of studies investigating H. pylori pathogenesis have focused on factors that promote disease development in infected individuals. However, an estimated 85% of those infected with H. pylori remain completely asymptomatic, despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria that drive a chronic gastritis that lasts many decades. This indicates the presence of highly effective regulatory processes in the host that, in most cases, keeps a check on inflammation and protect against disease. In this minireview we discuss such known host factors and how they prevent the development of H. pylori-associated pathologies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Vinesh, E; Masthan, Kmk; Kumar, M Sathish; Jeyapriya, S Marytresa; Babu, Aravindha; Thinakaran, Meera
The aim and objectives of this study are to identify oral changes in certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, namely gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcerative colitis, gastritis, and to evaluate these oral symptoms as indicators for assessing GI disorders. In this study, the oral manifestations of various GI disorders were assessed in a varying age group of 250 patients in Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Out of 250 patients, 142 were affected by GERD, 99 were affected by gastritis, and 9 patients were affected by ulcerative colitis. Of these patients, 177 were males and 73 were females. Evaluation of patients with gastritis revealed that 66.7% affected with gingivitis, 19.2% with dental erosion on the palatal and lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth predominantly in the anterior region, 10.1% with periodontitis, 2% with gingival erythema. Among the patients with GERD, 44% of the cases showed dental erosion, 25.5% periodontitis, 9.9% gingivitis, 5.7% gingival erythema, 2.8% palatal erythema, 2.1% gingival ulcers, glossitis 2%, 1.4% floor of the mouth erythema, and 0.7% erythema of the tongue. Patients with ulcerative colitis showed 44.4% of gingival erythema, 33.3% of dental erosions, and 22.2% of gingival ulcers and periodontitis. In our study of 250 patients, oral manifestations were observed in 88% of the patients. Both soft tissue and hard tissue changes were evident. There was a high correlation between various GI disease and dental erosion, erythema at various sites of the oral cavity, oral ulcers, gingivitis, periodontitis, and glossitis. Careful evaluation of oral cavity may unveil many GI disorders and help the patient by providing early diagnosis, which further facilitates the prognosis.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical and pathogenetic role in the formation of gastrointestinal hyperactivity and chronic allergic gastritis in children. Patients and methods. We observed 82 children aged 6 to 16 years. To verify the diagnosis all the children performed endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, intragastric pHmeter. To confirm the genesis of atopic disease of patients determined the level general IgE in the serum by ELISA. Results. As a result of studies we find, that in majority (92.7±2.9% patients examined early symptoms of gastrointestinal hyperactivity were diagnosed in the first six months of life. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity in infants is manifested by increased functional reaction of the gastrointestinal system, namely the disorders of the digestive and motorevacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. In older children gastrointestinal hyperactivity transformed intoallergic gastritis, which is manifested by destructive changes of the gastric mucosa, increased production of hydrochloric acid , motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract mainly in the form of duodenogastric reflux. It was found that the determining factors of the formation of allergic inflammation should be considered a high percentage of family history as a gastroenterological and allergic diseases, disorders physiological feeding graphics and nutrition of children from the first days of life. A characteristic feature of current gastroenterological diseases in patients with gastrointestinal hyperactivity was the absence of seasonal exacerbations, severe pain in the right upper quadrant, belching and flatulence, against the background of destructive changes in the gastric mucosa. Conclusions. We have identified specific clinical symptoms is pathognomonic for children with gastrointestinal hyperactivity and provides the opportunity to be watchful for the diagnosis of allergic changes in the gastric
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is a long progressive illness caused by inflammation of the gastric mucosa; combined with loss of epithelial regeneration, atrophy of lymphoid tissue and impairment of gastric secretory and motility functions.1 Evidence of illness is noted by inflammation and redness to the mucosa followed by stomach ulcer through reactivation and recrudescence and it is caused by loss of balance between musical protective and damaging factors. The loss of acid base balance and mucosal bicarbonate deficiency in the stomach constitute the major role in pathogenesis of inflammation and ulcers. The mucus of gastric mucosal layer softens the epithelium while it protects mucous membranes from hydrochloric acid. Glycoprotein included in the mucin is not able to protect mucous membranes by itself and it becomes protective after transforming into the gel in alkaline environment. Digestive tract diseases are the second leading cause out of top 5 morbidity causes in Mongolia.2 Chronic gastritis accounts for 12% of total incidences of digestive tract diseases.3 There was an increased demand to study the effects of pharmacologic treatment with low cost and less adverse effect during this period of high morbidity of digestive tract among the population and it became the main reason to conduct this study. The Anar-5 herbal medicine has been used for early symptoms of any stomach pain, vomiting, disorders of digestion, stomach irritation and loss of appetite in Mongolian traditional medicine. In order to provide scientifically based description for effect/mechanisms of this medicine, we have tried to identify protective effects of Anar-5 herbal medicine for stomach as we create the model of the chronic gastritis.
Chen, Tiejun; Sun, Liping; He, Caiyun; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan
Most studies have found that osteopontin (OPN) expression level is related to the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. However, few studies have examined the relationship between OPN expression and gastric precancerous diseases, and the potential role of OPN in the formation and development of GC. We investigated the relationships between serum OPN levels and the risks of gastric cancer (GC) and its precancerous disease, to explore the diagnostic efficacy of serum OPN level for GC and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors. A total of 1,452 patients were enrolled, including 609 with mild superficial gastritis (SG), 594 with atrophic gastritis (AG) and 249 with GC. The levels of serum OPN and serum Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum OPN levels increased from mild SG (1.99 ± 1.91 ng/ml) to AG (2.37 ± 2.27 ng/ml) to GC (5.94 ± 4.52 ng/ml) (P ≤ 0.002), along with increasing severity of gastric disease. OPN levels were significantly higher in patients with GC compared with the non-cancer population (2.17 ± 2.10, P < 0.0001). Serum OPN level was positively correlated with age and was higher in men than women, but was not correlated with H. pylori infection status. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.805, the optimal cutoff was 2.56 ng/ml and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.3% and 71.8%, respectively, for the ability of serum OPN to discriminate GC. Serum OPN expression was closely related to the risks of GC and AG, and it might be a useful marker for the discrimination of GC. OPN level was positively correlated with age and male sex, but was not affected by H. pylori infection, and it was promoted by smoking and drinking, in patients with mild SG.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autoimmune atrophic fundic gastritis induces the pernicious anemia (PA, as well as the changes in both epithelium and endocrine cells of gastric mucosa. The most important complications are: achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia, gastric cancer and enterochromaffin-like ( ECL carcinoid. The aim of this study was to examine ECL carcinoid histogenesis in A-gastritis associated with PA. Methods. During the period from 2000−2006, 65 patients with PA and 30 patients of the control group were examined. Histopathological examination was done in endoscopical biopsies of gastric mucosa fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Paraffin sections were stained with classic hematoxylin-eosin (HE; histochemical AB-PAS (pH 2.5, cytochemical argyrophilic Servier-Munger′s and immunocytochemical PAP methods for G cell identification and chromogranin A antibodies - specific marker for neuroendocrine ECL cells. Both G and ECL cells were counted per 20 fields, of surface 0.0245312 mm2 by a field. Basal gastrin serum levels were also examined by using radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The obtained results were statisticaly calculated by using Student΄s t test. Results. Marked antral G cell hyperplasia associated with corporal ECL hyperplasia was found. ECL cell hyperplasia was of simplex, linear, adenomatoid type to the pattern of intramucous ECL cell carcinoid. An average number of G cells was statistically significant in the patients with PA as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 as well as an average number of ECL cells. Conclusion. We concluded that antral G cell hyperplasia accompanied by gastrinemia induces ECL hyperplasia and ECL corporal carcinoid in A-gastritis and that their histogenesis develops trough simple, linear and adenomatoide hyperplasia. .
Ramis, Ivy Bastos; Vianna, Júlia Silveira; Halicki, Priscila Cristina Bartolomeu; Lara, Caroline; Tadiotto, Thássia Fernanda; da Silva Maciel, João Batista; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; von Groll, Andrea; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. The severity of damage is determined by the interplay between environmental/behavioral factors, bacterial pathogenicity genes and host genetic polymorphisms that can influence the secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, this study aimed to identify polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-1RN genes and their associations with H. pylori infection, cagA gene of H. pylori, and gastroduodenal diseases. Gastric biopsy samples from 151 patients infected with H. pylori and 76 uninfected individuals were analyzed. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histology and PCR. Polymorphisms at positions -511, -31 and +3954 of the IL-1B gene were detected by PCR-RFLP, and an analysis of the VNTR polymorphism of the IL-1RN gene was performed by PCR. It was observed that the presence of the T/T genotype at position -511 and the C/C genotype at position -31 were associated with H. pylori infection and with an increased risk of gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients. Additionally, strains from patients H. pylori-positive carrying the cagA gene was significantly related with the T/T genotype at position -511 of IL-1B. No association of polymorphisms at position +3954 of IL-1B and in the IL-1RN with H. pylori infection and with risk of severe gastric diseases was found. We demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-1B gene (at positions -511 and -31) are associated with an enhanced risk of H. pylori infection as well as gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P M
To evaluate current evidence for a causal relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer and nonulcer dyspepsia. A MEDLINE search for articles published in English between January 1983 and December 1992 with the use of MeSH terms Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, dyspepsia and clinical trial; abstracts were excluded. Six journals and Current Contents were searched manually for pertinent articles published in that time frame. Original studies with at least 25 patients, case reports and reviews that examined the relation between H. pylori and the four gastrointestinal disorders; 350 articles were on gastritis, 122 on duodenal ulcer, 44 on gastric cancer and 96 on nonulcer dyspepsia. The quality of the studies was rated independently on a four-point scale. The strength of the evidence was assessed using a six-point scale for each of the eight established guidelines for determining a causal relation. There was conclusive evidence of a causal relation between H. pylori infection and histologic gastritis. Koch's postulates for the identification of a microorganism as the causative agent of a disease were fulfilled for H. pylori as a causative agent of gastritis. There was strong evidence that H. pylori is the main cause of duodenal ulcers not induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but all of Koch's postulates were not fulfilled. There was moderate epidemiologic evidence of an association between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. There was a lack of convincing evidence of a causal association between H. pylori and nonulcer dyspepsia. The evidence supports a strong causal relation between H. pylori infection and gastritis and duodenal ulcer and a moderate relation between such infection and gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of H. pylori in these disorders. Thus far, there is no evidence of a causal relation between H. pylori and nonulcer
Graziani, Casey; Hegde, Sanjay; Saif, Muhammad Wasif
Radiation recall refers to chemotherapy-triggered inflammation in healthy areas previously exposed to irradiation. Chemotherapeutics known to be associated with radiation recall phenomenon include anthracyclines, taxanes and antimetabolites, such as gemcitabine and capecitabine. Case reports detailing radiation recall dermatitis and pneumonitis associated with erlotinib have been previously described in the literature, however, there are no reported cases describing radiation gastritis associated with erlotinib. We report a patient with pancreatic cancer who developed gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to radiation recall gastritis related to erlotinib exposure. A 57-year-old Hispanic male with pancreatic cancer initially received 7 cycles of FOLFIRINOX followed by capecitabine with radiation therapy for 28 fractions for a total of 5,040 cGy. Re-staging with computed tomography demonstrated stable disease. The patient was then treated with erlotinib and capecitabine for approximately two months before restaging demonstrated progressive disease. Shortly after discontinuing erlotinib and capecitabine, the patient reported maroon colored stools. Laboratory studies demonstrated a precipitous drop in hemoglobin and hematocrit from pre-treatment baseline, ultimately requiring transfusion with packed red blood cells. Subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated findings consistent with radiation gastritis, with oozing in the gastric body and antrum, which was treated therapeutically with argon plasma coagulation. The patient's gastrointestinal bleed was difficult to control. Over the course of a two-month period - the patient required multiple admissions, repeat therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopies and transfusions. Radiation recall from erlotinib is rare but can potentially arise in any site that has been previously irradiated. There may be an association between the pathogenesis of radiation recall and erlotinib's up-regulation of the angiogenic growth factor
Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens
Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults.
Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.
Li, Xiaozhou; Lin, Junxiu; Jia, Chunde; Wang, Rong
In this paper, we attempt to find a valid method to distinguish gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Auto-fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of laser induced (514.5 nm and 488.0 nm) was measured. The serum spectrum is different between normal and cancer. Average value of diagnosis parameter for normal serum, red shift is less than 12 nm and Raman relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 nm excited is stronger than that of 488.0 nm. To gastric cancer, its red shift of average is bigger than 12 nm and relative intensity of Raman peak C by 514.5 nm excited is weaker than that by 488.0 nm. To atrophic gastritis, the distribution state of Raman peaks is similar with normal serum and auto-fluorescence spectrum's shape is similar to that of gastric cancer. Its average Raman peak red shift is bigger than 12 nm and the relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 excited is stronger than that of by 488.0. We considered it as a criterion and got an accuracy of 85.6% for diagnosis of gastric cancer compared with the result of clinical diagnosis.
Background Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple cystic gastric glands within the submucosa of the stomach. Case description Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old man with intermittent epigastric discomfort in whom gastroscopy revealed multiple irregular elevated nodular lesions with smooth surfaces at the anterior of the antrum. Surgical resection of the nodular lesions was performed, and the diagnosis of gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) was confirmed by histological examination. Another elevated nodular lesion approximately 10 mm in diameter with an ulcer was found on the gastric side of the remnant stomach near the resection side from 6 to 24 months after the surgical resection. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and repeated biopsies of the new elevated lesion were performed. Homogeneous, anechoic masses originating from the submucosa without gastric adenocarcinoma in histological examination showed GCP recurrence may occur. Conclusions We report a case of GCP recurrence within 6 months after surgical resection. GCP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elevated lesions in the stomach. PMID:24885818
Weck, Melanie Nicole; Brenner, Hermann
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a well-established precursor of intestinal gastric cancer, but epidemiologic data about its occurrence are sparse. We provide an overview on studies that examined the prevalence of CAG in different parts of the world. Articles containing data about the prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in unselected population samples and published until November 2005 were identified by searching the MEDLINE database. Furthermore, the references in the identified publications were screened for additional suitable studies. Studies comprising at least 50 subjects were included. Forty-one studies providing data on the prevalence of CAG in unselected population samples could be identified. CAG was determined by gastroscopy in 15 studies and by pepsinogen serum levels in 26 studies. Although results are difficult to compare due to the various definitions of CAG used, a strong increase with age, the lack of major gender differences, and strong variations between populations and population groups (in particular, relatively high rates in certain Asian populations) could be observed quite consistently. We conclude that CAG is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Large-scale international comparative studies with standardized methodology to determine CAG are needed to provide a coherent picture of the epidemiology of CAG in various populations. Noninvasive measurements of CAG by pepsinogen levels may be particularly suited for that purpose.
Khalid, H.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.
To determine the relationship between H. pylori density with severity of chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Pathology (Histopathology), Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad, from Nov 2011 to Nov 2012. Methodology: Gastric antral biopsies of H. pylori associated chronic gastritis were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and relevant clinical information were collected. First hundred biopsies of H. pylori associated chronic gastritis were assessed for density of H. pylori and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. istopathological features like lymphoid aggregates, ulcer slough, superficial epithelial damage, dysplasia and nuclear reactive changes were simply assessed in case of their presence or absence. Results: A significant moderate positive correlation was found between grades of H. pylori and chronic inflammatory infiltrate (rs= 0.636). Insignificant correlation was found with lymphoid aggregates, superficial epithelial damage, dysplasia and nuclear reactive changes. Conclusion: In conclusion this study corroborated the determination of histopathological parameters and depicted that, the greater the density of H. pylori infection, the greater the degrees of chronic inflammatory infiltrate. (author)
Nguyen, Thanh-Long M; Khurana, Shradha S; Bellone, Clifford J; Capoccia, Benjamin J; Sagartz, John E; Kesman, Russell A; Mills, Jason C; DiPaolo, Richard J
Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for cancer, including gastric cancers and other gastrointestinal cancers. For example, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is associated with an increased risk of gastric polyps, gastric carcinoid tumors, and possibly adenocarcinomas. In this study, we characterized the progression of gastric cancer in a novel mouse model of AIG. In this model, disease was caused by CD4(+) T cells expressing a transgenic T-cell receptor specific for a peptide from the H(+)/K(+) ATPase proton pump, a protein expressed by parietal cells in the stomach. AIG caused epithelial cell aberrations that mimicked most of those seen in progression of human gastric cancers, including chronic gastritis followed by oxyntic atrophy, mucous neck cell hyperplasia, spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia, dysplasia, and ultimately gastric intraepithelial neoplasias. Our work provides the first direct evidence that AIG supports the development of gastric neoplasia and provides a useful model to study how inflammation drives gastric cancer. ©2013 AACR.
Tongtawee, Taweesak; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij
Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in gastric cancer, which has a relatively low inciduence in Thailand. MDM2 is a major negative regulator of p53, the key tumor suppressor involved in tumorigenesis of the majority of human cancers. Whether its expression might explain the relative lack of gastric cancer in Thailand was assessed here. This single-center study was conducted in the northeast region of Thailand. Gastric mucosa from 100 patients with Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was analyzed for MDM2 SNP309 using real-time PCR hybridization (light-cycler) probes. In the total 100 Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis cases the incidence of SNP 309 T/T homozygous was 78 % with SNP309 G/T heterozygous found in 19% and SNP309 G/G homozygous in 3%. The result show SNP 309 T/T and SNP 309 G/T to be rather common in the Thai population. Our study indicates that the MDM2 SNP309 G/G homozygous genotype might be a risk factor for gastric cancer in Thailand and the fact that it is infrequent could explain to some extent the low incidence of gastric cancer in the Thai population.
Hangard, P; Lasfargue, M; Rubio, A
There are few data in the literature on microscopic gastritis and colitis in the pediatric population. The diagnosis is often made after the occurrence of complications. We report the case of a 10.5 year-old girl for whom the diagnosis was made several years after the initial symptoms. Test for infections, inflammation, and auto-immunity yielded normal results. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed an abnormal mucosa. However, histology showed microscopic inflammation and fibrotic lesions in the lamina propria, and a thick subepithelial collagenous band. This led to the diagnosis of collagenous gastritis and colitis. Budesonide treatment resulted in the cessation of diarrhea and significant weight gain. Treatment by oral budesonide indeed seems to be highly effective but relapses are frequent when the treatment is stopped. This case shows the importance of being vigilant regarding transit disorders with impact on growth kinetics. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy need to be carried out when children have organic diarrhea with normal blood tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] [and others
The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author).
Choi, Seong Ji; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae; Kim, Jun Suk
Radiation recall gastritis is rare but can be induced after concurrent chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer. We report a patient with pancreatic cancer who developed radiation-recall gastritis related to a combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib. A 54-year-old female with unresectable pancreatic cancer received gemcitabine in combination with radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy with gemcitabine and erlotinib. After completing 2 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient had epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed diffuse wall thickening of the stomach, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed multiple gastric ulcers. The patient was treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and was continued on maintenance chemotherapy. Two months later, the patient presented with the similar symptoms and persistent gastric ulcers were observed during subsequent EGD. Nevertheless, the patient's symptom had resolved with PPI therapy. Thus, the patient underwent maintenance chemotherapy with gemcitabine and erlotinib for additional 4 cycles. Eventually, follow-up abdominal CT Scan and EGD at 6 months demonstrated resolution of the gastric ulcers. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of radiation recall gastritis associated with a combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib. Administration of PPIs may mitigate the adverse effects of gemcitabine and erlotinib in the presence of radiation recall gastritis; however further studies are warranted.
Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi
The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author)
Full Text Available The article deal with study of lymphocyte-macrophage link of the gastric mucosa local immunity in Hр-associated chronic gastritis, taking into account the presence of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA Hр through a standard morphological examination according to the Modified Sydney System and immunohistochemical studies of biopsy specimens.
Evaluating the prevalence and severity of gastritis by endoscopy is useful for estimating the risk of gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, understanding the endoscopic appearances of gastritis is important for diagnosing GC due to the fact that superficial mucosal lesions mimicing gastritis (gastritis-like lesions) are quite difficult to be detected even with optimum preparation and the best technique, and in such cases tissue biopsy is often not very accurate for the diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia. Magnifying endoscopy is a highly accurate technique for the detection of early gastric cancer (EGC). Recent reports have described that various novel endoscopic markers which, visualized by magnifying endoscopy with image-enhanced system (ME-IEE), can predict specific histopathological findings. Using ME-IEE with vessels and surface classification system (VSCS) may represent an excellent diagnostic performance with high confidence and good reproducibility to the endoscopists if performed under consistent conditions, including observation under maximal magnification. The aim of this review was to discuss how to identify high-risk groups for GC by endoscopy, and how to detect effectively signs of suspicious lesions by conventional white light imaging (C-WLI) or chromoendoscopy (CE). Furthermore, to characterize suspicious lesions using ME-IEE using the criteria and classification of EGC based upon VSCS. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Sabry, Dina; Ahmed, Rasha; Abdalla, Sayed; Fathy, Wael; Eldemery, Ahmed; Elamir, Azza
We aimed to study MLH1 and MGMT methylation status in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis in Egyptian patients with and without gastric cancer. 39 patients were included in our study. They were divided into 2 groups; patients without (group I) and with gastric adenocarcinoma (group II). Patients were subjected to clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound and upper endoscopy for gastric biopsy. Biopsies were subjected to urease test, histological examination, and DNA purification. H. pylori, Braf, Kras, MLH1 and MGMT methylation were assessed by quantitative PCR. DNA sequencing was performed to assess Braf and Kras genes mutation. qPCR of H. pylori was significantly higher in patients with adenocarcinoma (group II) than those without adenocarcinoma (group I); with a p gastritis patients. DNA sequence analysis of Braf (codon 12) and Kras (codon 600) had genes mutation in gastric adenocarcinoma versus chronic gastritis. H. pylori may cause epigenetic changes predisposing the patients to cancer stomach. Estimation of H. pylori by qPCR can be a good predictor to adenocarcinoma. Braf and Kras genes mutation were reveled in gastritis and adenocarcinoma patients.
Elwir, Saleh; Shaukat, Aasma; Mesa, Hector; Colbach, Christine; Dambowy, Paul; Shaw, Michael
To report a case series of ischemic gastritis and discuss its etiology, management, and associated mortality according to our results and the published English literature. Ischemic gastritis is rare, given the rich blood supply of the stomach. It has been reported in isolated case reports and small case series. Most cases are vascular in origin and associated with a high mortality. Pathology databases from 3 hospitals affiliated with the University of Minnesota Medical School were searched for cases of ischemic gastritis in the last 10 years. Patients' demographics, clinical course, and 1-month and 1-year mortalities were collected from electronic medical records. A total of 12 patients were identified (age range, 32.1 to 83.2), the largest series reported to date. The presenting symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding (8), abdominal pain (2), nausea (1), and symptomatic anemia (1). The etiology included postinterventional radiology embolization (2), hemodynamic changes in the setting of celiac axis stenosis (2), vasculitis (1), systemic hypotension (1), and unknown (6). Treatment included steroid therapy, revascularization by interventional radiology, surgery, or supportive treatment. Thirty-day and 1-year mortalities were 33% and 41%, respectively. Ischemic gastritis is rare, but associated with a high mortality. Evaluation for treatable etiologies should be sought and corrected if present.
Choi, Seong Ji; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae; Kim, Jun Suk
Radiation recall gastritis is rare but can be induced after concurrent chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer. We report a patient with pancreatic cancer who developed radiation-recall gastritis related to a combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib. A 54-year-old female with unresectable pancreatic cancer received gemcitabine in combination with radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy with gemcitabine and erlotinib. After completing 2 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient had epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed diffuse wall thickening of the stomach, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed multiple gastric ulcers. The patient was treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and was continued on maintenance chemotherapy. Two months later, the patient presented with the similar symptoms and persistent gastric ulcers were observed during subsequent EGD. Nevertheless, the patient’s symptom had resolved with PPI therapy. Thus, the patient underwent maintenance chemotherapy with gemcitabine and erlotinib for additional 4 cycles. Eventually, follow-up abdominal CT Scan and EGD at 6 months demonstrated resolution of the gastric ulcers. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of radiation recall gastritis associated with a combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib. Administration of PPIs may mitigate the adverse effects of gemcitabine and erlotinib in the presence of radiation recall gastritis; however further studies are warranted
Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan
Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.
Full Text Available Recent 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA molecular profiling of the stomach mucosa revealed a surprising complexity of microbiota. Helicobacter pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use are two main contributors to gastritis and peptic ulcer. However, little is known about the association between other members of the stomach microbiota and gastric diseases. In this study, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA was used to profile the stomach microbiota from normal and gastritis patients. One hundred and thirty three phylotypes from eight bacterial phyla were identified. The stomach microbiota was found to be closely adhered to the mucosa. Eleven Streptococcus phylotypes were successfully cultivated from the biopsies. One to two genera represented a majority of clones within any of the identified phyla. We further developed two real-time quantitative PCR assays to quantify the relative abundance of the Firmicutes phylum and the Streptococcus genus. Significantly higher abundance of the Firmicutes phylum and the Streptococcus genus within the Firmicutes phylum was observed in patients with antral gastritis, compared with normal controls. This study suggests that the genus taxon level can largely represent much higher taxa such as the phylum. The clinical relevance and the mechanism underlying the altered microbiota composition in gastritis require further functional studies.
Andrés Javier Quiroga
Full Text Available Introducción. La infección con Helicobacter pylori está asociada con el desarrollo de diferentes enfermedades gastroduodenales. Varios genes de virulencia de H. pylori se han relacionado con mayor riesgo de enfermedad gástrica. Objetivos. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar las posibles asociaciones entre la presencia de los genes vacA, cagA, cagE, babA2 y oipA en aislamientos de H. pylori de pacientes colombianos y las diferentes consecuencias clínicas de la infección. Materiales y métodos. Mediante PCR se evaluaron los genotipos cagA, vacA, cagE, oipA y babA2 en 166 aislamientos de H. pylori provenientes de 50 pacientes con úlcera péptica, 39 con gastritis crónica no atrófica, 26 con gastritis crónica atrófica, 26 con metaplasia intestinal y 25 con adenocarcinoma gástrico. Resultados. La frecuencia de los genotipos cagA, cagE, babA2 y oipA fue de 73%, 75%, 48% y 74%, respectivamente. El 64% (100/157 de los aislamientos presentó el genotipo citotóxico vacAs1m1/cagA positivo/cagE positivo. Se observó una mayor frecuencia de cepas citotóxicas en pacientes con cáncer (84%, metaplasia (91% y úlcera (81% en comparación con pacientes con gastritis no atrófica (50% (p=0,002, 0,008 y 0,007, respectivamente. La frecuencia de oipA y babA2 fue mayor en cepas citotóxicas que en cepas no citotóxicas (oipA: 81% vs. 52%, p=0,003; babA2: 58% vs. 12%, p=0,000. No se observaron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de los genes oipA o babA2 solos o en asociación con vacA y cagA/cagE y las diferentes enfermedades gastroduodenales. Conclusiones. No se encontraron evidencias que sugieran que los genes babA2 u oipA puedan servir como marcadores de ulcerogénesis o carcinogénesis en esta población, solos o en asociación con cagA, cagE o vacA.
Verdú, J. M.
, les échantillons et les experimentations nécessaires pour caractériser hydrologiquement la région et appliquer ainsi les modèles d'érosion choisis. Les conclusions principales sont les suivantes: a des volumes très basses d'écoulement et d'érosion ont été observées et on a pu percevoir l'importance des flux hortoniens, facteur qui conditionne l'usage de ces modèles; b le modèle E2D ne permet pas l'étude des épisodes d'intensités aussi faibles que ceux observés, et son application devrait être limitée aux terrains les moins poreux; c l'application directe du modèle EUROSEM conduit à des erreurs considérables. On a calibré un paramètre pour réduire l'erreur dans le calcul de l'écoulement, et d l'étude de la variabilité de l'humidité initiale du sol est extrêmement importante dans la modélisation de ces processus.
Se estudia la dinámica de erosión por escorrentía superficial en unas laderas montañosas de la cabecera de la Ribera Salada (cuenca del Sagre, distinguiendo tres usos de suelo: (1 sotobosque de quejigo, (2 terrazas agrícolas y (3 márgenes de matorral. Se analiza la aplicabilidad de los modelos Erosion2D y EUROSEM. En cuanto al diseño experimental, durante seis meses se controlaron episodios naturales mediante un pluviógrafo y quince parcelas con canales Gerlach. Se realizaron, asimismo, seis simulaciones de lluvia que permitieron estudiar episodios de alta intensidad. De manera complementaria se llevaron a cabo las mediciones topográficas, los muestreos y las experimentaciones necesarias para caracterizar hidrológicamente la zona y aplicar los modelos de erosión. Como principales conclusiones se pueden señalar las siguientes: a las tasas de escorrentía y erosión registradas fueron muy bajas, y se constató la importancia de procesos diferentes al flujo hortoniano, lo cual condiciona el uso de estos modelos, b el modelo E2D no permite estudiar episodios de baja magnitud como los registrados, y su
Rahmani, Asghar; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari Heirdarlo, Ali; Abangah, Ghobad; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Sayehmiri, Kourosh
Gastritis is an important premalignant lesion and recent studies suggested a production of inflammatory cytokine-like C-reactive protein during gastritis. This study aimed to determine any relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and inflammation activity among patients with gastritis. Demographic and clinical variables of participants were collected by a validated questionnaire. Using histology of the gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori status was investigated and serum concentrations of hs-CRP were measured among dyspeptic patients. Correlation between hs-CRP serum levels and inflammation activities was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The relation between active inflammation and other variables was evaluated by logic link function model. Totally 239 patients (56.6% female) were analysed. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe inflammation activities was 66.5%, 23.8% and 9.6% respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among men and women were 2.85 ± 2.84 mg/dl and 2.80 ± 4.80 mg/dl (p = 0.047) respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among patients with H. pylori infection, gland atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia were 2.83 ± 3.80 mg/dl, 3.52 ± 5.1 mg/dl, 2.22 ± 2.3 mg/dl and 5.3 ± 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Relationship between hs-CRP and inflammation activities (p gastritis, elevated hs-CRP levels may be considered as a predictive marker of changes in gastric mucosa and a promising therapeutic target for patients with gastritis.
Erickson, L. D.; Loo, W. M.; Scott, K. G.; Wiznerowicz, E. B.; Brown, C. C.; Torres-Velez, F. J.; Alam, M. S.; Black, S. G.; McDuffie, M.; Feldman, S. H.; Wallace, J. L.; McKnight, G. W.; Padol, I. T.; Hunt, R. H.; Tung, K. S.
SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4+ T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract. PMID:21921286
Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Ho June; Hong, Su Jin; Shim, Ki-Nam; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jae Gyu
It is not clear which screening examinations are best suited for gastric cancer prevention, especially in patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated the gastric cancer screening methods and intervals that are performed in clinical practice in an area with a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Eighty-seven physicians voted by keypad and discussed the consistency of endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia at the Annual Symposium of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research. Additionally, 100 core members of this academic society were asked via e-mail to complete the questionnaires related to screening strategies for gastric cancer. The most common recommendation for the subjects with intestinal metaplasia was an annual endoscopic follow-up (95.5% vs. 80.4% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively; P = 0.118). Annual endoscopic follow-up was also the most predominant recommendation for atrophic gastritis (95.5% vs. 76.5%; P = 0.092), regardless of the physicians' endoscopic experience, position, and degree of the hospital. However, the correct answer rate for the diagnosis of normal endoscopic findings was only 16.7 and 14.1% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively (P = 0.883). The most common practical screening strategy for patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in Korea was annual endoscopic examination. However, a new program estimating individualized gastric cancer risk might be needed because of the low inter-observer agreement in the endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.
Salih, Barik A; Gucin, Zuhal; Bayyurt, Nizamettin
Helicobacter pylori cause damage to gastric epithelial cells and alterations in the p53 gene that lead to cancer development. This study aimed to determine the correlation of p53 expression with H. pylori using immunohistochemistry, RFLP-PCR, and histopathology. Gastric biopsy samples from gastric cancer (GC) (n = 54) and gastritis (n = 31) patients were examined for histopathological changes and expression of p53 protein by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression in H. pylori-positive GC sections showed an average of 44.3% positive cells in tumors and 6.9% in normal tissues, as compared to 16.4% and 4.4% in H. pylori-negative sections. P53 expression showed significant association with H. pylori (P = 0.005), invasion depth (P = 0.029) and inflammation reaction (P = 0.008). In gastritis sections, no difference in the average p53 staining in H. pylori-positive or -negative sections was seen. PCR-RFLP results also showed no difference in genotype frequencies of p53 in H. pylori-positive or -negative gastritis sections. Histopathology study of H. pylori-positive GC sections showed that 97.2% were the intestinal type and 2.8% the diffuse type, while in H. pylori-negative sections 35.2% were the intestinal type and 64.8% the diffuse type. Biopsy sections from H. pylori-positive gastritis patients revealed more severe inflammation than those of H. pylori-negative patients. Our results show that H. pylori infection affects p53 expression in GC. The average p53 expression was significantly higher in tumor than in normal tissues. In gastritis sections p53 expression was significantly associated with H. pylori.
Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in
Langner, Marini; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Patrício, Francy R S; Kawakami, Elisabete
Although Helicobacter pylori infection is prevalent in our country, there are few studies evaluating the associated histological abnormalities in children. To evaluate the histological features of the gastric mucosa in children and adolescents with Helicobacter pylori gastritis. One hundred and thirty two gastric biopsies from 22 symptomatic patients infected with H. pylori (14F/8M, median age 10 y 5 mo, age range 2 y 11 mo to 16 y 9 mo) were evaluated. Evaluated gastric regions included: antrum (lesser and greater curvature), corpus (lesser and greater curvature), incisura angularis and fundus. Histological examination was performed according to the Updated Sydney System, and regional scores for polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltrate as well as bacterial density were generated. Fifteen (68.2%) patients presented H. pylori-chronic active gastritis, six (27.3%) presented antrum-predominant H. pylori-chronic active gastritis, and one (4.5%) presented corpus-predominant H. pylori-chronic active gastritis. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltrate and mononuclear cell infiltrate were observed in 93.9% and 98.5% of the biopsy specimens, respectively. Higher histological scores for polymorphonuclear infiltrate, mononuclear infiltrate, and bacterial density were observed in the gastric antrum. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy were not identified in any patient. Lymphoid aggregates and lymphoid follicles were observed in the gastric antrum of three (13.6%) and seven (31.8%) patients, respectively, but they were not related to antral nodularity. Chronic active gastritis was observed in all patients with H. pylori infection. However, antral or corporeal predominance was not observed in most patients.
Ernst, P B; Erickson, L D; Loo, W M; Scott, K G; Wiznerowicz, E B; Brown, C C; Torres-Velez, F J; Alam, M S; Black, S G; McDuffie, M; Feldman, S H; Wallace, J L; McKnight, G W; Padol, I T; Hunt, R H; Tung, K S
SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4(+) T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract.
Análida Elizabeth Pinilla Roa
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un hombre de 81 años natural de zona rural, agricultor, recolector de café 50 años atrás y jardinero por 22 años en Bogotá. Consultó por dolor abdominal de 10 días de evolución, localizado hacia mesogastrio y epigastrio. Además, disnea, tos productiva. Antecedentes: enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, cor pulmonale, fumador de 25 paquetes /año, había recibido prednisona oral y beclometasona inhalada en diversas ocasiones incluso en la última hospitalización. En el examen físico presentó signos de desnutrición, taquicardia, taquipnea; estertores en base del hemitórax derecho; abdomen: blando, depresible con dolor a la palpación profunda en epigastrio e hipocondrio derecho. Ingresó con síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica por taquicardia, taquipnea, leucocitosis 37.600 y eosinofilia 52-60%, Ig E: 180 UI/ ml. Se evidenciaron larvas rabditiformes de Strongyloides stercoralis en esputo y materia fecal. La radiografía de tórax mostró derrame pleural derecho, la ecografía hepática fue normal, la endoscopia de vías digestivas altas evidenció gastritis y duodenitis. Se inició tratamiento con ivermectina 200 mg/Kg/dosis, con seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio con evolución clínica satisfactoria.
Nohr, Erik W; Itani, Doha M; Andrews, Christopher N; Kelly, Margaret M
We report varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gastritis in a 70-year-old woman postchemotherapy for lymphoma, presenting with abdominal pain, vomiting, and delirium without rash. A gastric biopsy demonstrated viral inclusions but posed a diagnostic challenge as immunohistochemistry for cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus were negative, and VZV immunohistochemistry was not available. The patient developed a vesicular rash 7 days after her symptoms began. Molecular testing of the gastric biopsy and a skin swab both confirmed VZV infection. She also had probable involvement of her liver and pancreas based on imaging and serum chemistry, and possible central nervous system involvement. She recovered with appropriate antiviral therapy but later developed a postherpetic neuralgia, and chronic intrahepatic biliary strictures; liver biopsy demonstrated a cholangiopathy of uncertain etiology. A literature review of the pathogenesis, epidemiology and sequelae of VZV infection is included.
Zhou, Ying; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo
To assess the predictive value of Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) stages in gastric cancer. A prospective study was conducted with 71 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 156 patients with non-EGC. All patients underwent endoscopic examination and systematic biopsy. Outcome measures were assessed and compared, including the Japanese endoscopic gastric atrophy (EGA) classification method and the modified OLGA method as well as the modified OLGIM method. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined for all study participants. Stepwise logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze correlations between EGC and the EGA, OLGA and OLGIM methods. For patients with EGC and patients with non-EGC, the proportions of moderate-to-severe EGA cases were 64.8% and 44.9%, respectively (P = 0.005), the proportions of OLGA stages III-IV cases were 52.1% and 22.4%, respectively (P cancer.
Hadas-Halpren, I; Hiller, N; Guberman, D
Acute emphysematous gastritis (AEG) is a life-threatening disease in which gas-forming bacteria invade the gastric wall and cause acute inflammation of it. The clinical presentation of the patient with AEG is stormy: severe sepsis which usually leads to an early death. Presented herein is a case of a 16-yr-old boy with AEG. There were no predisposing factors to the condition in this case. Gas invaded the stomach wall and portal venous system, as well as the duodenal wall, a finding that has not been reported previously. The clinical course was very severe but, in contrast to previously reported cases, recovery was very rapid and left no sequelae.
Zviagin, A A; Nikolaenko, E A
The efficiency of transcutaneous magneto-laser treatment as a component of combined therapy of chronic gastritis in children and adolescents (aged 5-17 years) was compared with that of pharmacotherapy and low-intensity laser therapy. The patients were allocated to three groups of 25 persons each. Patients of group 1 were given only drug therapy, those in group 2 were treated with pharmaceuticals and low-intensity laser therapy. The patients comprising group 3 were subjected to the action of magneto-laser radiation. Magneto-laser therapy was shown to result in a significantly more expressed improvement of clinical and morphological characteristics of the patients compared with pharmacotherapy alone. There was no significant difference between effects of magneto-laser and low-intensity laser radiation.
Stork, Christine M; Brown, Kathleen M; Reilly, Tracey H; Secreti, LaLaina; Brown, Lawrence H
To compare the efficacy of intravenous ondansetron or dexamethasone compared with intravenous fluid therapy alone in children presenting to the emergency department with refractory vomiting from viral gastritis who had failed attempts at oral hydration. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was performed in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. Children aged 6 months to 12 years presenting with more than three episodes of vomiting in the past 24 hours, mild/moderate dehydration, and failed oral hydration were included. Patients with other medical causes were excluded. Subjects were randomized to dexamethasone 1 mg/kg (15 mg maximum), ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg, or placebo (normal saline [NS], 10 mL). All subjects also received intravenous NS at 10-20 mL/kg/hr. Oral fluid tolerance was evaluated at two and four hours. Those not tolerating oral fluids at four hours were admitted. Discharged patients were evaluated at 24 and 72 hours for vomiting and repeat health care visits. The primary study outcome was hospitalization rates between the groups. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mantel-Haenszel test, and analysis of variance, with p hydration than NS-treated patients (29 [67.4%]; relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.68). There were no differences in number of mean episodes of vomiting or repeat visits to health care at 24 and 72 hours in the ondansetron, dexamethasone, or NS groups. In children with dehydration secondary to vomiting from acute viral gastritis, ondansetron with intravenous rehydration improves tolerance of oral fluids after two hours and reduces the hospital admission rate when compared with intravenous rehydration with or without dexamethasone.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin-32 (IL-32 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases. We investigated the expression of IL-32 and its regulation mechanism in the inflammatory response of patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. DESIGN AND METHODS: IL-32 mRNA and protein expression in gastric tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The regulation of IL-32 in human gastric epithelia cell line AGS was investigated by different cytokine stimulation and different H. pylori strain infection. RESULTS: Gastric IL-32 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in patients with H. pylori infection and positively correlated with gastritis. In H. pylori-infected patients, the mRNA level of IL-32 was also correlated with that of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. In vitro IL-1β and TNF-α could upregulate IL-32 mRNA and protein level in AGS cells, which was dependent on NF-κB signal pathway. The regulation of IL-32 expression in response to H. pylori-infection could be weakened by using neutralizing antibodies to block IL-1β and TNF-α. Moreover, H. pylori-infected AGS cells also induced IL-32 mRNA and protein expression, which was dependent on CagA. CONCLUSIONS: IL-32 level is elevated in patients with H. pylori infection and its expression is regulated by proinflammatory stimuli, suggesting that IL-32 may play a role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related gastritis.
Tajalli, Raziye; Nobakht, Maliheh; Mohammadi-Barzelighi, Hajar; Agah, Shahram; Rastegar-Lari, Abdolaziz; Sadeghipour, Alireza
Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with many upper gastrointestinal diseases, is found in half of the population of the world. Several special stains and immunohistochemistry stain for H. pylori are available. The need for and usefulness of immunohistochemical (IHC) technique has been debated for years. Toluidine blue is a simple stain for microbiological studies and is easily available in laboratories. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Giemsa and toluidine blue staining with immunehistochemistry for detection of H. pylori in patients with gastritis and also to correlate the results of these staining methods with pathological grading. Methods: We reviewed 54 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens stained by H&E and Giemsa as well as by toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry stains for H. pylori. Results: H. pylori was positively identified by IHC in 43 (79.63%) patients, while positive samples were found in 18 (33.33%), 24 (44.44%) and 33 (61.11%) patients using H&E, Giemsa and toluidine blue staining methods. Our results showed that classical histological staining methods are not sensitive enough to identify low numbers or coccoid forms of organism, while toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry play an important role in detection of H. pylori infection. Conclusion: Toluidine blue has been proved to be much more reliable than H&E and Giemsa in detection of H. pylori. In addition, in post treatment biopsies and in biopsies with unexplained chronic active gastritis without histological evidence of H. pylori should have immunohistochemistry done to detect possible low density or coccoid form of organisms. PMID:23279833
Chen, Ping; Cui, Yun; Fu, Qing Yan; Lu, You Yong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Chen, Xiao Yu
Gastric cancer (GC) is a typical type of inflammation-related tumor. The p42.3 gene is shown to be highly expressed in GC, but its association with gastritis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the relationship between gastric inflammation and p42.3 gene in vitro and in vivo. Normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were treated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Total cell mRNA and protein were extracted and collected, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to determine the relative expression of p42.3 gene. In total, 291 biopsy samples from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis were collected and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the p42.3 protein expression. The association between p42.3 protein expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Both H. pylori and TNF-α significantly enhanced the p42.3 protein expression in GES-1 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, p42.3 gene expression was positively associated with the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation and H. pylori infection (P = 0.000). Its expression was significantly more common in severe gastric inflammation and in H. pylori-infected cases. p42.3 gene expression is associated with gastric mucosal inflammation that can be upregulated by TNF-α and H. pylori infection. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Oghalaie, Akbar; Saberi, Samaneh; Esmaeili, Maryam; Ebrahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Ghamarian, Abdolreza; Tashakoripoor, Mohammad; Abdirad, Afshin; Eshagh Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khalaj, Vahid; Mohammadi, Marjan
Helicobacter pylori secretory peptidyl prolyl isomerase, HP0175, is progressively identified as a pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic protein, which serves to link H. pylori infection to its more severe clinical outcomes. Here, we have analyzed host HP0175-specific antibody responses in relation to the severity of gastritis. The HP0175 gene fragment was PCR-amplified, cloned, expressed and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Serum antigen-specific antibody responses of non-ulcer dyspeptic patients (N = 176) against recombinant HP0175 were detected by western blotting. The infection status of these subjects was determined by rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology. The grade of inflammation and stage of atrophy were scored blindly according to the OLGA staging system. The recombinant HP0175 (rHP0175) was expressed as a ~35 kDa protein and its identity was confirmed by western blotting using anti-6X His tag antibody and pooled H. pylori-positive sera. Serum IgG antibodies against rHP0175 segregated our patients into two similar-sized groups of sero-positives (90/176, 51.1 %) and sero-negatives (86/176, 48.9 %). The former presented with higher grades of gastric inflammation (OR = 4.4, 95 % CI = 1.9-9.9, P = 0.001) and stages of gastric atrophy (OR = 18.3, 95 %CI = 1.4-246.6, P = 0.028). Our findings lend further support to the pro-inflammatory nature of H. pylori peptidyl prolyl isomerase (HP0175) and recommends this antigen as a non-invasive serum biomarker of the severity of H. pylori-associated gastritis.
Salimzadeh, Loghman; Bagheri, Nader; Zamanzad, Behnam; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah
The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been related to specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cagA gene, oipA and babA2 gene are important virulence factor involving gastric diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between virulence factors of H. pylori and histopathological findings. Gastroduodenoscopy was performed in 436 dyspeptic patients. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, virulence factors and for histopathological assessment. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence factors of H. pylori using specific primers. vacA genotypes in patients infected with H. pylori were associated with cagA, iceA1 and iceA2. In the patients with H. pylori infection there was a significant relationship between cagA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and chronic inflammation (P = 0.013) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.034). Neutrophil infiltration was found to be more severe in the s1 group than in the s2 group (P = 0.042). Also was a significant relationship between oipA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.018). No significant relationships were observed between other vacA genotypes and histopathological parameters. H. pylori strains showing cagA, vacA s1 and oipA positivity are associated with more severe gastritis in some histological features but virulence factors of H. pylori do not appear to determine the overall pattern of gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olga María Bermúdez
de la subclase 1 en los pacientes con gastritis atrófica y adenocarcinoma gástrico, indica que la presencia de anticuerpos hacia esta proteína podría ser usada como un marcador de cáncer, mientras que el estudio del reconocimiento de los demás antígenos principales (70 kDa, 90 kDA y VacA puede convertirse en una herramienta de importante valor para la caracterización de cada enfermedad.
Pol Yanguas E.
Full Text Available P es un paciente diagnosticado de esquizofrenia, sigue en un piso tutelado un programa de rehabilitación, está medicado con clozapina 500 mg/día y ziprasidona 280 mg/ día. Padece hipercolesterolemia, tabaquismo y sus hábitos alimenticios no son buenos. La medicación que utiliza desde 2007 hasta ahora se refleja en la tabla 1. El último tratamiento se le introdujo el 7 de agosto de 2012, habiendo presentado un electro cardiograma (ECG normal, pero con ligera taquicardia ventricular y prolactinemia de 44,8 ng/ml (valores normales: 2-18 ng/ml.
Saieva, Calogero; Rubio, Carlos A; Nesi, Gabriella; Zini, Enzo; Filomena, Alessandro
Screening gastroscopic examinations were performed in a cohort of individuals at high risk for developing gastric carcinoma (GC). Five gastric biopsies were obtained following the Houston schema. Five histological parameters of gastritis were investigated: acute gastritis, chronic gastritis, and its sequelae; mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and pseudopyloric metaplasia. Out of 134 patients, 50% (n=67) had Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The sum of scores for the first four parameters was significantly higher in HP-positive cases than in HP-negative ones (pgastritis explain the high GC risk in this borough of Florence, considering that the incidence rate of GC is higher in Central than in Northern Italy. Similarities in the frequency of chronic gastritis and sequelae in Northern and Central Italy substantiate the conviction that the difference in GC risk in these regions might be the result of local environmental or lifestyle factors, rather than HP infection. This knowledge is crucial, considering that environmentally related diseases are theoretically preventable.
Ma, Changqing; Park, Jason Y; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Arnold, Christina A; McDonald, Oliver G; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Salaria, Safia N; Limketkai, Berkeley N; McGrath, Kevin M; Musahl, Tina; Singhi, Aatur D
Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition characterized by surface epithelial damage, subepithelial collagen deposition, and a lamina propria inflammatory infiltrate. Previous studies have proposed 2 clinicopathologic subtypes: (1) children (18 y of age or younger) presenting with severe anemia, nodular gastric mucosa, and isolated gastric disease; and (2) adults with chronic watery diarrhea that is associated with diffuse collagenous involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. However, notable exceptions exist. In fact, broad variability in clinical presentation, etiology, treatment and disease course has been reported. To better define the clinicopathologic features of collagenous gastritis, we have collected 10 pediatric and 21 adult cases and describe their clinical, endoscopic, pathologic, and follow-up findings. Both children and adults presented with similar clinical symptoms such as anemia (50%, 35%, respectively), epigastric/abdominal pain (50%, 45%), and diarrhea (40%, 55%). Concomitant immune disorders were identified in 2 (20%) children and 3 (14%) adults. Further, 7 of 17 (41%) adults were taking medications associated with other immune-related gastrointestinal diseases including olmesartan and antidepressants. Histologically, there were no differences between children and adults with collagenous gastritis in the location of gastric involvement, mean collagenous layer thickness, and prominence of eosinophils (P>0.05). Extragastric collagenous involvement was also seen with comparable frequencies in each cohort (44%, 59%). Follow-up information was available for 22 of 31 (71%) patients and ranged from 2 to 122 months (mean, 33.6 mo). Despite medical management in most cases, persistence of symptoms or collagenous gastritis on subsequent biopsies was seen in 100% of children and 82% of adults. Of note, treatment for 1 adult patient involved cessation of olmesartan resulting in resolution of both symptoms and subepithelial collagen deposition on subsequent
Saf, Coskun; Gulcan, Enver Mahir; Ozkan, Ferda; Cobanoglu Saf, Seyhan Perihan; Vitrinel, Ayca
Helicobacter pylori that is generally acquired in childhood and infects the gastric mucosa is considered to be responsible for many pathobiological changes that are linked to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Although the majority of studies on the subject have been carried out in adults, there are a limited number of studies on children that reflect the early period of infection and may be of greater significance. We aimed to determine the role of H. pylori infection and/or gastritis in several histopathological changes, p53, p21, and cell proliferation-associated Ki-67 antigen expression in the gastric mucosa. We studied 60 patients with a mean age of 7.5 ± 4.5 years at referral. On the basis of endoscopic appearance and the evaluation of the gastric antral specimens, the patients were divided into three groups: patients without gastritis, patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis, and patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis. To determine the expression of p53, Ki-67, and p21 in gastric biopsy specimens, immunohistochemical stains were performed. The incidence of neutrophil activity, which was one of our histopathologic parameters, was significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. The presence of lymphoid aggregate was more frequent in H. pylori ± gastritis groups than the nongastritis group. p53 expression was found to be significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the nongastritis group. Ki-67 and p21 expressions were significantly more frequent in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. When we evaluated the density of H. pylori, as the density of bacteria increases, we found that the expressions of p53, p21, and Ki-67 increased significantly. Expression of the studied precancerous markers in significant amounts indicates the importance of childhood H. pylori infection in the constitution of gastric cancer in adulthood.
Reuter, Brian K.; Pastorelli, Luca; Brogi, Marco; Garg, Rekha R.; McBride, James A.; Rowlett, Robert M.; Arrieta, Marie C.; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Keller, Erik J.; Feldman, Sanford H.; Mize, James R.; Cominelli, Fabio; Meddings, Jonathan B.; Pizarro, Theresa T.
Background & Aims Crohn’s disease (CD) can develop in any region of the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach. The etiology and pathogenesis of Crohn’s gastritis are poorly understood, treatment approaches are limited, and there are not many suitable animal models for study. We characterized the features and mechanisms of chronic gastritis in SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice, a spontaneous model of CD-like ileitis, along with possible therapeutic approaches. Methods Stomachs from specific pathogen-free and germ-free SAMP and AKR mice (controls) were evaluated histologically; the presence of Helicobacter spp. was tested in fecal pellets by PCR analysis. In vivo gastric permeability was quantified by fractional excretion of sucrose and epithelial tight junction protein expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. The effects of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or corticosteroids were measured and the ability of pathogenic immune cells to mediate gastritis was assessed in adoptive transfer experiments. Results SAMP mice developed Helicobacter-negative gastritis, characterized by aggregates of mononuclear cells, diffuse accumulation of neutrophils, and disruption of epithelial architecture; SAMP mice also had increased in gastric permeability compared with controls, without alterations in expression of tight junction proteins. The gastritis and associated permeability defect observed in SAMP mice were independent of bacterial colonization and reduced by administration of corticosteroids but not a PPI. CD4+ T cells isolated from draining mesenteric lymph nodes of SAMP mice were sufficient to induce gastritis in recipient SCID mice. Conclusions In SAMP mice, gastritis develops spontaneously and has many features of CD-like ileitis. These mice are a useful model to study Helicobacter-negative, immune-mediated Crohn’s gastritis. PMID:21704001
Marcia Henriques de MAGALHÃES-COSTA
Full Text Available Context and Objectives Focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are found in the upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn’s disease, and may reflect an underlying defective innate immunity. These features, however, are also described in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The role of these gastric abnormalities in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease was assessed in a population with high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods Thirty-seven Crohn’s disease, 26 ulcerative colitis, and 30 control patients were included. The H. pylori status was evaluated by the rapid urease test and histology. The presence of focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates was recorded. Results Focally enhanced gastritis was present in 24% of Crohn’s disease patients, 4% of ulcerative colitis patients and 11.5% of controls, presenting an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn’s disease of 24% and 88%, respectively. Macrophage microaggregates were found in all groups, but were only detected in ulcerative colitis and controls in association with H. pylori infection, with an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn’s disease of 61% and 69%, respectively. In the absence of H. pylori infection, focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates were significantly associated with Crohn’s disease (P<0.02 and P = 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Focally gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are suggestive of Crohn’s disease only in H. pylori-negative specimens. HEADINGS - Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis. Gastritis. Macrophages. Helicobacter pylori.
Li, Ming; Wang, Yinping; Gu, Yahong
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) is an important molecule in inflammatory, infectious, and tumoral processes. Inflammation is one of the early phases in the development of gastric cancer (GC). Therefore, several studies have examined the association of polymorphism in TNFA with gastritis and GC risk. A functional polymorphism, -308G>A (rs1800629), which is located in the promoter of TNFA gene, has been suggested to alter the production of TNF-α and influence cancer risk. To date, a number of studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the polymorphism and gastritis or GC susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of 36 studies for TNFA -308G>A polymorphism to evaluate the effect of TNFA on genetic susceptibility for gastritis and GC. An overall random-effects per-allele odds ratio of 1.16 (95 % confidence interval 1.04-1.29, P = 0.008) was found for the polymorphism. Significant results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, significant results were found in Caucasians, whereas no significant associations were found among East Asians and other ethnic populations. No associations between the polymorphism and gastritis were observed. In addition, our data indicate that TNFA is involved in GC susceptibility and confers its effect primarily in diffuse type of tumors. Besides, -308G>A polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with both cardiac and noncardiac tumors. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the TNFA -308G>A polymorphism is a risk factor for developing GC, but the associations vary in different ethnic populations.
Lee, Sang Hwan; Park, Jong Min; Han, Young Min; Ko, Weon Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik
As a commensal or a pathogen, Helicobacter pylori can change the balance of a complex interaction that exists among gastric epithelial cells, microbes, and their environment. Therefore, unraveling this complex relationship of these mixtures can be expected to help prevent cancer as well as troublesome unmet medical needs of H. pylori infection. Though gastric carcinogenesis is a multi-step process, precancerous lesion can be reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage before reaching the stage of no return. However, biomarkers to predict rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis have not been identified yet and gastric cancer prevention is still regarded as an impregnable fortress. However, when we take the journey from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer, it provides us with the clue for prevention since there are two main preventive strategies: eradication and anti-inflammation. The evidence supporting the former strategy is now ongoing in Japan through a nation-wide effort to eradicate H. pylori in patients with chronic gastritis, but suboptimal apprehension to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient non-compliance still exists. The latter strategy has been continued in the author'sresearch center under siTRP (short-term intervention to revert premalignant lesion) strategy. By focusing on the role of inflammation in the development of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, this review is intended to explain the connection between inflammation and gastric cancer. Strategies on H. pylori eradication, removal of inflammation, and reverting preneoplastic lesion will also be introduced. In the end, we expect to be able to prevent gastric cancer by take a detour from the unpleasant journey, i.e. from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer.
Gh. Jeelani Romshoo; G. M. Malik; M. Youssuf Bhat; Ab. Rashid rather; Javaid Ahmad Basu; Khursheed Ahmad Qureshi
Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric...
Gontar Alamsyah Siregar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a non-invasive microorganism causing intense gastric mucosal inflammatory and immune reaction. The gastric mucosal levels of the proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin 6 (IL-6 and IL-8 have been reported to be increased in H. pylori infection, but the serum levels in H. pylori infection is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in H. pylori infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on eighty consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from May-October 2014. Histopathology was performed for the diagnosis of gastritis. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating IL-6 and IL-8. Univariate and bivariate analysis (independent t test were done. RESULTS: There were 41.25% patients infected with H. pylori. Circulatory IL-6 levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to H. pylori promotes systemic inflammation, which was reflected in an increased level of serum IL-6. Serum levels of IL-8 were not significantly different between H. pylori positive and negative. KEYWORDS: Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, IL-6, IL-8, cytokine.
Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P.
Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori triggers a chronic gastric inflammation that can progress to atrophy and gastric adenocarcinoma. Polarization of macrophages is a characteristic of both cancer and infection, and may promote progression or resolution of disease. However, the role of macrophages and their polarization during H. pylori infection has not been well defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a mouse model of infection and gastric biopsies from 29 individuals, we have analyzed macrophage recruitment and polarization during H. pylori infection by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. We found a sequential recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages to the gastric mucosa of infected mice. Gene expression analysis of stomach tissue and sorted macrophages revealed that gastric macrophages were polarized to M1 after H. pylori infection, and this process was substantially accelerated by prior vaccination. Human H. pylori infection was characterized by a mixed M1/M2 polarization of macrophages. However, in H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly increased compared to uncomplicated gastritis, indicative of an enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in this pre-malignant lesion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that vaccination of mice against H. pylori amplifies M1 polarization of gastric macrophages, and that a similar enhanced M1 polarization is present in human H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis.
Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.
Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se
Judaki, Arezo; Norozi, Siros; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Ghavam, Samira Mis; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Rahmani, Asghar
Endothelial dysfunction is one of the early stages of vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. By a cross sectional study, basic and clinical information of 120 participants (40 patients with positive H. pylori infection, 40 patients with negative H. pylori infection and 40 healthy people) were analyzed. Carotid intima media thickness and ﬂow-mediated dilation levels were measured in all patients and controls. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured with Elisa for all subjects. IgG level was assessed in chronic gastritis patients. The ﬂow-mediated dilation level in patients with positive H. pylori infection (0.17%±0.09) was significantly lower than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.21% ±0.10, Pgastritis. The levels of ﬂow-mediated dilation, carotid intima media thickness and sICAM-1 were higher among patients with positive H. pylori infection. Patients with chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection are at risk of endothelial dysfunction due to ﬂow-mediated dilation and carotid intima media thickness abnormalities and increased level of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the materials of gastric biopsies in cases diagnosed as chronic gastritis according to the Sydney system and to compare the parameters according to age groups. The Sydney system of gastritis has five main histological features of changes in gastric mucosa graded (chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori density In our study, we evaluated 63 patients under 31 years, 177 patients between the ages of 31-60 and 187 patients over 61 years, who were diagnosed as having chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy. In 31-60 age group, the localization of Helicobacter pylori was often the antrum. In contrast, in the under 31 years of age group, Helicobacter pylori infection were found to be in the form of the distribution pangastrit. Acute inflammation in the under31 years group was found to be significantly higher than other age groups. In over 61years group, high incidence of atrophy was found. In our study, we detected the rate in atrophy and intestinal metaplasia with Helicobacter pylori is independently increased with age. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 173-178
De Petris, Giovanni; Dhungel, Bal M; Chen, Longwen; Chang, Yu-Hui H
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological features of CVID-associated gastric adenocarcinoma (CAGA) and of the background gastritis. The population of gastric cancer patients with CVID of Mayo Clinic in the period 2000-2010 was studied; 6 cases of CVID (2 males, 4 females, average age 47 years, age range 26-71 years) were found in 5793 patients with gastric cancer in the study period. Each patient underwent gastric resection for which histology slides were reviewed. Chronic gastritis variables, CVID-related findings, and features of the adenocarcinoma were recorded. CAGA was of intestinal type, with high number of intratumoral lymphocytes (ITLs). Cancer was diagnosed in younger patients than in the overall population of gastric cancer. Severe atrophic metaplastic pangastritis with extensive dysplasia was present in the background in 4 cases, with features of lymphocytic gastritis in 2 cases. Features of CVID (plasma cells paucity in 4 of 6 cases, lymphoid nodules prominent in four cases) could be detected. In summary, gastric adenocarcinoma at young age with ITLs, accompanied by atrophic metaplastic pangastritis, should alert the pathologist of the possibility of CAGA. It follows that, in presence of those characteristics, the search of CVID-associated abnormalities should be undertaken in the nonneoplastic tissues. © The Author(s) 2014.
Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium))
Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration.
Bodger, K; Bromelow, K; Wyatt, J; Heatley, R
Background/Aims—Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a counterinflammatory peptide implicated in the downregulation of human intestinal immune responses. Enhanced secretion of IL-10 has been documented in gastric biopsy organ culture in Helicobacter pylori infection. This study aimed to define the cellular origins of IL-10 in H pylori associated gastritis, and to determine the effects of endogenous IL-10 on proinflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro. Methods—Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the gastric antrum at endoscopy from patients with dyspepsia. Two pairs of antral biopsies were cultured in vitro for 24 hours, one pair in the presence of neutralising anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody, the other pair as controls. The cytokine content of culture supernatants (tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-8) was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and corrected for biopsy weight. Helicobacter pylori status was established by histology and biopsy urease test, and histopathology graded by the Sydney system. In a subgroup of patients, western blotting was used to establish CagA serological status. Immunohistochemistry for IL-10 was performed on formalin fixed tissues using a combination of microwave antigen retrieval and the indirect avidin–biotin technique. Immunoreactivity was scored semiquantitatively. Results—In vitro culture was performed in 41 patients: 31 with H pylori positive chronic gastritis and 10 H pylori negative. In vitro secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 for "control" biopsies was significantly higher in H pylori positive versus negative samples, with values of TNF-α and IL-6 correlating with the degree of active and chronic inflammation and being higher in CagA seropositive cases. No evidence for enhanced cytokine secretion was seen in biopsies cocultured in the presence of anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 29 patients, of whom 13 were H pylori positive. IL-10 immunoreactivity was observed in
Comparative analysis of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography, and the titer of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG focusing on the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis.
Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Takahashi, Yu; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Nakayama, Chiemi; Matsuda, Rie; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) and double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) are two major image-based methods to diagnose atrophic gastritis, which is mostly induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there have been few studies directly comparing them. Atrophic gastritis was evaluated using the data of 962 healthy subjects who underwent UGI-ES and UGI-XR within 1 year. Based on UGI-ES and UGI-XR, 602 subjects did not have atrophic gastritis and 254 subjects did have it. Considering UGI-ES-based atrophic gastritis as the standard, sensitivity and specificity of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis were 92.0 % (254/276) and 92.8 % (602/649), respectively. The seven-grade Kimura-Takemoto classification of UGI-ES-based atrophic gastritis showed a strong and significant association with the four-grade UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis. Sensitivity and specificity of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG to detect UGI-ES/UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis were 89.4 % (227/254) and 99.8 % (601/602), indicating that atrophic gastritis can be overlooked according to serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG alone.
Franklin, Ashanti L; Koeck, Emily S; Hamrick, Miller C; Qureshi, Faisal G; Nadler, Evan P
In adults undergoing gastric bypass surgery, it is routine practice to perform pre-operative testing for Helicobacter pylori infection. Evidence suggests that infection impairs anastomotic healing and contributes to complications. There currently are no data for adolescents undergoing bariatric procedures. Despite few patients with pre-operative symptoms, we noted occasional patients with H. pylori detected after sleeve gastrectomy. We reviewed our experience with our adolescent sleeve gastrectomy cohort to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection, its predictive factors, and association with outcomes. We hypothesized that H. pylori infection would be associated with pre-operative symptoms, but not surgical outcomes. All patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy at our hospital were included. We conducted a chart review to determine pre- or post-operative symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD or gastritis, operative complications, and long-term anti-reflux therapy after surgery. Pathology reports were reviewed for evidence of gastritis and H. pylori infection. 78 adolescents had laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy from January 2010 through July 2014. The prevalence of chronic gastritis was 44.9% (35/78) and 11.4% of those patients had H. pylori (4/35). Only one patient with H. pylori had pre-operative symptoms, and only 25.7% (9/35) of patients with pathology-proven gastritis had symptoms. One staple line leak occurred but this patient did not have H. pylori or gastritis. Mean patient follow-up was 10 (3-26) mos. There is a moderate prevalence of gastritis among adolescents undergoing sleeve gastrectomy, but only a small number of these patients had H. pylori infection. Neither the presence of chronic gastritis nor H. pylori infection correlated with symptoms or outcomes. Thus, in the absence of predictive symptomology or adverse outcome in those who are infected, we advocate for continued routine pathologic evaluation without the required need for pre
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The various ABO and Rh blood groups with different distribution frequencies in the general population have been found to be associated with different diseases, most notably gastritis. Many studies have claimed Rh groups to be indifferent to such association. Nonetheless, ABO group is found to linked with chronic gastritis. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups and the gastritis amongst the first and second year undergraduate medical and dental students; and to study their relationships. Materials & Methods: In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 247 study participants were enrolled. After procuring clearance from the institutional review committee and the informed and written consent from the study participants, data collection was done on the variables, year of study (first or second year, gender, blood groups (ABO and Rh and history of gastritis (present or absent.Results: Blood group O was the commonest (n=99; 40.1% followed by group B (n=77; 31.2%. Similarly, 239 (96.8% participants were Rh-positive as compared to 8 (3.2% Rh-negative. Interestingly, 46 (18.6% of the participants reported positive history of gastritis. Participants with blood group O had the greatest odds (OR=1.64 of having history of gastritis compared with those with other blood groups combined. Distribution of study participants based on gender and history of gastritis in either systems of blood grouping shoed no significant difference in their proportions (p>0.05. Conclusion: In light of the above findings, further longitudinal studies can be designed to better asses the relationship.
González Mora, César
El objetivo del proyecto es el desarrollo de un videojuego deportivo que utilice realidad mixta. El videojuego se podrá utilizar con dispositivos de tipo cardboard, y utilizará realidad aumentada para la interacción del jugador con el videojuego. En el desarrollo se utilizará el motor Unity para conseguir una aplicación multiplataforma, y la librería Vuforia para implementar realidad mixta.
EL YAKOUTI, MOHAMMED
Design of a robot prototype remotely controllable from Bluetooth using Arduino. Control and testing of sensors and events interacting with Arduino and Bluetooth. Diseño de un prototipo de robot controlable remotamente con Bluetooth utilizando Arduino. Control y verificación de los sensores y eventos que interactúan mediante el Arduino y el Bluetooth. El Yakouti, M. (2017). Sistemas integrados con Arduino. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/89274. TFGM
Borja González Luna
Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.
Marshall, B.J.; Surveyor, I.
Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of 14 C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of 14 C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of 14 C in sample)/(mmol of CO 2 collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO 2 than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy
Kamada, Tomoari; Haruma, Ken; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Sumii, Koji; Akiyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinji; Shiotani, Akiko; Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori infection produces progressive mucosal damage that may eventually result in gastric cancer. We studied the changes that occurred in the presence and severity of atrophic gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infection that occurred coincident with improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. The prevalence of H. pylori infection and histologic grades of gastric damage were retrospectively evaluated using gastric biopsy specimens obtained over a 40-year period. Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were scored using the updated Sydney classification system. The prevalence of H. pylori and severity of atrophy were examined in 1381 patients including 289 patients examined in the 1970s (158 men; mean age, 44.9 years), 787 in the 1990s (430 men; 44.2 years), and 305 in the 2010s (163 men; 53.2 years). Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly from 74.7% (1970s) to 53% (1990s) and 35.1% (2010s) (p pylori infection. There has been a progressive and rapid decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection as well a fall in the rate of progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected Japanese coincident with the westernization and improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cui, Jiajia; Liu, Yuetao; Hu, Yinghuan; Tong, Jiayu; Li, Aiping; Qu, Tingli; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is one of the most important pre-cancerous states with a high prevalence. Exploring of the underlying mechanism and potential biomarkers is of significant importance for CAG. In the present work, 1 H NMR-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to analyze the metabolic features of CAG. 19 plasma metabolites and 18 urine metabolites were enrolled to construct the circulatory and excretory metabolome of CAG, which was in response to alterations of energy metabolism, inflammation, immune dysfunction, as well as oxidative stress. 7 plasma biomarkers and 7 urine biomarkers were screened to elucidate the pathogenesis of CAG based on the further correlation analysis with biochemical indexes. Finally, 3 plasma biomarkers (arginine, succinate and 3-hydroxybutyrate) and 2 urine biomarkers (α-ketoglutarate and valine) highlighted the potential to indicate risks of CAG in virtue of correlation with pepsin activity and ROC analysis. Here, our results paved a way for elucidating the underlying mechanisms in the development of CAG, and provided new avenues for the diagnosis of CAG and presented potential drug targets for treatment of CAG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung
Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101
Xu, Aili; Du, Hongbo
Objective This aim is to evaluate the effect of Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) treating chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). Methods We performed searches in seven databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SJZD with standard medical care or inactive intervention for CAG were enrolled. Combined therapy of SJZD plus conventional therapies compared with conventional therapies alone was also retrieved. The primary outcome included the incidence of gastric cancer and the improvement of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia based on the gastroscopy and pathology. The secondary outcomes were Helicobacter pylori clearance rate, quality of life, and adverse event/adverse drug reaction. Results Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The research quality was low in the trials. For the overall effect rate, pooled analysis from 4 trials showed that modified SJZD plus conventional medications exhibited a significant improvement (OR = 4.86; 95% CI: 2.80 to 8.44; P < 0.00001) and without significant heterogeneity compared with the conventional medications alone. None reported the adverse effect. Conclusions Modified SJZD combined with conventional western medicines appears to have benefits for CAG. Due to the limited number and methodological flaw, the beneficial and harmful effects of SJZD for CAG could not be identified. More high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm the results. PMID:29138645
Kim, Yoon Jae; Chung, Jun Won; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Ki Seok; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik
Key molecular players that link inflammation to carcinogenesis are prostaglandins, cytokines, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), chemokines, angiogenic growth factors, and free radicals, all of which lead to increased mutations and altered functions of important enzymes and proteins, for example, activation of oncogenic products and/or inhibition of tumor suppressor proteins, in inflamed tissues, thus contributing to multi-stage carcinogenesis process. Interpreted reversely, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation increases cancer risk or optimal intervention of targeted drugs or agents during the inflammation-associated carcinogenic process could be a necessary basis for developing new strategy of cancer prevention at many sites. In this review, we discuss the possibilities for cancer prevention by controlling inflammation process in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated inflamed stomach with Korea red ginseng. Korea red ginseng is a good example of a natural herb that has ubiquitous properties that are conductive to stop inflammatory carcinogenesis that is un wanted outcome of H. pylori infection, rendering rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis. PMID:20490314
Husney, Robert; Privman, Vladamir; Sepkowitz, Douglas
A 70-year-old man with a medical history of rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate 2.5 mg every other day was being followed for cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, who was also found to have adrenal masses bilaterally. A CT showed a 1 cm left adrenal nodule along with a 2.5 cm right adrenal mass suspicious for malignancy. A positron emission tomography showed metabolic activity in his adrenals that was non-specific (could be seen in benign as well as malignant lesions). The patient was started on valganciclovir 900 mg daily for 30 days. Following treatment the patient showed marked clinical improvement with a weight gain of 9 lbs and a complete resolution of his epigastric pain. A repeat oesophagogastroduodenoscopy performed with biopsy returned negative for CMV. A repeat CT abdomen to assess the adrenals was performed 2 weeks after completion of valganciclovir. His adrenal nodules had decreased significantly in size, with his left adrenal gland nodules measuring 1 cm and now his right adrenal gland nodule measuring 1 cm. PMID:23904414
Liu, Guo-Ping; Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yi-Qin; Fu, Jing-Jing; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Guo, Rui; Qian, Peng
Background. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), most of the algorithms are used to solve problems of syndrome diagnosis that only focus on one syndrome, that is, single label learning. However, in clinical practice, patients may simultaneously have more than one syndrome, which has its own symptoms (signs). Methods. We employed a multilabel learning using the relevant feature for each label (REAL) algorithm to construct a syndrome diagnostic model for chronic gastritis (CG) in TCM. REAL combines feature selection methods to select the significant symptoms (signs) of CG. The method was tested on 919 patients using the standard scale. Results. The highest prediction accuracy was achieved when 20 features were selected. The features selected with the information gain were more consistent with the TCM theory. The lowest average accuracy was 54% using multi-label neural networks (BP-MLL), whereas the highest was 82% using REAL for constructing the diagnostic model. For coverage, hamming loss, and ranking loss, the values obtained using the REAL algorithm were the lowest at 0.160, 0.142, and 0.177, respectively. Conclusion. REAL extracts the relevant symptoms (signs) for each syndrome and improves its recognition accuracy. Moreover, the studies will provide a reference for constructing syndrome diagnostic models and guide clinical practice. PMID:22719781
Full Text Available Background. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, most of the algorithms are used to solve problems of syndrome diagnosis that only focus on one syndrome, that is, single label learning. However, in clinical practice, patients may simultaneously have more than one syndrome, which has its own symptoms (signs. Methods. We employed a multilabel learning using the relevant feature for each label (REAL algorithm to construct a syndrome diagnostic model for chronic gastritis (CG in TCM. REAL combines feature selection methods to select the significant symptoms (signs of CG. The method was tested on 919 patients using the standard scale. Results. The highest prediction accuracy was achieved when 20 features were selected. The features selected with the information gain were more consistent with the TCM theory. The lowest average accuracy was 54% using multi-label neural networks (BP-MLL, whereas the highest was 82% using REAL for constructing the diagnostic model. For coverage, hamming loss, and ranking loss, the values obtained using the REAL algorithm were the lowest at 0.160, 0.142, and 0.177, respectively. Conclusion. REAL extracts the relevant symptoms (signs for each syndrome and improves its recognition accuracy. Moreover, the studies will provide a reference for constructing syndrome diagnostic models and guide clinical practice.
Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the “point of no return” and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions. PMID:24833876
Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph
Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613
Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the "point of no return" and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions.
Full Text Available Objective. This aim is to evaluate the effect of Sijunzi decoction (SJZD treating chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG. Methods. We performed searches in seven databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing SJZD with standard medical care or inactive intervention for CAG were enrolled. Combined therapy of SJZD plus conventional therapies compared with conventional therapies alone was also retrieved. The primary outcome included the incidence of gastric cancer and the improvement of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia based on the gastroscopy and pathology. The secondary outcomes were Helicobacter pylori clearance rate, quality of life, and adverse event/adverse drug reaction. Results. Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The research quality was low in the trials. For the overall effect rate, pooled analysis from 4 trials showed that modified SJZD plus conventional medications exhibited a significant improvement (OR = 4.86; 95% CI: 2.80 to 8.44; P < 0.00001 and without significant heterogeneity compared with the conventional medications alone. None reported the adverse effect. Conclusions. Modified SJZD combined with conventional western medicines appears to have benefits for CAG. Due to the limited number and methodological flaw, the beneficial and harmful effects of SJZD for CAG could not be identified. More high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm the results.
Full Text Available Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG. Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg, bacterial culture (BC, and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb, rapid urease test (RUT, and urea breath test (UBT. Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%.
Glickman, Jonathan N; Noffsinger, Amy; Nevin, Daniel T; Ray, Mukunda; Lash, Richard H; Genta, Robert M
The routine use of special stains for detection of Helicobacter remains controversial. To determine the frequency of histologically atypical Helicobacter infection. All gastric biopsies received at a large pathology reference laboratory over a 6-month period were stained for Helicobacter, and the histologic and clinicopathologic parameters evaluated. Amongst 7663 Helicobacter-positive biopsies, 823 (10.7%) did not show typical chronic active gastritis with numerous Helicobacter organisms, and were therefore considered histologically atypical. Rare Helicobacter pylori organisms accounted for 58.0% of all atypical infections; the next most common atypical Helicobacter infection was that with minimal or no gastric inflammation (23.3% of atypical infections). Patients in these groups did not differ demographically from those with other forms of atypical or typical Helicobacter infection, although a small subgroup (6%) was more likely to have had a previously treated infection. In many of these atypical infections, Helicobacter would not have been suspected based on the histologic findings alone, and would have been missed without routine special stains. Performing a sensitive stain could prevent additional testing and allow prompt treatment of the affected patients, thus substantially reducing the risk for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer and preventing the transmission of the infection to family members. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Qipin
A polysaccharide named EP-1 was found by screening cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus, which was extracted and subjected to precipitation with ethanol, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The polysaccharide has a molecular weight of approximately 3100Da and is composed of glucose, mannose and galactose, thus being a heteroglycan. EP-1 has a backbone of α-d-Glc(1→3) and β-d-Glc(1→3). The β-d-Glc(1→3) and α-d-Gal-(1→3) were regarded as branches attached to the C-4 position. The α-d-Man was regarded as a terminal residue. The anti-CAG activity was evaluated in experimental systems using a cell model for identification. The polysaccharide significantly inhibited the growth of MC cells obtained from human gastric mucosa epithelium (GES-1) cells transformed by MNNG, which were used as a chronic atrophic gastritis cell model. It also interfered with the MC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Thus, EP-1 shows potential for the development of new functional foods and drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Zerbib, F; Vialette, G; Cayla, R; Rudelli, A; Sauvet, P; Bechade, D; Seurat, P L; Lamouliatte, H
Follicular gastritis (FG) is characterized by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia in the gastric mucosa. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of FG in adults, their relation to Helicobacter pylori infection, and their histological and endoscopic features. Of 445 patients (379 men, 66 women), 36.4 years old (range: 18-86), FG was detected in 63 patients (14.2%). This was highly significantly associated with H. pylori infection: 49/138 infected patients (35.5%) versus 14/307 non infected patients (4.6%) (P < 0.001). None of the histological features of the antral mucosa were correlated with FG. The prevalence of FG in patients less than 20 years old (in 45.4%) and between 20 and 40 years (in 41.3%) was higher than in patients aged from 40 to 60 years (in 33%) and older than 60 years (in 23%) (no significant difference). No one endoscopic feature of the gastric mucosa was predictive of the presence of FG. We conclude that FG is highly correlated with H. pylori infection and represents a local immune response to bacterial antigens. Their occurrence is probably multifactorial and related to age, duration of infection, bacterial strains, host immune status.
Geoecologia da paisagem X legislação ambiental: uma análise da distribuição espacial das restrições ao uso da terra frente à problemática erosiva na alta bacia do Ribeirão Areia Dourada, Marabá Paulista (SP / Geoecology of the landscape X environmental legislation: an analysis of the spatial distribution of the land use restrictions and ther relation with erosion issues in the upper basin of the river Areia Dourada, Marabá Paulista (SP
Felipe Augusto Scudeller Zanatta
Full Text Available A promulgação do atual Código Florestal (Lei 12.651/12 gerou preocupações quanto à preservação e à proteção dos recursos naturais nos diferentes Biomas do Brasil, muito devido ao seu caráter genérico e à tolerância aos usos abusivos. Frente a essa questão, neste artigo é apresentado um estudo aplicado e comparativo das restrições ao uso nas propriedades privadas de acordo o atual Código Florestal, e com o zoneamento ambiental, elaborado a partir da proposta da geoecologia da paisagem, aplicados na alta bacia do ribeirão Areia Dourada, Marabá Paulista (SP. Assim, tem-se como objetivo avaliar as diferenças espaciais na restrição ao uso da terra identificadas em consonância com a Lei 12.651/12 e com o estudo conduzido a partir da metodologia da geoecologia, que se caracteriza por integrar os diversos elementos que compõem a paisagem natural. A demais, foram acrescidas à análise as feições erosivas lineares, no intuito de comparar a fragilidade natural da bacia com as consequências de usos inadvertidos. Como resultado, o atual Código Florestal contempla a preservação de apenas 6,28% (290,55 ha da área da bacia, o que tende a agravar a problemática erosiva, enquanto a metodologia da geoecologia aponta para a necessidade de preservar, pelo menos, 51,66% (2.388,28 ha. Esses terrenos ainda incidem diretamente nas áreas com erosões em ravinas e voçorocas, indicando de forma eficiente a fragilidade natural da bacia.
Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ogura, Mayumi; Suzawa, Naohisa; Horiki, Noriyuki; Katsurahara, Masaki; Ogura, Toru; Sakuma, Hajime
The aim of this study was to determine the value of 18 F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. Among subjects who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic performance of SUV indicators in predicting H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. SUV indicators of the stomach were significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than those without (from P < 0.001 to P < 0.05). ROC analysis revealed that SUVmean had the highest performance in predicting H. pylori infection (AUC 0.807) and chronic atrophic gastritis (AUC 0.784). SUVmean exhibited the sensitivity of 86.5 % and the specificity of 70.6 % in predicting H. pylori infection, and the sensitivity of 75.0 % and 78.6 % in predicting chronic atrophic gastritis. Assessment of 18 F-FDG uptake in the stomach reflecting active inflammation is useful in predicting patients with H. pylori infection and subsequent chronic atrophic gastritis which is closely associated with the risk of gastric neoplasms
Udaykumar, Padmaja; Udaykumar, K; Scandashree, K; Anurag, K
We aimed to identify the signals that indicate the possible benefits of administering Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) at the initiation of meal, compared to immediately after food. This was a randomized, controlled, pilot study in 160 patients who received only NSAIDs for various pain conditions. Patients were randomized to Group I (control group) -NSAID After Food (AF), Group II-NSAID Before Food (BF), Group III-NSAID BF for 2 days and then crossed over to AF for next two days (CO-1) and Group IV-NSAID AF for 2 days and then crossed over to BF for next two days (C0-2 group). Group III & Group IV were given a washout period of 48 hours after the initial two days of treatment. All were followed up for the next 2 drug free days. Patients were observed for the development of gastritis (epigastric distress, epigastric pain, nausea, fullness of stomach, repeated reflux) throughout the study. Symptoms of gastritis were seen in 6.45% (2/31) and 36.11% (13/36) patients in group I and II, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the development of gastritis in AF group. However, statistically significant difference (Pgastritis. Administering NSAIDs at the initiation of meal is better tolerated as indicated by the lower incidence of gastritis. If proved in larger population, routine concurrent administration of medication for prevention of gastritis can be avoided.
Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij
Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.
Fernández, Concepción; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Ferraro, Mariana; Seoane, Agustín; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Pairet, Silvia; Pons, Aina; Barranco, Luis; Vela, María Carmen; Gimeno, Eva; Colomo, Lluís; Besses, Carles; Navarro, Alfons; Salar, Antonio
Over the last years, our knowledge on pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma has greatly improved, but its morphological diagnosis is still hampered by overlapping histological features with advanced chronic gastritis. MicroRNAs are deregulated in lymphomas, but their role and usefulness in gastric MALT lymphoma has not been extensively investigated. We analyzed the expression of 384 miRNAs using TaqMan microRNA assay in a training series of 10 gastric MALT lymphomas, 3 chronic gastritis and 2 reactive lymph nodes. Then, significantly deregulated miRNAs were individually assessed by real-time PCR in a validation series of 16 gastric MALT lymphomas and 12 chronic gastritis. Gastric MALT lymphoma is characterized by a specific miRNA expression profile. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, a significant overexpression of miR-142-3p and miR-155 and down-regulation of miR-203 was observed in gastric MALT lymphoma when compared to chronic gastritis. miR-142-3p, miR-155 and miR-203 expression levels might be helpful biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between gastric MALT lymphomas and chronic gastritis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Xu, Qian; Chen, Tie-jun; He, Cai-yun; Sun, Li-ping; Liu, Jing-wei; Yuan, Yuan
MiR-27a rs895819 is a loop-stem structure single nucleotide polymorphism affecting mature miR-27a function. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis about the association of rs895819 with gastric cancer risk and prognosis, atrophic gastritis risk, as well as the interactions with environmental factors. A total of 939 gastric cancer patients, 1,067 atrophic gastritis patients and 1,166 healthy controls were screened by direct sequencing and MALDI-TOF-MS. The association of rs895819 with clinical pathological parameters and prognostic survival in 357 gastric cancer patients was also been analyzed. The rs895819 variant genotype increased the risk for atrophic gastritis (1.58-fold) and gastric cancer (1.24-fold). While in stratified analysis, the risk effect was demonstrated more significantly in the female, age >60y, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative and non-drinker subgroups. Rs895819 and H. pylori showed an interaction effect for atrophic gastritis risk. In the survival analysis, the rs895819 AG heterozygosis was associated with better survival than the AA wild-type in the TNM stage I–II subgroup. In vitro study by overexpressing miR-27a, cells carrying polymorphic-type G allele expressed lower miR-27a than wild-type A allele. In conclusion, miR-27a rs895819 is implicated as a biomarker for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk, and interacts with H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:28150722
Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,
Full Text Available Con questa breve intervista ad Alberto Pratelli, (non a caso scelto per aprire questa nuova rubrica intendia-mo inaugurare un dialogo con personalità significati-ve del Disegno di Architettura, che consenta riflessioni dedicate alle sue varie dimensioni, oggi più che mai da approfondire. La suggestione a farlo, viene da un’idea di Pablo Rodri-guez Navarro ed abbiamo quindi pensato di avviarla proprio in questo numero, che Pablo ha accettato di curare su un tema a lui particolarmente caro.
van Bohemen, C G; Langenberg, M L; Rauws, E A; Oudbier, J; Weterings, E; Zanen, H C
The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by positive biopsy cultures, all possessed statistically raised serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp during a longitudinal period of observation of 15 months. Treatment with the antibiotics amoxycillin (clamoxyl) or colloidal bismuth subcitrate (denol) eliminated Cp within one month. Associated with this, serum IgG ELISA titers were found to decrease sharply and rapidly. Tagamet and spiramycin had little effect. Although the data are preliminary, they support the assumed Cp involvement in chronic gastritis and suggest that specific serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp are useful parameters in monitoring disease status, exceeding bacteriological culture of biopsy specimens in speed and convenience.
Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho
Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori , AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori -positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori -negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH ＜3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH ＜3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH ＜3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.
Culquichicón-Sánchez, Carlos; Correa, Ricardo; Flores-Guevara, Igor; Espinoza Morales, Frank; Mejia, Christian R
We present the 15th case reported worldwide and 3rd case reported in Latin America of immune thrombocytopenic purpura associated with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Scopus, MEDLINE, and SciELO. An 11-year-old male patient of mixed ethnicity with immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and gastritis due to H. pylori presented to the emergency room with petechiae, ecchymosis, and gingival and conjunctival bleeding that had been worsening for the past three months. The patient had a body mass index of 18.85 kg/m(2) (P75). A biochemical analysis showed 1×10(9) platelets/L, increased prothrombin time, increased partial thromboplastin time, and an HbA1C of 7.84% on admission. He was prescribed a single dose of intravenous methylprednisolone 750 mg in 100 mL of NaCl and daily oral 50 mg prednisolone, with intravenous 250 mg tranexamic acid every eight hours. The patient's glycemic control was continued with the administration of insulin glargine (30 units every 24 hours) and prandial insulin glulisine (five to eight units per meal). Before admission, the patient was on a prescribed treatment of sitagliptin 50 mg and metformin 850 mg, but this was suspended in the emergency room. For the eradication of H. pylori he was prescribed amoxicillin 500 mg every eight hours, oral clarithromycin 335 mg every 12 hours, and IV omeprazole 40 mg. After 15 days, he showed disease resolution and he was discharged to his home with orders to follow-up with pediatrics, hematology, and endocrinology services. The first-line treatment for immune thrombocytopenic purpura patients with active bleeding and a platelet count < 30,000 platelets/μl is the administration of corticosteroids and inmunoglobulin.
Adamu, Mariam Abdullahi; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Gao, Lei; Brenner, Hermann
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an important precursor lesion of intestinal gastric cancer. As it is typically asymptomatic, epidemiological data on the incidence of CAG are sparse. We aimed to provide an overview of published data on CAG incidence (overall and according to risk factors) from follow-up studies. Articles with information on incidence of CAG published in English until 26th of July 2009 were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE search. Data extracted include study characteristics and key findings regarding the incidence of CAG. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and CAG incidence. Overall, data on CAG incidence were available from 14 studies, in 7 studies incidence could be estimated according to H. pylori infection. Most studies were conducted in symptomatic or high risk populations and the maximum number of incident cases was 284. Incidence estimates ranged from 0 to 11% per year and were consistently below 1% in patients not infected with H. pylori. The highest incidence was observed in a special study conducted on ulcer patients treated by proximal gastric vagotomy. Rate ratios for the association between H. pylori infection and CAG incidence ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 with a summary estimate of 5.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Incidence of CAG is very low in the absence of H. pylori infection. There is a need for more population-based studies to provide comparable estimates of incidence and the impact of risk factors in the development of CAG.
Sung, Jihee; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho
Background/Aims Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori, AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. Results The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori-positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori-negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. Conclusions There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body. PMID:28918609
Mewes, P. W.; Neumann, D.; Juloski, A. L.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.
Capsule Endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 and has since become an established diagnostic procedure for the small bowel, colon and esophagus. For the CE examination the patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of the peristaltic movements. CE is not indicated for stomach examination, as the capsule movements can not be controlled from the outside and the entire surface of the stomach can not be reliably covered. Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) was introduced in 2010. For the MGCE procedure the stomach is filled with water and the capsule is navigated from the outside using an external magnetic field. During the examination the operator can control the motion of the capsule in order to obtain a sufficient number of stomach-surface images with diagnostic value. The quality of the examination depends on the skill of the operator and his ability to detect aspects of interest in real time. We present a novel computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure (CADP) algorithm for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre-processing methods and feature vectors that are suitably chosen for the challenges of the MGCE imaging (suspended particles, bubbles, lighting). An image is classified using an ada-boost trained classifier. For the classifier training, a number of possible features were investigated. Statistical evaluation was conducted to identify relevant features with discriminative potential. The proposed algorithm was tested on 12 video sequences stemming from 6 volunteers. A mean detection rate of 91.17% was achieved during leave-one out cross-validation.
Vogel, S.B.; Woodward, E.R.
Symptoms of severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and frequent bezoars, as well as objective gastric retention, can occur following Roux-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. Medical therapy and prokinetic drugs have proven ineffective. This review evaluates 37 patients who underwent further gastric resection from 1979 to 1987 to improve gastric emptying and resolve symptoms. Fifteen patients underwent perioperative radionuclide solid-food gastric emptying studies. Seventy-three per cent (27 of 37 patients) of the patients who underwent further gastric resection (70% to 95%) had a satisfactory postoperative response. Twenty patients were graded Visick 1 or 2 and 7 Visick-3 patients, although much improved, still had some symptoms of gastroparesis. Twenty-seven per cent (10 of 37 patients) failed to improve and underwent completion total gastrectomy. Overall, 70% of this group had almost complete resolution of their symptoms. Three of 10 patients were considered ''failures'' due to postprandial pain in 1 and early vasomotor dumping in 2. Of the 10 patients who failed initial revisional surgery, 7 underwent a 70% to 80% subtotal gastric resection (STG) and 3 patients underwent 85% to 95% extensive resection (EXT.G.). Of the 15 patients who underwent perioperative radionuclide evaluation, a mean two-hour gastric retention of 61.4% +/- 4% (SEM) decreased to 25% +/- 4% following further gastric resection. Eight patients were in the STG group and seven patients were in the EXT.G group. Following STG, mean two-hour gastric retention of 58.2% +/- 3.5% decreased to 38% +/- 3% (p less than 0.05). In seven patients who underwent EXT.G, mean two-hour retention of 65% +/- 4% decreased to 10% +/- 2.5% (p less than 0.005). EXT.G resulted in normal gastric emptying and few late failures
Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)
To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)
Hausmann, T.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Goeke, M.; Luebeck, M.; Gratz, K.F.; Meier, P.; Manns, M.; Hundeshagen, H.
To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)
Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Purchiaroni, Flaminia; Corleto, Vito D; Di Giulio, Emilio; Annibale, Bruno
Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a risk condition for gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids. Recent studies assessing the overall risk of gastric cancer and carcinoids in AG at long-term follow up are lacking. This study aimed to investigate in a prospective cohort of AG patients the occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids at long-term follow up. A total of 200 AG patients from a prospective cohort (67% female, median age 55 years) with a follow up of 7.5 (range: 4-23.4) years were included. Inclusion criteria were presence of AG and at least one follow-up gastroscopy with biopsies at ≥4 years after AG diagnosis. Follow-up gastroscopies at 4-year intervals were performed. Overall, 22 gastric neoplastic lesions were detected (crude incidence 11%). Gastric cancer was diagnosed in four patients at a median follow up of 7.2 years (crude incidence 2%). Eleven type I gastric carcinoids were detected at a median follow up of 5.1 years (crude incidence of 5.5%). In seven patients, six low-grade and one high-grade dysplasia were found. The annual incidence rate person-year were 0.25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.067-0.63%), 0.43% (95% CI: 0.17-0.89%), and 0.68% (95% CI: 0.34-1.21%) for gastric cancer, dysplasia, and type I-gastric carcinoids, respectively. The incidence rates of gastric cancer and carcinoids were not different (p = 0.07). This study shows an annual incidence rate of 1.36% person-year for gastric neoplastic lesions in AG patients at long-term follow up. AG patients are similarly exposed to gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids.
Soykan, Irfan; Yakut, Mustafa; Keskin, Onur; Bektaş, Mehmet
Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) may predispose to gastric carcinoid tumors or adenocarcinomas and may also cause unexplained iron and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency. The aims of this study were to explore clinical manifestations, endoscopic findings and laboratory features of patients with AIG. 109 patients with AIG were enrolled into the study. In addition to demographic and clinical data, gastric lesions, serum gastrin, vitamin B(12), antiparietal cell antibody (APA), current Helicobacter pylori status, and anti-H. pylori IgG were also investigated. The mean age of the patients was 53.06 ± 12.7 years (range 24-81; 72 (66.1%) women). The most common main presenting symptom was abdominal symptoms in 51 patients, consultation for iron and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency in 36, and non-specific symptoms including intermittent diarrhea in 15 patients. Endoscopic lesions were detected in 17 patients, hyperplastic polyps in 8, gastric carcinoid tumor in 4, fundic gland polyps in 3, and adenomatous polyps in 2 patients. H. pylori was negative in all patients in biopsy specimens; however, anti-H. pylori IgG was positive in 30 (27.5%) patients. 91 patients (83.4%) were positive for APA. In patients with AIG, the main symptoms prompted for clinical investigation were: abdominal symptoms, iron/B(12) deficiency and non-specific symptoms. 20% of patients with AIG had various gastric lesions including type I gastric carcinoids. None of the patients were positive for H. pylori by means of invasive tests; however, anti-H. pylori IgG was found in 27.5% of patients. Patients referring with non-specific abdominal symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea and iron/B(12) deficiency should be investigated for the presence of AIG. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Massironi, Sara; Cavalcoli, Federica; Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Conte, Dario; Spampatti, Matilde Pia; Ciafardini, Clorinda; Verga, Uberta; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Peracchi, Maddalena
The coexistence of chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis (CAAG) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been described previously, even if its extent and underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We therefore prospectively evaluated this association in two series of patients, one with CAAG and the other with sporadic PHPT. From January 2005 to March 2012, 107 histologically confirmed CAAG patients and 149 PHPT patients were consecutively enrolled. Routine laboratory assays included serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), plasma gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA). In CAAG patients with high PTH levels, ionized calcium and 25(OH)-vitamin D were evaluated. All CAAG and hypergastrinemic PHPT patients received an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Exclusion criteria were familial PHPT, MEN1 syndrome, treatment with proton pump inhibitor drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection and renal failure. Of the 107 CAAG patients, nine (8.4%) had PHPT and 13 (12.1%) had secondary hyperparathyroidism stemming from vitamin D deficiency. Among the 149 PHPT patients, 11 (7.4%) had CAAG. Gastrin and CgA levels were similar in the CAAG patients with vs those without hyperparathyroidism (either primary or secondary), and calcium and PTH levels were similar in the PHPT patients with vs those without CAAG. This study confirms a non-casual association between PHPT and CAAG. The prevalence of PHPT in CAAG patients is threefold that of the general population (8.4 vs 1-3%), and the prevalence of CAAG in PHPT patients is fourfold that of the general population (7.4 vs 2%). The mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown, but a potential role for autoimmunity is suggested.
Gontar A Siregar
Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF in Helicobacter pylori infection, and their association with the degrees of gastritis histopathology. Methods: a cross-sectional study was done on 80 consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from July-December 2014. The Rapid Urease test was used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The severity of chronic inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were assessed. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating TNF-α, IL-8, and VEGF. Univariate and bivariate analysis (chi square, fisher’s exact, and mann-whitney test were done using SPSS version-22. Results: there were 41.25% of 80 patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. Serum TNF-α and VEGF levels in the infected group were significantly higher compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no significant differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative. There were significant associations between serum level of TNF-α and IL-8 with degree of chronic inflammation, and also between serum level of IL-8 and degree of neutrophil infiltration. There were significant associations between serum level of VEGF and degree of atrophy, and also between serum level of VEGF and degree of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion: High levels of TNF-α were associated with severe degree of chronic inflammation, high levels of IL-8 associated with severe degree of chronic inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and high levels of VEGF associated with severe degree of premalignant gastric lesion. Key words: cytokine, neoangiogenesis, Helicobacter pylori, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia.
María G Cárdenas-Mondragón
Full Text Available H. pylori infection is acquired during childhood and causes a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, which is considered the main risk factor to acquire gastric cancer (GC later in life. More recently, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV have also been associated with GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory responses and its relationship with H. pylori infection remains poorly studied. Here, we assessed whether EBV infection in children correlated with the stage of gastritis and whether co-infection with H. pylori affected the severity of inflammation.333 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain were studied. From them, gastric biopsies were taken and inflammation graded according to the Sydney system; peripheral blood was drawn and antibodies against EBV (IgG and IgM anti-VCA and H. pylori (IgG anti-whole bacteria and anti-CagA were measured in sera. We found that children infected only by EBV presented mild mononuclear (MN and none polymorphonuclear (PMN cell infiltration, while those infected by H. pylori presented moderate MN and mild PMN. In contrast, patients co-infected with both pathogens were significantly associated with severe gastritis. Importantly, co-infection of H. pylori CagA+/EBV+ had a stronger association with severe MN (PR 3.0 and PMN (PR 7.2 cells than cases with single H. pylori CagA+ infection.Co-infection with EBV and H. pylori in pediatric patients is associated with severe gastritis. Even single infections with H. pylori CagA+ strains are associated with mild to moderate infiltration arguing for a cooperative effect of H. pylori and EBV in the gastric mucosa and revealing a critical role for EBV previously un-appreciated. This study points out the need to study both pathogens to understand the mechanism behind severe damage of the gastric mucosa, which could identified children with increased risk to present more serious lesions later in life.
M Abid Hussain
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.
Obr, Teresa D; Fry, Joanna K; Lee, Justine A; Hottinger, Heidi A
To describe a case of necroulcerative gastritis in a cat secondary to administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent. A 10-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair was evaluated for hematemesis less than 24 hours following ingestion of a piece of foam. The pet owner had administered 2 doses of 0.5-1.0 tablespoons (7.5-15 mL) of 3% hydrogen peroxide in an attempt to induce emesis at home; emesis was achieved and produced the foam foreign body. Due to the presence of protracted vomiting and hematemesis, the patient was then presented to an emergency facility for further diagnostics and treatment. Initial blood work was normal on presentation, and advanced imaging of the abdomen was performed. An exploratory laparotomy revealed no foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract; however, severe ulceration of approximately 60% of the gastric mucosa was observed around the cardia and extended from the fundus down through the body of the stomach to the lesser curvature. Due to the severity of ulceration and presumed poor prognosis, the patient was euthanized intraoperatively. Histopathology of the stomach wall was consistent with severe confluent necroulcerative and hemorrhagic pleocellular gastritis, presumed to be secondary to administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide, which was used as the primary emetic agent in this case. The oral administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution in cats can result in necroulcerative gastritis as a possible sequel. While hydrogen peroxide is considered a safe emetic agent in dogs, its use in cats is not recommended. As a result, the use of emetic agents in cats should be limited to veterinary administration, using alternative, safer emetic agents such as alpha-adrenergic agonists. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.
Tongtawee, Taweesak; Bartpho, Theeraya; Wattanawongdon, Wareeporn; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij
Helicobacter pylori stimulates the host's toll-like receptors (TLRs). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLRs is related to the manipulation of regulatory cytokines and also implicated in the varied outcomes of the inflammatory response, including the development of precancerous lesions of gastric mucosa and disease progression. We hypothesized that TLR10 rs10004195 polymorphism is associated with gastric mucosal patterns. TLR10 rs10004195 polymorphisms were identified in a total of 400 gastritis patients using the TagMan SNP genotyping assay. Gastric mucosal patterns were classified by Conventional Narrow Band Imaging gastroscopy (C-NBI gastroscopy). Logistic regression was used to analyze the association. The gastritis patients was Type 1, 37.5% of Thai patients. The T/T homozygous genotype was exhibited by the highest percentage (46.5%) of patients, and the A/A homozygous and A/T heterozygous genotypes were exhibited by 20.25% and 33.25%, respectively, of patients. TLR10 rs10004195 was significantly associated with gastric mucosal patterns. After adjusting for confounding factors, patients with the A/A homozygous genotype showed a significantly increased risk of severe inflammation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.97-2.13, p=0.028). Patients with the A/T heterozygous and T/T homozygous genotypes showed a significantly increased risk of mild inflammation (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.78-2.07, p=0.042 and OR=1.78, 95% CI=0.51-3.35, p=0.001, respectively). Our results indicate that the presence of TLR10 rs10004195, A/T heterozygous, and T/T homozygous genotypes is associated with type 1, 2, and 3 whereas that of the A/A homozygous genotype is associated with type 4 and 5 of gastric mucosal patterns. This suggests that the A/A homozygous genotype contributes to severe inflammation in H. pylori-associated gastritis in Thai patients.
Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and eradication therapy have been known to influence gastric ghrelin and leptin secretion, which may lead to weight gain. However, the exact relationship between plasma ghrelin/leptin levels and H. pylori infection has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, to compare the two levels of the hormones before and after H. pylori eradication, and to examine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and active ghrelin or leptin levels, as well as that between atrophic pattern and active ghrelin or leptin levels. Seventy-two H. pylori-positive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 46 diagnosed as having peptic ulcer and 26 as atrophic gastritis, were enrolled. Control samples were obtained from 15 healthy H. pylori-negative volunteers. The extent of atrophic change of the gastric mucosa was assessed endoscopically. Body weight was measured and blood was collected before and 12 weeks after H. pylori eradication therapy. Blood samples were taken between 8 and 10 AM after an overnight fast. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients. In particular, plasma active ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with gastritis compared with patients with peptic ulcer. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased after H. pylori eradication in both peptic ulcer and gastritis patients, while plasma leptin levels increased only in peptic ulcer patients. Plasma leptin levels and BMI were positively correlated, and active ghrelin levels and atrophic pattern were weakly negatively correlated in peptic ulcer patients. H. pylori infection and eradication therapy may affect circulating ghrelin/leptin levels. This finding suggests a relationship between gastric mucosal injury induced by H. pylori infection and changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels.
Arismendi-Morillo, G; Hernández, I; Mengual, E; Abreu, N; Molero, N; Fuenmayor, A; Romero, G; Lizarzábal, M
Severity of chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection (CGAHpI) could play a role in evaluating the potential risk to develop gastric cancer. Our aim was to estimate the risk for gastric cancer in a clinical setting, according to histopathologic criteria, by applying the gastric cancer risk index (GCRI) METHODS: Histopathologic study of the gastric biopsies (corpus-antrum) from consecutive adult patients that underwent gastroesophageal duodenoscopy was carried out, and the GCRI was applied in patients presenting with CGAHpI. One hundred eleven patients (77% female) with a mean age of 38.6±13.1 years were included. Active Helicobacter pylori infection (aHpi) was diagnosed in 77 cases (69.40%). In 45% of the cases with aHpi, pangastritis (23%) or corpus-predominant gastritis (22%) was diagnosed. Nine cases were diagnosed with intestinal metaplasia (8%), 7 of which (77.70%) were in the aHpi group. Twenty one percent of the patients with aHpi had a GCRI of 2 (18.10%) or 3 (2.50%) points (high risk index), while 79.10% accumulated a GCRI of 0 or 1 points (low risk index). Of the patients with no aHpi, none of them had 3 points (p=0.001). Of the 18 patients that accumulated 2 or 3 points, 6 (33.30%) presented with intestinal metaplasia (all with pangastritis and corpus-predominant gastritis), of which 4 cases (66.60%) had aHpi. The estimated gastric cancer risk in patients with CGAHpI in the clinical setting studied was relatively low and 5% of the patients had a histopathologic phenotype associated with an elevated risk for developing gastric cancer. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Redondo Domínguez, Ernesto; Moya Sala, Joaquim
[EN] Interview with Oriol Bohigas [ES] Entrevista con Oriol Bohigas Redondo Domínguez, E.; Moya Sala, J. (2015). Conversando con… Oriol Bohigas. EGA. Revista de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica. 20(26):22-35. doi:10.4995/ega.2015.4061 22 35 20 26
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Martínez-Carrillo, D N; Atrisco-Morales, J; Hernández-Pando, R; Reyes-Navarrete, S; Betancourt-Linares, R; Cruz-del Carmen, I; Illades Aguiar, B; Román-Román, A; Fernández-Tilapa, G
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. In H. pylori-infected individuals, the clinical result is dependent on various factors, among which are bacterial components, the immune response, and environmental influence. To compare IFN-γ expression with the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 20 with gastric cancer were included in the study. Three gastric biopsies were taken; one was used for the molecular detection and genotyping of H. pylori; another was fixed in absolute alcohol and histologic sections were made for determining IFN-γ expression through immunohistochemistry. No differences were found in the cells that expressed IFN-γ between the patients with chronic gastritis (median percentage of positive cells: 82.6% in patients without H. pylori and 82% in infected persons) and those with gastric cancer (70.5% in H. pylori-negative patients and 78.5% in infected persons). IFN-γ expression was 69% in chronic gastritis patients infected with H. pylori vacAs2m2/cagA⁻ it was 86.5% in patients infected with H. pylori vacAs1m2/cagA⁻, 86.5% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁻, and 82% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁺. Similar data were found in the patients with gastric cancer. IFN-γ expression varied depending on the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotype, but not in accordance with the presence of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer.
Tüzün, Ali; Keskin, Onur; Yakut, Mustafa; Kalkan, Cagdas; Soykan, Irfan
Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune and inflammatory condition that may predispose to gastric carcinoid tumors or adenocarcinomas. The early diagnosis of these tumors is important in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Platelet indices such as mean platelet volume and plateletcrit levels increase in inflammatory, infectious and malign conditions. The primary aim of this study was to explore wheter platelet indices and red cell distribution width have any predictive role in the discrimination of autoimmune gastritis patients with and without gastric carcinoid tumors. Also secondary aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes exist betwenn autoimmune gastritis and functional dyspepsia patients by means of platelet indices. Plateletcrit (0.22 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.03%, p gastritis patients compared to control group. Receiver operating curve analysis suggested that optimum plateletcrit cut-off point was 0.20% (AUC: 0.646), and 13.95% as the cut off value for red cell distribution width (AUC: 0.860). Although plateletcrit (0.22 ± 0.06 vs. 0.21 ± 0.04%, p = 0.220) and mean platelet volume (8.94 ± 1.44 vs. 8.68 ± 0.89 fl, p = 0.265) were higher in autoimmune gastritis patients without carcinoid tumor compared to patients with carcinoid tumors, these parameters were not statistically significant. Changes in plateletcrit and red cell distribution width values may be used as a marker in the discrimination of autoimmune gastritis and fucntional dyspepsia patients but not useful in patients with gastric carcinoid tumor type I.
Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Oka, Masashi; Watanabe, Mika; Enomoto, Shotaro; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao
Our study investigated the relationship between gastric cancer development and activity of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis or the resulting chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A cohort of 4,655 healthy asymptomatic subjects, in whom serum pepsinogen (PG) and H. pylori antibody titer had been measured to assess the activity and stage of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, was followed for up to 16 years, and cancer development was investigated. In subjects with a serologically diagnosed healthy stomach (H. pylori-negative/CAG-negative), cancer incidence rate was low, at 16/100,000 person-years. With the establishment of H. pylori infection and progression of chronic gastritis, significant stepwise cancer risk elevations were seen from CAG-free subjects (H. pylori-positive/CAG-negative) [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-54.7] to subjects with CAG (H. pylori-positive/CAG-positive) (HR = 17.7, 95% CI = 5.4-108.6) and finally to subjects with metaplastic gastritis (H. pylori-negative/CAG-positive) (HR = 69.7, 95% CI = 13.6-502.9). In H. pylori-infected CAG-free subjects, significantly elevated cancer risk was observed in the subgroup with active inflammation-based high PG II level or potent immune response-based high H. pylori antibody titer; the former was associated with a particularly high risk of diffuse-type cancer, and both subgroups showed high cancer incidence rates of around 250/100,000 person-years, comparable to that in subjects with CAG. No such risk elevation was observed in H. pylori-infected subjects with CAG. These results clearly indicate that gastric cancer develops mainly from the gastritis-atrophy-metaplasia-cancer sequence and partly from active inflammation-based direct carcinogenesis, and that serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody titer provide indices of cancer development in H. pylori-infected subjects. © 2013 UICC.
Donnelly, Jessica M; Engevik, Amy C; Engevik, Melinda; Schumacher, Michael A; Xiao, Chang; Yang, Li; Worrell, Roger T; Zavros, Yana
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) promote gastric cancer in response to gastritis. In culture, BM-MSCs are prone to mutation with continued passage but it is unknown whether a similar process occurs in vivo in response to gastritis. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of chronic gastritis in the transformation of BM-MSCs leading to an activated cancer-promoting phenotype. Age matched C57BL/6 (BL/6) and gastrin deficient (GKO) mice were used for isolation of stomach, serum and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at 3 and 6 months of age. MSC activation was assessed by growth curve analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and xenograft assays. To allow for the isolation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and assay in response to chronic gastritis, IRG/Vav-1(Cre) mice that expressed both enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing hematopoietic cells and red fluorescent protein-expressing stromal cells were generated. In a parabiosis experiment, IRG/Vav-1(Cre) mice were paired to either an uninfected Vav-1(Cre) littermate or a BL/6 mouse inoculated with Helicobacter pylori. GKO mice displayed severe atrophic gastritis accompanied by elevated gastric tissue and circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) by 3 months of age. Compared to BM-MSCs isolated from uninflamed BL/6 mice, BM-MSCs isolated from GKO mice displayed an increased proliferative rate and elevated phosphorylated-Smad3 suggesting active TGFβ signaling. In xenograft assays, mice injected with BM-MSCs from 6-month-old GKO animals displayed tumor growth. RFP+ stromal cells were rapidly recruited to the gastric mucosa of H. pylori parabionts and exhibited changes in gene expression. Gastritis promotes the in vivo activation of BM-MSCs to a phenotype reminiscent of a cancer-promoting cell.
Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar
Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.
Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki
The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD.
Montalban-Arques, Ana; Wurm, Philipp; Trajanoski, Slave; Schauer, Silvia; Kienesberger, Sabine; Halwachs, Bettina; Högenauer, Christoph; Langner, Cord; Gorkiewicz, Gregor
Corpus-dominant lymphocytic gastritis (LyG) is characterized by CD8 + T-cell infiltration of the stomach epithelium by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Although Helicobacter pylori is typically undetectable in LyG, patients respond to H. pylori antibiotic eradication therapy, suggesting a non-H. pylori microbial trigger for the disease. Comparative microbiota analysis of specimens from LyG, H. pylori gastritis and healthy controls precluded involvement of H. pylori in LyG but identified Propionibacterium acnes as a possible disease trigger. In addition, the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) system and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 are significantly upregulated in the gastric mucosa of LyG patients, and gastric epithelial cells respond to microbe-derived stimuli, including live P. acnes and the microbial products short-chain fatty acids, with induction of NKG2D ligands. In contrast, H. pylori infection does not activate or even repress NKG2D ligands. Together, our findings identify P. acnes as a possible causative agent for LyG, which is dependent on the NKG2D system and IL-15 activation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
Tanaka, Aki; Kamada, Tomoari; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Shiotani, Akiko; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Manabe, Noriaki; Ito, Masanori; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken
Although gastric cancer (GCa) is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, only some H. pylori-positive subjects develop gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to identify H. pylori-positive subjects at high risk of developing GCa by assessment of the histopathological findings in the non-cancer-containing mucosa of patients with and without GCa. The subjects were 35 patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer (D-GCa), 55 with intestinal-type gastric cancer (I-GCa), and 99 H. pylori-positive controls without GCa. Two specimens were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the middle body. Histopathological gradings were evaluated using the updated Sydney System, and the risk of GCa was evaluated using a modified Meining's gastric cancer risk index (GCRI). Among the H. pylori-positive controls, corpus gastritis was seen in 98.0% (97/99) and corpus atrophic gastritis in 78.8% (78/99). The mean GCRI for the D-GCa (5.514±2.03) and I-GCa (6.836±2.08) groups was significantly greater than that for the H. pylori-positive controls (4.071±2.07; p=0.0005, pcancer. However, H. pylori-positive patients at high risk of developing GCa (not only intestinal-type but also diffuse-type) may be detected using a simple GCRI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan Hamad
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as a food additive and coloring agent in many consumer products however limited data is available on the nano-TiO2 induced genotoxicity persistence. Thus, this study investigated the persistence of nano-TiO2 induced genotoxicity and possible induction of chronic gastritis in mice. The mice were orally administered 5, 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight nano-TiO2 for five consecutive days, and then mice from each dosage group were sacrificed 24 h or one or two weeks after the last treatment. The administration of nano-TiO2 resulted in persistent apoptotic DNA fragmentation and mutations in p53 exons (5-8) as well as significant persistent elevations in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and decreases in the reduced glutathione level and catalase activity compared with the control mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Necrosis and inflammation were evident upon histological examination. These findings could be attributed to the persistent accumulation of nano-TiO2 at the tested doses at all three time points. Based on these findings, we conclude that the administration of nano-TiO2, even at low doses, leads to persistent accumulation of nano-TiO2 in mice, resulting in persistent inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress, ultimately leading to the induction of chronic gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña
Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.
Hijaz, Nadia Mazen; Septer, Seth Steven; Degaetano, James; Attard, Thomas Mario
Collagenous gastritis (CG) is characterized by patchy subepithelial collagen bands. Effective treatment and the clinical and histological outcome of CG in children are poorly defined. The aim of this study is to summarize the published literature on the clinical outcome and response to therapy of pediatric CG including two new cases. We performed a search in Pubmed, OVID for related terms; articles including management and clinical and/or endo-histologic follow up information were included and abstracted. Reported findings were pooled in a dedicated database including the corresponding data extracted from chart review in our patients with CG. Twenty-four patients were included (17 females) with a mean age of 11.7 years. The clinical presentation included iron deficiency anemia and dyspepsia. The reported duration of follow up (in 18 patients) ranged between 0.2-14 years. Despite most subjects presenting with anemia including one requiring blood transfusion, oral iron therapy was only documented in 12 patients. Other treatment modalities were antisecretory measures in 13 patients; proton pump inhibitors (12), or histamine-2 blockers (3), sucralfate (5), prednisolone (6), oral budesonide in 3 patients where one received it in fish oil and triple therapy (3). Three (13%) patients showed no clinical improvement despite therapy; conversely 19 out of 22 were reported with improved symptoms including 8 with complete symptom resolution. Spontaneous clinical resolution without antisecretory, anti-inflammatory or gastroprotective agents was noted in 5 patients (4 received only supplemental iron). Follow up endo-histopathologic data (17 patients) included persistent collagen band and stable Mononuclear cell infiltrate in 12 patients with histopathologic improvement in 5 patients. Neither collagen band thickness nor mononuclear cell infiltrate correlated with clinical course. Intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia were reported (1) raising the concern of long
Neither genotype nor the gastric colonization site of Helicobacter pylori are predictive factors for the development of erosive esophagitis in patients with peptic ulcer disease, 1 year after eradication O genótipo e o local no estômago de isolamento do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica não são fatores preditivos para o desenvolvimento de esofagite erosiva 1 ano após a erradicação da bactéria
Carlos Alexandre Gonçalves Batista
estômago de infecção pela bactéria, podem estar correlacionados com a prevenção ou desenvolvimento de esofagite. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de esofagite erosiva após a erradicação do H. pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica e a sua associação com a virulência das cepas da bactéria e o local no estômago de seu isolamento. MÉTODOS: Um tratamento tríplice com lansoprazol, amoxicilina e claritromicina foi administrado a 159 pacientes com úlcera péptica. Endoscopia digestiva alta, exame histológico, teste rápido da urease e o teste respiratório de uréia com carbono-14 foram realizados antes, 3 meses e 1 ano após o tratamento. A genotipagem das cepas do H. pylori por meio de PCR foi realizada separadamente em amostras obtidas da mucosa do corpo e do antro gástricos. RESULTADOS: Um ano após o tratamento, 148 pacientes curados da infecção foram avaliados: 28 (19% apresentavam esofagite erosiva, 24 com grau A da classificação de Los Angeles e 4 com grau B. Nas amostras obtidas da mucosa do corpo gástrico, a citotoxina CagA foi positiva em 18 (64% pacientes com esofagite erosiva, enquanto que nas amostras obtidas do antro gástrico, a citotoxina CagA foi positiva em 21 (75%. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de esofagite erosiva em pacientes com doença péptico-ulcerosa foi de 19%. Não houve correlação entre o local de isolamento no estômago ou as cepas CagA-positivas do H. pylori e a proteção ou o desenvolvimento de esofagite erosiva, em pacientes com úlcera péptica, 1 ano depois da erradicação da bactéria.
Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Okubo, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Ohmiya, Naoki; Hirata, Ichiro
Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. We measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and assessed its relationship to H. pylori-related gastritis, DNA methylation, ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 151 cancer-free subjects including 49 chronic NSAID users and 102 nonusers. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured by real-time PCR. H. pylori infection status, histological severity of gastritis, and serum pepsinogens (PGs) were also investigated. E-cadherin (CDH1) methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Average relative telomere length of H. pylori-infected subjects was significantly shortened when compared to H. pylori-negative subjects (p = 0.002) and was closely associated with all histological parameter of gastritis (all p values gastritis and CDH1 methylation status. Also, telomere shortening is accelerated by NSAID usage especially in H. pylori-negative subjects.
Rocha, A.F.G. da; Zuccaro, A.M.; Marquiotti, M.
The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time.
Rocha, A.F.G. da; Zuccaro, A.M.; Marquiotti, M.
The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time. (orig.)
Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig
Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Pgastritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F
This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Oka, Masashi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Maekita, Takao; Inoue, Izumi; Ueda, Kazuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasushi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Inada, Kenichi; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ichinose, Masao
The present study investigated the preventive effects of etodolac, a selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, on metachronous cancer development after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer. Among 267 early gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic resection, 47 patients with extensive metaplastic gastritis were selected based on endoscopic findings and our previously described criteria of serum pepsinogen (PG) test-positive and Helicobacter pylori antibody-negative conditions. Nonrandomized etodolac treatment (300 mg/day) was administered to 26 patients (Group A), while the remaining 21 patients were untreated (Group B). No significant differences in age, sex distribution, lifestyle factors or extent of metaplastic gastritis at baseline were identified between groups. Patients were followed for metachronous cancer development with endoscopy every 6-12 months for up to 5 years. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up period was 4.2 (0.9) years. In Group B, 5 cancers developed (incidence rate = 6,266/100,000 person-years), significantly more than the 1 cancer in Group A (incidence rate = 898/100,000 person-years; p gastritis as revealed by endoscopic findings or by serum PG levels, but effectively reduced metachronous cancer development in patients with extensive metaplastic gastritis. These results strongly suggest that chemoprevention of cancer in the metaplastic stomach is possible by controlling COX-2 expression.
Magalhães-Costa, Marcia Henriques de; Reis, Beatriz Ribeiro dos; Chagas, Vera Lúcia Antunes; Nunes, Tiago; Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira de; Zaltman, Cyrla
Focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are found in the upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn's disease, and may reflect an underlying defective innate immunity. These features, however, are also described in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The role of these gastric abnormalities in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease was assessed in a population with high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Thirty-seven Crohn's disease, 26 ulcerative colitis, and 30 control patients were included. The H. pylori status was evaluated by the rapid urease test and histology. The presence of focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates was recorded. Focally enhanced gastritis was present in 24% of Crohn's disease patients, 4% of ulcerative colitis patients and 11.5% of controls, presenting an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn's disease of 24% and 88%, respectively. Macrophage microaggregates were found in all groups, but were only detected in ulcerative colitis and controls in association with H. pylori infection, with an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn's disease of 61% and 69%, respectively. In the absence of H. pylori infection, focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates were significantly associated with Crohn's disease (Pgastritis and macrophage microaggregates are suggestive of Crohn's disease only in H. pylori-negative specimens.
Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan
OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.
Korstanje, A.; van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Sabbe, L. J. M.; den Hartog, G.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.
BACKGROUND: (13)Carbon urea breath testing is reliable to detect current infection with Helicobacter pylori but has been reported to be of limited value in selected patients with atrophic body gastritis or acid-lowering medication. AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of (13)carbon urea breath testing for
Ossa M., Mauricio
additions of 20 and 30% .
Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de
Wang, Xiaoteng; Lu, Bin; Meng, Lina; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Meng
Serum pepsinogen (PG) test, as an indicator of gastric mucosal atrophy, reflects the functional and morphologic status of gastric mucosal and it is suggested to serve as a useful predictive marker for patients with gastric cancer (GC). The available classifications of gastritis, known as the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM), integrating the severity and topography of atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM), have been gradually accepted and used in screening for GC in recent years. To assess whether serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and gastrin-17 (G-17) could reflect the extent and topography of gastric mucosal atrophy/IM. Furthermore, to discuss the relationship between OLGA/OLGIM staging system and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/IM. The OLGA/OLGIM ranks the gastric staging according to both the topography and the severity of gastric atrophy/IM. A retrospective study was conducted with 331 patients who underwent endoscopy with consecutive biopsy sampling and reassessed according to OLGA/OLGIM staging system. Serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and G-17, as well as serological Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody were also measured. Results were presented as gastritis stage, serum pepsinogen level and Hp status. Baseline characteristics were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for continuous data and Pearson's χ 2 test for categorical data. A logistic regression model was used for the correlation analysis between OLGA/OLGIM and serological pepsinogen test. A total of 177 non-atrophic gastritis and 154 atrophic gastritis were analyzed, among which 40 were antrum atrophy, 32 were corpus atrophy and 82 were pan-atrophy. All patients were assessed applying the OLGA/OLGIM criteria with a mean age of 54.7 ± 10.8 years. Patients among OLGA/OLGIM Stage III-IV were presented with a lower level of serum PGI and PGI/PGII (p 15
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori varies by population and geographic area. Our objective was to determine if the IL-1B -511 T>C and -31 C>T polymorphisms and H. pylori vacA genotypes are associated with risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer in a Mexican population. Methods We conducted endoscopic studies in 128 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. We took two biopsies from the body, antrum, or ulcer edge from each patient, and classified our histopathological findings according to the Sydney System. H. pylori infection and vacA genotyping were accomplished via PCR from total DNA of the gastric biopsies. We confirmed the presence of anti-H. pylori serum IgG and IgM in 102 control subjects. In both case subjects and control subjects, the IL-1B -511 T>C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLPs and the IL-1B -31 C>T polymorphism was genotyped by pyrosequencing. Results Sixty-two point seven (62.7% of the 102 control subjects were H. pylori-seropositive. Among the case subjects, 100 were diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 28 with gastric ulcer. We found that 77% of the patients with chronic gastritis and 85.7% of the patients with gastric ulcer were H. pylori-positive. The predominant H. pylori genotype was vacA s1m1 (58.4% and the most frequent subtype was vacA s1. The -511 TC, (rs16944 -511 T>C genotype and the -511C allele were associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8 and OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.0, respectively. The subjects carrying -31T (rs1143627 -31 C>T were found to be at a higher risk of having chronic gastritis (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-5.8. The IL-1B -511C/-31T haplotype was associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.8 but not with gastric ulcer. Conclusions The H. pylori vacA genotypes identified herein were similar to those reported for other regions of Mexico. The vacA s1m1 genotype was
Zagari, R M; Rabitti, S; Greenwood, D C; Eusebi, L H; Vestito, A; Bazzoli, F
The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays (panel test) is a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. However, the diagnostic reliability of this test is still uncertain. To assess the diagnostic performance of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. Medline via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases and abstracts of international conferences proceedings were searched from January 1995 to December 2016 using the primary keywords "pepsinogens," "gastrin," "atrophic gastritis," "gastric precancerous lesions." Studies were included if they assessed the accuracy of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis using histology according to the updated Sydney System as reference standard. Twenty studies with a total of 4241 subjects assessed the performance of serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis regardless of the site in the stomach. The summary sensitivity was 74.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 62.0-84.3) and the specificity was 95.6% (95%CI, 92.6-97.4). With a prevalence of atrophic gastritis of 27% (median prevalence across the studies), the negative predictive value was 91%. Few studies with small sample size assessed the performance of the test in detecting the site of atrophic gastritis. The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays appears to be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. This test may be used for screening subjects or populations at high risk of gastric cancer for atrophic gastritis; however, a cost-effectiveness analysis is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Elena de la Paz Hernández Águila
Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un diagnóstico del desempeño de la industria mexicana del calzado desde la década de los ochenta hasta la actualidad. Analiza la problemática que ha enfrentado esta rama industrial a partir del proceso de apertura comercial y de la competencia en su mercado interno con productos provenientes de países asiáticos, particularmente China. Problematiza al respecto los retos y las perspectivas que a mediano plazo enfrentará este sector empresarial y sobre las posibilidades de competir en el mercado globalizado.
Olabe-Velasco, F. (Fermín); Val-Hernández, Y. (Yolanda); Varela-de-la-Cruz, P. (Perla); Cabrero-Ballarín, J.M. (José Manuel)
Guía divulgativa ‘Construir con madera’, elaborada por la Cátedra Madera de la Universidad de Navarra y el Gobierno de Navarra. La publicación pretende explicar de forma sencilla los beneficios y posibilidades de este material en la construcción, tanto en lo que respecta a su resistencia, comportamiento frente al fuego, durabilidad, capacidad de aislamiento, propiedades acústicas, estética, respeto al medio ambiente y sostenibilidad como fuente de energía. A modo de ejemplo, en la ...
Wang, L; Lin, Z; Chen, S; Li, J; Chen, C; Huang, Z; Ye, B; Ding, J; Li, W; Wu, L; Jiang, Y; Meng, L; Du, Q; Si, J
To investigate the effectiveness of 10-day bismuth-containing quadruple (B-quadruple) treatment as first-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from October 2011 to December 2013 in Zhejiang, China, including patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis who were randomly provided either 10-day omeprazole-based triple therapy (OM-triple; omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily) or 10-day B-quadruple therapy (OM-triple + bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times daily). H. pylori status, pathologic findings and dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The primary outcome was H. pylori eradication rates by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The secondary outcomes were the histologic and symptomatic benefits from H. pylori eradication. A total of 351 patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis were recruited. The eradication rates of the OM-triple and B-quadruple groups were 58.4% (108/185) and 86.1% (143/166) respectively according to ITT analysis (p gastritis and intestinal metaplasia did not regress in both groups (n=326). The reduction of dyspeptic symptoms score was significantly higher in the B-quadruple group than in the OM-triple group (0.59±0.057 vs. 0.39±0.046) (p gastritis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bartchewsky, Waldemar; Martini, Mariana Rocha; Masiero, Mariana; Squassoni, Aline Candido; Alvarez, Marisa Claudia; Ladeira, Marcelo Sady; Salvatore, Daisy; Trevisan, Miriam; Pedrazzoli, José; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima
Helicobacter pylori infection is related to gastric cancer development, and chronic inflammation is presumed to be the main cause. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of H. pylori cagA, vacA, iceA, and babA genotypes on COX-2, IL-1beta, and IL-8 expression. Of the 217 patients included in the study, 26 were uninfected, 127 had chronic gastritis and were H. pylori-positive, and 64 had gastric cancer. Bacterial genotypes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the expression values were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. An association was found between the infection with cagA, vacA s1m1 strains and gastric cancer development. Regarding the 3' region of the cagA gene, we also found an association between the infection with cagA EPIYA-ABCCC strains and clinical outcome. Higher levels of IL-8, IL-1beta, and COX-2 were detected in gastric mucosa from infected patients with chronic gastritis, and they were also associated with the infection by cagA, vacA s1m1 strains. The IL-8 and IL-1beta levels decrease significantly from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, while the relative expression remained unaltered when COX-2 expression was analyzed among patients with gastritis and cancer. Since inflammatory response to H. pylori infection plays an important role in cellular proliferation and gastric mucosal damage, the up-regulation of IL-1beta, IL-8, and COX-2 in patients with chronic gastritis has an important clinical implication in gastric carcinogenesis.
Development of gastric cancer in nonatrophic stomach with highly active inflammation identified by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody together with endoscopic rugal hyperplastic gastritis.
Watanabe, Mika; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Yoshida, Takeichi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ueda, Kazuki; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Tekeshita, Tatsuya; Mohara, Osamu; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao
This study aimed to elucidate groups at high risk of developing cancer among patients with serologically identified Helicobacter pylori infection and nonatrophic stomach. Annual endoscopy was performed for a mean of 5.4 years in 496 asymptomatic middle-aged men who were H. pylori antibody-positive and pepsinogen (PG) test-negative. Subjects were stratified according to the activity of H. pylori-associated gastritis measured by serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody, and/or by endoscopic findings of rugal hyperplastic gastritis (RHG), and cancer development was investigated. During the study period, seven cases of cancer developed in the cohort (incidence rate, 261/100,000 person-years), with 85.7% developing in the group showing a PGI/II ratio ≤ 3.0, reflecting active inflammation-based high PGII levels. Cancer incidence was significantly higher in this group (750/100,000 person-years) than in groups with less active gastritis. Furthermore, cancer incidence for this group was significantly higher in the subgroup with high H. pylori antibody titers than in the low-titer subgroup. Meanwhile, endoscopic findings revealed that 11.7% of subjects showed RHG reflecting localized highly active inflammation, and cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with RHG than in patients without. Combining the two serum tests and endoscopic examination for RHG allowed identification of subjects with more active gastritis and higher cancer risk. No cancer development was observed in these high-risk subjects after H. pylori eradication. Subjects with highly active gastritis identified by the two serological tests and endoscopic RHG constitute a group at high risk of cancer development with H. pylori-infected nonatrophic stomach. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Enyime, Félicien Ntoné; Ndjollé, Carole Menzy; Djapa, Roger Nsenga; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Njoya, Oudou; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap
The study aimed at determining the different types of precancerous conditions of the stomach and searches the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in these lesions in patients with chronic antral gastritis in Yaounde, Cameroon. Five gastric biopsies were performed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for pathology and fixed in formol 10% before being coated in paraffin. Both the modified Giemsa and Periodic acid of Shift - Alkaline blue stains were used for the histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Hematoxylyn and eosin stain was used to determine the activity of gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in accordance to the Sydney's classification of gastritis. Data were analysed using both the Epi info 6.04 and Excel 2007 softwares. Means and their standard deviations, medians and their interquartiles (IQR) were calculated. Proportions were established for qualitative variables and chi square analysis done in this study with a p value set at 0.05. Seventy-nine patients with chronic antral gastritis were enrolled, of which 43 (54.4%) were male, median age: 43 years (range from 21 to 70 years). The rate of atrophic gastritis was 74.7% (59/79). The activity of atrophic gastritis was mild in 47.5% (28/59) of cases, moderate in 47.5% (28/59) and severe in 5% (5/59). Intestinal metaplasia and follicular gastritis were present in 6.3% (5/79), and 10.1% (8/79), respectively. Concerning Helicobacter pylori infection, 71.2% (42/59) of patients with atrophic gastritis tested positive against 28.8% (17/59) who tested negative (p=0.00003). Helicobacter pylori infection was related to the severity of gastric atrophy (p=0.0001). Among patients with intestinal metaplasia and follicular gastritis, the proportion of those who tested positive for Helicobacter pylori infection was 80% (4/5), and 75% (6/8), respectively. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of atrophic gastritis according to age groups (p=0.908). This study concludes
Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Kang, Eun Seon; Kang, Suna; Park, Sunmin
Taraxacum coreanum Nakai has been traditionally used for treating inflammatory diseases including gastrointestinal diseases. We studied whether water extracts of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai (TCN) had a protective effect on acute and chronic gastritis induced by ethanol/HCl in an animal model of gastritis and its mechanism was also explored. In the acute study, rats were orally administered 0.15g/mL dextrin (normal-control), 0.15g/mL dextrin (control), 0.05g/mL TCN (TCN-L), 0.15g/mL TCN (TCN-H), or 0.01g/mL omeprazole (orally; positive-control), followed by oral administration of 1mL of 60% ethanol plus 150mM HCl (inducer). In the chronic study, rats were administered 10% diluted inducer in drinking water, and 0.6% dextrin, 0.2% or 0.6% TCN, and 0.05% omeprazole were administered in chow for 4 weeks. Acid content, gastric structure, oxidative stress, and markers of inflammation in the stomach tissue were measured at the end of experiment. Acute and chronic ethanol/HCl administration caused the inner layer of the stomach to redden, hemorrhage, and edema in the control group; TCN-H reduced these symptoms more effectively than did the omeprazole positive-control. Acid production and total acidity in the stomach increased in the control group, which was markedly suppressed by omeprazole. TCN also reduced the acid production and acidity, but not to the same degree as omeprazole. H-E and PAS staining revealed that in the inner layer of the stomach, cellular structure was disrupted, with an increased nuclear size and thickness, disarrangement, and decreased mucin in the control group. TCN prevented the cellular disruption in the inner layer, and TCN-H was more effective than the positive-control. This was associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. TCN dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of mast cells and TNF-α expression in the inner layer of the stomach, and decreased lipid peroxides by increasing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase expression. TCN
Jainan, Wannapa; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn
The CYP2C19 genotype has been found to be an important factor for peptic ulcer healing and H. pylori eradication, influencing the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical correlations of the CYP2C19 genotype in patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and gastric cancer in Thailand. Clinical information, endoscopic findings and H. pylori infection status of patients were assessed between May 2012 and November 2014 in Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. Upper GI endoscopy was performed for all patients. Five milliliters of blood were collected for H. pylori serological diagnosis and CYP2C19 study. CYP2C19 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and classified as rapid metabolizer (RM), intermediate metabolizer (IM) or poor metabolizer (PM). A total of 202 patients were enrolled including 114 with gastritis, 36 with PUD, 50 with PUB and 2 with gastric cancer. Prevalence of CYP2C19 genotype was 82/202 (40.6%) in RM, 99/202 (49%) in IM and 21/202 (10.4%) in PM. Overall H. pylori infection was 138/202 patients (68.3%). H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 72% in RM genotype, 69.7% in IM genotype and 47.6% in PM genotype. Both gastric cancer patients had the IM genotype. In PUB patients, the prevalence of genotype RM (56%) was highest followed by IM (32%) and PM(12%). Furthermore, the prevalence of genotype RM in PUB was significantly greater than gastritis patients (56% vs 36%: p=0.016; OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.1-4.7). CYP2C19 genotype IM was the most common genotype whereas genotype RM was the most common in PUB patients. All gastric cancer patients had genotype IM. The CYP2C19 genotype RM might be play role in development of PUD and PUB. Further study in different population is necessary to verify clinical usefulness of CYP2C19 genotyping in development of
Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.
Esperanza Londoño La Rotta
Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known for their function as translational regulators of tumor suppressor or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNAs related genes have been shown to affect the regulatory capacity of miRNAs and were linked with gastric cancer (GC and premalignant gastric conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential associations between miRNA-related gene polymorphisms (miR-27a, miR-146a, miR-196a-2, miR-492 and miR-608 and the presence of GC or high risk atrophic gastritis (HRAG in European population. METHODS: Gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 995 subjects (controls: n = 351; GC: n = 363; HRAG: n = 281 of European descent. MiR-27a T>C (rs895819, miR-146a G>C (rs2910164, miR-196a-2 C>T (rs11614913, miR-492 G>C (rs2289030 and miR-608 C>G (rs4919510 SNPs were genotyped by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Overall, SNPs of miRNAs were not associated with the presence of GC or HRAG. We observed a tendency for miR-196a-2 CT genotype to be associated with higher risk of GC when compared to CC genotype, however, the difference did not reach the adjusted P-value (odds ratio (OR - 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03-2.07, P = 0.032. MiR-608 GG genotype was more frequent in GC when compared to controls (OR -2.34, 95% CI 1.08-5.04, but significance remained marginal (P = 0.029. A similar tendency was observed in a recessive model for miR-608, where CC + CG vs GG genotype comparison showed a tendency for increased risk of GC with OR of 2.44 (95% CI 1.14-5.22, P = 0.021. The genotypes and alleles of miR-27a, miR-146a, miR-196a-2, miR-492 and miR-608 SNPs had similar distribution between histological subtypes of GC and were not linked with the presence of diffuse or intestinal-type GC. CONCLUSIONS: Gene polymorphisms of miR-27a, miR-146a, miR-196a-2, miR-492, miR-492a and miR-608 were not associated with the presence of HRAG, GC or different histological subtypes of GC in European
Liu, Xiao-Fa; Li, Dian-Gui; Liu, Jian-Ping; Du, Yan-Ru; Bai, Hai-Yan
In this article, medication characteristics of professor Li Dian-gui in treating chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia(CAGIM) were analyzed through traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(version 2.5). 276 cases and 625 prescriptions were collected to analyze five types of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndromes and the medicine-syndrome correlation. The results showed that medication characteristics of professor Li Dian-gui in treating CAGIM included drug combination of aromatic medicine bitter-cold herbs, preferring to activating to invigorate the spleen and good at using the qi-regulating drugs. It demonstrated that we can adopt the therapy of Huazhuo Jiedu and Xingpi Xingqi therapies in treating CAGIM in addition to the traditional approach of nourishing Yin and activating blood circulation, opening up a novel approach for TCM in healing the pathema. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Pruchanskij, V.S.; Novikov, V.I.
The possibility of using artificial stomach hypotension to decrease the dynamic obscurity and a better examination of stomach mucosa microrelief in cases when X-ray exposures exceed 0.1 s, is shown. 75 patients with various forms of chronic gastritis both under normal conditions and in the case of stomach hypotension are investigated. The ''Diagnomax-M-125'' X-ray diagnostic device with the DR tube 125/30/50 kWt (and a small focus of 1.2x1.2 mm) is used. Optimum exposures during the roentgenography of stomach fields are increased up to 0.16 s. Under conditions of artificial stomach hypotension a clear image of microrelief is obtained 2 times more often, while the absence of the image of stomach field takes place 4 times more seldom than when using the conventional technique. In the case of stomach hypotension the picture of areola is less seldom unclear [ru
Hirose, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takeichi, Nobuo; Naito, Yukiko; Inoue, Shozo
Divided doses of 6,000 or 8,000 rad of x-ray were given to the gastric region of ICR/JCL female mice with immune atrophic gastritis produced by the injection with allogenic stomach antigen. The carcinogenic effect of x-rays for inducing gastric carcinoma was significantly increased by this method. Two points can be presented as its reason. First, the pyloric gland mucosa regenerating from injuries by immunization was exposed to the divided doses of x-rays. Second, the marked requirement of gastrin secretion attributable to severe injuries of parietal cell mass by immunization and local x-irradiation acted as a promoting factor on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-ray for a long time through the trophic effects on the pyloric gland. (auth.)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM Junk food consumption is common among children that have much adverse effect on the growth of the children and health. This study is aimed to assess the correlation of frequency of junk food intake with the morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies in dyspeptic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Melmaruvathur Medical College Hospital, Melmaruvathur, during the year 2014-2015. The participants were dyspeptic children between 10-15 years of age. They were interviewed using various junk food frequency questionnaires and antral biopsy was taken for histopathological assessment. The morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies were recorded and their association with junk food was analysed. RESULTS Out of 37 children studied, the predominant age group affected were between 5-10 years (56.8% with female predominance (67%. Among the frequency, daily usage of junk food constitutes 57% of cases and the remaining 43% were taking intermittently. Biscuits, chocolates, packed chips were regularly used by daily user and bottled drinks, ice cream were used intermittently. Morphological assessment of gastritis showed significant association of junk food intake with increased intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration with a P value of 0.05, presence of Helicobacter pylori with a P value of 0.02 and presence of regenerative atypical changes with a P value of 0.006. CONCLUSION There is a significant association between the junk food intake and the severity of gastritis. The intensity of inflammatory changes, regenerative atypical glands and Helicobacter pylori presence and load were more among those having the habit of daily junk food intake than those taking intermittently.
Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González
Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.
Jairo Andrés Montes
Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es describir la forma en la que se presentan los procesos de aprendizaje autorregulado con un grupo de estudiantes (22 estudiantes de tercer semestre de Psicología de la PUJ, Cali, en el evento de preparación para la presentación un examen. Asimismo se describen las correlaciones que ocurren entre las distintas fases de dicho proceso de autorregulación del aprendizaje. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos se ha hecho uso de una observación de desempeño en tiempo real, es decir, de la observación durante una sesión de preparación de examen de los estudiantes, en la cual se emplearon protocolos verbales para dar cuenta de lo que «pasaba por su mente» mientras estudiaban. Una entrevista semi-estructurada y una prueba objetiva. Los resultados fueron analizados a la luz del modelo mixto de procesamiento de información y constructivismo abordado por Winne(1998. Como resultado se encontró una relación significativa entre los niveles de desempeño en el proceso de ARR y el resultado del examen. Igualmente se encontraron bajos niveles de regulación en una parte importante de la muestra y un desfase significativo entre conocimiento declarativo de ARR y desempeño en el mismo
Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones
Shirzad, H; Bagheri, N; Azadegan-Dehkordi, F; Zamanzad, B; Izadpanah, E; Abdi, M; Ramazani, G; Sanei, M H; Ayoubian, H; Ahmadi, A; Jamalzehi, S; Aslani, P; Zandi, F
Chronic inflammation is the hallmark of the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer. IL-17A and IL-17F are inflammatory cytokines expressed by a novel subset of CD4+Th cells and play critical function in inflammation. We evaluated the relationship between IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R+2199 A/C polymorphisms with IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression in regard to H. pylori infection with chronic gastritis. Total RNA and genomic DNA were extracted from gastric biopsies of 58 H. pylori-infected patient with gastritis. Afterward, mucosal IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression and polymorphisms in IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL-23R +2199A/Cin gastric biopsies were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP. Our results show that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G andIL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms have no effect on mucosal expression of IL-6, IL-17, IL-21 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression in H. pylori-infected patients with chronic gastritis. These results suggest that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms no alter mucosal cytokine pattern in Iranian patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis diseases. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.
Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Othman, Mohamed S; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat
Gastritis is preponderantly characterized by inflammation of the lining epithelial layer and the chronic gastritis is considered as a pre-cancer lesion. For many centuries olive (Olea europaea) leaf has been used for its putative health potential, nonetheless, to date, the gastroprotective effects of olive leaves have not been studied yet. Hence, in this study we investigated whether olive leaf extract (OLE) could protect gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Hcl/ethanol administration caused significant damage to the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by gastric ulcer index and histological evaluation. However, this damage was largely prevented by pre-administering 20mg/kg omeprazole or 100mg/kg OLE. Interestingly, the damage was completely prevented by pre-administering 200 and 300mg/kg OLE. Moreover, OLE attenuated the inflammatory response by decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expressions, and down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective mechanism of OLE involved the promotion of enzymatic and nonenzymatic molecules (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione reduced form), promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, halting lipid peroxidation and preventing the overproduction of nitric oxide. Together, our findings clearly demonstrated that OLE could prevent HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis by attenuating inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Indeed, OLE could potentially be useful as a natural therapy for gastritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Jing, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li-Ping; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan
Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 (ERCC8) plays a critical role in DNA repair. Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC8 may contribute to the risk of cancer development. We selected tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in Chinese patients from the HapMap database to investigate associations with gastric cancer and its precursors. Genomic DNA was extracted from 394 controls, 394 atrophic gastritis, and 394 gastric cancer cases in northern Chinese patients, and genotypes were identified using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. We found that the ERCC8 rs158572 GG+GA genotype showed a 1.651-fold (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.109-2.457, P = 0.013) increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the AA genotype, especially in diffuse type. Stratified analysis comparing the common genotype revealed significantly increased gastric cancer risk in males and individuals older than 50 years with rs158572 GA/GG/GG+GA genotypes, while individuals older than 50 years with rs158916 CT/CC+CT genotypes were less susceptible to atrophic gastritis. Haplotype analysis showed that the G-T haplotype was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Statistically significant interactions between the two ERCC8 tagSNPs and Helicobacter pylori infection were observed for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk (P cancer compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers homozygous for AA. Our findings suggested that ERCC8 rs158572 and rs158916, alone or together with environmental factors, might be associated with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis susceptibility. Further validation of our results in larger populations along with additional studies evaluating the underlying molecular function is required.
Rita Campillo Motilva
Full Text Available La violencia doméstica es tan antigua como la humanidad misma y se reconocen la violencia infantil, contra la mujer y al anciano, fundamentalmente; siendo este último grupo una población en ascenso por las mayores expectativas de vida de los últimos años. Como resultado de ello, el número de casos de abuso en el anciano se incrementará y el impacto de este abuso sobre la salud debe ser considerado de forma adecuada. La gama de maltratos es variadísima e incluye el abuso físico, emocional, financiero, sexual, por negligencia, negación a brindarle ayuda y otras formas más. Los ancianos con deterioro cognitivo son los más vulnerables. El médico en la atención primaria de salud es un pilar importante en la prevención y educación de este problema.Domestic violence is as old as humanity itself. Child, women and elderly abuse are mainly recognized. The elderly group is increasing due to the higher life expectancy experimented during the last years. As a result, the number of battered elderly will grow and the impact of this abuse on health should be adequately considered. The range of abuse is very wide and it includes physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, negligence, rejection to give assistance and others. The elderly with cognitive deterioration are the most vulnerable. The physician at the primary health care level is an important milestone in the prevention and education of this problem.
Full Text Available Autoimmune gastritis results from the breakdown of T cell tolerance to the gastric H(+/K(+ ATPase. The gastric H(+/K(+ ATPase is responsible for the acidification of gastric juice and consists of an α subunit (H/Kα and a β subunit (H/Kβ. Here we show that CD4(+ T cells from H/Kα-deficient mice (H/Kα(-/- are highly pathogenic and autoimmune gastritis can be induced in sublethally irradiated wildtype mice by adoptive transfer of unfractionated CD4(+ T cells from H/Kα(-/- mice. All recipient mice consistently developed the most severe form of autoimmune gastritis 8 weeks after the transfer, featuring hypertrophy of the gastric mucosa, complete depletion of the parietal and zymogenic cells, and presence of autoantibodies to H(+/K(+ ATPase in the serum. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the disease significantly affected stomach weight and stomach pH of recipient mice. Depletion of parietal cells in this disease model required the presence of both H/Kα and H/Kβ since transfer of H/Kα(-/- CD4(+ T cells did not result in depletion of parietal cells in H/Kα(-/- or H/Kβ(-/- recipient mice. The consistency of disease severity, the use of polyclonal T cells and a specific T cell response to the gastric autoantigen make this an ideal disease model for the study of many aspects of organ-specific autoimmunity including prevention and treatment of the disease.
Bartchewsky, Waldemar; Martini, Mariana R; Squassoni, Aline C; Alvarez, Marisa C; Ladeira, Marcelo S P; Salvatore, Daisy M F; Trevisan, Miriam A; Pedrazzoli, José; Ribeiro, Marcelo L
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of Helicobacter pylori on Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. The study included 217 patients, of which 26 were uninfected; 127 had chronic gastritis and were H. pylori-positive, and 64 had gastric cancer. Bacterial genotypes were evaluated by PCR, and the expression values were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that the up-regulationary effects of H. pylori infection on the pro-apoptotic gene, Bax, were stronger than its induction of Bcl-2; this effect may increase apoptosis in patients with chronic gastritis. In patients with gastric cancer, the up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-2, counteracted the pro-apoptotic effects of Bax, leading to a deregulation of apoptosis-associated gene expression, favoring cell proliferation. Thus, the disturbance in Bax and Bcl-2 balance, induced by H. pylori, might be important in gastric cancer development.
Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Tetsuo; Tokutomi, Tadashi; Sakurai, Kouichi; Okamura, Seisuke; Chono, Shinji; Kamada, Tomoari; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Matsuzawa, Kenji; Ito, Masanori; Yasuda, Mitsugu; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Haruma, Ken
The relationship between bile acid reflux into the stomach and the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia is still not well understood. Towards obtaining a better understanding, concentrations of bile acids were measured. This study was carried out with the participation of 14 facilities in Japan, and 2283 samples were collected. The subjects with bile acid concentrations equal to or higher than the limit of detection were divided into four groups of equal size (group A: 0-25%, group B: 26-50%, group C: 51-75%, and group D: 76-100%). Thus, including the control group, there were five groups in total. The odds that the control group would develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia was set as 1,and the odds ratios (OR) in groups A, B, C and D were calculated based on the odds in the control group. Regarding the development of atrophic gastritis, no increased risk was observed in either the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive or -negative cases. The OR for the development of intestinal metaplasia were significantly higher, for both cases with and without H. pylori infection, in group D. High concentrations of bile acid seem to be associated with an elevated risk of intestinal metaplasia. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Li, Pei-wu; Zhuang, Kun-hai
To summarize Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and theoretical thoughts on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), the study group designed a retrospective study on his case series and expert interview. First of all, the data of CAG patients treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between 2009 and 2013, e. g. herbs, diseases, syndrome type, prescription amount and number of herbs, was collected and processed. The statistical description and binary logistic regression were used to determined the syndrome type, initial basic remedy and modification. During the statistics, a complete and sub-group analysis was performed simultaneously. After the expert interview, the syndrome type and medication were finalized. As a result, a total of 228 CAG patients aged at (50.30 ± 10.18) were collected, including 151 males (66.23%). Of them, the TCM diagnosis and syndrome type were extracted from the information of 157 patients, including 115 cases with gastric stuffiness, 23 cases with gastric pain, 19 missing cases, 2 cases with spleen-stomach weakness syndrome, 57 cases with spleen deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome, 18 cases with spleen-stomach disharmony syndrome, 23 cases with syndrome of liver depression syndrome, 21 cases with liver qi invading stomach syndrome and 26 qi and yin deficiency syndrome, respectively. All of the 228 patients used totally 104 herbs, while the subgroups with 157 patients used 94 herbs. The most frequently used 15 herbs used in each groups were analyzed to determine the initial basic remedy and modification. Subsequently, based on the information of the sub-groups with 157 patients, with the syndrome type as the dependent variable, the logistic regression analysis was made on the most frequently used 32 herbs, in order to determined the modification in herbs for different syndrome types. After experts reviewed and modified, they believed the main causes of CAG were dietary irregularities
Carlosama-Rosero, Y H; Bolaños-Bravo, H; Sierra-Tórres, C H; Rosero, E A
Follicular gastritis is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but little is known of its relation to bacterial genotypes. Our aim was to establish the relation between follicular gastritis and different H. pylori strains. An analytic case-control study was conducted that included 36 patients with follicular gastritis (cases) and 83 with nonatrophic gastritis (controls). The sociodemographic information was obtained through a questionnaire. Biopsies were evaluated according to the Sydney System and the Wotherspoon scoring system. Helicobacter pylori genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The quantitative variables were presented as mean and standard deviation and the qualitative variables as proportions and absolute frequency. The effect of each variable on outcome (follicular gastritis) was evaluated through the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance was set at a P<.05. Follicular gastritis was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection (OR: 13.41, CI: 1.7-103, P=.01). The CagA+ genotype was present in 56.5% of the cases and 58% of the controls. The cytotoxic VacAs1m1strain was present in 82% of the isolates in both groups. IceA1 frequency was 34.8% in the cases and 26% in the controls and the difference was not statistically significant. The population studied had elevated frequencies of cytotoxic Helicobacter pylori strains and the iceA1 genotype was more frequent in follicular gastritis. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yin; Liu, Yue; Li, Yannan; Zhao, Xia; Zhuo, Lin; Zhou, Ajian; Zhang, Li; Su, Zeqi; Chen, Cen; Du, Shiyu; Liu, Daming; Ding, Xia
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is the precancerous stage of gastric carcinoma. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treating CAG. This study aimed to reveal core pathogenesis of CAG by validating the TCM syndrome patterns and provide evidence for optimization of treatment strategies. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 4 hospitals in China. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and complex system entropy clustering analysis (CSECA) were performed, respectively, to achieve syndrome pattern validation. Based on HCA, 15 common factors were assigned to 6 syndrome patterns: liver depression and spleen deficiency and blood stasis in the stomach collateral, internal harassment of phlegm-heat and blood stasis in the stomach collateral, phlegm-turbidity internal obstruction, spleen yang deficiency, internal harassment of phlegm-heat and spleen deficiency, and spleen qi deficiency. By CSECA, 22 common factors were assigned to 7 syndrome patterns: qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, yang deficiency, and yin deficiency. Combination of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, yang deficiency, and yin deficiency may play a crucial role in CAG pathogenesis. In accord with this, treatment strategies by TCM herbal prescriptions should be targeted to regulating qi, activating blood, resolving turbidity, clearing heat, removing toxin, nourishing yin, and warming yang. Further explorations are needed to verify and expand the current conclusions.
Full Text Available Lymphocytic gastritis (LG is associated with helicobacter pylori (Hp and celiac disease (CD. We aimed to clarify the relationship between Hp infection and CD by defining a unique histopathology profile of LG in these two diseases. Forty patients who underwent upper endoscopy were divided into four groups: eight controls, ten active CD patients without Hp, twelve CD negative with Hp, and ten active CD with Hp infection. Antral samples were assessed by immunohistochemical staining for CD20, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD57, CNA42, and Ki67 for lymphoid aggregates, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs number, density of lamina propria (LP lymphocytes, and inflammatory glandular involvement. Only IELs positive for CD3 and CD8 were increased significantly in CD patients with or without Hp infection. Hp did not contribute to the number of CD8 IELs. In complicated cases with Hp and suspicious for CD, the number of CD8+ IELs hints toward a CD rather than Hp infection.
Ruggiero, Paolo; Rossi, Giacomo; Tombola, Francesco; Pancotto, Laura; Lauretti, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Zoratti, Mario
AIM: To investigate whether red wine and green tea could exert anti-H pylori or anti-VacA activity in vivo in a mouse model of experimental infection. METHODS: Ethanol-free red wine and green tea concentrates were administered orally as a mixture of the two beverages to H pylori infected mice, or separately to VacA-treated mice. Gastric colonization and gastric inflammation were quantified by microbiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: In H pylori-infected mice, the red wine and green tea mixture significantly prevented gastritis and limited the localization of bacteria and VacA to the surface of the gastric epithelium. Similarly, both beverages significantly prevented gastric epithelium damage in VacA-treated mice; green tea, but not red wine, also altered the VacA localization in the gastric epithelium. CONCLUSION: Red wine and green tea are able to prevent H pylori-induced gastric epithelium damage, possibly involving VacA inhibition. This observation supports the possible relevance of diet on the pathological outcome of H pylori infection. PMID:17230601
Fang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Xin-Ying; Yang, Bo; Sui, Shu-Jing; Chen, Min; Pan, Wei-Hua; Liao, Wan-Qing; Zhong, Ming; Wang, Qing-Cai
Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) has been extensively used in the treatment of atrophic gastritis (AG) in China and other Far Eastern countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy and safety of CHD in AG. Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials (central), VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sinomed, Wanfang data were searched (up to December 2015). Randomized controlled trials recruiting patients with AG comparing CHD (alone or with western medicine (WM)) with WM were eligible. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain relative risk (RR), with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Forty-two articles including 3,874 patients were identified. CHD, used alone or with WM, had beneficial effect over WM in the improvement of clinical manifestations (RR=1.28; 95% CI 1.22-1.34) and pathological change (RR=1.42; 95% CI 1.30-1.54) for AG patients. However, the H. pylori eradication effect of CHD was not supported by the existing clinical evidence, because of the significant study heterogeneity (I 2 >50%) and inconsistency between the primary results and sensitivity analysis. CHD, if prescribed as a complementary therapy to WM, may improve the clinical manifestations and pathological change for AG patients. But its monotherapy for H. pylori eradication is not supported by enough clinical evidence.
Full Text Available Jianpi Yiqi therapy (JYT is a classical therapy in treating chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG, but the clinical effects of it are still contentious. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of JYT for CAG. Seven electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Springer Link, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP (Chinese Scientific Journals Database, Wan-fang database, and CBM (Chinese Biomedicine Database were searched from their inception to November 1, 2016. 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs with a total of 1119 participants were identified for analysis. Meta-analyses demonstrated that both JYT (RR 1.41; 95% CI 1.27, 1.57; P < 0.00001 and JYT + western medicine (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.17, 1.38; P < 0.00001 were more efficacious than only western medicine. Furthermore, JYT had potential improvement on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM symptoms scores such as stomachache, stomach distention, belching, fatigue, et al. In addition, no serious adverse events were reported in the selected trials. The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool was evaluated for the weaknesses of methodological quality, while the quality level of Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE evidence classification indicated "Very low". This meta-analysis indicates that JYT may have potential effects on the treatment of patients with CAG. However, due to limitations of methodological quality and small sample size of the included studies, further standardized research of rigorous design should be needed.
Bedell, Alyse; Taft, Tiffany; Craven, Meredith R; Guadagnoli, Livia; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala
Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) are chronic immune-mediated conditions of the digestive tract, which affect the stomach only, or the stomach and small intestines, respectively. Though these disorders are uncommon, they are being increasingly recognized and diagnosed. While health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been evaluated in other eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, this study is the first to describe HRQOL impacts unique to EG/EGE. This study aims to qualitatively describe experiences of adults diagnosed with EG and EGE. We aim to identify impacts on HRQOL in this population in order to inform clinical care and assessment. Seven patients diagnosed with EG or EGE participated in semi-structured interviews assessing common domains of HRQOL. Four distinct themes emerged from qualitative analyses, which represent impacts to HRQOL: the psychological impact of the diagnosis, impact on social relationships, financial impact, and impact on the body. These generally improved over time and with effective treatment. This study demonstrated that patients with EG/EGE experience impacts to HRQOL, some of which differ from HRQOL of other eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. These results support the development of a disease-specific measure, or adaptation of an existing measure, to assess HRQOL in EG/EGE.
Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier
We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC.
Tenca, Andrea; de Bortoli, Nicola; Mauro, Aurelio; Frazzoni, Marzio; Savarino, Edoardo; Massironi, Sara; Russo, Salvatore; Bertani, Lorenzo; Marchi, Santino; Penagini, Roberto
The factors influencing new markers of gastro-esophageal reflux disease detected by impedance-pH monitoring - mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) and post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index - need to be evaluated. To compare endoscopy-negative heartburn with chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis (CAAG). 24 patients with CAAG, 25 with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and 25 with functional heartburn (FH) were included. In all patients the main impedance-pH monitoring parameters were calculated. CAAG and NERD patients had a number of reflux events (non-acid ones being more common among the former group) which was higher than that found in FH (p3000Ohm), CAAG (>2000Ohm) and NERD (reflux based on the high number of reflux events and confirmed by low values of MNBI and PSPW index. MNBI is a strong marker of acid/non-acid reflux-induced mucosal damage, whereas the PSPW index can reliably discriminate patients with reflux from those with FH, independently of the acidity of refluxate. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rubén Pérez Armas
Full Text Available Se realiza el estudio de 40 pacientes con acné polimorfo, los que fueron atendidos en la Consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley", en el período comprendido de enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1989. Se revisa la literatura médica sobre los diversos métodos y medicamentos utilizados en la terapéutica de esta dermatosis. Se describe el esquema de tratamiento empleado con implacén en 30 pacientes; los 10 restantes se trataron con placebo; se compara dicho esquema con los tradicionales y se observan mejores resultados con nuestro estudio. Se destaca la ausencia de recaídas, así como el resultado del tratamiento de acuerdo con el sexo.A study was performed in 40 patients presenting with polymorphic acne who were attended in the Dermatology Department of "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Clinicosurgical and Teaching Hospital from January, 1988 to December, 1989. A review of the literature was made seeking for the different methods and drugs used for the treatment of this dermatosis. The treatment schedule with the use of implacen in 30 patients is described. Such therapeutic schedule was compared with traditional ones and better results were observed with the use of implacen. The fact that there were no relapses is highlighted, as well as the result of treatment according to sex.
Akazawa, Yuko; Matsuda, Katsuya; Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Kido, Yoko; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Yamaghchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Moss, Joel; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Masahiro
BH3-only protein, Bim, is a pro-apoptotic protein that mediates mitochondria-dependent cell death. However, the role of Bim in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the cellular localization of Bim and its possible role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. The study was conducted on biopsy specimens obtained from 80 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (H. pylori-negative: n=30, positive: n=50). Association between Bim mRNA expression and severity of gastritis was evaluated and the localization of Bim was examined by immunofluorescence. Bim mRNA expression was positively correlated with the degree of gastritis, as defined by the Sydney system. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased Bim expression in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa compared with uninfected mucosa in both humans and mice. Bim localized in myeloperoxidase- and CD138-positive cells of H. pylori-infected lamina propria and submucosa of the gastric tract, indicating that this protein is predominantly expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells. In contrast, Bim did not localize in CD20-, CD3-, or CD68-positive cells. Bim was expressed in the mitochondria, where it was partially co-localized with activated Bax and cleaved-PARP. In conclusion, Bim is expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it may participate in the termination of inflammatory response by causing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in specific leucocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Lahner, Edith; Brigatti, Cristina; Marzinotto, Ilaria; Carabotti, Marilia; Scalese, Giulia; Davidson, Howard W; Wenzlau, Janet M; Bosi, Emanuele; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Annibale, Bruno; Lampasona, Vito
Objectives: Circulating autoantibodies targeting the H+/K+-ATPase proton pump of gastric parietal cells are considered markers of autoimmune gastritis, whose diagnostic accuracy in atrophic body gastritis, the pathological lesion of autoimmune gastritis, remains unknown. This study aimed to assess autoantibodies against ATP4A and ATP4B subunits of parietal cells H+, K+-ATPase in atrophic body gastritis patients and controls. Methods: One-hundred and four cases with atrophic body gastritis and 205 controls were assessed for serological autoantibodies specific for ATP4A or ATP4B subunits using luminescent immunoprecipitation system (LIPS). Recombinant luciferase-reporter-fused-antigens were expressed by in vitro transcription-translation (ATP4A) or after transfection in Expi293F cells (ATP4B), incubated with test sera, and immune complexes recovered using protein-A-sepharose. LIPS assays were compared with a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for parietal cell autoantibodies. Results: ATP4A and ATP4B autoantibody titers were higher in cases compared to controls (Pgastritis. Both assays had the highest sensitivity, at the cost of diagnostic accuracy (89 and 90% specificity), outperforming traditional EIA. Once validated, these LIPS assays should be valuable screening tools for detecting biomarkers of damaged atrophic oxyntic mucosa. PMID:28102858
Atrophic gastritis and enlarged gastric folds diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography are useful to predict future gastric cancer development based on the 3-year prospective observation.
Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Ichinose, Masao; Takahashi, Yu; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Nakayama, Chiemi; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Niimi, Keiko; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Kataoka, Yosuke; Saito, Itaru; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Kaikimoto, Hikaru; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko
Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is the standard gastric cancer screening method in Japan. Atrophic gastritis and enlarged gastric folds are considered the two major features of Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic gastritis, but the clinical meaning of evaluating them by UGI-XR has not been elucidated. We analyzed healthy UGI-XR examinees without a history of gastrectomy, previous Helicobacter pylori eradication and usage of gastric acid suppressants. Of the 6433 subjects, 1936 (30.1 %) had atrophic gastritis and 1253 (19.5 %) had enlarged gastric folds. During the 3-year prospective observational follow-up, gastric cancer developed in seven subjects, six of whom (85.7 %) had atrophic gastritis with H. pylori infection and five of whom (71.4 %) had enlarged gastric folds with H. pylori infection. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank testing revealed that both UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (p = 0.0011) and enlarged gastric folds (p = 0.0003) are significant predictors for future gastric cancer incidence.
Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.
Salvador Javier Santos Medina
Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos
Weck, Melanie N; Brenner, Hermann
Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A large variety of definitions of CAG have been used in epidemiologic studies in the past. The aim of this work was to systematically review and summarize estimates of the association between H. pylori infection and CAG according to the various definitions of CAG. Articles on the association between H. pylori infection and CAG published until July 2007 were identified. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for studies defining CAG based on gastroscopy with biopsy, serum pepsinogen I (PG I) only, the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio (PG I/PG II ratio) only, or a combination of PG I and the PG I/PG II ratio. Numbers of identified studies and summary odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals) were as follows: gastroscopy with biopsy: n = 34, OR = 6.4 (4.0-10.1); PG I only: n = 13, OR = 0.9 (0.7-1.2); PG I/PG II ratio: n = 8, OR = 7.2 (3.1-16.8); combination of PG I and the PG I/PG II ratio: n = 20, OR = 5.7 (4.4-7.5). Studies with CAG definitions based on gastroscopy with biopsy or the PG I/PG II ratio (alone or in combination with PG I) yield similarly strong associations of H. pylori with CAG. The association is missed entirely in studies where CAG is defined by PG I only. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Choi, Min-Gew; Jeong, Ji Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Bae, Jae Moon; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung
Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is a relatively rare disorder characterized by hyperplastic and cystic down growth of gastric glands into the submucosa. In the current study, the authors attempted to clarify the clinical and pathologic features of GCP in patients with gastric cancer. The records of 10,728 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastric cancer surgery were reviewed. The clinicopathologic features of patients who had GCP (n = 161) were compared with the features of patients without GCP (n = 10,567). In situ hybridization to determine Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity was performed in cancer tissues from patients with (n = 119) and without (n = 503) GCP. GCP was associated significantly with older age, male gender, proximal tumor location, differentiated histology and Lauren intestinal type compared with non-GCP. GCP also was present more frequently in remnant and multiple gastric cancers. Patients who had GCP presented with earlier tumor stages in terms of depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis, and they had less lymphatic and perineural invasion than patients without GCP; however, the presence of GCP was not an independent prognostic factor. The EBV-positive rate was significantly higher in the GCP group (31.1%) than in the non-GCP group (5.8%). Patients with gastric cancer who had GCP had clinicopathologic features that differed from the features observed in patients without GCP. GCP was associated significantly with EBV-positive gastric cancers, and its possible role as a premalignant lesion needs to be clarified. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.
Liu, Hong; Chen, Yue-Tong; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xin-Zu
To investigate the associations of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and atrophic gastritis (AG) with pancreatic cancer risk. A literature search in PubMed was performed up to July 2017. Only prospective cohort and nested case-control studies enrolling cancer-free participants were eligible. Incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained during the follow-up. The risks of pancreatic cancer were compared between persons infected and noninfected with Hp, or between those with and without AG status at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios were combined. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed, and publication bias was estimated. Three cohort studies and 6 nested case-control studies, including 65,155 observations, were analyzed. The meta-analyses did not confirm the association between pancreatic cancer risk and Hp infection (OR = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-1.47) or AG status (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.80-1.72). However, particular subpopulations potentially had increased risks of pancreatic cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-negative strains of Hp might be a causative factor of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.62), but a sensitivity analysis by leave-one-out method did not fully warrant it (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.93-1.56). In 1 nested case-control study, AG at stomach corpus in Hp-negative subpopulation might have increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but with a poor test power = 0.56. Publication biases were nonsignificant in the present meta-analysis. Based on current prospective epidemiologic studies, the linkage of pancreatic cancer to Hp infection or AG status was not warranted on the whole. Nevertheless, prospective studies only focusing on those specific subpopulations are further required to obtain better power.
Tongtawee, Taweesak; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij
The tumor suppressor p53 is as a regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and many other biological processes as well as external and internal stress responses. Mdm2 SNIP309 is a negative regulator of 53. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the role of the Mdm2 SNIP 309 polymorphism in the gastric mucosal morphological patterns in patients with Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2014 through November 2015. Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients and infection was proven by positive histology. Gastric mucosa specimens were sent to the Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology where they were tested by molecular methods to detect the patterns of Mdm2 SNIP 309 polymorphism using the real-time PCR hybridization probe method. The results were analyzed and correlated with gastric mucosal morphological patterns by using C-NBI endoscopy. A total of 300 infected patients were enrolled and gastric mucosa specimens were collected. In this study the percentage of Mdm2 SNIP 309 T/T homozygous and Mdm2 SNIP309 G/T heterozygous was 78% and 19 % respectively whereas Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous was 3%. Mdm2 SNIP 309 T/T homozygous and Mdm2 SNIP309 G/T heterozygosity correlated with type 1 to type 3 gastric mucosal morphological patterns (P<0.01) whereas Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous correlated with type 4 and type 5 (P<0.01). Our study finds the frequency of Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G in a Thai population is very low, and suggests that this can explain ae Thailand enigma. Types 1 to type 3 are the most common gastric mucosal morphological patterns according to the unique genetic polymorphism of MDM2 SNIP 309 in the Thai population.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection reprograms host gene expression and influences various cellular processes, which have been investigated by cDNA microarray using in vitro culture cells and in vivo gastric biopsies from patients of the Chronic Abdominal Complaint. To further explore the effects of H. pylori infection on host gene expression, we have collected the gastric antral mucosa samples from 6 untreated patients with gastroscopic and pathologic confirmation of chronic superficial gastritis. Among them three patients were infected by H. pylori and the other three patients were not. These samples were analyzed by a microarray chip which contains 14,112 cloned cDNAs, and microarray data were analyzed via BRB ArrayTools software and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA website. The results showed 34 genes of 38 differentially expressed genes regulated by H. pylori infection had been annotated. The annotated genes were involved in protein metabolism, inflammatory and immunological reaction, signal transduction, gene transcription, trace element metabolism, and so on. The 82% of these genes (28/34 were categorized in three molecular interaction networks involved in gene expression, cancer progress, antigen presentation and inflammatory response. The expression data of the array hybridization was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, these data indicated that H. pylori infection could alter cellular gene expression processes, escape host defense mechanism, increase inflammatory and immune responses, activate NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, disturb metal ion homeostasis, and induce carcinogenesis. All of these might help to explain H. pylori pathogenic mechanism and the gastroduodenal pathogenesis induced by H. pylori infection.
Yamasaki, Yasushi; Uedo, Noriya; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Kato, Minoru; Hamada, Kenta; Aoi, Kenji; Tonai, Yusuke; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamashina, Takeshi; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Ishihara, Ryu; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Iishi, Hiroyasu
Magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) can reportedly help predict the presence and distribution of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the gastric corpus. However, the micro-mucosal pattern of the antrum shown by M-NBI differs from that of the corpus. We studied the distribution and histology of the micro-mucosal pattern in the antrum based on magnifying endoscopy. Endoscopic images of the greater curvature of the antrum were evaluated in 50 patients with chronic atrophic fundic gastritis (CAFG). The extent of CAFG was evaluated by autofluorescence imaging. The micro-mucosal pattern was evaluated by M-NBI and classified into groove and white villiform types. The localization of white villiform type mucosa was classified into three types in relation to the areae gastricae : null, central, and segmental types. Biopsies were taken from regions showing different micro-mucosal patterns. Associations among the extent of CAFG, micr