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Sample records for comum cyprinus carpio

  1. Viabilidade econômica do cultivo de carpa comum (cyprinus carpio linnaeus, 1758 em monocultivo em densidades diferentes Economical viability of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 cultivation in monocultivations in different densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Graeff

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar o efeito econômico do povoamento de alevinos I de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 com densidade diferenciada e com alimentação artificial e adubação química. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (1; 0,5 e 0,33 peixes/m² avaliados ao longo do tempo e três repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 2,40 g e 5,35; 5,40 e 5,39 cm, respectivamente, nos tratamentos, e com 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% de PB e 2925 Kcal/Kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso dos peixes foram 25,68; 28,66 e 31,21 cm e 255,00; 424,00 e 519,66 g, respectivamente. A analise econômica foi estudada por meio de planilha de custo. Na produção total, os resultados foram 1882; 1513 e 1367 kg/hectare em um ciclo. Em condições similares, pode-se recomendar zootecnicamente todas as densidades estudadas e, economicamente, a lucratividade da atividade é crescente com o aumento da densidade, havendo diminuição do custo médio ou unitário.This research aimed at studying the economical effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 settling of fingerlings with differenciated density and with artificial feeding and chemical fertilization. The design was entirely randomized with three treatments (1; 0.5 and 0.33 fishes/m² evaluated along the time and 3 repetitions. The fish were stocked with medium weight and mediun length of 2.40 g and 5.35; 5.40 and 5.39 cm, respectively, in the treatments, and 45 days old. The diets were formulated with 27% PB and 2.925 kcal/kg of ration, being given daily in the quantities of 3% of living weight. The results for the length and weight of the fishes were 25.68; 28.66 and 31.21 cm and 255.00; 424.00 and 519.66 g, respectively. The economical analisys was studied through cost planning. In the total production, the results

  2. Viabilidade econômica de estocagem de alevinos de carpa comum (Cyprinus Carpio Var. Specularis no inverno em alta densidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeff Álvaro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito econômico de povoamento de alevinos I de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio L., no inverno em alta densidade, com suplementação artificial e adubação química. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (5; 10; 15 e 20 peixes/m² e nove repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 0,48 g e 3,15 cm, respectivamente, em todos tratamentos, por 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% de PB e 2925 kcal/kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente, em duas vezes, na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. O comportamento das variáveis explicativas em função dos tratamentos foi estudado por intermédio da análise de regressão. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso médio final nas densidades de 5; 10; 15 e 20 foram 8,67; 8,06; 7,81 e 7,47 cm e 3,64; 2,80; 2,31 e 2,25 g, respectivamente. O comportamento do peso em função das densidades estudadas é descrito pela equação de regressão quadrática Y= 4,41 - 0,29 X + 0,0077X² . O comportamento do comprimento e da conversão alimentar, em função das densidades, é explicado por regressão linear, por intermédio das equações Y= 5,83 - 0,077X e Y= 0,9978 + 0,0844X, respectivamente. A sobrevivência foi de 98,41; 97,61; 97,35 e 97,21%, respectivamente, nas densidades de 5 a 20. Em condições similares, pode-se recomendar todas as densidades estudadas e, economicamente, a lucratividade da atividade é crescente com o aumento da densidade, havendo diminuição do custo médio ou unitário.

  3. Cyprinus carpio Genome sequencing and assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolder, I.C.R.M.; Plas-Duivesteijn, van der Suzanne J.; Tan, G.; Wiegertjes, G.; Forlenza, M.; Guler, A.T.; Travin, D.Y.; Nakao, M.; Moritomo, T.; Irnazarow, I.; Jansen, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758) genome, with the objective of establishing carp as a model organism to supplement the closely related zebrafish (Danio rerio). The sequenced individual is a homozygous female (by gynogenesis) of R3 x R8 carp, the heterozygous

  4. on blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the acute toxicity of atrazine (ATR) a herbicide on an economically important fish, Cyprinus carpio. In which, 24 h median lethal concentration (24 h LC50) of herbicide, atrazine to C. carpio was 18.5 ppm. Due to fish exposure to 24 h LC50 of atrazine for 24 h, red blood ...

  5. TUMOUR CASE IN KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio

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    Lili Sholichah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study of tumour in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio was observed in rearing periode. This tumour occurs solitary, large, pale red, fleshy masses under the lips and dental plates on the outside, and by reason of its size, may prevent closure the mouth. Moreover, this tumour goes through into the inside of the mouth. At necropsy, there were two soft, firm, small mass at inside of the mouth and the bigger mass at outside the mouth. Samples of this tumour were fixed in 10% formalin were used for histology analysis. The clinical course of the tumour is one of relatively slow but progressive growth. The proliferative stage of the neoplastic process is preceded and accompanied by a striking vascular reaction. Intensed hyperemia invariably occurs in that region of the mucosal surface which later becomes the site of neoplastic proliferation. Neoplastic cells lied around lamina propria and submucosal. These cells were joined together to make vacuolization and the other cells become pleiomorphism with hyperchromatic nucleus and N/C ratio cells are 1:1. In some area, there were many empty holes, around the holes there were debris cells, inflammation cells, and erythrocytes.

  6. Histopathology of gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinus carpio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological studies in organs like gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinus carpio communis were made to assess tissue damage due to sublethal concentration of heavy metals lead and cadmium after 28 days of exposure. In lead treated gill, disintegration and fusion of primary lamellae, extensive vacuolization with ...

  7. Growth performances of common carp fry ( Cyprinus carpio ) in semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-exp(-0.0625.t)) expresses the length growth of common carp in this station. These findings are an attempt to understand the growth performances of this cyprinidae species in semi arid climate and under semi intensive conditions. Key words: L-W relationship, Condition factor, Cyprinus carpio, Morocco. Journal of Aquatic ...

  8. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to

  9. Digestibility of Protein in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestibility of dietary protein by carp, Cyprinus carpio fed for 10 weeks on different levels of chicken gut and duckweed incorporated into the diets was investigated. Growth, food conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization all improved with increase in the level of chicken gut in diet.

  10. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    of the biological impact of two commercially available ß-glucan enriched products on the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in sterile, controlled conditions; 2. investigation of potential impact of intravenously injected ß-glucan on mucosal immune response and immunoglobulin switch...

  11. Investigation of the peripheral erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clastogenic effects of home wastes and agricultural contaminates of Lake Uluabat ("40°11'41.38"N, "28°27'08.40"E) were investigated in peripheral erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio. Examination of blood smears showed that the formation of micronuclei was significantly increased (f = 21.89, df = 3) with p value > 0.001during ...

  12. Response of Cyprinus carpio hatchlings artemia, mixed zooplankton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted on the response of Cyprinus carpio to Artemia nauplii, mixed zooplankton and Yeast (single cell protein). The fish was fed two quantities of each diet, 100 and 150 ml artemia; 50-100 ml and 150-200 ml zooplankton; and 185 -195 and 200-250 ml yeast. They were fed twice daily There was no ...

  13. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study reports the acute and sublethal toxicity of lead nitrate on plasma cortisol and prolactin level of a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of lead nitrate to fish for 24 h was found to be 4.10 ppm. 1/10th of the LC50 concentration of the lead nitrate (0.41 ppm) was taken for sublethal ...

  14. Characterization and expression of the calpastatin gene in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W X; Ma, Y

    2015-07-03

    Calpastatin, an important protein used to regulate meat quality traits in animals, is encoded by the CAST gene. The aim of the present study was to clone the cDNA sequence of the CAST gene and detect the expression of CAST in the tissues of Cyprinus carpio. The cDNA of the C. carpio CAST gene, amplified using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR, is 2834 bp in length (accession No. JX275386), contains a 2634-bp open reading frame, and encodes a protein with 877 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of the C. carpio CAST gene was 88, 80, and 59% identical to the sequences observed in grass carp, zebrafish, and other fish, respectively. The C. carpio CAST was observed to contain four conserved domains with 54 serine phosphorylation loci, 28 threonine phosphorylation loci, 1 tyrosine phosphorylation loci, and 6 specific protein kinase C phosphorylation loci. The CAST gene showed widespread expression in different tissues of C. carpio. Surprisingly, the relative expression of the CAST transcript in the muscle and heart tissues of C. carpio was significantly higher than in other tissues (P < 0.01).

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang Fu; Liu, Xiang Jiang; Zou, Gui Wei; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitogenomes of (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio). Comparison of these two mitogenomes revealed that the mitogenomes of these two common carp strains were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. There were only 55 bp variations in 16,581 nucleotides. About 1 bp variation was located in rRNAs, 2 bp in tRNAs, 9 bp in the control region and 43 bp in protein-coding genes. Furthermore, forty-three variable nucleotides in the protein-coding genes of the two strains led to four variable amino acids, which were located in the ND2, ATPase 6, ND5 and ND6 genes, respectively.

  17. EFEKTIVITAS PROMOTER ???-AKTIN DALAM MENGARAHKAN EKSPRESI GEN TARGET PADA TRANSGENESIS IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayani, Andi Aliah; Carman, Odang; Alimuddin,

    2011-01-01

    Salah satu pertimbangan penting dalam teknologi transgenesis adalah pemilihan promoter pengatur ekspresi gen pengkode protein yang berhubungan dengan suatu karakter. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan tingkat efektivitas promoter homolog dan heterolog pada ikan mas sebagai model dengan menggunakan promoter ??-aktin dari ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio): ccBA (Cyprinus carpio ??-aktin) , ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus): tiBA (tilapia ??-aktin), dan ikan medaka (Oryzias latipes): mkBA (me...

  18. Effects of subchronic metribuzin exposure on common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modra, Helena; Haluzova, Ivana; Blahova, Jana; Havelkova, Marcela; Kruzikova, Kamila; Mikula, Premysl; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2008-10-01

    Effects of metribuzin on biochemical and haematological indices, induction of specific biomarkers and impacts on biometric parameters of Cyprinus carpio were investigated for subchronic conditions. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0.175 mg.L-1 or 1.75 mg.L-1 metribuzin for 28 days. Haematological indices were assessed using unified methods of haematological examination in fish. Biochemical indices were determined by biochemical analyzer, hepatic vitellogenin content was estimated by direct sandwich ELISA. Cytochrome P450 concentration and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were measured in liver spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically, respectively. Increased haematocrit and RBC count were found in fish exposed to 1.75 mg.L-1 metribuzin compared to control fish (pmetribuzin. Sublethal metribuzin pollution may have adverse impacts on haematological parameters in common carp.

  19. The Economics Efficiency of Cyprinus Carpio Growout Cultured In Running Water Pond

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    Lindawati Lindawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is estimating the production economic efficiency of running water pond, cultured-Cyprinus carpio growout. Primary data is analyzed using Cobb Douglas function approach.The result indicated that factors which significantly affected production were fishseed,fish-feed, and labor. The efficiency analysis showed that actual Cyprinus carpio growouthad not reached its efficient level, since input usage was below its optimum level, thusthe maximum profit was not gained. To be able to gain more profit, according to the calculationunder the optimum condition assumption, running water pond, cultured Cyprinus carpiogrowout had to reduce fish-seed usage while increasing fish-feed and labor usage.Keywords: efficiency, economic of scale, Cyprinus carpio growout, running-water-system

  20. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  1. Morphological features of an endangered Japanese strain of Cyprinus carpio: reconstruction based on seven SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, K; Song, H Y; Senou, H; Inoue, K; Mabuchi, K

    2017-03-01

    Morphological analyses of 183 specimens of Japanese common carp Cyprinus carpio (171 from Lake Biwa and 12 from nursery ponds) using genetic hybrid indices demonstrated that the typical native Japanese strain of C. carpio has a more elongate body, more branched dorsal-fin rays, fewer and shorter gill rakers, more developed pneumatic bulb, more coiled pneumatic duct, longer posterior swimbladder and shorter intestine than the typical introduced C. carpio. These results provide a basis for a better understanding of the ecological characteristics and taxonomic status of the endangered Japanese strain of C. carpio. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. TOKSISITAS LETAL MOLUSKISIDA NIKLOSAMIDA PADA BENIH IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

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    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan moluskisida untuk menanggulangi hama dalam budidaya tanaman padi yang semakin meningkat berpotensi mencemari lingkungan perairan, karena mengandung residu dari bahan aktifnya. Moluskisida niklosamida (C13H8Cl2N2O4 merupakan bahan aktif pestisida yang digunakan untuk memberantas hama keong mas atau siput murbei (Pomacea sp. di sawah. Dengan demikian, bahan tersebut memiliki potensi untuk mencemari lahan tempat usaha budidaya ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi toksisitas akut niklosamida terhadap benih ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 24, 48, dan 96 jam. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi, Cibalagung-Bogor. Menggunakan ikan mas dengan bobot individu 2,47 ± 0,13 g. Moluskisida yang digunakan mengandung bahan aktif niklosamida 250g/L. Wadah pengujian berupa 21 unit akuarium kaca berukuran 40 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm yang dilengkapi aerasi serta saluran pemasukan dan pengeluaran. Jumlah ikan uji setiap wadah 10 ekor dengan peubah yang diukur adalah mortalitas ikan. Selama penelitian ikan tidak diberi makan. Tahapan penelitian terdiri atas penentuan nilai ambang atas-bawah, nilai lethal time dan LC50 -24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam. Data diolah dengan analisis probit program LC50. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50-24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam terhadap benih ikan mas adalah 0,8012 (0,7140—0,8990; 0,5999 (0,5356—0,6719; 0,4511 (0,4067—0,5004; dan 0,3849 mg/L (0,3684—0,4061. Hal ini menunjukkan niklosamida termasuk pestisida yang memiliki toksisitas sangat tinggi (golongan A. The use of molluscicide in aquatic as well as in terresterial agro ecosystem without properly controlled may produce detrimental effects on freshwater fisheries. Molluscicide utilization for golden apple snail (Pomacea sp. control in rice field has increased. The ingredient potencially has a possibility to pollute aquaculture water. The

  3. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  4. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Xianhu; Li, Jiongtang; Jiang, Yanliang; Kuang, Youyi; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Li, Chuangju; Yu, Juhua; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-04-24

    A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species.

  5. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

  6. Expression of Major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01


    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing

  7. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas

  8. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments.

  9. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Thelohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of koi Cyprinus carpio in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a singly pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring, 1...

  11. Food and Feeding Habits of the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding habits of Cyprinus carpio was studied in Lake Koka, Ethiopia, in April and May (dry months) and July and August (wet months), 2011. The objective of the study was to identify the diet composition, seasonal variation in diet and ontogenetic dietary shift. Gut contents of435 fish were analyzed using frequency of ...

  12. Theohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of Koi cyprinus carpio in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a single pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring 16....

  13. Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán, P.; Gonçalves, A.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis in the hindgut of the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The developed condition was assessed when carp, continuously fed on animal protein, were transferred to a diet in which 20% of the protein was replaced by SBM. After week 1,

  14. Benzocaine hydrochloride anesthesia in carp (Cyprinus carpio / Cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated to allow the accomplishment of several procedures such as biometry, tagging, transportation, physical examination, surgical procedures, and reproductive management. The doses of benzocaine in the carp anesthesia (Cyprinus carpio were determined, carrying through six phases with 40 fish each. The average weight of carps in each phase was of 147.45±7.99g, 173.32±9.15g, 191.26±14.05g, 269.84±19.24g, 285.25±17.97g, and 300.91±16.45g. In each phase, fish had been captured and placed in four containers each one with different concentrations of benzocaine (100, 140, 180 and 220 mg/L respectively. The induction time (IT was registered for each fish and after that the anesthetic induction biometry was performed. In each phase the minimal dose of benzocaine was calculated using the Linear Response Plateau (LRP, in a model that included dose and IT. The LRP was calculated for each phase: 125.79mg/L in 114.33s, 155.68mg/L in 115.75s, 145.33mg/L in 102.52s, 149.50mg/L in 140.53s, 166.42mg/L in 116.15s, and 158.34mg/L in 102.00s. The optimal dose was related with the weight, resulting in the equation: dose=114.230+0.158 x weight (r2=0.53. The equation shows that an increase in the weight in 1g corresponds to an increase of 0.158 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride for carps.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para permitir a realização de diversos procedimentos como: biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Determinou-se a dose de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio, com a realização de seis etapas com 40 peixes cada. O peso médio das carpas em cada etapa foi de 147,45±7,99g, 173,32±9,15g, 191,26±14,05g, 269,84±19,24g, 285,25±17,97g, e 300,91±16,45g. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes com benzocaína nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/L respectivamente. O tempo de indução (TI foi

  15. Invasion status of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in inland waters of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiztegui, T; Baigún, C R M; Garcia de Souza, J R; Minotti, P; Colautti, D C

    2016-07-01

    This study documents the presence of Cyprinus carpio in 119 natural environments and 49 artificial habitats in Argentina, showing an exponential increment of invaded locations over time since it was introduced in the nineteenth century. Geographic expansion patterns revealed that since its initial introduction, species records demonstrate an increment in the central portion of the country only after 1970 and subsequent expansion after 1990 to the north, west and south. Using an environmental similarity index it was determined that more than half the country offers good conditions for C. carpio establishment. Environmental factors and anthropogenic impacts are relevant drivers that can account for the current and future distribution of C. carpio in Argentina. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  17. Células sangüíneas, eletrólitos séricos, relação hepato e esplenossomática de carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae na primeira maturação gonadal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661 Blood cells, seric electrolyte and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae common carp hepatosomatic and splenosomatic relation in the first gonadal maturation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Campos Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em ambos os sexos de Cyprinus carpio o fator relativo de condição (Kn, a relação hepato (RHS e esplenossomática (RES, o eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma, a localização de glicogênio pelo método de PAS em trombócitos e leucócitos e os níveis séricos de proteína total e de eletrólitos. O Kn nas fêmeas foi maior que nos machos. Os valores médios da RES nas fêmeas foram inferiores aos dos machos, enquanto que o número de leucócitos, linfócitos e neutrófilos foram superiores; porém os níveis séricos de magnésio e de cloreto nos machos foram maiores quando comparados aos das fêmeas. Os valores médios da RHS, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, número de eritrócitos, trombócitos, monócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos granular PAS-positivos (LG-PAS, níveis séricos de proteína total, sódio, potássio e cálcio não evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0,05, entre machos e fêmeas. O método de PAS mostra grânulos de glicogênio no citoplasma de trombócitos, eosinófilos e neutrófilos. Entretanto, no citoplasma dos LG-PAS foram detectados grânulos de glicoproteínas neutras. Monócitos, linfócitos foram PAS negativos. Nos teleósteos o amadurecimento das gônadas apresenta forte relação com o fator de condição. Na fase de reprodução nem sempre é possível detectar os efeitos do sexo isoladamente no hemograma, pois muitas vezes esse pode não ser o único fator ocasionando dimorfismoThis research studied the condition (Kn relative factor, the hepatosomatic (HSR, the splenosomatic (SSR relation, the erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes number, the glicogen locality by PAS method in thrombocytes and leucocytes and the total protein and electrolytes serices levels in both Cyprinus carpio L. sex. The female Kn showed higher value than the males. The female HSR average

  18. Ekstrak daun Avicennia marina sebagai anti jamur pada telur ikan mas, Cyprinus carpio (Avicennia marina leaf extracts as an anti fungal for common carp, Cyprinus carpio eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect and the optimum concentration of Avicennia leaf extracts on prevalence, hatching rate and hatching time of common carp eggs (Cyprinus carpio that infected by Saprolegnia sp. The research was conducted at Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Lukup Badak, Aceh Tengah District in June 2016. The completely randomized design was used as statistical analysis method in this study with five treatments and 4 replications. The fertilized eggs of common carp were infected by Saporolegnia sp. then treated by immersing in the extract. The treatments were the different concentrations of extract, namely; 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm. The result of ANOVA test showed that the extract Avecenia leaf extracts gave the significant effect on the prevalence, hatching rate and hatching time of common carp eggs (P<0.05. The best results for all parameters were recorded at the concentration of 10 ppm. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimum concentration is 10 ppm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dan konsentrasi optimum ekstrak daun Avicennia marina terhadap prevalensi, daya tetas serta waktu tetas telur ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang terinfeksi Saprolegnia sp. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Lukup Badak, Kab. Aceh Tengah pada bulan Juni 2016. Analisis statistik menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 5 taraf perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan. Sampel yang digunakan adalah telur ikan mas yang telah terbuahi dan terinfeksi dengan jamur Saprolegnia sp. kemudian direndam dengan ekstrak. Perlakuan yang dilakukan meliputi perlakuan konsentrasi ekstrak yaitu: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 ppm. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun Avicennia marina berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap prevalensi serangan jamur, daya tetas serta waktu tetas telur ikan mas. Nilai terbaik untuk semua parameter yang diukur ditemukan pada konsentrasi 10 ppm ekstrak. Oleh karena itu disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi yang

  19. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  20. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  1. Effects of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Cep Hikmat Maulana; Nugroho, Rudy A.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the optimum concentration of copra meal as a fish meal replacement on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio. Various concentrations of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal, viz 3, 6, 9, and 12 % were used to determine the final weight, body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the C. carpio (Initial body weight 25-25.2 g/fish) and compare with control group (Basal diet) without copra meal replacement and commercial diet (CD). Six groups of C. carpio with three replicates were used and fed with different concentration of copra meal at satiation level five times per day for 12 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the C. carpio fed 9% copra meal in the diet had higher final weight, BWG, AWG, DWG, SGR than any other groups, except commercial diet (CD). Meanwhile, the highest PER was found on the fish fed CD, followed by fish fed 3 % of copra meal in the diet. However, FCR was not affected by any types of diets. These finding suggested that the 9% replacement of wheat in the diet with copra meal is beneficial to improve growth performance.

  2. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Way, K.; Haenen, O.; Stone, D.; Adamek, M.; Bergmann, S.M.; Bigarré, L.; Diserens, Nicolas; El-Matbouli, M.; Gjessing, M.C.; Jung-Schroers, V.; Leguay, E.; Matras, M.; Olesen, Niels J.; Panzarin, Valentina; Piačková, V.; Toffan, A.; Vendramin, N.; Veselý, T.; Waltzek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first

  4. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  5. The effect of seed morphology on the potential dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Ouborg, N.J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and

  6. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van N.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of

  7. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  8. Head kidney-derived macrophages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) show plasticity and functional polarization upon differential stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Stet, R.J.M.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Cells from the myeloid lineage are pluripotent, To investigate the potential of myeloid cell polarization in a primitive vertebrate species, we plienotypically and functionally characterized myeloid cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during culture. Flow cytometric analysis, Ab labeling of

  9. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes,

  10. Differences between intestinal segments and soybean meal-induced changes in intestinal mucus composition of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, van der M.C.; Propsting, M.J.; Battermann, F.; Jung-Schroers, V.; Hubner, A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Steinhagen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The alimentary tract is a possible site where pathogens and toxins can enter. The alimentary tract is protected, amongst others, by mucus. In this study, tissue samples and crude mucus preparations from different parts of the intestinal tract of Cyprinus carpio (from intestinal bulb onto the

  11. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) alters its feeding niche in response to changing food resources: direct observations in simulated ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Kadowaki, S.; Balcombe, S.R.; Wahab, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We used customized fish tanks as model fish ponds to observe grazing, swimming, and conspecific social behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under variable food-resource conditions to assess alterations in feeding niche. Different food and feeding situations were created by using only pond water

  12. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Way, K.; Haenen, O.; Stone, D.

    2017-01-01

    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although...

  13. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...

  14. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  15. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  16. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  17. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  18. THE IMPACT OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinodhini ، M. Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead in aquatic system on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of fish was exposed to a sublethal concentration of 5 mg/L of combined (Cd+Pb+Cr+Ni metal solution containing 1.25 mg/L of each metal ion (1/10th of LC 50/48 h for a period of 32 days. The results indicated that the values of the hemoglobin were in the range of 55.30±1.20 g/L to 74.55±1.33 g/L (p<0.001 and the packed cell volume was in the range of 26.72±0.26% to 30.68±0.43% (p<0.01. Concentrations of red blood cells, blood glucose and total cholesterol were significantly elevated. The level of serum iron and copper was increased. The results showed the decreased activity of vitamin C during chronic exposure to toxic heavy metals, which indicates the presence of reactive oxygen species–induced peroxidation. The study suggested that the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic environment has strong influence on the hematological parameters in the fresh water fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

  19. Relationship between genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by mercury on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Medina, Sandra; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Ruiz-Lara, Karina; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gasca-Pérez, Eloy

    2017-11-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic metals in aquatic systems since it is able to induce neurobehavioral disorders as well as renal and gastrointestinal tract damage. The common carp Cyprinus carpio is an important species from both an ecological and economic viewpoint as it is consumed in many countries, the top producers being Mexico, China, India and Japan. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation between Hg-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in diverse tissues of C. carpio. Specimens were exposed to 0.01mgHg/L (the maximum permissible limit for aquatic life protection), and lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated at 96h. Micronuclei frequency and DNA damage by comet assay were determined at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Hg induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity on exposed fish, since inhibition of antioxidant enzymes activity and increases in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and micronuclei frequency occurred. Blood, gill and liver were more susceptible to oxidative stress, while blood were more sensitive to genotoxicity. In conclusion, Hg at concentrations equal to the maximum permissible limit for aquatic life protection induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity on C. carpio, and these two effects prove to be correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbudak, Burcu; Erdem, Cahit

    2014-05-01

    Accumulation of cadmium in gill, liver, muscle and kidney tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus were investigated in fish exposed to 0.5 ppm cadmium over 1, 15 and 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Tissue accumulation of the metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle, tissues of C. carpio and O. niloticus exposed to metal for 1, 15 and 30 days increased significantly compared with the control group (p muscle tissue of O. niloticus. A general increase was observed in Cd accumulation with increasing exposure periods. Highest metal accumulation was observed in kidney followed by liver, gill and muscle tissues in both species. Liver accumulation of Cd was higher in C. carpio than O. niloticus, whereas kidney accumulation of the metal was higher in O. niloticus than C. carpio.

  1. Global patterns and clines in the growth of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, L; Copp, G H

    2017-07-01

    This review provides a meta-analytical assessment of the global patterns and clines in the growth of Cyprinus carpio as measured by length-at-age (L t ) or von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) parameters, mass-length relationship (W-L t ) and condition factor, based on literature data. In total, 284 studies were retrieved spanning 91 years of research and carried out on 381 waterbodies-locations in 50 countries in all five continents. Although native C. carpio achieved larger (asymptotic) size relative to its non-native counterpart, the latter grew faster during the first 7 years of life. Lentic populations (especially in natural lakes) also achieved larger sizes relative to lotic ones and the same was true for populations in cold and temperate v. arid climates. Unlike previous studies (on much more restricted datasets), only weak latitudinal clines in instantaneous growth rate, L t at age 3 and mortality were observed globally and this was probably due to the presence of counter-gradient growth variation at all representative age classes (i.e. 1-10 years). Slightly negative allometry was revealed by the W-L t and the related form factor tended to distinguish the more elongated and torpedo-shaped body typical of the wild form from the deeper body of feral-domesticated C. carpio. Existing population dynamics models for C. carpio will benefit from the comprehensive range of waterbody type × climate class-specific VBGF parameters provided in the present study; whereas, more studies are needed on the species' growth in tropical regions and to unravel the possibility of confounding effects on age estimation due to both historical and methodological reasons. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  4. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g. The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1, 5% (T2, 10% (T3, 15% (T4 and 20% (T5 levels. Bacterial total account in rearing water and the bacterial total count in carp intestine for the third treatment was higher significantly as compared to other treatments, which is the conclusion of this study.

  5. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  6. [Ovarian tumor in a koi carp (Cyprinus carpio): Diagnosis, surgery, postoperative care and tumour classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, E; Reifinger, M; Schmidt, P; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Although ovarian tumour in the koi (Cyprinus carpio) does not appear to be an uncommon condition, its occurrence and therapy has rarely been reported. In the present case, the decision for surgery was based on clinical and sonographic findings of an intracoelomic mass. We used tricaine methansulfonate for the anaesthesia. Laparotomy was performed by ventral access and an ovarian tumour of 12-cm diameter was removed. The wound was sutured in two layers using Vicryl®. In addition to the application of an analgesic, an antibiotic and vitamins, the postoperative conditions the patient was kept under were adapted to support wound healing. The fish recovered uneventfully and was clinically healthy during the 16-month observation period. Based on the histological findings, the tumour was diagnosed as a thecoma. Investigations using antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin, S 100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) failed to provide reliable results.

  7. Acute toxicity of antimony chloride and its effects on oxygen consumption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-H; Yang, J-L

    2007-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the acute toxicity and effects of sublethal antimony (sb) concentrations on respiratory activity changes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Median lethal concentrations were determined in acute tests. The 96-h LC50 value was 14.05 (11.09~17.80) mg L(-1). Common carp were exposed to 4 different sublethal levels of antimony (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg L(-1)) over a 28-day test period and a 14-day recovery period. On days 14 and 28, decreases in oxygen consumption were significant (p recovery period (on day 42) compared to the respective groups at the same level on day 28 at the higher exposure levels.

  8. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  9. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The efficacy of alfaxalone for immersion anesthesia in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Larry J; Bailey, Kate M; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-07-01

    To characterize the physiologic and behavioral effects of a single induction dose and two maintenance doses of alfaxalone delivered by water immersion in the anesthesia of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Prospective, within-subject complete crossover design. Six adult koi (Cyprinus carpio) with a median body weight of 344.5 g (range 292.0-405.0 g). Koi were immersed in water containing 10 mg L(-1) alfaxalone until immobile and then maintained with alfaxalone at either 1 or 2.5 mg L(-1) via a recirculating water system. Times for anesthetic induction and recovery periods were recorded. Physiologic and blood gas parameters were evaluated before, during and after the anesthetic trial. Response to noxious stimuli was also assessed. Median anesthesia induction time for all fish was 5.4 minutes. Median recovery time was 11.8 and 26.4 minutes in the 1.0 and 2.5 mg L(-1) doses, respectively, which were significantly different (p = 0.04). Cessation of opercular movement occurred in 0/6 and 4/6 fish exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 mg L(-1) dose respectively. No difference was observed in median heart rate over the duration of the anesthetic events. Response to noxious stimulation was 4/6 and 0/6 in the 1.0 and 2.5 mg L(-1) doses respectively. Oxygenation and ventilation did not change during the experiment, but there was a significant decrease in blood pH along with an increase in blood lactate concentration. Administration of alfaxalone, via water immersion, as an induction and maintenance anesthesia agent provided rapid and reliable anesthesia of koi with no mortality. The maintenance dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was sufficient to prevent response to noxious stimuli but was associated with a clinically relevant depression in opercular rate. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. Coping strategies in a strongly schooling fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntingford, F A; Andrew, G; Mackenzie, S; Morera, D; Coyle, S M; Pilarczyk, M; Kadri, S

    2010-05-01

    Individual common carp Cyprinus carpio were screened repeatedly for risk taking (rate of exploration of a novel, potentially dangerous environment) and for competitive ability (success in gaining access to a spatially restricted food source). Marked differences in behaviour were evident, and significant consistency in individual responses across trials was found for both risk taking and competitive ability. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between individual performance in these two contexts, with fish that explored more quickly in the novel environment tending to be among the first to gain access to restricted food. In two follow-up studies, resting metabolic rate, blood lactate and glucose and the expression of the cortisol receptor gene in the head kidney and brain were compared in fish from the two extremes of the risk-taking spectrum. Mass-specific metabolic rate was significantly higher in risk-taking than in risk-avoiding fish, while plasma lactate and glucose concentrations and expression of the cortisol receptor gene were lower. It was concluded that a behavioural syndrome based on boldness and aggression exists in C. carpio, as it does in many other animals, and that this is associated with differences in metabolic and stress physiology (down to the genomic level) similar to those described in animals with different coping strategies.

  13. Sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Devan; Amala, Antony; Rangasamy, Basuvannan; Nataraj, Bojan; Ramesh, Mathan

    2016-11-01

    Extensive use of quinalphos, an organophosphorus pesticide, is likely to reach the aquatic environment and thereby posing a health concern for aquatic organisms. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses may be good indicators of pesticide contamination in aquatic organisms. The data on quinalphos induced oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in carps are scanty. This study is aimed to assess the two sublethal concentrations of quinalphos (1.09 and 2.18 μL L -1 ) on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of Cyprinus carpio for a period of 20 days. In liver, the malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly increased in both the concentrations. The results of the antioxidant parameters obtained show a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver of fish. These results demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of the insecticide quinalphos can cause oxidative damage and increase the antioxidant scavenging capacity in C. carpio. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for the assessment of pesticide contamination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1399-1406, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Immune response and disease resistance of carotenoids supplementation diet in Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazahan, Sannasi Muthu; Mari, Lourthu Samy Shanthi; Yogeshwari, Govintharaj; Jagruthi, Chandrasekar; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Velanganni, A Antony Joseph; Krishnamoorthy, Palaniyandi; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2014-09-01

    The effect of carotenoid-supplementation diet on immune response and disease resistance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila at weeks 1, 2, and 4 is reported. The cumulative mortality was 10% when fish were fed with 50 or 100 mg kg(-1) supplementation diets while the un-supplementation diet treated group suffered 90% mortality against the pathogen. The phagocytic activity and complement activity significantly increased with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet groups from weeks 2 and 4 but not in other groups. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly enhanced with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets from weeks 1 to 4 while the production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) enhanced on weeks 2 and 4. The lysozyme activity significantly increased when fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets on weeks 2 and all supplementation diets on week 4. These results suggest that diet enriched with carotenoid pigment positively enhance the immune status and protects C. carpio from A. hydrophila infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Aceves, Livier Mireya; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia-Xochitl; Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1) SGs free control, (2) CCl4 0.5 mL/kg, (3) SGs 1 g/L, and (4) CCl4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX), hydroperoxide content (HPC), and protein carbonyl content (PCC), as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). It was found that both (3 and 4) systems' exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect. PMID:28691017

  16. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  17. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  19. Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livier Mireya Sánchez-Aceves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1 SGs free control, (2 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg, (3 SGs 1 g/L, and (4 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX, hydroperoxide content (HPC, and protein carbonyl content (PCC, as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. It was found that both (3 and 4 systems’ exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect.

  20. Effect of β-naphthoflavone and MCPA on liver and kidney drug-metabolizing enzymes from the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere, J.L.; Devaux, A.; Gonin, O.; Monod, Gilles

    1990-01-01

    The effects of β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) and a chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide (MCPA) on hepatic and renal monooxygenase activities and conjugating enzymes from immature carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied. β-NF increased hepatic monooxygenase activities but the patterns of differential induction generally obtained in rat liver microsomes with two series of homologous substrates, alkoxycoumarins and alkylresorufins, were not found to be similar in carp liver microsomes. On the other hand, MC...

  1. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  2. In vivo statistical evaluation of efficancy of a biological agent on water quality in the rearing of ornamental Cyprinus carpio

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramduth, DM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A common disease affecting ornamental Cyprinus carpio (koi) around the world is known as “springtime”, or ulcer disease. Several conditions prevalent at this time of the year, such as parasitic infestations, and dynamic changes in the environment... in diseases such as haemorrhagic septicae- mia, ulcerative erythrodermatitis, dropsy and abdominal oedema. Strategies focused on reducing pathogenic microbial load and the concentration of waste metabolites such as ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate...

  3. Bioaccumulation of Some Heavy Metals: Analysis and Comparison of Cyprinus carpio and Labeo rohita from Sardaryab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhammad Yousafzai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined and compared heavy metals bioaccumulation in Cyprinus carpio and Labeo rohita netted from Sardaryab, a tributary of River Kabul. By using atomic absorption spectrometry we assessed different organs including livers, gills, and muscles. Metals studied were chromium, iron, zinc, lead, and copper. Livers of both species showed higher concentrations of metals while muscles showed the least amount. Chromium and iron were the highly concentrated metals in the gills and livers of both species. A quantity of 0.154 ± 0.011, 0.199 ± 0.0079, and 0.024 ± 0.008 μg/g of chromium was found in the gills, livers, and muscles of Cyprinus carpio, respectively. Similarly, the gills, liver, and muscles of Labeo rohita contained 0.133 ± 0.008, 0.165 ± 0.01, and 0.019 ± 0.006 μg/g of Cr, respectively. Iron was highest in carp in the range of 0.086 ± 0.01 in gills and 0.067 ± 0.011 μg/g in muscles, comparatively. All the studied metals were found within the US recommended daily dietary allowances (RDA limits; hence no immediate risk in their consumption for human was found. The data showed that Cyprinus carpio being omnivorous and bottom feeder stored higher concentrations of metals as compared to Labeo rohita.

  4. Comparative assessment of diet and condition factor of Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis leucostictus in Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Last Keyombe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study compared and assessed the diet and condition factors of two fish species, Oreochromis leucostictus and Cyprinus carpio, in Lake Naivasha. Fish samples were collected monthly using gill nets (35-70 mm mesh size from July to December 2013. Stomach contents of all the specimens were analysed using the point method. Results indicated that detritus was the most abundant food item in the diet of both O. leucostictus and C. carpio accounting for 50% and 63%, respectively, while benthic macroinvertebrates contributed the least with each fish having 2%. Rooting and digging behaviour of the carp probably led to both C. carpio and O. leucostictus ingesting the suspended detritus as their main source of food with C. carpio outcompeting O. leucostictus due to its prolific nature and better adaptability to benthic conditions. Fulton’s condition factor of all the fish samples had values of >1. A comparison of the two fish species showed C. carpio had a condition factor of 1.51 while O. leucostictus had 1.32. The higher condition factor of C. carpio in Lake Naivasha is an indication that the fish have better tissue energy reserves, greater reproductive potential and higher survival rates compared to O. leucostictus with a lower condition factor.

  5. Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production.

  6. PEMBUATAN KULTUR SEL PRIMER DARI SIRIP EKOR IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Sumiati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat kultur sel primer dari sirip ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dan diberi nama common carp tail (CCT. Explant ditumbuhkan dalam cawan kultur (culture flask ukuran 25 cm2 yang berisi media Leibovitz’s L-15 dengan penambahan serum 20%, Penicillin 250 IU, Streptomycin 250 µg/mL, Kanamycin Sulfate 250 µg/mL dan L-Glutamin 2 mM, serta diinkubasi pada suhu 28oC. Perbedaan perlakuan berupa waktu pergantian media dan konsentrasi media dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kultur sel primer. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa explant menunjukkan pertumbuhan sel setelah diinkubasi selama 24 jam. Pembentukan sel selapis (monolayer mulai terlihat pada hari ke-4. Pasase pertama dilakukan pada hari ke-21 saat konfluensi mencapai 65%. Pasase selanjutnya dilakukan setiap 3 minggu di mana konfluensi mencapai 70%-80%. CCT terdiri atas sel berbentuk fibroblas dan epitel, dan berhasil dipasase sebanyak 12 kali selama lebih 2 tahun pemeliharaan. The objectives of this research were to develop primary cell from caudal fin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and designate it as Common Carp Tail (CCT. The explants were maintained in 25 cm2 tissue culture flask containing Leibovitz’s L-15 medium supplemented with 20% Fetal bovine serum, 250IU Penicilline, 250 µg/mL Streptomycin, 250 µg/mL Kanamycin Sulphate and 2 mM L-Glutamin, and incubated at 28oC. Different concentrations of glutamine and media, and timing of media replacement were applied to establish primary cell culture. The result showed that explants produced cell outgrowth after 24 hours of incubation. Monolayer was first observed at day 4th. First passage was done at day 21st when the cells achieved 65% confluent. The subsequence passages were done every 3 weeks when the cells reached 70-80% confluent. CCT consisted of both fibroblast-like and epithelial-like cells, and has been passaged for 12 times for over 2 years.

  7. The Effect of Cirata Reservoir Sediment on Early Developmental Stage of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Embryo

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    Yuni Pujihastuti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation at Cirata reservoir may directly and indirectly influence fish particularly fish which have an adhesive characteristic at its early developmental stage such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Sample of sediment was collected from Cirata reservoir using Eikmand dredge at a depth of 80 m. The sample was subsequently centrifuged at 5500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was then used for toxicity test on common carp at early developmental stage. In this test, four treatments were applied based on the concentration of sediment supernatant, namely: 0, 8.33, 16.60 and 24.90 %. The results showed that a higher sediment supernatant concentration resulted in lower egg yolk absorption rate, lower relative growth rate in length, lower egg yolk efficiency and higher egg and larval abnormality.  Higher sediment supernatant concentration also resulted in lower hatching percentage of common carp larva. The damage of eggs and larval morphologies in treatments with sediment supernatant was likely caused by the presence Pb and organic matters which act in synergy. Keywords :  sediment, Cirata, embryo, common carp   ABSTRAK Sedimentasi di Waduk Cirata secara langsung dan tidak langsung akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan ikan khususnya tahap awal perkembangan ikan yang bersifat adhesiveseperti ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio.  Sampel sedimen waduk Cirata diambil dengan Eikmand dredge pada kedalaman 80 m.  Hasil ekstrak di sentrifugasi dengan kecepatan 5500 rpm selama 10 menit untuk diambil air pori sedimennya.  Air pori digunakan sebagai bahan uji toksisitas terhadap perkembangan awal ikan mas dengan perlakuan 0; 8,33; 16,60 dan 24,90 %. Hasil uji toksisitas diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air pori dari sediment maka semakin rendah laju penyerapan kuning telur Laju pertumbuhan relatif panjang embrio pada berbagai konsentrasi juga diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air sedimen maka semakin rendah laju pertumbuhan relatif

  8. Description of an as yet unclassified DNA virus from diseased Cyprinus carpio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-02-01

    Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may

  9. Toxicity of uranium and plutonium to the developing embryos of fish. [Cyprinus carpio, Pimephales promelas

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    Till, J.E.; Kaye, S.V.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The radiological and chemical toxicity of plutonium and uranium to the developing embryos of fish was investigated using eggs from carp, Cyprinus carpio, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. Freshly fertilized eggs were developed in solutions containing high specific activity /sup 238/Pu or /sup 232/U or low specific activity /sup 244/Pu, /sup 235/U, or /sup 238/U. Quantitative tests to determine the penetration of these elements through the chorion indicated that plutonium accumulated in the contents of carp eggs reaching a maximum concentration factor of approximately 3.0 at hatching. Autoradiographs of 16 ..mu.. egg sections showed that plutonium was uniformly distributed in the egg volume. Uranium localized in the yolk material, and the concentration factor in the yolk sac remained constant during development at approximately 3.3. Doses from /sup 238/Pu which affected hatchability of the eggs were estimated to be 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ rads and 9.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for C. carpio and P. promelas, respectively; doses from /sup 232/U were 1.3 x 10/sup 4/ rads for C. carpio and 2.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for P. promelas. A greater number of abnormal larvae than in control groups was produced by /sup 238/Pu doses of 4.3 x 10/sup 3/ rads to carp and 5.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads to fathead minnows; 3.2 x 10/sup 3/ rads and 2.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads were estimated from /sup 232/U. Eggs that were incubated in 20 ppM /sup 244/Pu did not hatch. This mortality may have been the result of chemical toxicity of plutonium. Concentrations of 60 ppM of /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U did not affect egg hatching. Based on these data, concentrations in fish eggs were calculated for representative concentrations of uranium and plutonium in natural waters and the corresponding dose levels are below those levels at which observable effects begin to occur.

  10. Effects of sub lethal concentration of Chloramin T on growth, survival, haematocrit and some blood biochemical parameters in common carp fry (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad R. Imanpoor; Ahmad Reza Ahmadi; Milad Kabir

    2011-01-01

    This study was done in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, in 2009, during 8 weeks to survey effects of different concentrations of Chloramin T on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)). According to the pre experiment data, lethal concentration, the lowest observed effect concentration, maximum allowable toxicant concentration and No Observed Effect Concentration of Chloramin T (Halamid) in common carp (C. carpio) fry were respectively 40.9, 27.1, 4....

  11. Risk factors for development of internal neoplasms in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott Knüsel, F; Doherr, M G; Knüsel, R; Wahli, T; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2015-06-03

    Fish, like mammals, can be affected by neoplastic proliferations. As yet, there are only a very small number of studies reporting on the occurrence of tumours in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi and only sporadic reports on the nature of the tumours or on risk factors associated with their development. Between 2008 and 2012, koi with abdominal swelling were examined pathologically: neoplastic lesions were diagnosed and classified histologically. We evaluated possible risk factors for the development of these internal neoplasms in koi carp in Switzerland, using an online 2-part questionnaire sent to fish keepers with koi affected by internal tumours and to fish keepers who had not previously reported any affected koi. Part 1 addressed all participants and focused on general information about koi husbandry and pond technical data; Part 2 addressed participants that had one or several case(s) of koi with internal tumour(s) between 2008 and 2012, and consisted of specific questions about affected koi. A total of 112 internal tumours were reported by the 353 koi keepers participating in the survey. Analysis of the obtained data revealed that tumour occurrence was significantly associated with the location (indoors vs. outdoors) and volume of the pond, frequency of water changes, origin of the koi, number of koi kept in a pond and the use of certain pond disinfectant/medication products. Our results contribute to the identification of possible risk factors, which in turn could help to establish prophylactic measures in order to reduce the occurrence of internal neoplasms in koi.

  12. Induction of specific cytotoxic T-cell activity against xenogeneic target cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Mukamoto, M; Watarai, S; Kodama, H; Nakayasu, C; Okamoto, N

    2001-04-01

    To investigate the induction of cytotoxic T cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio) after inoculation of fish with 2 xenogeneic line cells and to examine specificity of the cytotoxic activity. 22 carp. Fish were inoculated with mouse myeloma line cells P3.NS-1/1Ag4.1 (NS-1) or chicken Marek's disease tumor-derived lymphoma line cells (MDCC MSB-1). Cytotoxic activity of immune lymphocytes was evaluated by incubating effector cells with homologous and heterologous target cells. Populations of effector cells were identified by blocking T-lymphocytes from effector cells, using anti-carp T-cell monoclonal antibody and complement. Lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and head kidney of carp inoculated with NS-1 cells or MDCC MSB-1 cells had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects against homologous target cells but not against heterologous target cells. Lymphocytes from noninoculated carp did not have cytotoxic effects. Depletion of T-lymphocytes in spleen cells from NS-1-inoculated carp resulted in a decrease of cytotoxic activity against NS-1 cells. Cytotoxic activity of spleen lymphocytes from NS-1-inoculated or noninoculated carp was not evident when cytotoxic tests were performed after addition of anti-NS-1 carp serum. Inoculation with xenogeneic target cells induces a specific cytotoxic T-cell response in carp. Thus, cell-mediated immunity plays a role in defense against infection of parasitic organisms such as protozoa and helminths.

  13. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

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    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  14. Recombinant human leptin attenuates stress axis activity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Marnix; Bernier, Nicholas J; Manuel, Remy; de Gelder, Stefan; Metz, Juriaan R; Huising, Mark O; Flik, Gert

    2012-08-01

    Proper functioning of the endocrine stress axis requires communication between the stress axis and other regulatory mechanisms. We here describe an intimate interplay between the stress axis and recombinant human leptin (rhLeptin) in a teleostean fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Restraint stress (by netting up to 96h) increased plasma cortisol but did not affect hepatic leptin expression. Perifusion of pituitary glands or head kidneys with rhLeptin revealed direct effects of rhLeptin on both tissues. RhLeptin suppresses basal and CRF-induced ACTH-secretion in a rapid and concentration-dependent manner. The rhLeptin effect persisted for over an hour after administration had been terminated. RhLeptin decreases basal interrenal cortisol secretion in vitro, and by doing so attenuates ACTH-stimulated cortisol production; rhLeptin does not affect interrenal ACTH-sensitivity. Our findings show that the endocrine stress axis activity and leptin are inseparably linked in a teleostean fish, a notion relevant to further our insights in the evolution of leptin physiology in vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Experimental poisoning of carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.) with the herbicidal preparation, lasagrin (alachlor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doĭcheva, L A

    1978-01-01

    The acute intoxication of K1 carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with the herbicide preparation lassagrin (alachlor) was studied under experimental conditions in a laboratory. Used were a total of 360 young carps of 10 g each, measuring 9-10 cm. The experiments were carried out in 30-1 glass aquariums that were preliminary filled with water that was adequately heated and deprived of chlorine at pH = 6.9, T0C = 18-20 degrees C, O2 = 10.4 mg/1; hardness = 1.5 German degrees. The preparation was directly placed in the aquariums in eleven concentrations. The following characteristic symptoms of intoxication were established: higher irritability of the nervous system with superactivity, lack of coordination and orientation, depression in later hours, loss of sight, disturbed pigmentation. No morphologic changes were found at necropsy. Determined was the concentration at which 50% of the test material died at the 96th hour of exposure: LC50/TLm/=4.67 mg, the interval of dependability at 95% probability being 4.04-5.30. Both toxicometry data and intoxication symptoms with the use of lassagrin (alachlor, lasso) made it reasonable to believe that the preparation could be referred to poisons having resorptive action so far as carps are concerned.

  16. Histological Effects of Cadmium on Hepatopancreas and Gill in Cyprinus carpio

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    Farzad Ghiasi*

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histological studies in organs like hepatopancreas and gill of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, were made to assess tissue damage due to sub-lethal concentration of cadmium after a long exposure period. Methods: This study was conducted in University of Tehran, in 2013. The fish were divided into two groups in 1000 litre fiberglass tanks supplied with dechlorinated water [hardness 302.6 mg CaCo3/l, pH 7, O2 7.8 mg/L and temperature 15 ± 2 ºC] and continuous aeration. Group 1 was without any cadmium considered as control group. Group 2 was exposed to 30 ppb CdCl2 (Merck containing 7.8 ppb cadmium. The tissue samples from: hepatopancreas, gill were collected 30 days post exposure and processed by histological procedures. Results: The main lesions in cadmium exposed groups were: (a pancreatitis necrosis in endocrine part of pancreas (b cholangitis and necrosis in liver parenchyma (c hypertrophy, fusion and telangiectasia in secondary lamellae Conclusion: Cadmium chloride at low concentration can induce pathological alterations in hepatopancreas and gill of common carp.

  17. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  18. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  19. Temperature effects on the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Sandra; McConville, Mikaela; Li, Guihua; Ossa, Alex; Arola, D

    2015-03-01

    In this investigation the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio was evaluated as a function of environmental temperature. Tear specimens were prepared from scales obtained from three characteristic regions (i.e. head, mid-length and tail) of multiple fish. The fracture resistance was characterized in Mode III loading and over temperatures ranging from -150°C to 21°C. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in tear resistance with decreasing temperature and the lowest resistance to fracture was obtained at -150°C. There was a significant difference in the relative tear toughness between scales from the three locations at ambient conditions (21°C), but not below freezing. Scales obtained near the head exhibited the largest resistance to fracture (energy ≈ 150 ± 25 kJm(-2)) overall. The fracture resistance was found to be primarily dependent on the thickness of the external mineralized layer and the number of external elasmodine plies, indicating that both the anatomical position and the corresponding microstructure are important to the mechanical behavior of elasmoid fish scales. These variables may be exploited in the design of bioinspired armors and should be considered in future studies concerning the mechanical behavior of these interesting natural materials. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New Record of Aspidogaster ijimai Kawamura, 1913 (Trematoda: Aspidogastridae) from Cyprinus carpio in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Choe, Seongjun; Kang, Yeseul; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2017-10-01

    Aspidogastrid trematodes (Subclass Aspidogastrea) are a relatively small group with a characteristic adhesive disc and parasitize in a variety of cold-blooded hosts. Until now, only 2 species in the genus Cotylaspis, i.e., C. coreensis and C. sinensis, have been reported as the aspidogastrid trematode in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). In the present study, we intended to describe a species of aspidogastrids collected from the small intestine of the common carp, Cypri-nus carpio, in a faunistic point of view. Total 51 specimens were collected from a carp caught in Nakdong-gang (River) on May 2015. Some of them were prepared as the specimens for light microscopic observations, and some others were prepared for SEM. They were slightly elongated without head lobes, 2,432×840 μm in average size, and had characteristic adhesive discs with 4 rows and 46 alveoli in average. The ovary was reniform and was located in the posterior-upper part of the body. The single testis was larger than the ovary and was located below the ovary. The uterus was coiled containing numerous eggs and distributed in the posterior 2/3 of the body. The vitellaria were follicular, and distributed from the mid-level of testis to near the posterior end. The morphological characters with dimensions of our specimens were closely identical with those of Aspidogaster ijimai previously described. A new aspidogastrid is added among the Korean trematode fauna by the present study.

  1. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Microbiological Properties of Fresh Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Katarína Hudecová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the growth rate of total viable counts (TVC, psychrotrophic viable counts (PVC, coliform bacteria and E. coli in portions of fresh common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. under two different modified atmosphere packaging (experimental MAP1: 70% N2/30% CO2; experimental MAP2: 80% O2/20% CO2 and air (control samples stored at +4 ± 0.5 °C, and to determine their shelf life. The presence of pathogens (Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was also surveyed in this study. A total of 360 portions from 90 common carp were examined. Laboratory analyses were performed on storage day 0 (production day and days 3, 7 and 10. As compared to air packaging, the numbers of TVC and PVC were significantly lower (p E. coli counts in fresh carp during storage were generally low, showing levels of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any of the examined samples. All the strains of Listeria spp. were identified as Listeria innocua. According to TVC values and sensory changes, the shelf life of carp portions was determined as 6 days in MAP1, 8 days in MAP2 and 3 days in air.

  2. Handling Technique Development of Live Carp, Cyprinus carpio, In Cold Dry Styrofoam Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut Suwetja, I.; Salindeho, Netty; Gede Prabawa Suwetja, I.

    2017-10-01

    The study focused on several following aspects: temperature and time optimation for fainting, holding media optimation, temperature and time optimation for recovery, and their correlation with mortality rate of carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fainting occurred at the optimum time of 11 minutes and 03 seconds, temperature of 8°C, and holding time of 6 hours. Holding medium was rice husk. The fastest consciousness of the fish was found in 6 volt-aerated water medium. The fish consciousness after 6 hours of storing in the rice husk at the fainting temperature of 8°C was found faster (p < 0.05), 11 minutes and 15 seconds, than that added with 0.02% of clove oil, 25 minutes and 16 seconds. The fish mortality rate after 6 hours of storage in the rice husk at fainting temperature of 8°C was lower (p < 0.05), 46%, than that with addition of 0.02% of clove oil, 75%.

  3. Cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sperm induces protein phosphorylation in tyrosine and threonine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Hulak, M; Li, Z H; Sulc, M; Psenicka, M; Rodina, M; Gela, D; Linhart, O

    2013-07-15

    The effect of cryopreservation on the protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pattern of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm is described. Sperm was diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG)-based extenders, followed by equilibration, freezing, and thawing. Proteins extracted from fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoa were separated on SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, blotted on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, and treated with anti-phosphotyrosine, anti-phosphothreonine, or anti-phosphoserine antibodies. For the subsequent protein identification we used matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation with either DMSO or EG extender significantly altered the phosphorylation state of sperm proteins on tyrosine or threonine residues. A dramatic decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation was detected in the cryopreservation procedures with DMSO extender. Endoplasmin, transketolase, and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase were identified as proteins that play a key role in cellular stress responses and oxidation and/or reduction reactions. Results indicate that the phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation modifications of sperm proteins that occur during cryopreservation could stimulate a series of biochemical effects interfering with spermatozoa function and leading to a loss of motility and fertilization ability. Our findings indicated that use of EG extender provided superior protein preservation during sperm storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The primary culture of carp (Cyprinus carpio) macrophages and the verification of its phagocytosis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Jingsi; Hu, Lei; Wu, Minghong; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This study establishes the primary culture method for red carp (Cyprinus carpio) macrophages in vitro and lays the foundation for further research in the fish immune system. The healthy adult red carp was chosen, and mechanical separation and cell adherent culture methods were used to isolate the primary macrophages. Compared to the traditional method of Percoll discontinuous density gradient isolation, the protocol we reported here makes cell isolation steps more concise and obtains more healthy cells with high macrophage purity. The cells were uniform in size with a clearly visible nucleus. Trypan blue staining and non-radioactive cell proliferation assay were used to detect the cell survival rate. Further, we provide optimum culture conditions which include cell density (1 × 10(7) cells/mL), culture medium (Leibovitz's L-15), pH (7.2-7.4), temperature (26°C), and adherent time (24 h). Macrophages have been identified by nonspecific esterase and Wright-Giemsa staining and have shown to grow very well. In addition, the macrophages have a very strong bactericidal activity against three kinds of bacteria, further verifying good growth conditions and proper function.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY CELL CULTURE FROM TAIL EPIDERMAL TISSUE OF KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio koi

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    Lila Gardenia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from tail epidermal tissue of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi was developed. Cells were grown in Leibovits-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (Penicillin/Streptomycin and Kanamycin. Cell growth was observed in a range of incubation temperature (17oC±2oC, 22oC±2oC, 27oC±2oC, and 32oC±2oC in order to determine the optimum temperature. The cells were able to grow at a range of temperature between 17oC to 32oC with optimal growth at 22oC. Primary cells infected with koi herpes virus produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation and deformation of nuclei, which is consistent with those of previous reports. Artificial injection experiment by using supernatant koi herpes virus SKBM-1 isolate revealed that it could cause 90% mortality in infected fish within two weeks. PCR test with Sph I-5 specific primers carried out with DNA template from supernatant virus, pellet cell, and gills of infected fish showed positive results in all samples (molecular weight of DNA target 290 bp. The cells were found to be susceptible to koi herpes virus and can be used for virus propagation.

  6. Stress Response to Long Distance Transportation of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    R. Dobšíková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress responses and changes in biochemical and haematological indices were investigated in three-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. during a long-distance transportation in special truck tanks. Twelve-hour transportation caused a significant increase in ammonia (p < 0.01, mean corpuscular volume MCV (p < 0.01, metamyelocytes ( p < 0.05 and band neutrophils (p < 0.01, and a significant decrease in Cl- (p < 0.05, lactate (p < 0.05, ALT (p < 0.05 and ALP (p < 0.01 levels. The values of LDH (p < 0.01, AST (p < 0.05, CK (p < 0.01 and haematocrit PCV (p < 0.05 were also significantly influenced by the transportation, but no time-dependent relation was found. On the contrary, the levels of cortisol, glucose and total protein in the biochemical profile, and the values of erythrocyte count (RBC, haemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte counts (WBC and leukogram (except for metamyelocytes and band neutrophils in the haematological profile were not significantly influenced by the transportation. Results showed that pre-transport fish manipulation (hauling, netting, handling, loading was found to be an important stressor for fish. Long-distance transportation itself was relatively considerate for the common carp tested.

  7. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  8. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  9. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  10. Retroperitoneal hemangiosarcoma in a common carp Cyprinus carpio: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Clauss, Tonya M; Dennison, Sophie E; Camus, Alvin C

    2013-12-12

    A 7.5 kg common carp Cyprinus carpio presented with prominent localized swelling in the caudal right coelomic area, identified by ultrasound as a fluid filled mass. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and culture results suggested a sterile seroma. Centesis removed 290 ml of serosanguinous fluid that returned within days. Recheck ultrasonography revealed a solid component within the cavity. Radiography demonstrated irregular lysis and misalignment of vertebrae adjacent to the mass, most suggestive of bacterial osteitis or neoplasia. Treatment with antibiotics followed for 2 mo but failed to resolve the lesion. Repeated radiography and ultrasonography showed progressive enlargement of the mass, with vertebral lysis and invasion characteristic of neoplasia. Ultrasound-guided FNA of the solid component of the mass was non-diagnostic. Euthanasia was elected due to the poor clinical response and primary differential of neoplasia. Post-mortem MRI and CT confirmed a retroperitoneal soft tissue mass, partially surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity, causing vertebral lysis and infiltration of the spinal canal. Expansion of the mass caused severe muscle loss and an associated elevation in creatine kinase (>120000 U l-1). Necropsy results corroborated the MRI and CT findings, revealing a retroperitoneal, multilobular, red and tan mass causing dorsal displacement of the vertebral column, with vertebral lysis, pathologic fracture and invasion of the spinal canal. Histopathologic examination revealed a locally aggressive neoplasm exhibiting multiple patterns of growth, including endothelial lined vascular channels and solid areas formed by more pleomorphic polygonal and spindle cells, consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  11. Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate on carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesković, N K; Poleksić, V; Elezovíc, I; Karan, V; Budimir, M

    1996-02-01

    Glyphosate, also known by the trade names Roundup and Rodeo for agricultural use, is a broad-spectrum, translocated herbicide, used primarily in agricultural applications, and for vegetation control in non-crop areas. It is used as non-selective herbicide and for aquatic weed control in fish-ponds, lakes, canals, slow running water, etc. (USDA 1984). Glyphosate is perhaps the most important herbicide ever developed. Literature of toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of glyphosate is extremely sparse, considering its importance as herbicide. Generally, glyphosate is slightly toxic to mammals and fish, but it may have an impact on the aquatic environment and also on the other aquatic organisms (USDA 1984). Due to this, its toxicity investigation is very important. The study of sublethal effects is of special importance for toxicological evaluation of compound. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxic effects of sublethal glyphosate concentrations in water to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the commercially most important fish species populating freshwaters of Yugoslavia.

  12. Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17 kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5 Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  13. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-03-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of different dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no differences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with different protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly affected by the different diets ( P 0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  14. Chlorpyrifos exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leads to oxidative stress and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Liu, Qi; Cai, Jingzeng; Yang, Jie; Shen, Qiang; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an environmental pollutant with increasing importance due to its high toxicity to fish and aquatic animals. To understand how CPF impacts immune response and oxidative stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of the head kidneys from common carp exposed to CPF for 15days. A total of 52, 297, 928 and 52, 273, 784 high quality clean reads were obtained from CPF exposure groups, 44,677,578 and 44,106,696 high quality clean reads were obtained from corresponding control groups. Among them, 456 genes were differentially expressed, including 246 up-regulated genes and 210 down-regulated genes identified and enriched in databases of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Antioxidant systems, and immune response genes and pathways were verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We found that CPF-induced ROS regulates immune response by stimulating the antigen-presenting ability of head kidney in carp. These results provide new insights for unveiling the biological effects of CPF in common carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.

  16. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  17. Geno- and cytotoxicity induced on Cyprinus carpio by aluminum, iron, mercury and mixture thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Mendoza-Zenil, Youssef Paolo; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Del Carmen; Rodríguez-Fariñas, Nuria; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; García-Medina, Sandra; Pérez-Pastén Borja, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Metals such as Al, Fe and Hg are used in diverse anthropogenic activities. Their presence in water bodies is due mainly to domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater discharges and constitutes a hazard for the organisms inhabiting these environments. The present study aimed to evaluate geno- and cytotoxicity induced by Al, Fe, Hg and the mixture of these metals on blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Specimens were exposed to the permissible limits in water for human use and consumption according to the pertinent official Mexican norm [official Mexican norm NOM-127-SSA1-1994] Al (0.2mgL -1 ), Fe (0.3mgL -1 ), Hg (0.001mgL -1 ) and their mixture for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. Significant increases relative to the control group (pcarpio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 μg/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

  19. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  20. Detection of koi herpesvirus (KHV) using a monoclonal antibody against Cyprinus carpio IgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingying; Zheng, Shucheng; Wang, Qing; Bergmann, Sven M; Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Chun; Shi, Cunbin

    2017-08-01

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is associated with high mortality in both common carp and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) worldwide. The indirect detection of fish viruses based on the identification of antibodies has emerged as a practical and reliable means of diagnosis. Thus, it is important to create monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against carp IgM. By using hybridoma-monoclonal antibody technology, one hybridoma cell line secreting MAbs against IgM from carp was established. In western blot analysis, the secreted MAb from cell line A5-E10 recognized the heavy chain of IgM from common carp or koi but did not react with immunoglobulins from three different fish species: grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). These results demonstrated that this MAb is highly specific for the IgM of carp and suggested that it can be used for monitoring the immunity level of carp, for example for indirect KHV diagnosis by antibody ELISA. We therefore established an indirect ELISA, which was tested using 200 serum samples from koi from three farms. The final results showed that 147 (73.5%) samples were confirmed to be KHV antibody negative and 53 (26.5%) were definitely positive, containing antibodies against KHV.

  1. Growth Comparison of Israeli Carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Different Breeding Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ju-ae; Goo, In Bon; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Myung Hun; Kim, Do Hee; Im, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hye-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the improvement of growth in Israeli carp (Cyprinus carpio), and the cross experiment was carried out with two strains of Israeli carp. Four combinations of Israeli carp from Jeonbuk fisheries farm and Songpu mirror carp from Heilong Jiang, China (KK; Jeonbuk ♀ × Jeonbuk ♂, KC; Jeonbuk ♀ × China ♂, CC; China ♀ × China ♂ and CK; China ♀ × Jeonbuk ♂) were developed and reared. Body length, body weight and condition factor were determined at 20, 40, 60 and 170 days post-hatch (DPH). The results showed that there were differences in growth rate of the four groups. Body length of four groups were CK > CC > KC > KK and body weight were CC > CK > KC > KK at 170 DPH. The growth perfomance of four groups were statistically significant difference (P<0.05). During the rearing, CC group had longer length and higher weight at 170 DPH compared to other three groups and also condition factor was highest in the CC group, but there was no significant difference in a survival rate. These results indicated that the growth performance mainly depended upon brooder combination but survival rate could not significantly affect brooder. PMID:28144632

  2. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  3. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  5. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

  7. The Effectiveness of Onion Extract Allium sativum to Prevent Koi Herpesvirus (KHV Infection on Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Common carp is one of consumption fish that has delicious meat, high pritein level, and easy in farming. The serious problem in common carp farming is koi herpesvirus infection.  Onion extract potency to improve immune system was estimated to prevent disease infection.  The testing of the garlic extract through food could be used as efforts to increase endurance of common carp fish Cyprinus carpio to koi herpesvirus infection that was considered from blood parameter. Fish that was used was measuring 9-11 cm with the treatment of food containing  30, 50, and 70 gr/100 ml onion extract. Fish was acclimated for seven days  in 60×30×30 cm3 aquarium before used. Garlic extract diet in food gave increasing of fish immune system that was infected by koi herpesvirus. The increased of leucocytes of blood fish with onion extract diet was faster than possitive control. The dose of B treatment (50 gr/100 ml was the best dose gave short incubation periode comparing other treatment. Survival rate (SR of this B treatment was highest, i.e. 91.7%, while survival rate of negative control was 50%. Key word: common carp, Cyprinus carpio, onion, Allium sativum, koi herpesvirus   ABSTRAK Salah satu jenis ikan konsumsi air tawar yang banyak digemari oleh masyarakat adalah ikan mas Cyprinus carpio karena rasa dagingnya gurih, memiliki kadar protein tinggi dan cukup mudah dalam pemeliharaannya. Permasalahan yang muncul  saat ini adalah wabah Koi Herpes Virus (KHV. Potensi ekstrak bawang putih sebagai anti mikroba spektrum luas, diduga dapat mengobati dan mencegah penyakit ikan. Pengujian bawang putih secara in vivo melalui pakan dapat digunakan sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan ketahanan tubuh ikan mas Cyprinus carpio terhadap infeksi penyakit KHV yang ditinjau dari gambaran darahnya. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah ikan mas berukuran 9-11 cm dengan perlakuan pakan yang mengandung bawang putih sebanyak 30, 50, dan 70 gr/100 ml. Sebelum dilakukan penelitian ikan

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lysak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish.  Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  10. Elevated ability to compete for limited food resources by 'all-fish' growth hormone transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Sundström, L F; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2009-10-01

    Food consumption, number of movements and feeding hierarchy of juvenile transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics were measured under conditions of limited food supply. Transgenic fish exhibited 73.3% more movements as well as a higher feeding order, and consumed 1.86 times as many food pellets as their non-transgenic counterparts. After the 10 day experiment, transgenic C. carpio had still not realized their higher growth potential, which may be partly explained by the higher frequency of movements of transgenics and the 'sneaky' feeding strategy used by the non-transgenics. The results indicate that these transgenic fish possess an elevated ability to compete for limited food resources, which could be advantageous after an escape into the wild. It may be that other factors in the natural environment (i.e. predation risk and food distribution), however, would offset this advantage. Thus, these results need to be assessed with caution.

  11. Use of Duckweed, Lemna minor, as a Protein Feedstuff in Practical Diets for Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio, Fry

    OpenAIRE

    , Erdal Yılmaz; Akyurt, İhsan; Günal, Gökhan

    2004-01-01

    The use of dried duckweed, Lemna minor, as a dietary protein source for Cyprinus carpio common carp fry reared in baskets was the topic of investigation in this study. Five diets with similar E:P ratios were fed to common carp fry with an average initial weight of 0.29 g for 90 days. A diet containing 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% duckweed was substituted for the commercial 32% protein control-group diet, fed in normal rations to common carp. There was no significant difference between the growth perf...

  12. Study in situ of the natural uranium, 60 Co and 137 Cs bioaccumulation factor in fish (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoran, A.; Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Horhoianu, V.; Hirica, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania); Patriche, N.; Tenciu, M.; Talpes, M. [CPPPPIP, Galati (Romania); Cristea, V. [Galati Univ. (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents the results of the 'in situ' research, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation factor of natural uranium, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in fish (Cyprinus carpio) - the find link in aquatic ecosystems. The work performed is a part of a radioecological study achieved in the experimental pool of S.C.N. Pitesti. The objective of the research was to evaluate the release of the radioactive materials in the environment as well as to establish the transfer mechanisms of the radionuclides in the trophic chains from the aquatic ecosystem. (authors)

  13. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-09-16

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp.

  14. Assessment of environmental quality and inland water pollution using biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio): Use of a bioactivation:detoxication ratio as a biotransformation index (BTI).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, R.; Lopes, S.C.C.; Komen, H.; Satumalay, K.; Bos, R.; Heida, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the responses of a suite of biochemical parameters were investigated in a standardized carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish line. Carps were caged for 2 to 8 weeks at two Amsterdam

  15. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  16. Effects of chronic dietary exposure of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the serum protein profile of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zusková, Eliška; Niksirat, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    information related to their toxicological endpoints. Proteomics was applied to evaluate the sub-lethal effects of dietary exposure to ZnO NPs on serum proteome profile of juvenile common carp, (Cyprinus carpio). Therefore, ZnO NPs solution (500mgkg-1 of feed) was added to a commercial carp feed for six weeks...

  17. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-01-01

    (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the dorsal white muscle of carp. Homogenizedfish flesh was used for calibration. Relative dry mass was strongly correlated with relative fat content(R2up to 96.7%) and energy density (R2up to 99.1%). Thus, calibrations were only conducted for relativedry...

  18. Effect of Astralagus radix on proliferation and nitric oxide production of head kidney macrophages in Cyprinus carpio: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo-Jun, Y.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Yue-Ming, L.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Pao, X.; Hong-qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Astragalus radix water extract onthe non-specific immune responses of macrophages isolated from the head kidney of Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. Astragalus radix extract stimulated the proliferation of the head kidney macrophages, and it alone had no effect on nitrogen burst

  19. TOKSISITAS SUBLETAL MOLUSKISIDA NIKLOSAMIDA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KONDISI HEMATOLOGI YUWANA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Niklosamida digunakan secara intensif sebagai pestisida di sawah untuk membunuh keong mas (Pomacea sp.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh toksisitas subletal moluskisida niklosamida terhadap pertumbuhan dan kondisi hematologi yuwana ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi Cibalagung Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Waktu penelitian 12 minggu. Perlakuan adalah konsentrasi moluskisida niklosamida, yaitu: 0,00 (kontrol; 0,01; 0,03; dan 0,05 mg/L. Menggunakan 16 akuarium ukuran 70 cm x 50 cm x 60 cm. Benih ikan mas yang digunakan berkisar 2,5-3,0 gram dipelihara dengan kepadatan 20 ekor dalam volume air 40 L. Selama pemaparan ikan uji diberi pakan secara at satiation serta dilakukan pergantian air setiap 48 jam dengan konsentrasi bahan uji yang sama. Peubah yang diukur adalah laju pertumbuhan dan kondisi hematologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi subletal moluskisida niklosamida berpengaruh nyata terhadap penurunan pertumbuhan terjadi mulai pada konsentrasi 0,03 mg/L sedangkan terhadap kondisi hematologi, yaitu peningkatan hematokrit dan hemoglobin pada konsentrasi 0,01 mg/L dan peningkatan jumlah eritrosit pada konsentrasi 0,03 mg/L, dan penurunan leukosit pada konsentrasi 0,03 mg/L. Niklosamida digunakan secara intensif sebagai pestisida di sawah untuk membunuh keong mas (Pomacea sp.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh toksisitas subletal moluskisida niklosamida terhadap pertumbuhan dan kondisi hematologi yuwana ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi Cibalagung Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Waktu penelitian 12 minggu. Perlakuan adalah konsentrasi moluskisida

  20. Pathological study of experimental cadmium toxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. I. Al-Taee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The median lethal concentration of cadmium chloride CdCl2 at 24 hour in Cyprinus carpioL was determined. The toxic effect of sublethal concentration of CdCl2 was studied for 4, 7, 15 day. There was estimated significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, Packed cell volume (PCV and lymphocyte counts, with significant increase (P≤0.05 in the serum alanine aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activity correlated with progression of exposure period. The elevation was more significant on the 15th day in all groups in comparison with non treated control group. The fish treated with sublethal concentration of CdCl2 showed behaviors of nervous signs manifested as abnormal swimming and jumping above the water surface. The gross lesions of sublethal concentration toxic effects included congestion of gills. Histopathological lesions revealed hyperplasia of epithelial cells with hyperatrophy of piler cells and inflammatory cells infiltration which lead to adhesion of the secondary lamellae of gills. The same lesions were observed on the 15th day of exposure but were more severe. In liver and kidney which appeared congested with presence of pale areas, histopathological lesions include infiltration of inflammatory cells, specially melanomacrophage and mononuclear cells in hepatic tissue with thickening of the bile duct wall, hemorrhage and necrosis in hepatic tissue. In the kidney, there was a congestion of blood vessels and deposition of hyaline casts in the renal tubules. Accumulation of cadmium in gills, kidney and liver after 4, 7 and 15th day of exposure showed an increase in level of accumulation with progression of exposure period.

  1. Evaluation of Nephrotoxic Effects of Aflatoxins on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Taheri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of different dose of aflatoxins, secondary toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus, on some biochemical parameters in kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Methods: This study was done in Aquaculture and Biology Laboratory of Behbahn Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2015. Fishes were distributed into five groups: Group I-III was fed contaminated diets with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed, respectively. Group IV was fed contaminated diets with extraction solution (methanol, acetone, and diluted water as a positive control. Control group received normal feed (Group V. After 21 d of experiment, activities of cellular enzymes and oxidative stress biomarker were evaluated. Results: Aflatoxins (0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 caused a significant increase in ALT activity. Although, significant increase of LDH activity (P<0.05 were found in kidney of fish fed diet contaminated with 0.5 mg kg-1 of aflatoxins, LDH activity was significantly decreased in kidney of fish fed diet contaminated with 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 of aflatoxins. A significant increase (P<0.05 were observed in MDA levels and CAT activity in kidney of fish fed diet contaminated with different concentrations of aflatoxins for 21 d. The total antioxidant levels, AST and ALP activities in kidney of fish were significantly reduced (P<0.05 on the 21st day following aflatoxins administration. Conclusion: Diets containing certain concentrations of aflatoxins (0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed made oxidative damage to kidney tissue, including changes in oxidative stress biomarker and biochemical parameters.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  3. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  4. Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for

  5. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization and biological function analysis of the TRIM47 gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeda; Kuang, Ming; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Liu, Xueqin

    2017-09-05

    The TRIM family protein was known to play an important role in many cellular processes, including potential antiviral activity, which has attracted lots of attention. In this study, a TRIM47 homolog from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was cloned and the full length coding DNA sequence (CDS) of this gene was analyzed, results showed that there was a 97% similarity between common carp and zebrafish (Danio rerio), but only 18% similarity with that of human (Homo sapiens) and mouse (Mus musculus). The tissue distribution analysis showed TRIM47 had the highest mRNA level in the brain, a few immune related organs such as liver and kidney also had a relatively high level of TRIM47 expression. SVCV infection decreased TRIM47 mRNA level significantly both in vitro and in vivo, but its expression was not affected by the virus at the protein level. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA4-TRIM47-His was constructed, the subcellular localization in FHM cells showed that TRIM47 uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm at the form of tiny spots, and partially localized in the mitochondria. Overexpression TRIM47 in FHM cells significantly decreased the mRNA level of SVCV-G gene, and it was accompanied with the increasing of IFN1, a member of type I IFN, at the case of SVCV stimulation. In summary, our results had first demonstrated that TRIM47 of the common carp played an important role in viral resistance processes as well as the regulation of IFN signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cloning, expression analysis, and antibacterial propertiesof three serum amyloid A in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juhua; Tang, Yongkai; Li, Jianlin; Li, Hongxia; Yu, Fan; Yu, Wenjuan; He, Feng; Fu, Chunjie; Mao, Shuntao

    2017-06-01

    Three serum amyloid A (SAA) genes were identified from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by PCR and RT-PCR. Considering both direction and sequence similarity with mammal's orthologs, they were named CcSAA3a, CcSAA3b and CcSAA1. CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 are adjacent on contig LHQP01017858, suggesting that the prototype of or the simplest SAA multigene family have occurred in common carp. A phylogenetic analysis of the SAAs indicated that the fish SAAs were closer to those of invertebrates and Ornithorhynchus anatinus, a primitive mammal, than to mammalian SAAs. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results displayed different expression profiles of three CcSAAs. The CcSAA3a was detected in all tested tissues, and was most abundant in the muscle; CcSAA3b was predominately expressed in the intestine and liver, and CcSAA1 in the skin. The expression level of CcSAA3a was higher than that of CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 in most tissues. Stimulation with Aeromonas hydrophila dramatically induced the expression of the three CcSAAs in all examined tissues, especially in the liver. Like Epinephelus coioides SAA, all of three rCcSAA fusion proteins could bind to both Gram-negative bacteria (A. hydrophila and E. coli) and Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus), playing a role in the identification of bacteria. However, only rCcSAA3a showed significantly anti-A. hydrophila and anti-E. coli in vitro antibacterial activity assays. These results suggested that the three CcSAAs were in functional differentiation and play significant roles in the innate immunity of common carp. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Differential response of two somatolactin genes to zinc or estrogen in pituitary of Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G E; Perez, A; Navarro, M; Romero, A; Figueroa, J; Kausel, G

    2015-05-01

    Environmental changes affect gene expression that we addressed in the pituitary, a central regulatory organ at the interface between the central nervous system and the endocrine system. With the aim to reveal effects of changes in the aquatic environment on the expression of hypothalamo-hypophyseal factors, we characterized somatolactin (SL) in Cyprinus carpio. SL, a fish specific pituitary hormone belonging to the prolactin (PRL) superfamily, is involved in background adaptation, osmoregulation, reproduction and fatty acid metabolism. Two sl genes, α and β, were discovered in carp and transcripts of both were detected in pituitaries. Clearly, expression of slα and slβ was modulated significantly in pituitary of male adult carp in response to treatment with ZnCl2 (Zn), but only slβ responded to 17β-estrogen (E2), relative to control carp as shown by RT-qPCR analyses. Furthermore, the amount of mRNA of related factors was assessed revealing variable effects on prl, growth hormone (gh), and factors involved in sl regulation: the pituitary transcription factor pit1 and hypothalamic pituitary adenylase cyclase activating peptide (pacap). In parallel, the physiological response of the experimental animals to Zn or E2 was confirmed by showing a significant increase of metallothionein (mt) or vitellogenin (vg) gene expression in liver, classical sentinels for exposure to heavy metal or estrogens. These data suggest that the sl genes seem to be involved in the response to Zn, as well as to estrogen, and could contribute to evaluate biological relevant changes in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of amoxicillin exposure on brain, gill, liver, and kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio): The role of amoxicilloic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Dublán-García, Octavio; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Castañeda-Peñalvo, Gregorio; Lizcano-Sanz, Isabel; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics around the world due to its broad-spectrum activity against different bacterial strains as well as its use as a growth promoter in animal husbandry. Although residues of this antibacterial agent have been found in water bodies in diverse countries, there is not enough information on its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This study aimed to evaluate AMX-induced oxidative stress in brain, gill, liver and kidney of C. carpio. Carp were exposed to three different concentrations of AMX (10 ng/L, 10 μg/L, 10 mg/L) for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydroperoxide content (HPC), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Amoxicillin and its main degradation product amoxicilloic acid (AMA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and UV detection (HPLC-EC-UV). Significant increases in LPX, HPC, and PCC (P carpio, this damage being highest in kidney. The biomarkers used are effective for the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1102-1120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Novel igf3 Gene in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Evidence for Its Role in Regulating Gonadal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feibiao; Wang, Lanmei; Zhu, Wenbin; Fu, Jianjun; Dong, Juanjuan; Dong, Zaijie

    2016-01-01

    Since the insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) gene was recently discovered in fish ovary, its function in the gonads has received much attention. In this study, we isolated two igf3 subtypes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which comprised full-length cDNA of 707 and 1153 nucleotides encoding 205 and 198 amino acids (aa), respectively. The Igf3 aa sequence had the highest gene homology of 72% with the corresponding sequence in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic tree construction revealed that the C. carpio igf3 gene was first clustered with D. rerio and then with other teleost species. Igf3 mRNA was widely expressed, with expression being highest in the gonads and blood. In the gonad development stage, igf3a mRNA expression was highest in the maturity and recession stage of the ovary, and decline phase of the testis, while igf3b was highest in the recession and fully mature periods of the ovaries and testes, respectively. Western blotting of testis protein samples showed two bands of approximately 21 kDa and 34 kDa corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of the two Igf3 subtypes; no signal was detected in the ovary. The Igf3 protein was localized in the ovary granulosa cells and testis spermatogonium and spermatids. 17β-Ethinylestradiol treatment increased both ovary and testis igf3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that Igf3 may play an important role in C. carpio gonadal development.

  11. Effects of fluoride on growth, body composition, and serum biochemical profile in a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Li, Yundong; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-10-01

    Fluoride is ubiquitously distributed in natural waters. Elevated fluoride may cause histopathological changes and induce oxidative stress in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study further evaluates the effects of fluoride on growth performance, body composition, and biochemical measurements of C. carpio. The results showed that food intake, growth, serum osmolality, body composition, and biochemical measures in the blood were affected by fluoride. Weight gain rate and specific growth rate in the exposed fish decreased compared with those of the control fish. Levels of crude protein and crude lipids were reduced in the fluoride-exposed fish. The major ion levels in the sera of fluoride-exposed fish were severely disturbed, resulting in a lower osmolality. All the biochemical parameters measured in the blood were affected by the exposure to fluoride. Total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose in fish exposed to 63.6 mg/L, 77.7 mg/L, and 124.4 mg/L were lower than those in the control fish. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly increased in exposed fish compared with control. Taken together, the data showed that exposure to fluoride caused a suite of detrimental effects in C. carpio, which might lead to a decrease in growth and food utilization efficiency. The results of the present study indicated that high levels of fluoride could pose a threat to carp in the field. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Effects of sodium fluoride on MAPKs signaling pathway in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Klerks, Paul; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of fluoride can cause a variety of adverse effects in fish. Previously we showed that fluoride causes injuries and apoptosis in the gills of Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of fluoride on caspase-3 activity and on accumulation of proteins in the MAPKs pathways were evaluated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the caspase-3 activity increased with fluoride exposure level in a dose-dependent pattern Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results indicated that ERK relative activation tended to decrease as a function of fluoride exposure concentration. In contrast, relative activation of JNK increased with fluoride exposure level. Fluoride exposure did not appear to affect p38 activation. Furthermore, pretreatment of branchial cells with MAPK-specific inhibitors effectively prevented JNK induction and ERK inhibition, respectively, as well as reversed caspase-3 activity in fluoride-treated branchial cells. Our results indicate that activation of JNK and inactivation of ERK were caused by increased ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in the gills of chronically exposed C. carpio described previously, which eventually caused the observed apoptosis in the fluoride-exposed gills and cells in C. carpio. JNK activation and ERK inactivation mechanism play a crucial role in gill impairment induced by chronic fluorosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the initial molecular and cellular events in the gill of fish chronically exposed to fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of methods to improve induction of spermiation in wild-caught carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), a threatened species from the Caspian Sea basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirzadeh, Arya; Farhadi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mahmood; Jeffs, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Wild carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) forms the basis of an important fishery in the Southern Caspian Sea Basin which is increasingly underpinned by the release of cultured juveniles. A significant bottleneck to hatchery-rearing of juveniles is the spermiation of male broodstock. Therefore, four approaches to improving spermiation were investigated. The effectiveness of two delivery methods for the sustained release of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa; i.e., via intramuscular cholesterol pellet vs emulsion injection) on the spermiation success and duration, sperm quality and quantity over 14days in wild-caught carp were compared to single injection of sGnRHa with Pimozide(®) (Linpe method) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). The consequence of the spermiation treatments on resulting embryonic quality was evaluated for subsequent fertilization and hatching success from wild male carp (mean weight±S.D. 1021±112g). All hormonal treatments, except for Linpe method, led to 100% spermiation of treated fish compared to only 25% in the control with no hormone intervention. The duration of spermiation, as well as the various quantitative variables of the sperm and the mean total sperm production were all generally improved with the sustained hormone delivery compared with the acute treatments. The GnRHa-FIA was the most effective method for improving spermiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, P.T.; Dongen, W. van; Esmans, E.L.; Blust, R.; Coen, W.M. de

    2003-02-26

    In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects were assessed in liver and serum of the exposed organisms. The investigation of the hepatotoxicity of PFOS included the determination of the peroxisome proliferating potential (peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase and catalase activity) and the compounds influence on the average DNA basepair length (ABPL) by agarose gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant activity (TAA), cholesterol and triglyceride levels were monitored in the serum. After 1 day of exposure the ABPL was significantly increased in the 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. After 5 days of exposure significant increases relative to the control were observed for the 16, 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. Enzyme leakage from the liver was investigated by measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum. At 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS a significant increase in serum ALT activity became apparent after 5 days of exposure with values ranging from 159 to 407% relative to the control. For serum AST activity a significant increase for the 864 ng/g treatment group was observed with a value of 112% relative to the control. Determination of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into liver tissue as assessed through myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, was used as an indicator for inflammation. It appeared that inflammation was not involved in the observed membranous enzyme leakage for the 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS treatment groups. The results of this study suggest that PFOS induces inflammation-independent enzyme leakage through liver cell membranes

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  16. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  17. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  18. Identification and profiling of Cyprinus carpio microRNAs during ovary differentiation by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Jia, Yongfang; Wang, Po; Yang, Qianwen; Du, QiYan; Chang, ZhongJie

    2017-04-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNAs. However, the possible role of miRNAs in the ovary differentiation and development of fish is not well understood. In this study, we examined the expression profiles and differential expression of miRNAs during three key stages of ovarian development and different developmental stages in common carp Cyprinus carpio. A total of 8765 miRNAs were identified, including 2155 conserved miRNAs highly conserved among various species, 145 miRNAs registered in miRBase for common carp, and 6505 novel miRNAs identified in common carp for the first time. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles among the five libraries identified 714 co-expressed and 2382 specific expressed miRNAs. Overall, 150, 628, and 431 specifically expressed miRNAs were identified in primordial gonad, juvenile ovary, and adult ovary, respectively. MiR-6758-3p, miR-3050-5p, and miR-2985-3p were highly expressed in primordial gonad, miR-3544-5p, miR-6877-3p, and miR-9086-5p were highly expressed in juvenile ovary, and miR-154-3p, miR-5307-5p, and miR-3958-3p were highly expressed in adult ovary. Predicted target genes of specific miRNAs in primordial gonad were involved in many reproductive biology signaling pathways, including transforming growth factor-β, Wnt, oocyte meiosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Notch, p53, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pathways. Target-gene prediction revealed upward trends in miRNAs targeting male-bias genes, including dmrt1, atm, gsdf, and sox9, and downward trends in miRNAs targeting female-bias genes including foxl2, smad3, and smad4. Other sex-related genes such as sf1 were also predicted to be miRNA target genes. This comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis demonstrated differential expression profiles of miRNAs during ovary development in common carp. These results could facilitate future exploitation of the sex-regulatory roles and mechanisms of

  19. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation) associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature) and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. Results We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Conclusions Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important functions, especially reproduction

  20. Vitellogenin induction in Cyprinus carpio treated with 17 {beta} Estradiol and 4-Nonylphenol; Induzione della vitellogenina in esemplari di Cyprinus carpio trattati sperimentalmetne con 17 {beta} Estradiolo e 4-Nonilfenolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, S. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Fossi, M. C. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina; Mori, G. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Bjornstad, A. [Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway)

    2001-01-01

    A major problem of freshwater environments is the massive discharge of surfactants such as alkylphenols that have been shown to have estrogenic activity. One marker of the effects of estrogenic compounds is induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk protein precursor of lower viviparous vertebrates. The aim of the present study was to validate induction of Vtg in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a biomarker for monitoring freshwater ecosystems. Sexually undifferentiated specimens of common carp were treated experimentally with 17 {beta},-Estradiol and increasing doses of 4-Nonylphenol and levels plasma Vtg were measured in order to: 1) validate an E.L.I.S.A. assay for plasma Vtg in the common carp using the polyclonal rabbit anti-salmon Vtg antibody; 2) check the sensitivity of carp juveniles in producing Vtg in response to estrogen stimulation. [Italian] Uno dei maggiori problemi legati alla salute degli ecosistemi acquatici e' la presenza di composti di sintesi con attivita' estrogenica quali, ad esempio, gli alchilfenoli polietossilati. Tra i piu' interessanti strumenti di indagine capaci di individuare gli effetti di tali composti sulle comunita' naturali c'e' l'induzione, nei vertebrati ovipari, della vitellogenina (Vtg; proteina precursore delle proteine del tuorlo) un importante biomarker specifico di effetto per composti estrogenici. Lo scopo del presente studio e' stato quello di validare l'induzione della Vtg nella carpa comune (Cyprinus carpio) come biomarker per il monitoraggio degli ecosistemi acquatici interni. Esemplari sessualmente immaturi di carpa comune sono stati trattati sperimentalmente con 17 {beta}, -Estradiolo e dosi crescenti di 4-Nonilfenolo al fine di: 1) mettere a punto il test E.L.I.S.A. per la valutazione dei livelli plasmatici di Vtg nella carpa utilizzando l'anticopro policlonale Rabbit anti Salmon Vtg; 2) verificare le capacita' di risposta a stimoli estrogenici nella specie

  1. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  2. Effect of delayed icing on biogenic amines formation and bacterial contribution of iced common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Hamzeh, Ali; Moslemi, Mehran; Lashkan, Aria Babakhani; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesús

    2013-12-12

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine) were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05) more than those with 0 and 4 h delay.

  3. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vali Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs and total viable count (TVC in common carp (Cyprinus carpio stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05 more than those with 0 and 4 h delay.

  4. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  5. Effects of acute exposure to metribuzin on some hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Piackova, V; Sudova, E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate acute toxic effects of the preparation Sencor 70 WG (metribuzin 70% W/V) on hematological, biochemical indices and histology of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In carp exposed for 96 h to Sencor 70 WG in the concentration of 250.2 mg/L, showed significantly lower (p<0.01) values of plasma total proteins, albumins, total globulins, triacylglycerols, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, inorganic phosphate, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean erythrocyte volume, the leucocrite value, lymphocyte, and significantly higher (p<0.01) values of glucose, ammonia, calcium, monocytes, neutrophile granulocytes, developmental forms myeloid sequence and basophiles compared to the control group. Histopathological examination revealed hyaline degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal tubules of the caudal kidney. This alteration of kidney resulted in hypoproteinemia, followed by generation of transudate in body cavity.

  6. Seleksi Bakteri Berpotensi Probiotik dari Ikan Mas (Cyprinus Carpio Indegenous Jantho Berdasarkan Aktivitas Antibakteri secara In Vitro

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    Cut Yulvizar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control is probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This research was carried out to obtain indegenous isolates of probiotic bacteria from digestive tract Cyprinus carpio. Selection criteria were appointed based on the capacity to produce the antibacterial compound against the pathogen and grow at pH 2. The research was conducted from May to July 2014 at Microbiology Laboratory, Biology Department, UNSYIAH. The research was carried out by experiment laboratories. The planting of the bacteria was carried out with the pour-plate method in nutrient agar medium. The result show that there are six bacterial isolates varied morphological colony and cell and able to produce antibacterial compounds for active against A.hydrophila and E. tarda.

  7. Interaction of phytase RONOZYME?P(L and citric acid on the utilization of phosphorus by common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gabaudan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days to study the effects of the combination of microbial phytase and citric acidon phosphorus utilization in Cyprinus carpio fingerlings. Four diets designated as diet without phytase or inorganic phosphorussupplementation (T1, with 1.1% MSP (T2, with 0.55% MSP and phytase (T3 and with 0.55% MSP, phytase andcitric acid (T4. Four replicate groups of 20 fish were fed two times daily until satiation. Phosphorus digestibility and retentionwere measured as well as the fish growth performance. It is concluded from the results that the addition of microbial phytaseand citric acid enhances the availability of phosphorus from plant sources, improves bone mineralization, growth and feedefficiency. Combining a low dose of citric acid to the phytase significantly increased the positive effects of the enzyme.

  8. Food and Feeding Habits of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ecology (Fasil Degefu et al., 2012, Mathewos Hailu, 2013). Kassahun Assaminew (2005) studied distribution, abundance and feeding biology of C. carpio together with other commercially important fish species in Lake Koka. LFDP (1997) reported the types of food consumed by C. carpio in Lake Koka. Apart from this limited ...

  9. Label-free proteomic analysis of intestinal mucosa proteins in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guilan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Naeem, Sajid; Li, Li; Kong, Xianghui

    2017-07-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases in common carp Cyprinus carpio, a major cultured fish in northern regions of China, constantly result in significant economic losses. Until now, information proteomic on immune defence remains limited. In the present study, a profile of intestinal mucosa immune response in Cyprinus carpio was investigated after 0, 12, 36 and 84 h after challenging tissues with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1.4 × 10 8  CFU/mL. Proteomic profiles in different samples were compared using label-free quantitative proteomic approach. Based on MASCOT database search, 1149 proteins were identified in samples after normalisation of proteins. Treated groups 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) were first clustered together and then clustered with control (C group). The distance between C and treated group 3 (T3) represented the maxima according to hierarchical cluster analysis. Therefore, comparative analysis between C and T3 was selected in the following analysis. A total of 115 proteins with differential abundance were detected to show conspicuous expressing variances. A total of 52 up-regulated proteins and 63 down-regulated proteins were detected in T3. Gene ontology analysis showed that identified up-regulated differentially expressed proteins in T3 were mainly localised in the hemoglobin complex, and down-regulated proteins in T3 were mainly localised in the major histocompatibility complex II protein complex. Forty-six proteins of differential abundance (40% of 115) were involved in immune response, with 17 up-regulated and 29 down-regulated proteins detected in T3. This study is the first to report proteome response of carp intestinal mucosa against A. hydrophila infection; information obtained contribute to understanding defence mechanisms of carp intestinal mucosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes Cyprinus capio furong(♀) × Cyprinus carpio var.singguonensis(♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huizhen; Liu, Qiaolin; Xiao, Tiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 15 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) in order to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,581 bp and deposited in the GenBank with the accession number KP210473. The organization of the mitochondrial genomes contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region which was similar to those reported mitochondrial genomes. Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. The nucleotide skewness for the coding strands of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.27) were biased toward T and G. The complete mitogenome may provide important date for the study of genetic mechanism of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂).

  11. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat.

  12. Genotoxicological response of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to spring water in Tlaxcala, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, Edelmira; Juárez-Santacruz, Libertad; García-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Tlalmis-Zempoalteca, Joselin; Romo-Gómez, Claudia; Torres-Dosal, Arturo

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the genotoxic impact of anthropic activities in Huactzinco Spring, using Cyprinus carpio as a biomonitor. In situ and in vivo experimental designs were compared by means of simultaneous 2-week exposures. The water from the spring generated mean micronuclei frequency values (108.6 ± 32 MN/1,000) and DNA fragmentation values (143.4 ± 35 au) which were statistically higher than those for the negative control (10.9 ± 6 MN/1,000 and 67.6 ± 23 au). The in situ and in vivo experiments supported one another. The comet assay proved to be the most sensitive test, with an EC50 value (11.4 % ± 3.4 %) being less than that determined for the micronuclei test (54.8 % ± 3.2 %). The results of this study confirm the usefulness of C. carpio as an environmental contamination biomonitor, and suggest that Huactzinco Spring water constitutes a latent risk to human health and the environment.

  13. Cyto-genotoxicity and oxidative stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a mixture of ibuprofen and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Flores, Hariz; Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Michelle Sánchez-Ocampo, Esmeralda; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Ortíz-Reynoso, Mariana; Dublán-García, Octavio

    2017-05-01

    Thirty million people worldwide consume each day nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a heterogeneous group of pharmaceuticals used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies report high NSAID concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluents, in surface, ground, and drinking water, and in sediments. NSAIDs are also known to induce toxicity on aquatic organisms. However, toxicity in natural ecosystems is not usually the result of exposure to a single substance but to a mixture of toxic agents, yet only a few studies have evaluated the toxicity of mixtures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity induced by diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), and their mixture on a species of commercial interest, the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of IBP and DCF was determined, and oxidative stress was evaluated using the following biomarkers: lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Cyto-genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test, comet assay, and the specific activity of caspase-3. Results show that DCF, IBP, and a mixture of these pharmaceuticals induced free radical production, oxidative stress and cyto-genotoxicity in tissues of C. carpio. However, a greater effect was elicited by the mixture than by either pharmaceutical alone in some biomarkers evaluated, particularly in gill. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1637-1650, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae, May Chang) and its effects on the biological response of common carp Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, H. V.; Caruso, Domenico; Lebrun, M; Nguyen, N. T.; Trinh, T.T.; Meile, J. C.; Chu-Ky, S.; Sarter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to characterize the antibacterial activity and the chemotype of Litsea cubeba leaf essential oil (EO) harvested in North Vietnam and to investigate the biological effects induced by the leaf powder on growth, nonspecific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Methods and Results: The EO showed the prevalence of linalool (95%, n = 5). It was bactericidal against the majority of tested strains, with minimum ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence ofAeromonas hydrophilaStrain Ae25, Isolated from a Septicemic Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein, Karim; Jagoda, S S S De S; Arulkanthan, A; Ushio, Hideki; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    Motile aeromonad septicemia caused by mesophilic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila is a widespread problem in cultured freshwater fish. We announce here the draft genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant A. hydrophila strain Ae25, isolated from a koi carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) with motile aeromonad septicemia that was collected from an ornamental fish-breeding farm in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2018 Honein et al.

  16. Cryoconservation of fish sperm in model species - common carp (Cyprinus carpio): the influence of different temperature regimes of cryopreservation on the viability of thawed spermatozoa.

    OpenAIRE

    SOCHOROVÁ, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Influence of temperature and freezing rate on sperm survival after thawing were objective of this study. Motility (percentage of moving sperm), velocity and duration of sperm movement before and after process of freezing were observed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa. Solutions recommended by Kopeika (1986) and Kurokura (1984) were used as a cryoprotective media. Sperm freezing was performed in 0.5 ml straws layed in styrofoam box 3, 6 and 9 cm above the level of liquid nitroge...

  17. Characterization and immune response expression of the Rig-I-like receptor mda5 in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Y; Xing, W X; Shan, S J; Zhang, S Q; Li, Y Q; Li, T; An, L; Yang, G W

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the full-length complementary (c)DNA of common carp Cyprinus carpio melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda5) was cloned. The complete open reading frame of C. carpio mda5 contained 2982 bp and encodes 993 amino acids. The deduced amino acids contained six functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD), a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme (ResIII), a DExD/H box-containing domain (DEXDc), a helicase super family C-terminal domain (HELICc) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). The mda5 gene was expressed in all tested tissues, with high levels in the gills and spleen, while lower expressed in gonad and blood. The copy numbers of mda5 were increased in the liver, spleen, head kidney and the mucosal-associated immune tissues such as the foregut, hindgut, gills and skin after stimulation with polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)] and Aeromonas hydrophila. The myxovirus resistance gene (mx) messenger (m)RNA levels in the spleen, head kidney, foregut and gills were significantly up-regulated after poly(I:C) injection. When injected with poly(I:C), mda5 and mx transcripts were also significantly induced in vitro. These results implied that mda5 might be involved in both antiviral and antibacterial innate immune processes in C. carpio. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. The effect of endosulfan bioaccumulation on the growth of carp, Cyprinus carpio LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in order to determine the effect of endosulfan biaccumulation on the growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio. This research was conducted in 40 l of glass aquaria, the initial weight of carp was 0.81±0.098 g/fish, and the pesticide endosulfan with active ingredient of 350 g/l was used as test solution. Preliminary research was conducted with bioassay test to assess  LC50-96h of endosulfan for  carp, and then the fish were exposed to some series of exposure concentration, those are  10; 30; and 50% of LC50-96h value or 0.24; 0.72; and 1.2 mg/l for 12 weeks. Endosulfan residue analysis in the water and the body of the fish was conducted after: 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, 264 of exposure hours by using liquid gas chromatography (LGC. Body weight of fish was measured weekly. This study resulted that endosulfan was very toxic to the carp with LC50-96h value was 2.42 (2.206-2.652 mg/l. Endosulfan bioaccumulation of exposure concentration of  0.24; 0.72; and 1.20 mg/l were 67.93; 119.21; and 141.19 mg/kg respectively. Bioaccumulation of 119,21mg/kg   significantly inhibit the growth of carp. Keywords: endosulfan, bioaccumulation, growth, carp   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biakumulasi insektisida endosulfan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan mas. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium kaca, hewan uji adalah ikan mas berukuran 0,81±0,098 g/ekor, bahan uji berupa formulasi insektisida dengan bahan aktif endosulfan 350 g/l. penelitian diawali dengan uji hayati untuk menentukan nilai LC50-96 jam endosulfan terhadap ikan mas, selanjutnya dilakukan pemaparan ikan mas selama 12 minggu dalam air dengan konsentrasi endosulfan yang berbeda, yaitu: 10, 30, dan 50% dari nilai LC50-96 jam atau sebesar 0,24; 0,72; dan 1,20  mg/l. Analisis residu endosulfan dalam sample air dan ikan dilakukan setelah waktu pemaparan 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, dan 264 jam dengan menggunakan kromatografi gas cair (GC, pengukuran bobot

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression of three preprosomatostatin genes and their association with growth in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Pang, Meixia; Liu, Haiyang; Tong, Jingou

    2015-04-01

    Somatostatins (SSs) are a structurally diverse family of peptides that play important roles in the regulation of growth, development and metabolism in vertebrates. In this study, three preprosomatostatin genes (PSSs) in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cc) were identified and characterized. Based on cloned sequences and genome BLAST, six isoforms of the PSS gene in C. carpio (CcPSS) were identified and included CcPSS1a and CcPSS1b, CcPSS2a and CcPSS2b, and finally, CcPSS3a and CcPSS3b. The open reading frames (ORF) of CcPSS1a, CcPSS2a and CcPSS3a consist of 345, 336 and 363 nucleotides. During embryonic development, the expressions of CcPSS2 and CcPSS3 were first observed at the stage of optic vesicle, and CcPSS1 mRNA was initially detected at the stage of muscular effect. The highest mRNA levels of CcPSS1, CcPSS2 and CcPSS3 were observed at 1-day post-hatch (dph), 2-dph and the stage of heart beating, respectively. In the adult brain, the distributions of three CcPSS mRNAs were differential but overlapping in the hypothalamus, telencephalon and medulla oblongata. For peripheral tissues, all three CcPSS mRNAs were detected in the mid-intestine, and CcPSS1 and CcPSS3 mRNAs were also expressed in the liver. Owing to the importance of somatostatins on regulating growth, functional mutations of CcPSSs were identified in a C. carpio population. A total of 23 polymorphic sites were detected in CcPSS1a and CcPSS3a. Of them, two SNPs (CcPSS1a-g.922C>T, and CcPSS3a-g.1125C>A) were significantly associated with growth traits, indicating their potential applications in gene (marker)-assisted selective breeding in C. carpio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential responses to environmental challenge by common carp Cyprinus carpio highlight the importance of coping style in integrative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, S; Ribas, L; Morera Capdevila, D; Callol, A; Huntingford, F A; Pilarczyk, M; Kadri, S; MacKenzie, S

    2016-03-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio displaying proactive or reactive stress coping styles were acclimated to two environmental regimes (low oxygen and low temperature), and selected groups were tested for response to an inflammatory challenge (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Plasma glucose and lactate levels were measured, as were selected C. carpio-specific messenger (m)RNA transcript abundance, including cortisol receptor (CR), enolase (ENO), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and interleukin-1-beta (IL1β) was measured in individual whole brain samples. Basal levels (in sham injected fish held in normoxic conditions at 25° C) of plasma lactate and glucose differed between coping styles, being significantly lower in proactive individuals. Both variables increased in response to LPS challenge, with the exception of plasma glucose in reactive fish held in hypoxia. Baseline levels of gene expression under control conditions were significantly different for GAPDH between behavioural phenotypes. The responses to experimental challenge were sometimes diametrically opposed between stress-coping styles in a transcript-specific manner. For CR and GAPDH, for example, the response to LPS injection in hypoxia were opposite between proactive and reactive animals. Proactive fish showed decreased CR and increased GAPDH, whereas reactive showed the opposite response. These results further highlight that screening for stress-coping styles prior to experiments in adaptive physiology can significantly affect the interpretation of data obtained. Further, this leads to a more finely tuned analytical output providing an improved understanding of variation in individual responses to both environmental and inflammatory challenge. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer-1 as a sensitive genetic marker for environmental DNA studies in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Uchii, Kimiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Kitayoshi, Takumi; Tsuji, Satsuki; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Doi, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    The recently developed environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has been used to estimate the distribution of aquatic vertebrates by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. However, mtDNA markers have certain drawbacks such as variable copy number and maternal inheritance. In this study, we investigated the potential of using nuclear DNA (ncDNA) as a more reliable genetic marker for eDNA analysis by using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We measured the copy numbers of cytochrome b (CytB) gene region of mtDNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA of ncDNA in various carp tissues and then compared the detectability of these markers in eDNA samples. In the DNA extracted from the brain and gill tissues and intestinal contents, CytB was detected at 95.1 ± 10.7 (mean ± 1 standard error), 29.7 ± 1.59 and 24.0 ± 4.33 copies per cell, respectively, and ITS1 was detected at 1760 ± 343, 2880 ± 503 and 1910 ± 352 copies per cell, respectively. In the eDNA samples from mesocosm, pond and lake water, the copy numbers of ITS1 were about 160, 300 and 150 times higher than those of CytB, respectively. The minimum volume of pond water required for quantification was 33 and 100 mL for ITS1 and CytB, respectively. These results suggested that ITS1 is a more sensitive genetic marker for eDNA studies of C. carpio. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Growth of mycotal species on the eggs of Cyprinus carpio in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achlya diffusa, Aphanomyces laevis, Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia parasitica and Pythium ultimum belong to the species that were most frequently found on C. carpio eggs. The following rare mycotal species were also found: Allomyces arbuscula, Aphanomyces frigidophilus, Candida albicans, Fusarium aquaeductum, ...

  5. Growth of mycotal species on the eggs of Cyprinus carpio in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Carp is now grown on all continents except antarctic. C. carpio is distributed across Europe and Asia, in the. Black, Caspian and Aral sea basins, and has been .... necrotrophic (Bruno and Wood, 1999). Butler (1911) was the first to describe Allomyces arboscula, a species found in the water and soil on ...

  6. Identification and expression analysis of irak1 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio L.: indications for a role of antibacterial and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, S J; Liu, D Z; Wang, L; Zhu, Y Y; Zhang, F M; Li, T; An, L G; Yang, G W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the full-length complementary (c)DNA of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 gene (irak1) was cloned from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The complete open reading frame of irak1 contained 2109 bp encoding a protein of 702 amino acid residues that comprised a death domain, a ProST region, a serine-threonine-specific protein kinase catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. The amino-acid sequence of C. carpio Irak1 protein shared sequence homology with grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (84.5%). The phylogenetic tree of IRAKs separated the polypeptides into four clades, comprising IRAK1s, IRAK2s, IRAK3s and IRAK4s. Cyprinus carpio Irak1 fell into the cluster with previously reported IRAK1s including teleost Irak1s. The irak1 gene was highly expressed in gills, followed by brain, skin, hindgut, buccal epithelium, spleen, foregut, head kidney and liver, and was expressed at lowest levels in gonad and muscle. The irak1 messenger (m)RNA expression was up-regulated in liver, spleen, head kidney, foregut, hindgut, gills and skin after stimulation with Vibrio anguillarum and poly(I:C), and significantly high up-regulated expression was observed in liver and spleen. These results implied that irak1 might participate in antibacterial and antiviral innate immunity. These findings gave the indications that irak1 may participate in antibacterial and antiviral immunity. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  8. Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms.

  9. Effects of chlorinated drinking water on the xenobiotic metabolism in Cyprinus carpio treated with samples from two Italian municipal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Silvia; Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water (DW) disinfection represents a milestone of the past century, thanks to its efficacy in the reduction of risks of epidemic forms by water micro-organisms. Nevertheless, such process generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are genotoxic both in animals and in humans and carcinogenic in animals. At present, chlorination is one of the most employed strategies but the toxicological effects of several classes of DBPs are unknown. In this investigation, a multidisciplinary approach foreseeing the chemical analysis of chlorinated DW samples and the study of its effects on mixed function oxidases (MFOs) belonging to the superfamily of cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases of Cyprinus carpio hepatopancreas, was employed. The experimental samples derived from aquifers of two Italian towns (plant 1, river water and plant 2, spring water) were obtained immediately after the disinfection (A) and along the network (R1). Animals treated with plant 1 DW-processed fractions showed a general CYP-associated MFO induction. By contrast, in plant 2, a complex modulation pattern was achieved, with a general up-regulation for the point A and a marked MFO inactivation in the R1 group, particularly for the testosterone metabolism. Together, the toxicity and co-carcinogenicity (i.e. unremitting over-generation of free radicals and increased bioactivation capability) of DW linked to the recorded metabolic manipulation, suggests that a prolonged exposure to chlorine-derived disinfectants may produce adverse health effects.

  10. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  11. Prediction of mercury bioavailability to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcová, Pavlína; Vičarová, Petra; Ridošková, Andrea; Dočekalová, Hana; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Poštulková, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The mercury bioaccumulation by common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues (gills, skin, eyes, scales, muscle, brain, kidneys, liver, and spleen) and the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique to predict bioavailability of mercury for individual carp's tissues were evaluated. Carp and DGT units were exposed to increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg 2+ : 0 μg L -1 , 0.5 μg L -1 , 1.5 μg L -1 and 3.0 μg L -1 ) in fish tanks for 14 days. In the uncontaminated fish group, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the muscle tissues and, in fish groups exposed to mercury, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the detoxification (kidneys) and input (gills) organs. A strong and positive correlation between the rate of mercury uptake by the DGT technique and the rate of mercury accumulation by fish tissues (gills, skin, scales, and eyes) was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure--effect on water quality and growth of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Vaneet Inder; Ansal, Meera D

    2010-08-01

    Experiment was conducted in (0.002 ha) cemented tanks for 120 days to assess the efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure at a dose of 10,000 kg/ha/year (VC(10)), 15,000 kg/ha/year (VC(15)) and 20,000 (VC(20)) kg/ha/year) in comparison to semi-digested cow dung (8-10 days old), which was utilized at a dose of 20,000 kg/ha/year (CD(20)). One fourth of the doze was applied 15 days prior to fish stocking and rest in equal weekly installments. Twenty fingerlings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) were stocked (10,000/ha) and fed with supplementary diet @ 2% of their body weight daily. Water quality parameters were found to be within the optimum limits for carp culture in all the treatments. Zooplankton production in all the treatments did not differ significantly. Fish growth in terms of weight gain, percent weight gain, specific growth rate and yield was maximum in VC(15) followed by VC(20), VC(10) and CD(20). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs, major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms.

  14. Effects of microcystin-containing cyanobacterial extract on hematological and biochemical parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Velisek, Josef; Pawlik-Skowrońska, Barbara; Svobodova, Zdenka; Skowroński, Tadeusz

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a cyanobacterial extract containing microcystins (MCs) on selected hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), as well as to determine the accumulation of toxins in fish tissues. The fish were immersed for 5 days in water containing toxins at a final concentration of 12 μg/L of microcystin LR equivalent. Microcystin LR residues were detected in fish liver, reaching 207, 238 and 260 ng/g f.w. of the tissues taken 24 h, 72 h and 5 days after the end of intoxication, respectively. The most substantial changes were found in fish plasma, including increases in creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, ammonia, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. A decline of about 50% in lysozyme activity was observed by the end of the experimental period. Moreover, a marked increase in ceruloplasmin activity was detected 24 h after the end of intoxication with a subsequent decrease in its activity after 72 h and 5 days. This study concludes that not only consumption of food containing toxins but also MCs dissolved in water may pose a threat to fish health. Additionally, detected changes in lysozyme and ceruloplasmin activity may have distinct effects in fish resistance against pathogens or oxidative stress, which should be taken into account in the future studies.

  15. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P<0.05 effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P<0.05 in triacylglycerols (TAG in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected.

  16. Microscopy and microanalysis of hematological parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, inhabiting a polluted lake in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Barua, R; Dutta, K

    2012-10-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of red blood cells (RBCs) of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, inhabiting a polluted lake in Northeast India revealed a number of abnormalities. About 7% of the RBC showed the presence of a micronucleus, besides the presence of some bi-nucleated and abnormally shaped nuclei. RBCs, white blood cells, and hemoglobin content were found to be reduced significantly as compared to the control. SEM showed the presence of spherocytes, early stages of echinocytes, cytoplasmic blebbing, erythrocytes with contraction from one side, abnormal shape of erythrocytes (hexagonal/pentagonal/tetragonal), development of lobopodial projections, cell rupture, membrane internalization, and formation of ring-shaped RBC. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of a considerable percentage of silicon and lead in erythrocytes of the fish collected from the polluted lake, in contrast to a negligible concentration of the two elements in control fish. Significance of the study in relation to fish health in a polluted body of water and the importance of SEM, EDS, and light microscopy in utilizing hematological parameters as pollution indicators are discussed.

  17. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  18. Oxidative stress parameters in early developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after subchronic exposure to terbuthylazine and metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostovsky, Martin; Blahova, Jana; Plhalova, Lucie; Stepanova, Stanislava; Praskova, Eva; Marsalek, Petr; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    This work assessed the subchronic effects of the triazine compounds terbuthylazine and metribuzin on embryo-larval stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using biotransformation enzyme and selected oxidative stress parameters. Early developmental stages of fish, from embryo to larvae, were exposed to terbuthylazine at concentrations of 0.9, 160, 520, and 820 μg/L, and metribuzin at concentrations of 0.9, 4, 14, and 32 mg/L for 30 days and compared to the non-treated control group. For assessment of free radical defence the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured; the lipid peroxidation (TBARS) level was determined as a marker of free radical damage. Terbuthylazine had no significant effect (p>0.05) at any tested concentrations on GST activity. Terbuthylazine caused an increase (p0.05) effect of terbuthylazine exposure on TBARS level. In metribuzin treated groups, the activity of GST was increased (pmetribuzin induced oxidative stress in embryo-larval stages of common carp. Increased activities of biotransformation enzymes or antioxidant defence enzymes were markers of free radical attack. There was low lipid peroxidation in early developed fish after triazine exposure.

  19. Respon Imun Spesifik Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio melalui Imunitas Maternal yang Diberi Vaksin Inaktif Whole Cell Aeromonas salmonicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syohibahttul Islamiyah BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida are specific bacteria that can cause infections and death to the cultivation of carp (Cyprinus carpio during larval stage. Death in carp can be prevented by a vaccine, but the vaccine can only be given on the seed over the age of 3 weeks. Maternal vaccination needs to be done to improve the immune system of the larvae by means of inactivated whole cell vaccine A. salmonicida on broodstock ready to spawn. Aims to determine the effectiveness of vaccines on breeders carp to the parent antibody titer test and larvae, as well Survival Rate (SR and the Relative Percent Survival (RPS larvae. This research was conducted with a completely randomized design, 4 treatments A (control; B (0.3 ml/kg; C (0.4 ml/kg; D (0.5 ml/kg and 3 repetitions. The results show that the antibody titer of 0.3 ml dose capable of providing agglutination reaction to pitting 7th (64x dilution in broodstock, and vaccine doses 0,4ml on broodstock able to give agglutination reaction to the larvae until all 6 wells (32x dilution. A dose of 0.4 ml/kg resulted the highest SR and RPS with 96.11% and 81.25% respectively. Clinical symptoms of redness in control larvae was spread throughout the body whereas on the vaccine treatment was only in certain body parts. Keywords: A. salmonicida, vaccines, maternal immunity, larva, specific immune respon

  20. Changes of pH and peroxide value in carp (Cyprinus carpio) cuts packaged in modified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milijašević, M.; Babić Milijašević, J.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Vesković Moračanin, S.; Lilić, S.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere on the pH and peroxide value in muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of that freshwater species. Three sample groups of carp cuts were investigated. One group of carp cuts was placed on top of flaked ice placed in polystyrene boxes. Two other groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 80%O2+20%CO2 (MAP 1) and 90%CO2+10%N2 (MAP 2). All carp cuts were stored in the same conditions at 3±0.5°C, and on 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15. and 17 days of storage, chemical testing was performed. The results obtained indicate that the packaging of common carp under 90%CO2+10%N2 slowed proteolytic reaction as well as secondary lipid oxidation.

  1. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L) where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

  2. Effect of using Falcaria vulgaris on skin wound healing and immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasrin Choobkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are generally used to increase the immune response and wound healing of aquatic animals but due to the residual effects of these drugs, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials such as medicinal plant extract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Falcaria vulgaris on wound healing and enhancement of immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio.The effect of Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10% with Lofag foods used on wound healing, immune response, and weight gain and survival of common carp was investigated during a 21 day period with twice per day feeding on the basis of body weight. The results showed that using Falcaria vulgaris at the 10% concentration had the greatest effect on wound healing, stimulation of the immune system by increasing white blood cells, weight gain and survival of carp in comparison with the control group. This herb can be used in wound healing, increasing resistance to disease and weight gain of common carp.

  3. Acute toxicity (LC50) of ammonia to carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) at different pH Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeniswan; Dara, F.; Sukmawati, F.

    2017-03-01

    Mass death of carp fish in reservoirs and lakes in Indonesia is due to the up-welling phenomenon of ammonia generates from the decomposition of fish feed remaining in the bottom of the lakes/reservoirs by microbes. The formation of ammonia gas is very dependent on pH. Most of the ammonia gas is formed form at the high pH value. Ammonia concentration can be determined with indophenol blue method using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Carp fish (Cyprinus carpio of 5-6 gr was exposed to the three concentration of ammonia. Acute toxicity (LC50) of ammonia (NH3) was tested on similar sizes (5-6 g) of carp fish was maintained at three different pH levels within range of 7-9 for 96-h. Results showed that the concentration of ammonia increased at higher pH. The 96-h LC50’s for exposure to ammonia were 60% (NH3 1.85 ppm at pH 8), 100% (NH3 2.16 ppm at pH 9), and insignificant result at NH3 1.68 ppm with pH 7.

  4. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  6. Molecular Characterization, Tissue Distribution and Expression, and Potential Antiviral Effects of TRIM32 in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeda; Li, Zeming; Lu, Yuanan; Hu, Guangfu; Lin, Li; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-10-09

    Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, which consists of a large number of proteins containing a RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain, one or two B-box domains, and coiled coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. The TRIM family is known to be implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. However, it is presently unknown whether TRIM32 of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) has the antiviral effect. In this study, the sequence, expression, and antiviral function of TRIM32 homolog from common carp were analyzed. The full-length coding sequence region of trim32 was cloned from common carp. The results showed that the expression of TRIM32 (mRNA) was highest in the brain, remained stably expressed during embryonic development, and significantly increased following spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. Transient overexpression of TRIM32 in affected Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells led to significant decrease of SVCV production as compared to the control group. These results suggested a potentially important role of common carp TRIM32 in enhancing host immune response during SVCV infection both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

  8. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P < 0.001) from autumn to winter. Based on our autumn night-time survey, overall fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  9. The Individual and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 on Primary Hepatocytes of Cyprinus Carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Hua; Fan, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ying; Huang, Chao-Ying; Wang, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Hai-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are important food-borne mycotoxins that have been implicated in animal and human health. In this study, individual and combinative effects of AFB1 and DON were tested in primary hepatocytes of Cyprinus carpio. The results indicated that the combinative effects of AFB1 and DON (0.01 μg/mL AFB1 and 0.25 μg/mL DON; 0.02 μg/mL AFB1 and 0.25 μg/mL DON; 0.02 μg/mL AFB1 and 0.5 μg/mL DON) were higher than that of individual mycotoxin (P < 0.05). The activity of AST, ALT and LDH in cell supernatant was higher than that of control group (P < 0.05) when the mycotoxins were exposed to primary hepatocytes for 4 h. The decreased cell number was observed in tested group by inverted light microscopy. The mitochondrial swelling, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and a lot of lipid droplets were observed in primary hepatocytes by transmission electron microscope. Therefore, this combination was classified as an additive response of the two mycotoxins. PMID:21152299

  10. Assessing joint toxicity of four organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using acetylcholinesterase activity as an endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2015-07-01

    Mixtures of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems. These pesticides inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and have potential to interfere with behaviors that may be essential for the survival of species. Although the effects of individual anticholinesterase insecticides on aquatic species have been studied for decades, the neurotoxicity of mixtures is still poorly understood. In the present study, brain AChE inhibition in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a series of concentrations of the organophosphates (malathion and triazophos) as well as the carbamates (fenobucarb and carbosulfan) was measured. In equitoxic mixtures, the observed AChE activity inhibition of the malathion plus triazophos, and triazophos plus carbosulfan mixtures, was synergism. In equivalent concentration mixtures, the combination of malathion plus fenobucarb mixture conformed to synergism, while the observed AChE activity inhibition of the remaining pairings was less than additive. Single pesticide risk assessments are likely to underestimate the impacts of these insecticides on carps in aquatic environment where mixtures occur. Moreover, mixtures of pesticides that have been commonly reported in aquatic ecosystems may pose a more important challenge than previously anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, K; Haenen, O; Stone, D; Adamek, M; Bergmann, S M; Bigarré, L; Diserens, N; El-Matbouli, M; Gjessing, M C; Jung-Schroers, V; Leguay, E; Matras, M; Olesen, N J; Panzarin, V; Piačková, V; Toffan, A; Vendramin, N; Vesel, T; Waltzek, T

    2017-10-18

    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Although the structure of the CEV genome is not yet elucidated, molecular epidemiology studies have suggested distinct geographical populations of CEV infecting both koi and common carp. Detection and identification of cases of CEVD in common carp were unreliable using the original PCR primers. New primers for conventional and quantitative PCR (qPCR) have been designed that improve detection, and their sequences are provided in this paper. The qPCR primers have successfully detected CEV DNA in archive material from investigations of unexplained carp mortalities conducted >15 yr ago. Improvement in disease management and control is possible, and the principles of biosecurity, good health management and disease surveillance, applied to koi herpesvirus disease, can be equally applied to CEVD. However, further research studies are needed to fill the knowledge gaps in the disease pathogenesis and epidemiology that, currently, prevent an accurate assessment of the likely impact of CEVD on European koi and common carp aquaculture and on wild carp stocks.

  12. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F.; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  13. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  14. Sazan (Cyprinus carpio Balığı Gastrointestinal Kanal Mukozasındaki CCK-8, Gastrin 1, VIP, Sekretin, Somatostatin-14, Bombesin ve Histamin Peptidlerinin Lokalizasyonu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Şenol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada; Cyprinus carpio (sazan gastrointestinal kanal mukozasının kolesistokinin-8, gastrin 1, vasoaktif intesinal polypeptid, sekretin, somatostatin-14, bombesin ve histamin peptidlerinin lokalizasyon ve dağılımlarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan immunohistokimyasal çalışmalar sonucunda sazan (Cyprinus carpio’ın mide (sazanda genişlemiş ön bağırsak bölgesi ve bağırsak bölümlerinde (ilk, orta ve son bağırsak genel olarak çalışılan tüm peptidlerin farklı yoğunlukta lokalize oldukları tespit edildi

  15. Formation of germinal epithelium during gonodal morphogenesis and differentiation in Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei:Cypriniformes) : a structural and ultrastructural analysis of the germ and somatic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Sarah Mazzoni

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Numa nova visão da morfogênese gonadal, sua descrição em Cyprinus carpio, mostra como a proliferação e diferenciação de células germinativas e somáticas a partir do primórdio gonadal levam à formação das diferentes estruturas ovarianas e testiculares e à constituição do epitélio germinativo que margeia as lamelas ovígeras e os túbulos testiculares. Em C. carpio, o primórdio gonadal é formado por células germinativas primordiais (CGPs) rodeadas por células somáticas. Após sucessivas di...

  16. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  17. Effect of Different Feeding on Feed Conversion and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio in Floating Net Cage Culture at Jatiluhur Dike

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    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two feeding methods commonly used in cage culture of carp Cyprinus carpio at Jatiluhur Lake, Purwakarta. Common carp in mean weight of 24.29±4.29 gram were reared in floating net cage 7×7×3 m3, for 70 days rearing.  Fish were fed on a commercial diet containing 30% protein at 5 times daily.  Experimental treatment was feeding technique, i.e., by 6% of body weight, and at satiation for the second treatment.  The results showed that the application of "at satiation feeding method" was more effective than "fixed method" (6% of body weight indicating with food conversion ratio of 1.86 versus 1.91. Production of fish fed on the diet using at satiation method for 70 days was 1,241 kg/cage. Keywords: common carp, Cyprinus carpio, FCR, floating net cage, at satiation   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk menekan biaya dalam usaha budidaya ikan secara intensif adalah dengan penggunaan pakan secera efisien agar ikan tumbuh optimal dan pakan yang terbuang seminimal mungkin. Penelitian dilakukan di Waduk Jatiluhur, Purwakarta.  Ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio ukuran bobot awal rata-rata 24,29±4,29 gram dipelihara dalam jaring apung ukuran 7×7×3 m3, selama 70 hari.  Ikan diberi pakan dengan frekuensi yang sama sebanyak 5 kali/hari. Perlakuan pada penelitian ini adalah teknik pemberian pakan, yaitu ikan pada jaring pertama diberi pakan sebanyak 6% dari bobot biomassa, sementara pada jaring kedua ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya (at satiation.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pakan dengan metode sekenyangnya (at satiation menghasilkan nilai FCR sebesar 1,86 yang relatif lebih efisien dibandingkan dengan sebanyak 6% berdasarkan bobot biomassa (1,91. Produktivitas akhir ikan dengan pemberian pakan sekenyangnya 70 hari pemeliharaan dalam jaring apung di waduk Jatiluhur mencapai 1.241 kg. Kata kunci: ikan mas, Cyprinus carpio, FCR, Keramba jaring apung, at satiation

  18. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

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    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  19. Alteration of Gills and Liver Histological Structure of Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Leachate

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    Tri Dewi Kusumaningrum Pribadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the waste management in Indonesia is the treatment of leachate, which mostly dumped to the river This research is aimed to obtain information of histological alteration in gills and liver of C. carpio L. exposed to leachate. Measurements on the water quality parameters comprised water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO. This research was conducted by exposing leachate to C. carpio for 96 hours. The concentration of leachate were 0 ppm, 80 ppm, and 100 ppm. Histological preparation were made on the gills and liver using 10% fixative Neutral Buffered Formalin and Ehrlich Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with qualitative observation descriptive analyses for discussion. The result showed that increasing water temperature is directly proportional to the leachate concentration in the aquaria, while the value of pH and DO inversely proportional to the leachate concentration. Damages on the gills with 80 ppm leachate concentrasion were identified as follows: fusion of secondary gill filaments and hyperplasia of epithelial cell, along with karyorrhexis and hydropic degeneration on the liver. Damages on the gills of fishes exposed to leachate with 100 ppm concentrasion were identified as follows: fusion of secondary gill filaments, hyperplasia of epithelial cell, congestion, and edema along with karyorrhexis, hydropic degeneration and melanomacrophage centre (MMC found on the liver. The results of this study can be used as an overview of the impact of an environmental pollution by leachate as indicated from histological damage to the gills and liver of C. carpio, thus contribute significan information to aquaculture sector and endorse better waste management

  20. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microcystin-LR induced reactive oxygen species mediate cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis of hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR contains Leucine (L and Arginine (R in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12-48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.

  2. Vitellogenesis in Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), an intestinal parasite of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunanská, M; Mackiewicz, J S; Nebesárová, J

    2012-12-01

    Vitellogenesis in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878, from carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Slovakia, has been examined using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) for glycogen. Vitelline follicles extend in two lateral bands in the medullary parenchyma along both sides of the monozoic body. They are surrounded by an external basal lamina and contain vitellocytes and an interstitial tissue. The general pattern of vitellogenesis is essentially like that of other caryophyllideans. It involves four stages: immature, early maturing, advanced maturing cells and mature vitellocytes. During vitellogenesis, a continuous increase in cell volume is accompanied by an extensive development of cell components engaged in shell globule formation, e.g. granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Shell globule clusters are membrane-bound. Nuclear and nucleolar transformation are associated with formation and storage of large amounts of intranuclear glycogen, a very specific feature of the Caryophyllidea. For the first time, (a) additional vitelline material in Archigetes is represented by lamellar bodies and (b) lipid droplets are described in the mature vitellocytes from vitelline follicles and vitelloduct of the Caryophyllidea. Our results indicate that there may be a double origin of lamellar bodies: either from the endoplasmic reticulum or through transformation of shell globule/shell globule clusters. Lamellar body clusters and some single lamellar bodies appear to have a membrane. Other ultrastructural features of vitellogenesis and/or vitellocyte in A. sieboldi from its vertebrate (fish) and invertebrate (oligochaete) hosts are briefly compared and contrasted with those in other caryophyllideans and/or Neodermata.

  3. [Two Elovl5-like elongase genes in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian: Gene characterization, mRNA expression, and nutritional regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H-T; Huang, Y; Tang, Y-K; Yu, J-H; Xu, P

    2015-01-01

    Elovl5 elongase is a critical enzyme involved in the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) biosynthesis. There is very little information on the evolution and functional characterization of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In the present study, the genomic sequences and structures of two putative Elovl5-like elongase genes in the common carp genome were obtained. The mRNA expression patterns of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b in tissues, hatching carp embryos, and juveniles under nutritional regulation were investigated. The results show that the two Elovl5 elongase genes have similar organization, coding 8 exons of high identity and introns of distinct size and sequence composition. They are not allelic variants of a single gene. Both Elovl5 elongase genes are highly expressed in liver, intestine (pyloric caeca) and brain. Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b mRNAs showed increased expression from newly hatched to 20 days after hatching. The regulation of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b in response to dietary fatty acid composition was determined in liver, brain and intestine (pyloric caeca) of common carp fed with diets: (i) fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 HUFA, (ii) corn oil (CO, 18:2n-6) or (iii) linseed oil (LO, 18:3n-3). Also the differential expression of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b genes in liver, brain and intestine in common carps fed with different oil sources was studied. Further work aimed at the determination of the mechanisms of differential expression of the Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b in different tissues and the roles of transcription factors in regulating HUFA synthesis is in progress.

  4. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  5. Effects of triclosan on hormones and reproductive axis in female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio): Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Guo, Xiangmeng; Chen, Wanguang; Sun, Yaowen; Fan, Chaojie

    2017-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a member of the class of compounds called pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is a broad antibacterial and antifungal agent found in a lot of consumer products. However, TCS hormone effect mechanism in teleost female fish is not clear. Female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 LC 50 TCS (96h LC 50 of TCS to carp) under semi-static conditions for 42days. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone(T), estrogen receptor (Er), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, we also examined the mRNA expressions of aromatase, GtHs-β, GnRH, and Er by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results indicated that 1/5 LC 50 TCS induced Vtg in hepatopancreas of female carps by interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple potential loci through three mechanisms: (a) TCS exposure enhanced the mRNA expression of hypothalamus and gonadal aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens, subsequently increasing serum concentrations of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (b) TCS treatment increased GnRH and GtH-β mRNA expression and secretion, causing the disturbance of reproductive endocrine and the increase of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (c) TCS exposure enhanced synthesis and secretion of Er, then it bound to Er to active Vtg synthesis. These mechanisms showed that TCS may induce Vtg production in female Yellow River carp by Er-mediated and non-Er-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

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    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  7. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  8. Genome wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of bone morphogenetic protein genes in tetraploidized common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dong, Chuanju; Kong, Shengnan; Zhang, Jiangfan; Li, Xuejun; Xu, Peng

    2017-09-05

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are a group of signaling molecules known to play important roles during formation and maintenance of various organs, not only bone, but also muscle, blood and so on. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most intensively studied fish due to its economic and environmental importance. Besides, common carp has encountered an additional round of whole genome duplication (WGD) compared with many closely related diploid teleost, which make it one of the most important models for genome evolutionary studies in teleost. Comprehensive genome resources of common carp have been developed recently, which facilitate the thorough characterization of bmp gene family in the tetraploidized common carp genome. We identified a total of 44 bmps from the common carp genome, which are twice as many as that of zebrafish. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bmps are highly conserved. Comparative analysis was performed across six typical vertebrate genomes. It appeared that all the bmp genes in common carp were duplicated. Obviously, the expansion of the bmp gene family in common carp was due to the latest additional round of whole genome duplication and made it more abundant than other diploid teleosts. Expression signatures were assessed in major tissues, including gill, intestine, liver, spleen, skin, heart, gonad, muscle, kidney, head kidney, brain and blood, which demonstrated the comprehensive expression profiles of bmp genes in the tetraploidized genome. Significant gene expression divergences were observed which revealed substantial functional divergences of those duplicated bmp genes post the latest WGD event. The conserved synteny blocks of bmp5s revealed the genome rearrangement of common carp post the 4R WGD. The whole set of bmp gene family in common carp provides insight into gene fate of tetraploidized common carp genome post recent WGD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Microcystin-LR Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Cytoskeletal Disruption and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinlin; Shan, Zhengjun; Xu, Weili; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Junying; Kong, Deyang; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) contains Leucine (L) and Arginine (R) in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH) was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12 - 48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity. PMID:24376844

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280

  11. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine's herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC) = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found. PMID:24689046

  12. Periodic monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and molecular damage in Cyprinus carpio from Büyük Menderes River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağdaş, Beste; Kocagöz, Rasih; Onat, İlgen; Perçin, Fatih; Özaydın, Okan; Orhan, Hilmi

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were quantified in river water and sediment, as well as in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio that were sampled four times in a year at three stations in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR). Potential biomarkers of possible cellular molecular damage, namely lipid peroxidation (LPO) degradation products, protein carbonyls (PCO) and DNA repair product 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were analysed. All the targeted pollutants were measurable both in biotic and abiotic samples. Interestingly, the results suggested that there was recent organochlorine pesticide (OCP) input into the river water in the first two sampling periods in all stations in contrast to prohibition, while input of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) was not detected. Liver POP concentrations were higher than in muscle, as expected, and were found to decrease from the first to the fourth sampling period in all stations, except PBDEs. Levels of LPO degradation products in the liver and in muscle tissues decreased from the first to the fourth sampling period. This suggests that these markers reflect the lipid damage in respective tissues due to the tissue burden of targeted POPs. Protein carbonyls were the highest in the first sampling period, followed by a dramatic decrease in the second, and then a gradual increase towards the fourth sampling period in all stations. 8-OHdG levels were lower in Sarayköy station in the first sampling period. Among the measured biomarkers, only several LPO degradation products were significantly correlated with OCPs and PCBs in liver tissue.

  13. De novo assembly and characterization of the spleen transcriptome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

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    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Liu, Zhonghu; Gao, Chunsheng; Yan, Fengbin; Liu, Bianzhi; Feng, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquacultured species of the family Cyprinidae, and breeding this species for disease resistance is becoming more and more important. However, at the genome or transcriptome levels, study of the immunogenetics of disease resistance in the common carp is lacking. In this study, 60,316,906 and 75,200,328 paired-end clean reads were obtained from two cDNA libraries of the common carp spleen by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 130,293 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1400.57 bp. Approximately 105,612 (81.06%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology with matches in the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 46,747 non-redundant genes. Comparative analysis showed that 59.82% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins. Gene expression comparison revealed that 10,432 and 6889 annotated unigenes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated with at least twofold changes between two developmental stages of the common carp spleen. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed to classify all unigenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. In addition, 46,847 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 35,618 unigenes, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites were identified in the spleen transcriptome of common carp. This study has characterized the spleen transcriptome of the common carp for the first time, providing a valuable resource for a better understanding of the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. This knowledge will also facilitate future functional studies on common carp immunogenetics that may eventually be applied in breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of Toll-like receptor (Tlr)1 and Tlr2 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

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    Fink, Inge R; Pietretti, Danilo; Voogdt, Carlos G P; Westphal, Adrie H; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental components of innate immunity that play significant roles in the defence against pathogen invasion. In this study, we present the molecular characterization of the full-length coding sequence of tlr1, tlr2a and tlr2b from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Each is encoded within a single exon and contains a conserved number of leucine-rich repeats, a transmembrane region and an intracellular TIR domain for signalling. Indeed, sequence, phylogenetic and synteny analysis of carp tlr1, tlr2a and tlr2b support that these genes are orthologues of mammalian TLR1 and TLR2. The tlr genes are expressed in various immune organs and cell types. Furthermore, the carp sequences exhibited a good three-dimensional fit with the heterodimer structure of human TLR1-TLR2, including the potential to bind to the ligand Pam3CSK4. This supports the possible formation of carp Tlr1-Tlr2 heterodimers. However, we were unable to demonstrate Tlr1/Tlr2-mediated ligand binding in transfected cell lines through NF-κB activation, despite showing the expression and co-localization of Tlr1 and Tlr2. We discuss possible limitations when studying ligand-specific activation of NF-κB after expression of Tlr1 and/or Tlr2 in human but also fish cell lines and we propose alternative future strategies for studying ligand-binding properties of fish Tlrs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Some Population Parameters of Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 Inhabiting Atatürk Dam Lake

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    Songül YÜCE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Atatürk Dam Lake between April 2011-March 2012. In this study, a total of 231 (106 female, 125 male Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 samples were analyzed. It was determined that samples were ranged between I-X age groups and male/female ratio was determined as 1.18:1 Total length values were ranged between 13.5-59.2 cm for males, 14.6-59.3 cm for females; weight values were ranged between 53.2-4662.5 g for males, 56.4-4668.0 g for females; condition factor values were ranged between 1.182-4.175 for males and 1.251-3.514 for females. Length-weight relationship for males W=0.0346*TL2.807 (R2=0.95, female W=0.0246*TL2.8922 (R2=0.96 and in general population W=0.0295*TL2. 8472 (R2=0.95 were detected. VBBD (von Bertalanffy growth equation for all population parameters L∞=111.01, K=0.06, t0=-1.48, W∞=19746.57 and natural mortality (M is determined as 0.1671. The highest average Gonadosomatic index values were determined in April for both sexes. Egg diameter values were measured between 0.60-1.33 mm, and the highest average value was found in April (1.27 mm. Reproduction period was determined between April-July. Fecundity values was calculated between 13468-885762. The first maturation was determined to be in age group III (30.848 cm in total length for males and in age group IV (32.099 cm in total length for females.

  16. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes and total glutathione of Cyprinus carpio exposed to three disinfectants, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, for superficial water potabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Anastasi, Valeria; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin

    2006-09-01

    This study was carried out in order to assess the effects of disinfectant-treatment on antioxidant response of Cyprinus carpio L. Therefore, enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferases, glyoxalase I, glyoxalase II, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, catalase and total glutathione content of carp liver, exposed to surface water treated with three disinfectants for potabilization, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide and peracetic acid were investigated. Specimens of carp were exposed in four experimental tanks supplied with a continuous water flow from Lake Trasimeno (Italy), three of them treated with constant concentration of sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide and peracetic acid, for 10 and 20 days, while the control tank was supplied with untreated lake water. Differences in biochemical parameters were observed in specimens following exposure to these disinfectants and mainly, chlorine compounds induced marked biochemical variations of carp liver, compared to those induced by peracetic acid treatment. Our results showed that antioxidant parameters of Cyprinus carpio could be used as biomarkers of oxidative stress when this species is exposed to disinfectants for water potabilization.

  17. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

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    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  18. Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 on Freshwater Ecosystems: A Narrative Review with Management Directions for Turkish Inland Waters

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    Lorenzo VILIZZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of common carp Cyprinus carpio has become a priority issue in most of its native range and where it has been introduced. This is because of the effects (both documented and anecdotal on freshwater ecosystems that the species is able to exert. To provide a general framework for future management of introductions of this species, this study presents a near-comprehensive, “narrative” review (complementing a “systematic” review: Vilizzi, Tarkan, Copp 2015 of experimental studies of the impacts of common carp spanning almost nine decades. Based on 139 experiments presenting results for a total of 400 “assessments” aimed at evaluating the effects of C. carpio on selected ecological components, a conceptual model linking both abiotic (i.e. turbidity/suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and biotic components (i.e. phytoplankton/chlorophyll a, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, amphibians, waterfowl, fish was refined. Given the status of C. carpio as a species of low concern in Turkish inland waters and its overall unsuccessful recruitment in stocked reservoirs, in the light of the present findings it is suggested that environmental managers should consider targeting shallow (natural lakes for successful fisheries yields, but conditional upon careful assessment of the economic benefits vs. ecological risks involved.

  19. Comparison of Lethal Concentrations (LC50-96 H of Cdcl2, Crcl3, and Pb (NO32 in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio and Sutchi Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus

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    Zeynab Abedi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO32 between two scaled and scaleless freshwater fish species: Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae and Pangasius hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae. Methods: The experimental fishes were obtained from fish markets/ponds with average lengths and weights of approximately 11.68 ±1.92 and 9.8±1.9 cm, and 25.92±6.3 and 18.61±3.22 g for C. carpio and P. hypophthalmus, respectively. The fishes were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100, 120, 200 mg L−1 lead (Pb (0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 90, 150 mg L−1, and chromium (Cr (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg L−1 for 96 h. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature of aquaria as well as mortality rate of the fishes, were monitored daily. Results: The 50% lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO32 for P. hypophthalmus were found at 64.89, 7.46, and 48.06 mg L−1, and those of CdCl 2, CrCl 3, Pb (NO32 for C. carpio were detected at 84.8, 17.05, and 77.33 mg L−1. The ratios of heavy metal toxicity factors (TF were greater for common carp compared to those for the catfish. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that common carp C. carpio with higher LC50 (and LC100 values appears to be more tolerant to heavy metals exposure than the catfish (P. hypophthalmus. This may be due to the resistance to the heavy metals through protection from the carp's scaled body versus scaleless body of the catfish.

  20. Multiple collections of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. semen during the reproductive period and its effects on sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejko, Beata Irena; Sarosiek, Beata; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Kowalski, Radosław Kajetan

    2018-01-01

    Multiple collections of semen during the reproductive period of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. were used to analyse changes in semen quality. Semen collection was performed on June 1 (first collection), 12 (second collection), and 19 (third collection) from individual males (n=11) by gentle abdominal massage. Semen quantity (semen volume and sperm count), quality (sperm motility and sperm viability), as well as seminal plasma parameters (pH of seminal plasma and seminal plasma osmotic pressure) and its enzymatic activity, e.g., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ß-NAG) were determined. Moreover, for the first time, the percentage of live, dead, and apoptotic sperm, as well as the proteolytic activity of seminal plasma, were determined using flow cytometry and zymography, respectively, at specific times during the common carp reproductive period. The lowest volumes of semen and sperm concentration were noted during the first semen collection (June 1). Analysis of computer-assisted sperm analysis parameters revealed the greatest sperm motility, sperm velocity, as well as amplitude of lateral head displacement, were evident in the third collection (June 19). There were no differences in progressively motile sperm, movement linearity, wobbling index, and beat cross frequency between the different collection times. The lowest percentage of live sperm was found in the first collection, although with the passage of time values of this parameter increased. Seminal plasma pH and seminal plasma osmotic pressure were at the lowest values in the second collection (June 12), which corresponded with the lowest concentration of sperm. In the first collection, seminal plasma contained the highest values of LDH and ß-NAG activity, whereas there were no differences in the proteolytic activity of seminal plasma determined between the different collections of semen. The results presented here indicate that during the reproductive period, males of common

  1. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  2. Bioavailability of the imidazole antifungal agent clotrimazole and its effects on key biotransformation genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jenna; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob I; Owen, Stewart F; Ball, Jonathan S; Tyler, Charles R; Winter, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Clotrimazole (CTZ) is a persistent imidazole antifungal agent which is frequently detected in the aquatic environment and predicted to bio-concentrate in fish. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to mean measured concentrations of either 1.02 or 14.63μgl(-1) CTZ for 4 and 10 days, followed by a depuration period of 4 days in a further group of animals. Following each exposure regimen, plasma and liver CTZ concentrations were measured. Mean measured plasma concentrations of CTZ in animals exposed to the lower concentration of CTZ were 30 and 44μgl(-1) on days 4 and 10, respectively, and in the higher concentration were 318 and 336μgl(-1). Mean measured liver levels in the same animals were 514, 1725, 2111 and 7017μgl(-1) suggesting progressive hepatic accumulation. Measurement of CTZ in plasma after depuration suggested efficient elimination within 4 days, but appreciable levels of CTZ remained in the liver after depuration suggesting a degree of persistence in this tissue. In addition we measured responses of a number of key hepatic detoxification gene targets in the liver associated with the transcription factor pregnane X receptor (PXR); namely cyp450s 2k and 3a, glutathione-S-transferases a and p (gsta and p), and drug transporters multidrug resistance protein1 (mdr1), and MDR-related protein2 (mrp2). CTZ is a potent ligand of the PXR in humans and there is some evidence of PXR activation following exposure to CTZ in fish. The highest concentration of CTZ was adopted to explore the potential for alterations to detoxification gene expression in fish at a pharmacologically relevant dose level, and the lower concentration is within the range reported in effluents from waste water treatment works (WWTW). The genes for all biotransformation enzymes were up-regulated after exposure to the higher concentration of CTZ for 10 days, and alterations in expression occurred for the drug transporter genes mdr1 and mrp2 following exposure to the lower concentration

  3. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

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    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  4. Immune effects of the vaccine of live attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila screened by rifampicin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Kong, Xianghui; Pei, Chao; Li, Li; Nie, Guoxing; Li, Xuejun

    2016-06-08

    Aeromonas hydrophila, as a strong Gram-negative bacterium, can infect a wide range of freshwater fish, including common carp Cyprinus carpio, and cause the huge economic loss. To create the effective vaccine is the best way to control the outbreak of the disease caused by A. hydrophila. In this study, a live attenuated A. hydrophila strain, XX1LA, was screened from the pathogenic A. hydrophila strain XX1 cultured on medium containing the antibiotic rifampicin, which was used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate. The immune protection of XX1LA against the pathogen A. hydrophila in common carp was evaluated by the relative percent survival (RPS), the specific IgM antibody titers, serum lysozyme activity and the expression profiles of multiple immune-related genes at the different time points following immunization. The results showed that the variable up-regulations of the immune-related genes, such as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, the chemokine IL-10 and IgM, were observed in spleen and liver of common carp injected in the vaccines with the formalin-killed A. hydrophila (FKA) and the live attenuated XX1LA. Specific antibody to A. hydrophila was found to gradually increase during 28 days post-vaccination (dpv), and the RPS (83.7%) in fish vaccinated with XX1LA, was significant higher than that (37.2%) in fish vaccinated with FKA (P<0.05) on Day 28 after challenged by pathogen. It was demonstrated that the remarkable immune protection presented in the group vaccinated with XX1LA. During the late stage of 4-week immunization phase, compared with FKA and the control, specific IgM antibody titers significantly increased (P<0.05) in the XX1LA group. The activity of the lysozyme in serum indicated no significant change among three groups. In summary, the live attenuated bacterial vaccine XX1LA, screened in this study, indicates the better protect effect on common carp against A. hydrophila, which can be applied in aquaculture of common carp to prevent from the

  5. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of

  6. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

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    F. Ježek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP, and to determine its shelf life. Samples of muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. were packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 and stored for 15 days at +2 ± 2 °C max. During the storage period, O2 level in packs decreased from 78.7 ± 0.39% (day 1 to 63.8 ± 1.30% (day 15. Decrease in O2 in packs between storage days 7 and 9 was highly significant (p -1 (day 15. Hydrolytic lipid decomposition (FFA was more intensive in carp muscle tissue (2.09 ± 1.07% total lipid as oleic acid than in carp skin (1.01 ± 0.31% total lipid as oleic acid (day 15. Lipid oxidation (PV in skin showed differences from lipid oxidation in muscle tissue. Oxidation processes in muscle correlated positively with the length of storage (r = 0.90. Over the storage period, peroxide levels increased from 2.58 ± 1.19 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 1 to 6.76 ± 1.78 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 15. Because of low TVBN levels in muscle tissue, shelf life was limited mainly by sensory changes (green discoloration, odour deviations, slime production, which were observed from storage day 9 onwards. It was found that the maximum shelf life of carp packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 was 7 days. The optimum parameter to determine the remaining shelf life of common carp muscle tissue stored at +2 ± 2 °C max is the TVBN level. As concerns shelf life, TVBN levels in carp muscle should not exceed 15 mg 100 g-1. This level of TVBN (max. 15 mg 100 g-1 for carp (MAP 80% O2, 20% CO2 is much more lower in comparison with levels TVBN (max 25 - 35 mg 100 g-1 which have been determined by Commission Regulation (EC No. 2074/2005 for sea fish. For that reason we suggest to amplify the study by other monitoring (higher number of samples, various breeds of carp in different weight categories for all the year. On the basis of these analyses the level

  7. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  8. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  9. Apple cider vinegar boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Khalili, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of combined or singular administration of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet. An 8-week feeding trial was designed with following treatments: Control (basal diet), Pro (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei), LACV (contains 1% ACV), HACV (contains 2% ACV), Pro + LACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 1% ACV) and Pro + HACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 2% ACV). Evaluation of skin mucus revealed notable increase of total Ig level and lysozyme activity in Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV treatments compared other groups (P < 0.05). Similarly, serum total Ig and lysozyme activity in HACV, Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV fed carps was remarkably higher than other groups (P < 0.05). However, regarding serum alternative complement (ACH50) activity significant difference was observed just between Pro + HACV and control treatment (P < 0.05). The highest expression of immune related (LYZ, TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) and antioxidant enzymes genes (GSR, GST) were observed in carps fed Pro + HACV and Pro + LACV. The expression of GH gene expression in Pro, LACV and HACV treatments was significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The highest expression level of GH and IGF1 was observed in fish fed combined Pro and ACV (P < 0.05). These results indicated that co-administration of ACV boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of L. casei and can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecología poblacional de Cyprinus carpio (TELEOSTEI) en los Humedales de Ajó, Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Maiztegui, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo principal conocer la biología y ecología poblacional de la carpa común (Cyprinus carpio) en los Humedales de Ajó, con el fin de aportar información que permita diseñar estrategias enfocadas en el manejo de esta especie exótica dentro de esta área protegida. La hipótesis central se basó en comprobar que la carpa común en los Humedales de Ajó ha encontrado un ambiente propicio para el desarrollo de una población local auto-sostenida y se convirtió en la especie d...

  11. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

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    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  12. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  13. Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Ravneet Kaur; Johal, Mohinder Singh; Sharma, Madan Lal

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted based on the evidence of fish habitats in North India being affected by organophosphate pesticides draining from agricultural fields into bodies of water, especially during the rainy season. Various tissues of fish such as scales, gills ovaries, kidney, and liver have been studied from the toxicological point of view, but the toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants on fish cornea have not been investigated to date. We conducted comparative toxicological studies on the cornea of Cyprinus carpio communis using two sublethal (0.038 and 0.126 ppm) concentrations of monocrotophos pesticide for 30 days. Corneas from all the groups were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The fish exposed to the monocrotophos pesticide developed corneal necrosis due to the formation of crystalloid-like structures, thinning and shrinkage of microridges on the corneal epithelium. After 30 days, fish from the monocrotophos-treated tank were transferred to normal environmental conditions. After 60 days under natural condition, epithelial cells did not fully recover. In conclusion, exposure to monocrotophos induces irreversible changes in the cornea of C. carpio communis. As fish and mammalian visual systems share many similarities, the reported finding may offer useful insights for further toxicological and ophthalmological studies in humans. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Effect of semen extender supplementation with cysteine on postthaw sperm quality, DNA damage, and fertilizing ability in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğretmen, Fatih; İnanan, Burak Evren; Kutluyer, Filiz; Kayim, Murathan

    2015-06-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of cysteine on postthaw sperm motility, duration of sperm motility, DNA damage, and fertility in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sperm collected from 10 individuals was cryopreserved in extenders containing different cysteine concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mM). Semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the semen was aspirated into 0.25-mL straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapor, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay after cryopreservation. Our results indicated that an increase in the concentration of cysteine caused a significant increase in the motility rate and duration of sperm in the common carp (C carpio; P < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of cysteine, the best concentration of cysteine was 20 mM. Higher postthaw motility (76.00 ± 1.00%) and fertilization (97.00 ± 1.73%) rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 20 mM. Supplementation of the extender with cysteine was increased the fertilization and hatching rate and decreased DNA damage. Consequently, cysteine affected the motility, fertilization, and DNA damage positively, and extenders could be supplemented with cysteine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  16. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

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    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  17. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  18. Development of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pregnane X receptor (cPXR) transactivation reporter assay and its activation by azole fungicides and pharmaceutical chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Anke; Corcoran, Jenna; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Winter, Matthew J; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    In mammals, the pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor with a key role in regulating expression of several genes involved in drug biotransformation. PXR is present in fish and some genes known to be under its control can be up-regulated by mammalian PXR ligands. Despite this, direct involvement of PXR in drug biotransformation in fish has yet to be established. Here, the full length PXR sequence was cloned from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and used in a luciferase reporter assay to elucidate its role in xenobiotic metabolism in fish. A reporter assay for human PXR (hPXR) was also established to compare transactivation between human and carp (cPXR) isoforms. Rifampicin activated hPXR as expected, but not cPXR. Conversely, clotrimazole (CTZ) activated both isoforms and was more potent on cPXR, with an EC50 within the range of concentrations of CTZ measured in the aquatic environment. Responses to other azoles tested were similar between both isoforms. A range of pharmaceuticals tested either failed to activate, or were very weakly active, on the cPXR or hPXR. Overall, these results indicate that the cPXR may differ from the hPXR in its responses and/or sensitivity to induction by different environmental chemicals, with implications for risk assessment because of species differences. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of different concentrations of bee propolis on skin wound healing and immune response and survival of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    nasrin choubkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics use to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals. But due to the residual effects of a drug, Antibiotics and used to increase the immune response and propolis wound healing is aquadic animals. But due to their residual, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials. One of these natural materials that has many health benefits is bee propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of propolis on wound healing and immune system response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Propolis extracts were prepared from Kashan Barij essence with different concentrations of 0 , 2 , 5 and 10% with carrier substances (to dissolve the propolis  in water, and were evaluated on wound healing and immune response and survival  of common carp on a 21 –day cycle of short baths once a day . The results showed that, compared with the control group (0%, the use of bee propolis in concentration of 2% has statistically significant difference on wound healing and immune system response in common carp. The use of higher concentrations of propolis healed wound, but increased the number of blood cells (red blood cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils and increased mortality of fish, so it is better to use lower concentrations of propolis in fish. The use bee propolis as additive in water is effective in low concentrations and stimulates the immune system.

  20. KANDUNGAN PROTEIN KASAR DAN SERAT KASAR KULIT PISANG KEPOK (Musa paradisiaca YANG DIFERMENTASI DENGAN Trichoderma viride SEBAGAI BAHAN PAKAN ALTERNATIF PADA FORMULASI PAKAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

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    A Agustono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost for feed is about to 60-70% of fishery production costs, but the current feed price is higher as well, so need feed manipulation such as fermentation and feed ingredients substitution that are usually derived from wastes such as kepok banana peels. Fermentation with Trichoderma viride used 4 treatments and 5 replications for 7 days. Inoculum doses were P0 (0%, P1 (3%, P2 (5% and P3 (5%. Result of this study showed statistically differences (p<0.05 for crude protein contents and the best treatment was P2 (5% and not statistically differences (p>0.05 for crude fibre contents. Fermented banana peels with 5% inoculum dose could be used for feed ingredients substitution as isoenergy to replaced rice flour, corn flour and starch in feed formulation for common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio that includes as likeable cultured fish and one of omnivore fish that tolerable for high amount artificial feed. Keywords: Waste. Kepok banana peels. Trichoderma viride. Substitution. Feed formula for common carp fish.

  1. Enrichment of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet with medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract: Effects on skin mucosal immunity and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Van Doan, Hien; Romano, Nicholas; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    A feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary Medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract (MLE) on the growth performance, skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as mRNA levels of immune and antioxidant related genes in the skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00%) of MLE for 49 days. The results revealed an improvement to the growth performance and feed conversion ratio in MLE fed carps (P skin mucous and skin, respectively, revealed significant increment in fish fed 1% MLE (P skin mucus lysozyme activity (P  0.05) in case protease activity in the skin mucous or tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta gene expression in the skin of carps (P > 0.05). The expression of genes encoding glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase alpha were remarkably increased in MLE fed carps compared to the control group (P skin (P < 0.05). The present results revealed the potentially beneficial effects of MLE on the mucosal immune system and growth performance in common carp fingerlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

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    Constanze Pietsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  3. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music.

  4. ¹H NMR-based metabolomics approach to assess toxicity of bunker a heavy oil to freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Harada, Tomotaka; Koyama, Jiro

    2012-07-01

    Using a ¹H NMR metabolomics approach, the effects of dietary exposure of bunker A heavy oil (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 5% in diet) on freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio, were examined. Statistical analysis by PCA score plots showed that the amount of metabolites in exposure groups 0.1, 1, and 5% differed from those in the control group. Although no discernible effects on metabolites were noted in the 0.1% exposure group as well as in the lowest concentration (0.01%) group, several metabolites such as amino acid (e.g., leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamine, histidine, proline, and methionine), 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol were elevated, while another metabolite such as formate was reduced in 1 and 5% groups. These changes in the metabolites associated with the tri-carboxylic-acid (TCA) cycle suggest that oil exposure resulted in the disturbance of the TCA cycle in the liver of the carp. Isobutyrate, a marker of anoxia, was also increased in 1 and 5% exposures groups and was directly related to low hemoglobin concentrations leading to reduced oxygen transport by blood. In addition, significant elevation of creatinine in the plasma of carps exposed to 5% heavy oil suggests disturbance in kidney function. Thus, metabolomics approach can detect toxic effects of hazardous pollutants on fish. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of incorporating in diets cold-pressed rapeseed cake on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Mazurkiewicz Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative proteins from vegetal sources are being studied, because of the high costs and limited resources of fish meal. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of including cold-pressed rape cake (CPRC as a partial protein substitute in diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Common carp fry were stocked into experimental ponds at a density of 30 fish per pond. The effects on growth, feeding efficiency, and fish body composition were studied for four amounts of CPRC (0, 70, 130, 200 g × kg-1. Statistically significant higher final weights (528-530 g were obtained with fish fed diets with 130 and 200 g × kg-1 CPRC. The fish growth rate was nearly identical in all variants (SGR of 3.3-3.4 % d-1. Similar results were presented in FCR at 1.3, and in PER at 2.2. Our results suggest that it is possible to include up to 200 g × kg-1 of CPRC in diets for two-year old common carp without significant effects on growth, nutritive efficiency, or the proximate composition of the fish.

  6. UJI APLIKASI VAKSIN HYDROVAC UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MERAH PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio DAN GURAME (Osphronemus gouramy DI BALAI BENIH IKAN PANDAK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

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    Indrawati Indrawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette (ABC gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  8. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  9. Does serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) influence the choice of turning direction in carps, Cyprinus carpio, in a T-maze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garina, D V; Nepomnyashchikh, V A; Mekhtiev, A A

    2016-08-01

    Serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) can impair the formation of memory traces in mammals and fish. We have studied the influence of SMAP on behavioral lateralization of juvenile carps Cyprinus carpio in a T-maze without food reinforcement in three experimental groups (n = 8 each): (1) negative control (intact animals); (2) experimental group (fish injected ICV with SMAP; 2 μl, 1.2 mg ml(-1)) and (3) active control group (fish injected ICV with inactivated SMAP). The behavioral lateralization of carps was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th days after the injections. In each observation session, a fish was placed five times in a start chamber of the T-maze. The direction of the turn upon leaving the start chamber, as well as the latency from the opening of start chamber flap to the fish's turn was registered. The number of right turns (of all five turns observed during the session) was a criterion of lateralization. It was found that carps have no inherent preference for turning left or right. The SMAP injection did not influence the choice of turning direction, but increases latency values insignificantly. The results are important for the correct interpretation and clarification of data reporting the role of SMAP in training and formation of spatial memory of fish in a maze.

  10. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on TVB-N production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić Milijašević, J.; Milijašević, M.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 90%CO2+10%N2 (MAP 1) and 60%CO2+40%N2 (MAP 2), whereas the third group of fish cuts were vacuum packaged. During trials, the trout and carp cuts were stored in refrigerator at 3°C±0.5°C. Determination of TVB-N was performed on 1, 4, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts packaged in MAP 1, whereas the highest increase was established in vacuum packaged cuts. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the gas mixture consisting of 90% CO2 and 10% N2 was the most suitable for packaging of fresh trout and carp cuts in terms of TVB-N value.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  12. The effect of gamma radiation on the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio): In vivo genotoxicity assessment with the micronucleus and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Soorambail K, Shyama; Bhagatsingh Harisingh, Sonaye; D'costa, Avelyno; Ramesh Chandra, Chaubey

    2015-10-01

    Radioactive wastes may be leached into freshwater, either accidentally or in industrial effluents. We have studied gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Fish were irradiated with 2-10Gy gamma radiation and genotoxic effects in blood cells were studied with the micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Micronuclei and a dose-dependent increase in comet-tail DNA were seen in dose- and time-dependent studies. The highest % tail DNA was observed at 24h, declining until 72h, which may indicate the repair of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks after gamma radiation. However, double-stranded DNA damage may not have been repaired, as indicated by increased micronuclei at later periods. A positive correlation was observed between the comet and micronucleus assay results. This study confirms the mutagenic/genotoxic potential of gamma radiation in the Common carp, as well as the possible combined use of the micronucleus and comet assays for in vivo laboratory studies with fresh-water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of radioactive pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polysaccharides from marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora improve the nonspecific and specific immune responses of Cyprinus carpio and protect it from different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Priyatharsini; Subramani, Parasuraman Aiya; Michael, Dinakaran

    2016-11-01

    Immunostimulation by plant-derived compounds presents a fascinating alternative to vaccines and antibiotics in aquaculture. Fish farmers are longing for immunostimulants that activate both specific and nonspecific immune responses of fish and protect fishes from all possible infections. In this study, we observed that polysaccharide fraction from marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora stimulated the immune response of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Filed for patent, Indian patent no. 201641027311 dated:10-Aug-2016). Our results indicate that fish fed with polysaccharides as feed supplement improved all the immune parameters tested which include serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase activities and antibody response. Further, polysaccharide fraction protected the fish from its common bacterial pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda with relative percent survival (RPS) values of 80 and 60 respectively. Gene expression studies, indicate that the immunostimulation by P. gymnospora might be at least in part due to the upregulation of the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and antimicrobial peptide lysozyme-C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

  16. In vitro digestibility study of some plant protein sources as aquafeed for carps Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio using pH-Stat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Gopal; Kumar, Ashok; Saini, Deepak; Targay, Nawang Lendup; Khangembam, Bronson Kumar; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2016-09-01

    Aquaculture, as a promising food industry, is expected to meet the demand for quality food from the increasing human population. As the diet is critical for feeding farm fish, such a faster growth in the industry is destined to create stress in the fishmeal market to supply diets to the tune. In this context, here, we studied the protein content of 20 plant ingredients, including aquatic weeds, cereals, pulses and oil-cakes using micro-Kjeldahl method and evaluated in vitro digestibility of these ingredients for rohu Labeo rohita and common carp Cyprinus carpio using pH-Stat method. The protein contents of water fern, duckweed, almond oil-cake and soybean product were 20.81, 39.75, 47.78 and 57.48%, respectively. Species-specific digestibility was found for the same plant ingredient. The degree of hydrolysis for water fern, duck weed, almond oil-cake and soybean product were 14.17, 4.80, 17.30 and 3.57%, respectively for rohu and 4.58, 6.03, 12.17 and 3.35%, respectively for common carp. This study showed that incorporation of water fern and almond oil-cake in the diet of rohu, and duck weed and almond oil-cake in the diet of common carp are beneficial considering their protein content and digestibility. These are cost-effective, protein-rich feed ingredients for aquafeed.

  17. Agaricus bisporus powder improved cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and up-regulated intestinal cytokines gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus bisporus, white bottom mushroom powder (WBMP) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed on different levels of WBMP (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 8 weeks and at the end of feeding trial, skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines gene expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) in intestine as well as serum non-specific immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50) were measured. The results showed significant dose dependent increase of skin mucus immune parameters in carps fed WBMP (P  0.05). In case of serum non-specific immune parameters, except lysozyme activity, other parameters (Ig total and ACH50) were significantly affected by dietary inclusion of WBMP (P  0.05). Furthermore, feeding on WBMP supplemented diet significantly improved growth performance (P < 0.05). These results indicated that WBMP can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein on formation of long-term memory in carps Cyprinus carpio in the model of active avoidance learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garina, D V; Mekhtiev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) that has property of disturbing formation of memory trace in mammals and of learning and memory in teleost fish was studied in the model of active avoidance learning. The experiment was performed in three stages: (1) fry of carps Cyprinus carpio L. was injected intracerebrovenricularly with the SMAP protein at a dose of 0.3 μg/g; control individuals were administered with equal amount of the buffered saline for poikilothermic animals; (2) 24 h after the injection, fish were learnt during 8 sèances for 2 days the conditioned reflex of active avoidance; (3) 48 h after the learning the testing of the skill was performed. The administration of the protein was shown to lead to disturbance of reproduction of the skill in the fish: the latent time of the skill reproduction in experimental individuals exceeded that in control fish more than two times, while the number of individuals succeeding the task in the experimental group was non-significantly lower than in the control group. However, unlike mammals, injection of the SMAP protein in this model produced no effect on the process of learning in carps. Thus, there was first demonstrated the inhibiting effect of the SMAP protein whose concentration correlated positively with the content of the neurotransmitter serotonin in brain on consolidation of memory traces in teleost fish.

  19. Effect of a new phosphorus source, magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP on growth, utilization of phosphorus, and physiological responses in carp Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Yoon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4 recovered from swine manure was prepared as an alternative phosphorus (P source. Conventional P additives, monocalcium phosphate (MCP, dicalcium phosphate (DCP, and tricalcium phosphate (TCP were compared with the MHP in terms of growth and P availability by juvenile carp Cyprinus carpio. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared using practical feed ingredients without P supplementation to which four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 6.5 g following 24 h fasting after 2 weeks of adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 9 weeks. Fish fed the MHP had weight gain (WG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and specific growth rate (SGR comparable to those fed the MCP. Those values of both the MHP and MCP groups were significantly different (p  0.05 from other phosphate groups, fish fed the MCP and MHP retained higher P in whole body than the other groups. P availability was determined to be 93.2, 62.4, 6.1, and 98.0% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. The present results suggested that the MHP recovered from wastewater stream could be used as an alternative P source in carp diet.

  20. Exposure to sub-acute doses of fipronil and buprofezin in combination or alone induces biochemical, hematological, histopathological and genotoxic damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia, E-mail: irfanzia@qau.edu; Bibi, Asia; Shahid, Sana; Ghazanfar, Madiha

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Pesticides and insecticides may drastically effect non-target animal species like fish. • Cyprinus carpio were exposed to fipronil and buprofezin in combination and by themselves. • Severe alterations occurred in biochemical, hematological parameters and histomorphology of gills, liver and kidneys. • Greater genotoxic damage occurred in in the combined and fipronil alone group. - Abstract: Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96 h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400 μg L{sup −1}; 9.15 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100 mg L{sup −1}; 1.072 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level. Results obtained in treated fish were compared statistically with those of control non-treated fish and also among treatment groups. Significance level was p < 0.05. Compared to control, serum total protein and globulin concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) in fish treated with FP; while albumin concentration remained unaltered with all treatments. Glucose concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.002) in fish treated with FP. In contrast, combined FP + BPFN treatment and BPFN treatment caused insignificant elevation of glucose concentration. Hematological assessment demonstrated significant decrease in red blood cell and thrombocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit percent; while white blood cell count showed an increase in all treatment groups (p < 0.0001). Blood smears from pesticide treated fish revealed aberrant erythrocyte morphologies which included necrosis, micronuclear formation and

  1. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

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    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  2. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish embryos using a novel method controlling the agglomeration in the aquatic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprsal, Jakub; Blaha, Ludek; Pouzar, Miloslav; Knotek, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Hrda, Katerina

    2015-12-01

    Formation of agglomerates and their rapid sedimentation during aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is a major issue with a crucial influence on the risk assessment of nanomaterials. The present work is aimed at developing and testing a new approach based on the periodic replacement of liquid media during an ecotoxicological experiment which enabled the efficient monitoring of exposure conditions. A verified mathematical model predicted the frequencies of media exchanges which checked for formation of agglomerates from silver nanoparticles AgNP with 50 nm average size of the original colloid. In the model experiments, embryos of common carp Cyprinus carpio were exposed repeatedly for 6 h to AgNPs (5-50 μm Ag L(-1)) either under semistatic conditions (exchange of media after 6 h) or in variants with frequent media exchanges (varying from 20 to 300 min depending on the AgNP colloid concentration and the desired maximum agglomerate size of 200 or 400 nm). In contrast to other studies, where dissolved free metals are usually responsible for toxic effects, our 144-h experiments demonstrated the importance of AgNP agglomerates in the adverse effects of nanosilver. Direct adsorption of agglomerates on fish embryos locally increased Ag concentrations which resulted in pronounced toxicity particularly in variants with larger 400 nm agglomerates. The present study demonstrates the suitability of the novel methodology in controlling the conditions during aquatic nanomaterial toxicity testing. It further provided insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of AgNP, which rank on a global scale among the most widely used nanomaterials.

  5. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Effect of Chitosan Edible Coating on the Biochemical and Physical Characteristics of Carp Fillet (Cyprinus carpio Stored at −18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Morachis-Valdez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an edible coating (EC with 1.5% chitosan as an additive, on common carp (Cyprinus carpio fillet, was determined evaluating the biochemical, physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and nutritional characteristics periodically during its storage in the freezer (−18°C, observing a decrease in the rate of biochemical reactions related to degradation (p<0.05, hydroperoxides content (HPC (0.8324 nM hydroperoxides/mg of protein versus 0.5540 nM/mg with regard to the EC sample, as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC (0.5860 nM versus 0.4743 nM of reactive carbonyl groups/mg of protein of noncoated material, keeping properties for a longer period of time, and a lower protein solubility (7.8 mg of supernatant protein/mg of total protein versus 6.8 mg/mg and less loss of moisture (8% less, with regard to EC; for the nutritional characteristics of the fillet, lysine is the limiting aminoacid in the sample without EC, while leucine is the limiting aminoacid for the EC sample. According to microbial growth, the count was 2.2 × 105 CFU/g of sample in mesophiles versus 4.7 × 104 in the EC sample. The results indicate that the use of EC added with chitosan maintains the quality of the product regarding lipid and protein oxidation until fourth month of storage, maintaining moisture content without variation for at least 3 months, and inhibits microbial growth up to 2 logarithmic units, during five months of frozen storage.

  7. Organic Selenium (Sel-Plex and its Impact on the Indices of Growth, Consumption and Meat Quality of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio, the Galitian Variety

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    Alina Rodica Ani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the impact of organic selenium (Se (Sel-Plex on the growth performance, consumption and quality of meat in the case of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Galitian variety. The experiment was conducted over two years and had the following structure: (1 growth stage juveniles (159 days, year 2008; the period of hibernation; and (2 the status of fish for consumption (200 days, year 2009. Fish growth was conducted at Mărtineşti fish farm, Romania. The total number of specimens was 200, organized in two equal groups: experimental group and control group. Average weight of individuals at the beginning of the experiment was 1.5 g/individual. Growth conditions were identical for the two groups, except food. The experimental group received 0.03 mg organic Se/kg food. At the end of the experiment the individual average weight of the experimental group was 1191±014.21g/individual, with a food conversion rate of 1.79:1:1 kg foodd/kg body weight; compared to the control group with a mean weight of 908.67±17.78g/individual and a food conversion rate of 1.88:1 kg foodd/kg body weight. Regarding these indices significant differences resulted between two groups when analyzing experiment results; while, regarding meat quality in terms of protein content, dry matter, water and fat there were no significant differences between the two groups. Analysis was done using ANOVA program.

  8. Quality attributes of chilled vacuum-packaged cold-smoked common carp (Cyprinus carpio and cold-smoked bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis fillets

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    Milan Petar Milijašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of vacuum packaging on selected microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of cold-smoked common carp (Cyprinus carpio and cold-smoked bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis fillets stored at 3 ± 0.5 °C, and to determine the shelf life of the products. Fillets were analysed on days 1, 7, 10,12, 14, 15 and 16. The total viable count was significantly higher (P < 0.01 in common carp samples than in bighead carp samples from storage day 12. At the end of experiment, the numbers of TVC in both groups of samples had not reached the value of 7 logcfu/g. No significant differences (P > 0.05 were determined between the psychrotrophic viable counts in common carp and bighead carp samples during the whole period of storage. In cold-smoked bighead carp samples, lactic acid bacteria were the dominant micro-organisms at the end of storage period. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the examined samples. The pH values in both samples groups were quite stable and ranged from 5.97 ± 0.08 to 6.18 ± 0.07 in cold-smoked common carp, and from 5.80 ± 0.08 to 5.98 ± 0.06 in bighead carp samples. The total volatile basic nitrogen concentration increased during the storage period in both groups of samples. Based on sensory evaluation, it was concluded that vacuum-packaged cold-smoked common carp samples remained acceptable up to 15 days of storage, whereas vacuum-packaged cold-smoked bighead carp samples remained unchanged until the end of the experiment.

  9. Copper Bioaccumulation and Depuration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Following Co-exposure to TiO2 and CuO Nanoparticles.

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    Mansouri, Borhan; Maleki, Afshin; Johari, Seyed Ali; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Shahsavari, Siros; Davari, Behroz

    2016-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), such as TiO2 and CuO, are widely applied in an increasing number of products and applications, and therefore their release to the aquatic ecosystems is unavoidable. However, little is known about joint toxicity of different NPs on tissues of aquatic organisms, such as fish. This study was conducted to assess the uptake and depuration of Cu following exposure to CuO NPs in the presence of TiO2 NPs in the liver, intestine, muscle, and gill of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Carps with a mean total length of 23 ± 1.5 cm and mean weight of 13 ± 1.3 g were divided into 6 groups of 15 each (1 control group) and exposed to TiO2 NPs, CuO NPs, and a mixture of TiO2 and CuO NPs for periods of 20 days for uptake and 10 days for depuration. The determination of total Cu concentration was carried out by an ICP-OES. The order of Cu uptake in different tissues of the carps was liver > gill > muscle > intestine in both levels of CuO NPs alone; results showed that the total Cu concentrations in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles were increased and were in the sequence of liver > gill > intestine > muscle. In depuration period, Cu concentrations were decreased in all treatments in the sequence of gill > intestine > muscle > liver. Uptake of Cu in different tissues of common carp increased with increasing concentration and time and was tissues- and time-dependent. In conclusion, this study suggested that the uptake of Cu in the tissues of common carp increased in the joint presence of TiO2 NPs.

  10. Toxic effects of copper sulfate and copper nanoparticles on minerals, enzymes, thyroid hormones and protein fractions of plasma and histopathology in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

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    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hedayati, Aliakbar; Taheri Mirghaed, Ali; Ghelichpour, Melika

    2016-10-01

    Differences in toxicological effects of dissolved copper and copper nanoparticles were studied in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The fish were exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper sulfate (0.25Cu), 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper oxide nanoparticles (0.25NCu) and 25mgL(-1) copper as copper oxide nanoparticles (25NCu) over 14days. Plasma biochemical, enzymatic and hormonal characteristics, and liver and kidney histopathology were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that both forms of copper had no significant effects on plasma calcium levels, however, significantly increased plasma phosphorous levels, compared to control group (no added copper). Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity increased in 0.25Cu and 25NCu treatments compared to the control and 0.25NCu treatments. Nanoparticle copper exposure significantly decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the control and 0.25Cu treatments. Only copper sulfate exposure caused plasma aspartate transaminase (AST) elevation. Both copper forms increased plasma T4 and free T4 (FT4); however, copper sulfate effect was higher than nanoparticle copper. Copper sulfate exposure increased plasma albumin fraction, whereas, 25mgL(-1) copper nanoparticle exposure increased plasma α2-globulin fraction compared to the control. Both copper forms damaged the fish liver and kidney, however, copper sulfate caused more severe damages compared to nanoparticle copper. Overall, except for plasma ALP and α2-globulin fraction, dissolved copper seems to be more toxic than nanoparticle copper in common carp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Xiu Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01. These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp.

  12. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

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    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  13. Biodegradable Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Black Pepper Essential Oil for Shelf Life Extension of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) during Refrigerated Storage.

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    Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Shad, Ehsan; Ziaee, Esmaeil; Yousefabad, Seyyed Hossein Asadi; Golmakani, Mohammad Taghi; Azizinia, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Chitosan (Ch) coating incorporated with black pepper essential oil (Ch+BPEO) was studied to extend the shelf life of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The chemical composition of BPEO was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial properties of BPEO were determined by disk diffusion agar, MIC, and MBC. Ch (2% [wt/vol]) and Ch+BPEO (2% [wt/vol] Ch with 1.5% [vol/vol] BPEO) were used for common carp fillet coating. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen) and microbiological (aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial counts) characteristics during 16 days. The GC-MS results indicated that main components in BPEO were carene, caryophyllene, limonene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The samples coated with Ch and Ch+BPEO resulted in lower pH and total volatile basic nitrogen values in comparison with the control. The microbiological analysis of fish fillets during refrigerated storage clearly indicated that Ch+BPEO coating significantly reduced the fish fillet microbial load. The aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria count, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial count of samples coated with Ch+BPEO were reduced approximately 4.1, 3.9, 2.3, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively, at the end of the storage period. Finally, Ch and Ch+BPEO effectively improved the quality of fish fillet during refrigerated storage and extended the shelf life of fish fillets from 8 to 16 days. Black pepper; Chitosan; Common carp; Essential oil.

  14. Effect of Different Straw Volumes and Thawing Rates on Post-Thaw Quality and Fertilization Ability of Cryopreserved Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Sperm

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    İlker YAVAŞ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of sperm cells is an essential process applied for long-term conservation of aquatic genetic resources. The goal of this research was to determine effect different of straws volumes and thawing rates on the post-thaw quality and fertilization ability of cryopreserved common carp (Cyprinus carpio sperm. In this study, semen was cryopreserved according to conventional slow freezing protocol. For this aim, the cryosolution contained 75 mM NaCl, 70 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgSO4 and 20 mM Tris (pH: 8 supplemented with 10% MeOH. Following equilibration at +4°C for 10 min, semen was packed into 0.25, 0.5 and 1.5 mL straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour (for 10 min at -120ºC and finally stored in liquid nitrogen (-196ºC tank. Thawing of cryopreserved semen process was performed at 30ºC for 10, 20 and 30 seconds in a water bath. Fertilization was performed using ratio of 1x105 spermatozoa/egg. The highest fertility (68.4±2.5% was determined with cryopreserved sperm packed in 1.5 mL straws that thawed at 30ºC for 30 s. According to the results of this research, sperm cryopreserved with ionic extender containing 10% methanol and packed in 1.5 mL straws are suitable to achieve high fertilization of common carp eggs.

  15. Cadmium bioaccumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues during long-term high exposure: analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

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    de Conto Cinier, C; Petit-Ramel, M; Faure, R; Garin, D

    1997-11-01

    This work was an attempt to investigate cadmium bioaccumulation in the carp (Cyprinus carpio) during simulated pollution. The fish, weighing 100 g, were kept for 140 days in a 1000-liter indoor concrete tank supplied with a continuous flow (8 liters min-1) of unchlorinated, aerated, and filtered well water, the cadmium concentration of which was maintained at 450 microg liter-1. Such a high cadmium concentration was chosen to achieve metal saturation of the fish organs. Carp were fed during exposure. Cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney, and muscle was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which is one of the most sensitive analytical techniques. The reported data indicate that cadmium exposure results in significant cadmium uptake, but the pattern of this uptake varies with the organ. For kidney and liver, cadmium concentration increased rapidly to the saturation level, probably because of the limited ability to store the cadmium as exposure persisted. A positive correlation between the increase in metallothioneins in tissues and the increase in metal tolerance in fish has been suggested. The cadmium concentration increase in muscle was significant only after 3 months, and, then, increased as an exponential function of the exposure time. When the storage capacity limits of the liver and kidney are reached, cadmium accumulation in muscle is stimulated. In this experiment, the high contamination levels reached suggest that such muscle would be unsuitable for human consumption. After 140 days of exposure, the cadmium concentrations in muscle, liver, and kidney were respectively 9 +/- 1, 91 +/- 7, and 250 +/- 16 mg kg-1 dry wt. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  16. Seasonal variation and site specificity of external parasites in gold fish (Carassius auratus L. and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Rambadagalle Ornamental Fish Breeding Center, Sri Lanka

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    B.G.D. Sumuduni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation and site specificity of external parasites in gold fish (Carassius auratus and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio cultured at Rambadagalle fish breeding and training center were estimated during wet (February-July and dry (August-November seasons in 2013. According to the proportion of the total harvest, samples of 30 gold fish and 50 koi carps in same cohort were collected from two separated harvesting ponds. Their gills, skin scrape and fins were examined in the laboratory for ectoparasites, and the percentage prevalence of parasites at each site of two fish species during two seasons were calculated and compared statistically. Ten external parasite species (Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Tripartiella sp., Chilodonella sp., Ichthyobodo necator, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Centrocestus sp., Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Argulus sp. were recorded from both fish species during two seasons. Posthodiplostomum cuticola and Chilodonella sp. were not recorded from koi carp while Argulus sp. was not detected from gold fish. Koi carps were highly parasitized during dry season while it was wet season for gold fish. During two seasons, for both fish species, percentage prevalence of Trichodina sp. (skin: ranged from 58%-100%, fins: 12% -97% and Apiosoma sp. (skin: ranged from koi 28% - 100%, fins: 12% -82% were high in skin and fins. In contrast, during two seasons, for both fish species high percentage prevalence of Dactylogyrus sp. (ranged from 37%-54% and Centrocestus sp. (ranged from 62%-90% were recorded from gills. For each fish species, total number of parasites infected in skin, fins and gills were significantly different (p<0.05 between two seasons.

  17. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2 and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

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    Sharifzadeh Seyedeh Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg, T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1, T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1, T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1, T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1. One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

  18. Dietary tryptophan changes serum stress markers, enzyme activity, and ions concentration of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to ambient copper.

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    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Soudagar, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Effect of dietary tryptophan (TRP) on copper toxicity was investigated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish were randomly distributed into two triplicate treatments (control and TRP) and fed control (TRP = 3.1 g kg(-1)) or TRP (TRP = 8.1 g kg(-1)) diets over a 2-week period. Then, both treatments were subjected to 10 mg l(-1) copper sulfate over a 7-day period. Mortality and serum cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sodium, potassium, and chloride levels were recorded at 0, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h post-copper exposure. There was no mortality in the TRP group, whereas the control group mortality was started at 120 h post-copper exposure (21.7 ± 7.6 %) and reached 61.7 ± 10.4 % at the end of the experiment. Cortisol, glucose, ALT, and AST levels significantly (P < 0.05) increased after copper exposure in both groups; however, the control group showed significantly higher levels than the TRP group. In both groups, sodium decreased after copper exposure and did not return to the pre-exposure values. Potassium levels significantly increased 24 h post-copper exposure in both groups and remained significantly elevated in the control group at 72 h, when fell to the pre-exposure values in the TRP group. No significant changes were observed in the chloride levels in any groups. It is concluded that dietary TRP is capable to increase common carp tolerance to copper toxicity via mitigating copper-induced stress rather than restoring gill dysfunction and hydromineral imbalance.

  19. Histopathological effects following short-term coexposure of Cyprinus carpio to nanoparticles of TiO2 and CuO.

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    Mansouri, Borhan; Maleki, Afshin; Davari, Behroz; Johari, Seyed Ali; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Shahsavari, Siros

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the coexposure of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and copper oxide (CuO) on the alterations of the gill, intestine, kidney, and liver tissues of carps (Cyprinus carpio). In this study, carps (length 23 ± 1.5 cm; weight 13 ± 1.3 g) were divided into six groups of 15 each and exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) of CuO nanoparticles (NPs), 10.0 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs, and 2.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) of CuO NPs + 10.0 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NP mixture. Fish were sampled for histopathological studies after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results indicated that the more kinds of histopathology anomalies observed with CuO NP and TiO2 NP mixture were broadly of the same type as CuO NPs and TiO2 NPs alone, but the severity or incidence of injuries of gill, intestine, liver, and kidney of carps in the mixture of CuO NPs + TiO2 NPs was higher than that of each NP alone. Moreover, behavioral changes in carps exposed to CuO NP and TiO2 NP mixture such as hyperactivity, loss of balance, and convulsions were higher than those to CuO NPs and TiO2 NPs alone. In conclusion, the presence of TiO2 NPs enhanced the effects of NPs of copper oxide in terms of histopathological changes in carps.

  20. Protective properties of sesamin against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio) via JNK signaling pathway.

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    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Xie, Lingtian; Wang, Jundong; Feng, Cuiping; Song, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Sesamin, a major lignan derived from sesame seeds, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against fluoride-induced injury in kidney of fish have not been clarified. Previously we found that fluoride exposure caused damage and apoptosis in the kidneys of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of sesamin on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in fluoride-exposed fish were determined. The results showed that sesamin alleviated significantly fluoride-induced renal damage and apoptosis of carp in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by the histopathological examination and ultrastructural observation. Moreover, treatment with sesamin also inhibited significantly fluoride-induced remarkable enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, such as the increase of lipid peroxidation level and the depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in kidney. To explore the underlying mechanisms of sesamin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were notably inhibited by treatment with sesamin in the kidney of fluoride-exposed fish. Sesamin decreased the levels of p-JNK protein in kidney, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events by restoring the balance between mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bax proteins and by decreasing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in kidney of fluoride-exposed fish. JNK was also involved in the mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic pathways of sesamin effects against fluoride-induced renal injury by regulating the levels of p-c-Jun, necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Bak proteins. These findings indicated that sesamin could protect kidney against fluoride-induced apoptosis by the oxidative stress downstream-mediated change in the inactivation of JNK signaling pathway. Taken together, sesamin plays an important role in maintaining renal health and preventing kidney from toxic damage induced by

  1. Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

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    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2017-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  3. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Huang, Wei; Zhong, Chengrong; Luo, Daji; Li, Shuangfei; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus), 16 and 12 (pituitary), 119 and 93 (ovary), respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. Conclusions/Significance This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the reproductive system of

  5. Antibacterial activity of Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae, May Chang) and its effects on the biological response of common carp Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H V; Caruso, D; Lebrun, M; Nguyen, N T; Trinh, T T; Meile, J-C; Chu-Ky, S; Sarter, S

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the antibacterial activity and the chemotype of Litsea cubeba leaf essential oil (EO) harvested in North Vietnam and to investigate the biological effects induced by the leaf powder on growth, nonspecific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The EO showed the prevalence of linalool (95%, n = 5). It was bactericidal against the majority of tested strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0·72 to 2·89 mg ml(-1) (Aer. hydrophila, Edwarsiella tarda, Vibrio furnissii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus garvieae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium). The fish was fed with 0 (control), 2, 4 and 8% leaf powder supplementation diets for 21 days. Nonspecific immunity parameters (lysozyme, haemolytic and bactericidal activities of plasma) were assessed 21 days after feeding period and before the experimental infection. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were improved by supplementation of L. cubeba in a dose-related manner, and a significant difference appeared at the highest dose (8%) when compared to the control. The increase in plasma lysozyme was significant for all the treated groups. Haemolysis activity was higher for the groups fed with 4 and 8% plant powder. Antibacterial activity increased significantly for the 8% dose only. Litsea cubeba leaf powder increased nonspecific immunity of carps in dose-related manner. After infection with Aer. hydrophila, survivals of fish fed with 4 and 8% L. cubeba doses were significantly higher than those fed with 2% dose and the control. A range of 4-8% L. cubeba leaf powder supplementation diet (from specific linalool-rich chemotype) can be used in aquaculture to reduce antibiotic burden and impacts of diseases caused by Aer. hydrophila. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus macrovacuolaris n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the palate in the mouth of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao

    2016-08-01

    Thelohanellus macrovacuolaris n. sp. is described during a survey on myxozoan diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in China. It is characterized by the presence of round or ellipsoidal plasmodium in the palate in the mouth of host. Mature spores were pyriform in frontal view, lemon shaped in lateral view, measuring 21.6±0.9 (19.3-23.8) long, 12.5±0.7 (10.3-13.6) wide, and 10.2±0.4 (9.8-11.8) thick. Most spores were surrounded by the membrane sheath. Single polar capsule was round with an apophysis at its top end presented close to apex of spore, measuring 9.1±0.6 (8.0-10.0) in length, 8.6±0.5 (7.8-9.6) in width. Polar filaments coiled, with 7 to 8 turns. A large, round iodinophilous vacuole was present, with 5.8-7.5 in diameter. The present species is morphologically distinct from all other Thelohanellus species. The BLAST search indicated that the newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene sequence of T. macrovacuolaris n. sp. did not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, T. macrovacuolaris n. sp. was placed sister to Thelohanellus wangi in the Thelohanellus clade. Both morphology and ssrRNA gene sequence data revealed that the present parasite is a new species of genus Thelohanellus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “Lőrinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

  9. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  10. Genome-wide characterization of Toll-like receptor gene family in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and their involvement in host immune response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiwen; Feng, Shuaisheng; Li, Shangqi; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Zixia; Hu, Mou; Xu, Peng; Jiang, Yanliang

    2017-12-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family is a class of conserved pattern recognition receptors, which play an essential role in innate immunity providing efficient defense against invading microbial pathogens. Although TLRs have been extensively characterized in both invertebrates and vertebrates, a comprehensive analysis of TLRs in common carp is lacking. In the present study, we have conducted the first genome-wide systematic analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TLR genes. A set of 27 common carp TLR genes were identified and characterized. Sequence similarity analysis, functional domain prediction and phylogenetic analysis supported their annotation and orthologies. By examining the gene copy number of TLR genes across several vertebrates, gene duplications and losses were observed. The expression patterns of TLR genes were examined during early developmental stages and in various healthy tissues, and the results showed that TLR genes were ubiquitously expressed, indicating a likely role in maintaining homeostasis. Moreover, the differential expression of TLRs was examined after Aeromons hydrophila infection, and showed that most TLR genes were induced, with diverse patterns. TLR1, TLR4-2, TLR4-3, TLR22-2, TLR22-3 were significantly up-regulated at minimum one timepoint, whereas TLR2-1, TLR4-1, TLR7-1 and TLR7-2 were significantly down-regulated. Our results suggested that TLR genes play critical roles in the common carp immune response. Collectively, our findings provide fundamental genomic resources for future studies on fish disease management and disease-resistance selective breeding strategy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Spore Protein of Myxobolus koi as an Immunostimulant for Prevent of Myxobolusis on Gold Fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) by Oral Immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasri, Gunanti

    2017-02-01

    Production of Gold fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) in Indonesia has always increased from 2013 to 2015 year by year with increasing average 2% per year. The amount of production was respectively 571.892 tonnes, 1129.273 tonnes, and 1186.674 tonnes. There were almost no problems to sale of gold fish because it had a good enough prospect. The aims of this research were Isolation of spore protein of Myxobolus koi by using SDS-PAGE to analyze immun respons and survival rate gold fish that immunized with spore protein of Myxobolus koi. The method of this research used experimental method, and belonged to 4 treatments that are: Controle = the group of gold fish not immunized with protein spore of Myxobolus koi neither infected by Myxobolus koi (T1). The group immunized and infested by spore of Myxobolus koi (T2), The group which immunized and not infested by Myxobolus koi (T3), and The group only infested by Myxobolus koi (T4). The dose of immunostimulant was 5 ml in 1 kg of food. The result showed that there were two bands of whole spore protein with molecule weight (MW) 150 kDa and 72 kDa and one band of crude protein Myxobolus koi with molecule weight 73 kD and the optical density point was 0.132 on the first day and increased to 0.769 on the 56 th day. The result also showed that the immun respons and survival rate increased from 27% to 86% in chellence test. The protein spore of Myxobolus koi can used to develops material for immunostimulant and to prevent the myxobolusis.

  12. Effects of triclosan (TCS) on hormonal balance and genes of hypothalamus-pituitary- gonad axis of juvenile male Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Chen, Wanguang; Xu, Ruijie; Wang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent which has been widely dispersed and determinated in the aquatic environment. However, the effects of TCS on reproductive endocrine in male fish are poorly understood. In this study, male Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 0, 1/5, 1/10 and 1/20 LC50 (96 h LC50 of TCS to carp) TCS under semi-static conditions for 42 d. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone(T), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, we also examined the mRNA expressions of aromatase, GtHs-β, GnRH, estrogen receptor (Er), and androgen receptor (Ar) by quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). TCS induced Vtg levels of hepatopancreas, E2 levels of serum, and inhibited Ar and Er mRNA levels, suggesting that the induction of Vtg production by TCS was indirectly caused by non-Er pathways. TCS-induced Vtg levels by interfering with the reproductive axis at plenty of latent loci of male carps: (a) TCS exposure increased the aromatase mRNA expression of hypothalamus and gonad aromatase, consequently increasing serum concentrations of E2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (b) TCS treatment changed GtH-β and GnRH mRNA expression and secretion, causing the disturbance of reproductive endocrine; (c) TCS exposure decreased Ar mRNA levels, indicating potential Ar-mediated antiandrogen action. These mechanisms showed that TCS may induce Vtg production in male carp by non-Er-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comet assay and micronucleus test in circulating erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio specimens exposed in situ to lake waters treated with disinfectants for potabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, A; Martino, A; Gustavino, B; Monfrinotti, M; Poli, P; Rossi, C; Santoro, M; Dörr, A J M; Rizzoni, M

    2004-02-14

    The detection of a possible genotoxic effect of surface water treated with disinfectants for potabilization is the aim of the present work. The Comet assay and the micronucleus test were applied in circulating erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio. Young specimens (20-30 g) were exposed in experimental basins, built within the potabilization plant of Castiglione del Lago (Perugia, Italy). In this plant the water of the Trasimeno Lake is treated and disinfected for potabilization before it is distributed to the people in the net of drinkable water. A continuous flow of water at a constant rate was supplied to basins; the water was continuously treated at a constant concentration with one of the three tested disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid and chloride dioxide), one control basin being supplied with untreated water. Three sampling campaigns were performed: October 2000, February 2001 and June 2001. Repeated blood samplings through intracardiac punctures allowed to follow the same fish populations after different exposure times: before introduction of the disinfectant, and 10 or 20 days afterwards. An additional blood sampling was performed 3 h after addition of the disinfectant in other, simultaneously exposed, fish populations. Genotoxic damage was shown in fish exposed to water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and chloride dioxide. The Comet assay showed an immediate response, i.e. DNA damage that was induced directly in circulating erythrocytes, whereas micronuclei reached their highest frequencies at later sampling times, when a genotoxic damage in stem cells of the cephalic kidney is expressed in circulating erythrocytes. The quality of the untreated surface water seems to be the most important parameter for the long-term DNA damage in circulating erythrocytes.

  14. The Influence of Multienzymatic Complex Allzyme SSF on Production Performances of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio l. and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella v. Juveniles after Introduction of Alfalfa Meal in Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to determine the effects of Allzyme SSF administration after introducing of alfalfa meal in feeds, over performances of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella V. juveniles. The experiments where carried out on 75 common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. – mean initial body weight 47.5g/fish and 75 grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella V. – mean initial body weight 24g/fish; the fishes were randomly distributed in three groups: control group M - feed with base diet, experimental group 1E - 70% base diet and 30% alfalfa meal and experimental group 2E - 70% base diet and 30% alfalfa meal and 0.02% Allzyme SSF. The digestibility coefficient of Crude Protein, Crude Fat and Crude Fiber were higher for common carp and grass carp juveniles after supplementation with Allzyme SSF compared to the other groups. The production and consumption indices were improved for groups 2E from both common carp and grass carp juveniles, compared with 1E group and to the control group. The SGR and FCR were improved in group 2E for common carp and grass compared to the other groups. The results indicate the positive effects of Allzyme SSF on enhancing the ADC of vegetal raw materials.

  15. Effect of Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L) Merr) crude extract towards bacteria inhibition zone and carp (Cyprinus carpio) hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftuch

    2017-05-01

    Negative impacts of antibiotics and chemical substance usage in aquaculture demand the researchers discover more efficient alternative yet environmentally friendly to overcome fish diseases. One alternative is by using Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr). This research aimed to reveal the effect of Bawang Dayak crude extract towards the inhibition zone of A. hydrophilia, V. harveyi, and P. fluorescens bacteria. Furthermore, it was also conducted to investigate the carp (C. carpio) hematology which was infected with A. hydrophila bacteria, and find the most appropriate dose of Bawang Dayak crude extract to inhibit the bacteria. This experimental research was performed by using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The best result of the zone of inhibition test in A. hydrophila bacteria was at the dose of 70 ppm while V. harveyi and P. Fluorescens bacteria were at the dose of 85 ppm. Then, fish hematology was found best at the dose of 80 ppm. Bawang Dayak crude extract was significant towards the inhibition zone of A. hydrophila, V. harveyi and P. Fluorescens bacteria, and carp hematology which was infected with A. hydrophila bacteria.

  16. Effects of curcumin on antioxidative activities and cytokine production in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with CCl4-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Du, Jingliang; Jia, Rui; Liu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Caiyuan; Shen, Yujin; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of curcumin on liver-damaged Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (Jian carp). The carp were fed 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% curcumin for 60 days, then injected intraperitoneally with 30% carbon tetrachloride solution. Liver and blood samples were collected to measure the liver index, serum- and liver-associated enzymes, liver histology, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/c-Rel, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-12 mRNA expression, and the level of NF-κB/c-Rel protein in the liver, and for a comet assay. We found that 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced increase in the liver index. The comet assay showed that the tail moment, olive tail moment, tail length, and tail DNA% improved in fish pretreated with 0.5 or 1.0% curcumin. CCl(4)-induced histological changes, including extensive hepatocyte degeneration, indistinct cell borders, nuclear condensation, and karyolysis were clearly reduced after treatment with 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin. Moreover, 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly inhibited the CCl(4)-induced increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and promoted the restoration of superoxide dismutase in the liver; 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde, but significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels in the liver. The CCl(4)-induced upregulation of NF-κB/c-Rel, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNAs and NF-κB/c-Rel protein levels was inhibited by 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin, and IL-12 mRNA was reduced by all three doses of curcumin. The effects of curcumin on the liver index, enzymes, histological changes, and cytokines were dose-dependent. Our results indicate that curcumin reduces CCl(4)-induced liver damage in Jian carp by upregulating antioxidative activities and inhibiting NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation of Metals in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Exposed to Sublethal Levels of Iron and Manganese: Survival, Body Weight and Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harangi, Sándor; Baranyai, Edina; Fehér, Milán; Tóth, Csilla Noémi; Herman, Petra; Stündl, László; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla; Simon, Edina

    2017-05-01

    Many oxbows are contaminated by Fe and Mn as a consequence of the elemental concentration of sediment and water originating from the Upper Tisza Region of Hungary. The phenomenon is partly caused by anthropogenic activities and mainly due to the geochemical characteristics of the region. The effects of Fe and Mn on the aquatic ecosystem of these wetlands were investigated in a model experiments in this study. Survival, individual body weight and the elemental concentrations of organs were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles reared in Fe and Mn contaminated media (treatment 1: Fe 0.57 mg L -1 , Mn 0.29 mg L -1 , treatment 2: Fe 0.57 mg L -1 , Mn 0.625 mg L -1 , treatment 3: Fe 1.50 mg L -1 , Mn 0.29 mg L -1 , treatment 4: Fe 1.50 mg L -1 , Mn 0.625 mg L -1 and control: Fe 0.005 mg L -1 , Mn 0.003 mg L -1 ), for rearing time of 49 days. The treatment with Fe and Mn did not have any effect on the survival data and individual body weight in the levels tested. The highest concentration of Fe and Mn was found in the liver and brain of carp juveniles, while the lowest concentration of these elements occurred in the muscular tissue and gills. The treatment where Fe and Mn were applied in the highest concentrations resulted in a statistically higher level of these elements in the brain, grills and muscle tissues. The treatment where only Mn was present in the highest concentration caused increased level of Mn only in the liver. We found metal accumulation in almost every organ; however, the applied concentrations and exposure time did not affect the survival and average body weight of carp juveniles.

  18. Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by yeast hydrolysate on complement system and stress resistance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liang, Chao; Sun, Cun-Xin; Xue, Yun-Fei; Wan, Zu-De; Jiang, Guang-Zhen

    2017-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement by yeast hydrolysate (YH) on growth performance, complement system and stress resistance of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (initial average weight 19.44 ± 0.06 g). In the study, there were five groups: one control group was fed with a basal diet (YH0), and four treatment groups were fed with dietary fish meal replaced by 1% YH (YH1), 3% (YH3), 5% (YH5) and 7% (YH7), respectively. Each group had four replicates. At the end of feeding trial, twelve fish from each group (three fish per replicate) were randomly selected for assessing the growth and immunity. Meanwhile, 20 fish per replicate were injected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that (1) Replacement levels of YH significantly affected the growth of the fish with the highest values of weight gain (WG) occurred in fish fed YH3 diet. However, no significant difference in feed conversion ratios (FCR) was observed among all groups. (2) Pre-stressed plasma lysozyme activity, total protein and albumin contents and complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) levels of fish fed YH3 diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed YH0 diet. However, post-stressed immune parameters of fish in all groups were significantly lower. (3) There was a trend that the expression levels of the complement-related genes (c1r/s-A, c4-1, c3-H1, c5-1, fb/c2-A, mbl-2 and masp) initially increased and then decreased except mbl-2 and masp, with the maximum values observed in fish fed YH3 diet. Before stress, the expression levels of the inflammation-related genes (alp, il-1β and tnf-α) in the hepatopancreas and spleen of fish fed YH1 diet and YH7 diet were significant higher than that of fish fed YH0 diet. After stress, no significant difference in the expression levels of those genes was observed among all groups. These results indicated that FM replacement by YH could improve growth

  19. Characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and its expression in response to viral and bacterial challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaoyao; Qi, Chenchen; Shan, Shijuan; Zhang, Fumiao; Li, Hua; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2016-06-27

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the most economically valuable commercial farming fish species in China, is often infected by a variety of viruses. As the first line of defence against microbial pathogens, the innate immune system plays a crucial role in teleost fish, which are lower vertebrates. Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a key molecule in antiviral immunity that regulating the expression of IFN and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is necessary to gain more insight into the common carp IFN system and the function of fish IRF5 in the antiviral and antibacterial response. In the present study, we characterized the cDNA and genomic sequence of the IRF5 gene in common carp, and analysed tissue distribution and expression profile of this gene in response to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treatment. The common carp IRF5 (ccIRF5) gene is 5790 bp in length and is composed of 9 exons and 8 introns. The open reading frame (ORF) of ccIRF5 is 1554 bp, and encodes 517 amino acid protein. The putative ccIRF5 protein shares identity (65.4-90.0 %) with other fish IRF5s and contains a DNA binding domain (DBD), a middle region (MR), an IRF-associated domain (IAD), a virus activated domain (VAD) and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) similar to those found in vertebrate IRF5. Phylogenetic analysis clustered ccIRF5 into the IRF5 subfamily with other vertebrate IRF5 and IRF6 genes. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ccIRF5 mRNA was expressed in all examined tissues of healthy carps, with high levels observed in the gills and the brain. After poly I:C challenge, expression levels of ccIRF5, tumour-necrosis factor α (ccTNFα) and two IFN stimulated genes [ISGs (ccISG5 and ccPKR)] were up-regulated in seven immune-related tissues (liver, spleen, head kidney, foregut, hindgut, skin and gills). Furthermore, all four genes were up-regulated in vitro upon poly I:C and LPS challenges. Our findings suggest

  20. Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to oxidative stress after chloramine-T treatment is increased by microalgae carotenoid-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stara, Alzbeta; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozak, Pavel; Masojidek, Jiri; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2014-01-01

    In fish aquaculture, disinfectants are used against bacterial and protozoal infections. These compounds cause oxidative stress that may stimulate the generation of reactive oxygen species, and subsequently the alteration in antioxidant systems of exposed organisms. Antioxidants like carotenoids present in microalgae increase carp resistance to oxidative stress after chemical treatment. The aim of these experiments was to prove increased resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) juveniles fed on experimental diets with microalgae biomass supplement (Algadiets) to oxidative stress caused by a disinfectant chloramine-T. In indoor experiments fish were fed on laboratory-prepared extruded diets containing supplement of Chlorella spp. (cf. C. vulgaris Beijerinck) biomass which contains antioxidants (carotenoids) like lutein. The young-of-the-year-old fish were acclimatized and fed on basal diet (control group) and the on diets containing 1, 2, 5 and 10% (w/w) of spray-dried Chlorella biomass (Algadiet 1, 2, 5 and 10) for 14 days followed by 6 weeks. Consequently, fish were treated daily with chloramine-T (Chl-T) at concentration of 10 mg x l(-1) for 1 h in three consecutive days. After this treatment, the indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity were assayed in fish gill, muscle and hepatopancreas. The fish fed on different Algadiets had increased antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in flesh after the exposure to Chl-T. Higher activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also observed in the hepatopancreas in all tested concentrations compared to the control group fed on the basal diet. The increased production and activity of antioxidant enzymes confirmed improved protection ability of fish tissues against oxidative damage when microalgae biomass was supplemented to the fish diet which was more pronounced by higher microalgae supplement in

  1. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  2. Resistência da pele de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis curtida pelas técnicas ao cromo e bioleather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711 Resistance of the carp mirror skin (Cyprinus carpio specularis tanned by chromium and bioleather technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Telmo Agostin Schmidt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de curtimento bioleather e o curtimentocom sais de cromo, em peles de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis. As peles foram retiradas com o auxílio de uma máquina, identificadas e congeladas. Em seguida, foram curtidas por meio de duas técnicas diferentes. O passo seguinte foi retirada dos corpos de prova, que foram levados para o laboratório, climatizado em torno de 23ºC e umidade relativa, do ar de 50%, conforme NBR 10455 (1988, por 24 horas. Para os testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e à determinação da força de rasgamento progressivo, utilizou-se o dinamômetro EMIC. Foram retiradas amostras da região dorsal do couro para análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. As amostras foram secas em ponto crítico com CO2 e metalizadas com íons de ouro-paládio. Em seguida as amostras foram elétron-micrografados com o JEOL-JSM 5410. Observou-se o entrelaçamento e sobreposição das camadas das fibras colágenas, que proporcionam maior resistência ao couro, constatada pelos testes realizados. Os couros curtidos com a técnica bioleather apresentaram maiores valores no teste de tração (20,45 N/mm2 em comparação ao cromo (12,32 N/mm2. Não houve diferença na elongação entre os tratamentos (bioleather = 72,52%; cromo = 84,74%. Para o teste de rasgamento progressivo, o curtimento ao cromo foi superior (26,28 N/mm, comparado ao bioleather (11,96 N/mm. Entretanto, os dois curtimentos podem ser utilizados nas peles dessa espécie de peixe para a confecção de vestuários.The objective of the work was to evaluate the tanning technique to bioleather and with chromium salts, in carp mirror skins (Cyprinus carpio specularis. The skins wore removed by means of a machine, identified and congealed. Next they were tanned by the two techniques. The test bodies wore removed and taken to the laboratory climatized around 23ºC and relative humidity of the 50% air, as ABNT

  3. Responses of biomarkers of a standardized (Cyprinus carpio) and a native (Pimelodella laticeps) fish species after in situ exposure in a periurban zone of Luján river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Luján River basin, which is located in the northwest area of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, receives different anthropogenic inputs before reaching the Río de la Plata estuary. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse impact of the river in the middle part of the basin. To this end, an in situ cage assay was conducted in two sites of the river (S1 and S2) near Luján city, and the responses of hepatic biomarkers of both a standardized (Cyprinus carpio) and a native (Pimelodella laticeps) species were evaluated. The biomarkers studied were the condition factor and liver somatic indices (LSI), the enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (Vtg) proteins. After 14 days, LSI and GST activity increased, and TBARS levels decreased in both species exposed at S1 and S2. In addition, exposure at both sites promoted an increase in SOD activity and CYP1A induction in C. carpio, while Vtg expression was observed only at S1. A shorter exposure period (7 days) caused an initial response only at S2 mediated only by CAT in P. laticeps. Finally, our results demonstrate that a 14-day period of in situ exposure in Luján River could lead to antioxidant and biotransformation processes in C. carpio and to phase II biotransformation responses in P. laticeps. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  5. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  6. (Cyprinus carpio) diets by protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    nutritional value of HM replacing the protein in SBM in the diets of carp fingerlings. Details ... 1000. Composition (g/kg). Dry matter. 891.2. 887.0. 885.3. 890.0. Crude protein. 371.0. 370.2. 369.6. 373.2. Crude fat. 165.5. 170.0. 168.8. 173.3. Crude ash. 72.0 ..... Raw and heat treated Culban (Vicia peregrine) seeds as dietary.

  7. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 µg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol.

  8. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  9. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyprinus carpio carpio, Following Exposure to Graded ... Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), ... anthropogenic sources [2]. ..... environmental estrogens. –. Environ. Health. Perspect.1997; 105: 418-422. 2. ... humans. Environ Health Perspect1993; 101: 378–384. 10. Guidelines for the Care and ...

  10. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions fortified with enzymatic hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4 L for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min to yield different...

  11. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; García, E; Paniagua, J M; Rodríguez, A

    2009-03-01

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of (3)H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant.

  12. Efeitos do endosulfano em concentrações subletais em carpas (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758: Análises morfométricas, histológicas e ultraestrutural e avaliação da atividade da colinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Salvo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, has been banned by most developed countries, although it is still produced, sold and used in developing countries. Used for control in crops, as well as for insect control in public health programs in some countries, its effects on the environment and its toxicity are still in discussion. For some researchers, its bioaccumulation in terrestrial organisms is considered irrelevant but for aquatic life it should be considered carefully. The present research work was to carry out an study on the effects of sublethal concentrations of endosulfan on the fresh water fish carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758. The fishes were exposed during 15 days to 0.001 mg/L of endosulfan using dimethylsulfoxide 0.1% (DMSO as solvent. The acetylcholinesterase activity on the brain and axial muscle, as well as liver morphometric, histopathologic and ultrastructural analysis were studied. The hepatic somatic index and the livers weight showed smaller values when compared with the control groups, besides being also observed histopathological and ultrastructural alterations. It has not been observed significant alterations in the cholinesterase activity of both brain and striated muscle. These results suggest that the organochloride endosulfan caused toxic effects in the hepatic metabolism of the fish exposed to it in sub lethal doses.

  13. Differential enrichment of TTF-I and Tip5 in the T-like promoter structures of the rDNA contribute to the epigenetic response of Cyprinus carpio during environmental adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardocci, Gino; Simonet, Nicolas G; Navarro, Cristina; Längst, Gernot; Alvarez, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To ensure homeostasis, ectothermic organisms adapt to environmental variations through molecular mechanisms. We previously reported that during the seasonal acclimatization of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, molecular and cellular functions are reprogrammed, resulting in distinctive traits. Importantly, the carp undergoes a drastic rearrangement of nucleolar components during adaptation. This ultrastructural feature reflects a fine modulation of rRNA gene transcription. Specifically, we identified the involvement of the transcription termination factor I (TTF-I) and Tip-5 (member of nucleolar remodeling complex, NoRC) in the control of rRNA transcription. Our results suggest that differential Tip5 enrichment is essential for silencing carp ribosomal genes and that the T0 element is key for regulating the ribosomal gene during the acclimatization process. Interestingly, the expression and content of Tip5 were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Since carp ribosomal gene expression is lower in the winter than in summer, and considering that expression concomitantly occurs with nucleolar ultrastructural changes of the acclimatization process, these results indicate that Tip5 importantly contributes to silencing the ribosomal genes. In conclusion, the current study provides novel evidence on the contributions of TTF-I and NoRC in the environmental reprogramming of ribosomal genes during the seasonal adaptation process in carp.

  14. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Garcia, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical Forest Engineering School, University of Extremadura, 10600 (Plasencia) Caceres (Spain); Paniagua, J.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic School, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of {sup 3}H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant.

  15. Işıklı Gölü'ndeki (Çivril-Denizli Sazan Populasyonu (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758'nun Büyüme Özellikleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Apaydın Yağcı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı Işıklı Gölü’ndeki sazan populasyonunun (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 büyüme özelliklerini incelemektir. Ocak - Aralık 2004 tarihleri arasında yakalanan toplam 158 adet sazan örneği yakalanmış ve erkek: dişi oranı 0.92:1.00 olarak bulunmuştur. Çatal boyları 11.8-80.0 cm ve ağırlıkları ise 36.0-9700.0 g arasında değişmiştir. Bireylerin yarıdan fazlası (%53.2 21.0-41.0 cm arasındaki boy gruplarında temsil edilmiştir. İncelenen örnekler I-XIV yaşları arasında bulunmuştur. Dişi ve erkek karışımı tüm bireyler için boy - ağırlık ilişkisi W=0.035*L2.841 ve büyüme parametreleri ise; L∞= 108.40, k=0.101ve to= -0.221 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ortalama kondisyon faktörü ise 1.920 olarak bulunmuştur

  16. Vitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response potentially through the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Yin, Long; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2015-11-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (P<0·05) and resulted in a significant loss of cell viability (P<0·05). LPS exposure increased (P<0·05) the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), which was decreased by pre-treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3) in a dose-dependent manner (P<0·05). Further results showed that pre-treatment with 1,25D3 down-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (P<0·05), suggesting potential mechanisms against LPS-induced inflammatory response. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of LPS significantly increased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in the intestine of carp (P<0·05). Pre-treatment of fish with vitamin D3 protected the fish intestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (P<0·05). These observations suggest that vitamin D could inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response in juvenile Jian carp in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D is mediated at least in part by TLR4-Myd88 signalling pathways in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp.

  17. Molecular characterization of a fish-specific toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Evolutionary relationship and induced expression upon immune stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Yang, Guiwen; Ma, Fei; Li, Ting; Yang, Huiting; Rombout, Jan H W M; An, Liguo

    2017-04-01

    In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogens-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and represent an efficient first line of defense against invading pathogens. TLR22 is one of the fish-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs), identified in a variety of fish species. In this study, we report the cloning and identification of a TLR22 cDNA from the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The full-length CcTLR22 cDNA was 3301 bp long, including a 32 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame (ORF) of 2838 bp and a 432 bp 3'-UTR.The CcTLR22 protein was found to comprise a signal peptide, 16 LRR domains, a LRRCT domain in the extracellular region and a TIR domain in the cytoplasmic region, which fits with the characteristic TLR domain architecture. The genomic organization of CcTLR22 was identified, which was encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that all known teleost TLR22 members were clustered into an independent clade of the TLR22 family, and showed high amino acid identities with other fish TLRs. Real-time PCR assay showed that CcTLR22 mRNA was expressed in almost all tissues examined, while the levels obviously varied among different tissues. When challenged with poly(I:C) (a viral model) or A. hydrophila bacteria, the expression level of CcTLR22 was up-regulated in a variety of common carp tissues. These results indicate that CcTLR22 plays a significant role in systemic as well as mucosal defence after viral or bacterial stimulation or infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on CCl4-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) through inhibition of the nf-kƁ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Jia, Rui; Du, Jingliang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chunyun; Gu, Zhengyan; Yin, Guojun

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio. Jian), an acute liver damage model was established in this study. The viability of PCLS, levels of anti-oxidases in liver homogenates, expression of inflammation-related genes including nuclear factor-κB (nf-κB)/c-rel, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos), interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-6 (il-6) and interleukin-8 (il-8), and protein levels of (nf-κB)/c-rel in liver tissues were measured. The results showed that pretreatment of PCLS with GA at 5 and 10 μg/mL for 6 h significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of CCl 4 . GA attenuated CCl 4 -induced oxidative stress in PCLS through promoting the recovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and inhibiting malondialdehyde (MDA) synthesis. In inflammatory response, GA at both 5 and 10 μg/mL significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines including nf-kƁ/c-rel, inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, and the protein level of Nf-kƁ/C-rel induced by CCl 4 . Furthermore, treatment with pyrrolyl dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 4 μg/mL), an inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor nf-kB, significantly inhibited nf-kB levels, and transcription of downstream cytokines inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, also the viability of PCLS was significantly increased. These results indicated that GA suppressed inflammation and reduced cytotoxicity by inhibiting the nf-kƁ signaling pathway, and plays a role in liver protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions fortified with enzymatic hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-12-15

    Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4L for 30, 60, 90, and 120min to yield different degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All the hydrolysates showed in vitro antioxidant activity in terms of radical scavenging and chelating properties. CRPH-containing emulsions had significantly smaller droplets than control (pemulsions. It also prevented the loss of tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). CRPH retarded primary and secondary oxidation in emulsions as evidenced by peroxide values (PVs) and secondary volatile oxidation products, respectively. All the mentioned effects were compared among CRPHs with varying DH (7.6-10.2%). However, CRPH-containing emulsions had high levels of 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-butanone after storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  2. Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar'deki Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Sazan'nun Metazoon Parazitleri Üzerinde Anatomik, Morfolojik ve Ekolojik Bir Araştırma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Levent Kutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 13 Mart 2004 ile 28 Mayıs 2005 tarihleri arasında yapılan bu araştırmada, Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar’nden yakalanan 71 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (sazan’nun metazoon parazitleri üzerinde incelemeler yapılmıştır. Konak balıkta üç parazit türü tanımlanmıştır: Gyrodactylus elegans, Nordmann, 1832; Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller ve Van Cleave, 1932 (Monogenoidea, Plathelmintes; Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoidea, Plathelmintes. Bu türlerden G. elegans 16 balığın yüzgeçlerinde (% 22,5; 7,6 parazit/balık ve 2 balığın solungaçlarında (% 2,8; 5,0 parazit/balık, D. extensus 65 balığın solungaçlarında (% 91,5; 22,1 parazit/balık, B. acheilognathi ise 10 balığın bağırsaklarında (% 14,0; 10,8 parazit/balık görülmüştür. Konak balıktaki dominant parazit türü D. extensus’tur. İlgili parazite ait en yüksek enfeksiyon oranına ve parazit sayısına kış aylarında, en düşük değerlere ise ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında rastlanılmıştır. D. extensus ile enfekte olma oranı küçük boylu sazanlarda büyüklere göre daha fazladır. G. elegans, orta boylu sazanların yüzgeçlerinde ilkbaharda, solungaçlarında ise kış aylarında kaydedilmiştir. Küçük ve orta boylu sazanlarda görülen B. acheilognathi enfeksiyonu kış aylarında yüksek, ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında ise düşük bulunmuştur

  3. Histopathological alterations in spleen of freshwater fish Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic ecosystems in areas with intense mining activity are often subject to cyanide contamination; the present study was aimed to evaluate the harmful effects of sodium cyanide on histoarchitechtural aspect of spleen of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio using an in vivo approach. The fishes were exposed to a sublethal ...

  4. ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein source for mirror carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system aquarium operating at 26 ± 0.3 °C, to evaluate the nutritive value of Vicia peregrina seed as a possible protein source in the diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g ...

  5. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio in fresh and frozen storage conditions for 16 months was determined. Aerobic plate counts (APC) ranged from 1.8 ± 2.7 × 109 to 1.1 ± 2.9 x 104 colony forming unit (CFU) g-1, 2.0 ± 2.1 x 1010 to 6.1 ± 1.4 ...

  6. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  7. Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, D.; Đorđević, V.; Ćirković, M.

    2017-09-01

    Common carp is the most important commercial fish species in Serbia. This fish is a valuable source of nutritive components and plays a role in healthy human nutrition. This review evaluates the nutritive quality of common carp including proximate and fatty acid compositions as well as their effects on human health. The fat content and fatty acid composition of carp have been shown to vary due to different environmental factors and particularly due to nutrition. Technology of production and composition of planktonic and benthic organisms in fish ponds have been recognised as significant factors affecting carp meat quality and desirable chemical and fatty acid composition. Carp meat quality but also production parameters and fish health are positively influenced by a balanced feed mixture. Due to the low content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol plus high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, common carp meat consumption could be linked with reduced risk of different heart diseases in humans. Also, fish proteins can have many beneficial roles in the preservation of human health. This paper emphasises the importance of consumption of common carp in order to prevent many diseases and preserve human health.

  8. Myosatellite cells in muscle of growing carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, J.T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Myosatellite cells are small spindle shaped myogenic cells situated between the sarcolemma and the basal lamina that surrounds every muscle fibre. Based on information from mammals and birds, myosatellite cells are considered to play an important role in postlarval muscle growth in fish.

  9. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The present study reports the acute and sublethal toxicity of lead nitrate on plasma cortisol and prolactin level of a freshwater fish, ..... APHA (1998). In: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edition. American Public Health Association,. Washington, DC. Bern HN, Madsen SS ...

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in Cyprinus carpio from Sidi Salem Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muscle, liver and gill tissues were analysed by gas chromatography for the determination of OCPs. Samples had variable concentrations of OCPs, ranging from 2.26 to 17.93 ng g-1, 0.59 to 42.67 ng g-1 and 3.30 to 84.27 ng g-1, which were isolated from gills, muscle and liver, respectively. The organochlorine pesticide ...

  11. REARING CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio IN CLOSED RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Opačak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each with a control group (C. Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1, test group B (3 tanks x 500 l consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1, and the control group (C was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stocked by 800 000 larvae•ha-1 under standard production conditions. In this research, basic physical and chemical water parameters were controlled (temperature, oxygen, pH, total ammonia and nitrites. Initial measuring of carp larvae total length (TL was conducted prior to their placement into tanks (N=120. On the fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of research 20 larvae (N=140 were taken out of every tank as well as out of control group and measured. Feeding with live feed began on the third day after hatching (larval TL 6.00±0.36 mm. Ten minutes after feeding live feed to larvae for the first time, 20 larvae (N=120 were taken out of every tank and a high portion of larvae that accepted live feed (89.17±3.76% was determined by a magnifying glass. Feeding artificial feed began on the seventh day after the hatching. After ten minutes, a high portion of larvae who accepted artificial feed (96.67±2.58% was determined. Since the end of the research, the determined length increment (ITL per day was 0.41±0.04 mm, a very high survival rate was established (group A: 96%, group B: 93%. Feeding frequency was four times a day in five-hour intervals (at 06:00, 11:00,16:00 and 21:00 hours. The research was terminated after ten feeding days due to deteriorating condition of zoohygienic filter. The total of 3807 g of live feed and 1080 g of artificial feed was used.

  12. REARING CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio) IN CLOSED RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM (RAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelko Opačak; Jurica Jug Dujaković; Siniša Ozimec; Ivan Stević; Dinko Jelkić; Roman Safner

    2012-01-01

    Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each) with a control group (C). Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l) consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1), test group B (3 tanks x 500 l) consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1), and the control group (C) was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stoc...

  13. Détermination des caractéristiques de maturité sexuelle du Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    L'âge, la taille et le poids de maturité sexuelle ont été étudiés sur 200 Cyprinus carpio à partir de 3 mois d'âge en grossissement dans un étang à Batié (climat Soudano-guinéen, Ouest-Cameroun). L'abattage et la dissection de 20 spécimens choisis au hasard tous les deux mois ont été réalisés sur une période de 19 mois ...

  14. Free Cinema: o elogio do homem comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Antakly de Mello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga o movimento documentarista "Free Cinema", que integrou a onda de renovação do cinema inglês durante o período pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial. "Free Cinema" é o nome de uma mostra de filmes organizada em fevereiro de 1956 no National Film Theatre em Londres, e reiterada por outras cinco vezes até a derradeira sexta edição em março de 1959. O termo se refere também ao movimento iniciado pelos diretores Lindsay Anderson, Karel Reisz e Tony Richardson, organizadores da primeira mostra (como veículo de divulgação de seus filmes e autores do 'manifesto por um cinema livre', uma reação vigorosa à estagnação do cinema inglês nos anos 1950. O artigo, além de traçar um rápido panorama do cinema inglês do pós-guerra, oferece uma discussão sobre a especificidade do realismo do Free Cinema, ligado a uma preocupação essencial com a vida quotidiana do 'homem comum'.

  15. Cartografar é traçar um plano comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kastrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de campo sobre produção da subjetividade enfrenta o problema de construir conhecimento envolvendo pesquisadores e pesquisados, com territórios e semióticas singulares. Surgem questões relativas ao protagonismo dos participantes e a como traçar com eles um plano comum, garantindo o caráter participativo da pesquisa. No contexto do método da cartografia, o artigo tem como objetivo tratar do tema do comum num duplo aspecto. Num primeiro, discute o acesso ao plano comum. Com base em Gilles Deleuze e Felix Guattari, tal plano não é dito homogêneo nem reúne atores que manteriam entre si relações de identidade, mas opera comunicação entre singularidades, sendo pré-individual e coletivo. Num segundo aspecto, aponta que, enquanto pesquisa-intervenção, a cartografia se compromete com a criação de um mundo comum e heterogêneo. O artigo mostra que o traçado do comum tem como diretriz metodológica a tranversalidade e examina os procedimentos de participação, inclusão e tradução.

  16. Heterotopias, mundo comum e as bibliotecas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Moura

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe um estudo conceitual sobre as bibliotecas públicas em contexto brasileiro. Para isso, analisou-se o papel social das bibliotecas públicas no Brasil a partir dos conceitos de heterotopia de Foucault e de mundo comum, proposto por Arendt. Como principais resultados, chamou-se a atenção para a correlação potencial entre os conceitos de heterotopia e mundo comum na concepção de bibliotecas públicas e suas repercussões nas experiências e memórias afetivas dos usuários da Biblioteca Pública Mário de Andrade, em São Paulo (SP, e da Biblioteca Pública Estadual Luiz de Bessa, em Belo Horizonte (MG.

  17. Production and economic results of intensive carp (Cyprinus Carpio farming in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carp production in Serbia is traditionally conducted in large area fish farms under a semi-intensive farming system. Total area under fish farms in Serbia amounts to approximately 11 thousand hectares, with 8.5 thousand hectares being under exploitation each year. In 2004, a significant intensification of production began at fish farms in Serbia which have traditionally organized their production under a classic semi-intensive farming system. Intensification of production was undertaken with partial or complete feeding with pelleted complete feeds. That way carp production per area unit (kg/ha was increased by over 50%. Apart from intensification by means of using the complete extruded feeds, construction of specialized fish farms for intensive carp production started in 2003. At this moment (2016 their area amounts to several hundred hectares. Data from intensive carp fish farms indicate that production of one- and two-year fish has been approximately 3t/ha in the period from 2003 until today, with a mild increase during the last couple of years. With the purpose of determining the cost effectiveness of investments in fish ponds for intensive carp production two organization-economic models have been analyzed in the study. The models have been formed based on in line with the specific features of the Serbian carp farming, which has been analyzed both on the basis of data obtained from the scientific and specialist literature but also from the production practice. Models of intensive carp production in technical and production sense have been defined in the study and production plans have been prepared. Therefore, based on such defined models, dynamic methods have been prepared for assessment of economic effects of the investments. The results of the analysis have demonstrated that investment in intensive carp production on 10ha fish farm is not, and on 50ha fish farm is barely economically justifiable, as well as methods for improvement of economic effectiveness.

  18. Fasting goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, use different metabolic strategies when swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-11-01

    Fish need to balance their energy use between digestion and other activities, and different metabolic compromises can be pursued. We examined the effects of fasting (7 days) on metabolic strategies in goldfish and common carp at different swimming levels. Fasting had no significant effect on swimming performance (U(crit)) of either species. Feeding and swimming profoundly elevated total ammonia (T(amm)) excretion in both species. In fed goldfish, this resulted in increased ammonia quotients (AQ), and additionally plasma and tissue ammonia levels increased with swimming reflecting the importance of protein contribution for aerobic metabolism. In carp, AQ did not change since oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and T(amm) excretion followed the same trend. Plasma ammonia did not increase with swimming suggesting a balance between production and excretion rate except for fasted carp at U(crit). While both species relied on anaerobic metabolism during exhaustive swimming, carp also showed increased lactate levels during routine swimming. Fasting almost completely depleted glycogen stores in carp, but not in goldfish. Both species used liver protein for basal metabolism during fasting and muscle lipid during swimming. In goldfish, feeding metabolism was sacrificed to support swimming metabolism with similar MO(2) and U(crit) between fasted and fed fish, whereas in common carp feeding increased MO(2) at U(crit) to sustain feeding and swimming independently. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimalisering van de groei bij de karper (Cyprinus carpio L.) : een op de visteelt gericht onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.A.

    1974-01-01

    In course of time carp culture - in Europe already practiced since the Middle Ages - has been subjected to different patterns of intensification e.g. fertilization of ponds and supplementary feeding. Mechanisation in pond farm management has also proved to be important.

    The aim of

  20. Growth of mycotal species on the eggs of Cyprinus carpio in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-11

    . This applies mainly to freshwater aquaculture and shrimp production, and ..... Sta, starch; Suc, sucrose; Tre, trehalose. substrates of plant and animal origin. Our previous study discussed our findings of Allomyces arbuscula ...

  1. Characterisation of fish leucocytes : an immunocytochemical and functional study in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans - van Diepen, J.C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against carp serum immunoglobulin (Ig), WCIs or carp thymocytes (T), WCTs were used for the characterisation of carp leucocytes. Unfortunately, all WCTs and some WCIs react with common carbohydrate determinants present on all leucocytes and Ig. Most

  2. Effects of selected tricyclic antidepressants on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Blahová, J.; Doubková, V.; Maršálek, P.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Tichý, F.; Skládaná, M.; Fiorino, E.; Mikula, P.; Večerek, V.; Faggio, C.; Svobodová, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, October (2017), s. 1072-1080 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mixture toxicity * Amitriptyline * Nortriptyline * Clomipramine * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  3. Uptake of sediment-bound bioavailable polychlorobiphenyls by benthivorous carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    It is unclear whether accumulation of sediment-bound chemicals in benthivorous fish depends on the degree of sequestration in the sediment like it does for invertebrates. Here, we report on the potential of slow and fast desorbing sediment-bound polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) fractions for accumulation in

  4. PENENTUAN TINGKAT TOLERANSI IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio L TERHADAP LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI SASIRANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrifadah Elrifadah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research were to know the tolerance rate of common carp to liquid waste of sasirangan industries, effect of liquid waste of sasirangan industries to common carp mortality , water quality media, and common carp gills under exposures in 96 hours. Method in this research was Static Bioassay.  Tolerance Limit Media (TLM or Lethal Concentration 50 % (LC50 in 96 hours used to determine of common carp tolerance rate with toxicity test.   Before toxicity test, preliminary test be done for determination of  upper and lower limit concentration. Completely randomize design with 5 treatments and 3 replicates was used in this research.  Application of liquid waste concentration as the treatment was K without liquid waste (0%, A (4,5%, B (5,5%, C (6,5%, and D (7,5%.  The data analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (Anova, and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT.          Result of the research showed that tolerance rate of common carp to liquid waste (LC50-96 hours was in concentration 4,9%.  Mortality rate was 0%; 33,33% and 76,66% for treatment K, A, and B respectively, but for treatment C and D reaches 100 %.    Anova and DMRT result indicated that liquid waste of sasirangan industries had significant effect (P< 0,05 to mortality rate of common carp.  Liquid waste also affect  water quality media such as temperature, pH, BOD, COD, NH3, Zn, and fenol, all of the parameters increasingly, except DO get decrease.  Based of histological analyze, liquid waste had impact to the gills. The  higher the liquid waste concentration makes the higher the damage rate.

  5. Classical and molecular cytogenetics of Khawia sinensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosová, Martina; Oros, Mikuláš

    2012-05-01

    Chromosomes of the invasive tapeworm Khawia sinensis (Caryophyllidea), the specific parasite of common carp, were analyzed by means of conventional Giemsa staining and using fluorescent DAPI and YOYO-1 dyes, silver staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe. The karyotype is composed of eight pairs of metacentric and telocentric chromosomes (2n = 16, n = 3m + 5t, TCL = 42.54 μm). Constitutive heterochromatin was located at pericentromeric regions of all pairs, except for the largest metacentric pair (no. 1), which possessed no DAPI-positive band. FISH with rDNA probe revealed that both homologues of chromosome pair no. 6 carry a cluster of ribosomal arrays, which were located interstitially close to the centromere. Present results are compared with previous cytogenetic data on Khawia spp., and comments are made on the karyotypes with respect to their phylogenetic links.

  6. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression of Aquaporin Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Lin; Feng, Jingyan; Xu, Jian; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid; Li, Xuejun; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (Aqps) are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Among vertebrate species, Aqps are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino acid sequence. These proteins are vital for maintaining water homeostasis in living organisms, especially for aquatic animals such as teleost fish. Studies on teleost Aqps are mainly limited to several model species with diploid genomes. Common carp, which has a tetraploidized genome, is one of the most common aquaculture species being adapted to a wide range of aquatic environments. The complete common carp genome has recently been released, providing us the possibility for gene evolution of aqp gene family after whole genome duplication. In this study, we identified a total of 37 aqp genes from common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of aqps are highly conserved. Comparative analysis was performed across five typical vertebrate genomes. We found that almost all of the aqp genes in common carp were duplicated in the evolution of the gene family. We postulated that the expansion of the aqp gene family in common carp was the result of an additional whole genome duplication event and that the aqp gene family in other teleosts has been lost in their evolution history with the reason that the functions of genes are redundant and conservation. Expression patterns were assessed in various tissues, including brain, heart, spleen, liver, intestine, gill, muscle, and skin, which demonstrated the comprehensive expression profiles of aqp genes in the tetraploidized genome. Significant gene expression divergences have been observed, revealing substantial expression divergences or functional divergences in those duplicated aqp genes post the latest WGD event. To some extent, the gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp aqp gene family provides an essential genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological, physiological, and evolutionary studies in common carp.

  7. Lipid composition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm possessing different cryoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horokhovatskyi, Y; Sampels, S; Cosson, J; Linhart, O; Rodina, M; Fedorov, P; Blecha, M; Dzyuba, B

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the lipid composition of plasma membranes in carp sperm with different post-thaw motility. The approach adapted for carp sperm cryopreservation, which involves the selection of the most effective protocol for individual males by comparing two cryoprotective media, was applied to the cryopreservation procedure. Sperm motility prior to freezing was greater than 80% but decreased to 40% in one group and to 10% in another group following cryopreservation. Lipid content of fresh sperm in all groups was analysed by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography, with significant differences in phospholipid content, cholesterol and free fatty acids detected between groups, whereas the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was extremely similar between groups (0.52 ± 0.038 and 0.52 ± 0.022). Increasing concentrations of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated acids and decreasing concentrations of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids were negatively correlated (P sperm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  9. Vliv chovu na kvalitu tuku kapra obecného (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíc, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    It is the sad fact, that in the Czech Republic, consumption of fish is very low compared with the European Union average, but, at the same time, it belongs to the countries with the highest incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Sufficient intake of n-3 poly-unsaturated and highly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA and HUFA) is important in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Fish is the main source of these compounds in the human diet. This thesis examined factors influencing n-3 P...

  10. In-depth proteomic analysis of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of protein fractionation by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 348 proteins in carp spermatozoa, most of which were for the first time identified in fish. Dynein, tubulin, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, adenosylhomocysteinase, NKEF-B, brain type creatine kinase, mitochondrial ATP synthase, and valosin containing enzyme represent high abundance proteins in carp spermatozoa. These proteins are functionally related to sperm motility and energy production as well as the protection of sperm against oxidative injury and stress. Moreover, carp spermatozoa are equipped with functionally diverse proteins involved in signal transduction, transcription, translation, protein turnover and transport. About 15% of proteins from carp spermatozoa identified here were also detected in seminal plasma which may be a result of leakage from spermatozoa into seminal plasma, adsorption of seminal plasma proteins on spermatozoa surface, and expression in both spermatozoa and cells secreting seminal plasma proteins. The availability of a catalog of carp sperm proteins provides substantial advances for an understanding of sperm function and for future development of molecular diagnostic tests of carp sperm quality, the evaluation of which is currently limited to certain parameters such as sperm count, morphology and motility or viability. The mass spectrometry data are available at ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD000877 (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6019/PXD000877). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beta-Glucan induced immune modulation of wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    injury as well as numerous diseases can severely damage fish tissues. The work presented in this thesis examines for the first time the immunomodulatory effects of β-glucans during wound healing processes in common carp. First, in order to choose the most suitable methodology for the measurement...... but not in animals. β-glucans are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies based in mammalian systems have shown...... the importance of fibroblasts, macrophages, reactive oxygen species (especially hydrogen peroxide) and certain cytokines during wound healing processes. In fish however, only a few studies have been devoted tissue regeneration and modulation of cell proliferation during wound healing, even though mechanical...

  12. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    of the experiment the fish were kept in ordinary tap water or in tap water supplemented with two different β–glucans to a final concentration of 0.1µg/ml. Skin and muscle tissue from wounded and unwounded areas were collected at 24 hours, 3 days and 2 weeks post injury and subjected to real-time RT...... weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  13. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    of the experiment the fish were kept in ordinary tap water or in tap water supplemented with two different β–glucans to a final concentration of 0.1µg/ml. Skin and muscle tissue from wounded and unwounded areas were collected at 24 hours, 3 days and 2 weeks post injury and subjected to real-time RT...... weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  14. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLANKTONIC CLADOCERAN DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FRY FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  15. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas entre cada inyección. Con la dosis de 0.5 mg/ml/kg, se encontró un aumento en el número de gonadotrofas de 382% y de 123% en el volumen, en comparación con los controles. La dosis de 1.0 mg/ml/kg presentó un aumento de 704% en el número de células y de 152% en el volumen celular. Con 1.5 mg/ml/kg se causó que las gonadotrofas aumentarán 171% en número y 106% en volumen. En general, las gónadas de los grupos experimentales presentaron estadios más avanzados de espermatogénesis. Nuestros resultados demuestran que ocho aplicaciones de reserpina provocan el incremento, tanto del número como del volumen, de células gonadotropas

  16. A common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line shares morphological and functional characteristics with macrophages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A carp leucocyte cell line (CLC), originating from peripheral blood, was characterised to assess its suitability for studies into carp macrophage functions. The cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised against carp head kidney macrophages. Other macrophage characteristics observed were:

  17. CXC chemokines and leukocyte chemotaxis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Stolte, H.H.; Flik, G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2003-01-01

    CXC chemokines, structurally recognizable by the position of four conserved cysteine residues, are prominent mediators of chemotaxis. Here we report a novel carp CXC chemokine obtained through homology cloning and compare it with fish orthologues genes and with a second, recently elucidated, carp

  18. Hypotonic treatment prior to freezing improves cryoresistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Yamaner, Gunes; Bondarenko, Olga; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Bondarenko, Volodymir; Shaliutina, Anna; Linhart, Otomar

    2013-04-01

    Post-thaw motility rate, curvilinear velocity (VCL), and fertilizing ability of carp spermatozoa can be improved by short-term treatment with moderately hypotonic media prior to freezing. Before cryopreservation, carp sperm samples were treated with NaCl solutions of differing osmolalities, ranging from 100 to 300mOsmkg(-1) for 10s, after which final osmolality was adjusted to 300mOsmkg(-1). The resulting sperm suspension was diluted 1:1 with cryoprotective medium and frozen using conventional techniques. Control samples were treated in the same way, without the pre-dilution step. Post-thaw motility rate in samples pretreated with 200mOsmkg(1) NaCl was significantly higher (44±10%) than in controls (21±15%) and samples pretreated with 100mOsmkg(-1) (25±15%) and 300mOsmkg(-1) (25±12%) NaCl. Significantly higher mean VCL were observed in samples pretreated with 100, 150, and 200mOsmkg(-1) (119±24, 118±22, and 115±32μms(-1), respectively) compared to controls (92±27μms(-1)). Fertilization rate of frozen-thawed sperm treated with 200mOsmkg(-1) solution of 2M NaCl was significantly higher (25±18%) than that of sperm treated with 300mOsmkg(-1) NaCl solutions (12±7%) and the control (9±6%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Germ cell development in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkoop, van A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of larval and juvenile gonads of a teleost fish, the common carp, with special attention to the differentiation of the primordial germ cells. The early gonadal development has received relatively little attention, hitherto, as the research on fish

  20. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio = New perspectives in fish research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity

  1. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure forms of Amur carp and in the provision of carp farms with appropriate genetic material for its use in the breeding selection.

  2. Effect of dietary L-tryptophan on osmotic stress tolerance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas

    2010-12-01

    Common carp juveniles were fed two types of diet (control: 0.1% tryptophan and TRP: 0.6% tryptophan) over 15 days. Thereafter, both groups were directly subjected to osmotic challenge (from 0 to 10 ppt) for 168 h. Blood samples were collected at -240, 0, 6, 24, 72 and 168 h after challenge. Survival and serum cortisol, glucose, sodium and chloride levels were measured to determine stress response and osmoregulation condition. While TRP group showed no mortality until 168 h, cumulative mortality was near 100% at 72 h after challenge in control group. Feeding tryptophan-supplemented diet led to increase in prechallenge cortisol, but not glucose, sodium and chloride values at -240 h that stayed elevated until 0 h after challenge. After challenge, cortisol and glucose values did not significantly affected by time of sampling but type of diet and diet×time interaction. Sodium values significantly affected by diet type and time of sampling but not their interaction. Chloride values significantly affected by time of sampling but not diet type and their interaction. Control group had higher cortisol, glucose and sodium than TRP at each time of sampling. Control and TRP group showed increasing and decreasing pattern in cortisol and glucose values when experiment progressed after osmotic challenge. Both group showed increasing pattern in sodium and chloride values when experiment progressed after osmotic challenge. Results indicated that tryptophan supplementation enhanced salt water tolerance of carp that is due to increase in basal cortisol and anti-stress effect of tryptophan and possibly increase in serotonergic activity.

  3. Outcomes of repeated exposure of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to cyanobacteria extract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Krejčí, R.; Štěrba, F.; Tichý, F.; Kubala, Lukáš; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2004), s. 259-265 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/01/P027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : erythrocytes * leukocytes * plasma enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2004

  4. ATTEMPTS OF INDUCTION OF SEX-REVERSAL IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. KOI USING TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GROZEA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available sexreversalprotocols to obtain inverted males (XX and which are the consequencesusing this hormone for koi carp. To induce sex-reversal, we chose to feed a normalmixed-sex progeny of koi carp with food mixed with 30 (V1, 60 (V2 and 90 (V3 mgTU / kg food, starting at the age of 30 days for a period of 60 days. When fishes had3 months old, they were moved into a bigger aquarium and they were fed withouthormones until the age of 6 months when some of fishes were sacrifices to takesamples for histological studies. At this age the main morphometric traits wereregistered. Our results indicated that the mortality percent raise dependent by thequantity of TU from food, with a maximum value in variant V3 (90 mg TU / kg foodwhere it reached 64% in koi carps until the age of 3 months. Total length was thesingle trait that registered significant differences (p0.01 and p0.05 whencomparisons among control and all the other experimental variants were made. Thissuggests that TU treatment significantly reduced length growing of the carps even itwas administered in dose of 30, 60 or 90 mg / kg food. Supplementation of food withTU modified sex ratio in studied fishes.

  5. TOKSISITAS SERTA POTENSI BIOAKUMULASI DAN BIOELIMINASI INSEKTISIDA ENDOSULFAN PADA IKAN MAS ( Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan insektisida endosulfan dalam bidang pertanian berpotensi untuk mencemari sumberdaya dan lingkungan perikanan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui toksisitas serta potensi bioakumulasi dan bioeliminasi insektisida endosulfan pada ikan mas. Hewan uji adalah ikan mas berukuran panjang total 3,65 ± 0,247 cm dengan bobot badan 0,81±0,098 g/ekor, bahan uji berupa formulasi insektisida dengan bahan aktif endosulfan 350 g/L. Dilakukan uji toksisitas letal (LC50 dengan metode bioassay untuk waktu pemaparan 24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam; uji bioakumulasi dengan cara memaparkan ikan mas dalam larutan endosulfan pada konsentrasi 0%,10%, 30%, dan 50% dari nilai LC50-96 jam; uji bioeliminasi untuk waktu pemaparan dalam air bersih selama 5, 10, dan 15 hari. Analisis konsentrasi endosulfan dalam air dan ikan dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan gas kromatografi (GC. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa: insektisida endosulfan bersifat sangat toksik terhadap ikan mas dengan nilai LC50-96 jam sebesar 2,42 (2,20-2,65 µg/L; bioakumulasi meningkat dengan bertambahnya konsentrasi dan waktu pemaparan hingga mencapai steady state; semakin tinggi konsentrasi endosulfan dalam air maka nilai biokonsentrasi faktor (BCF akan semakin rendah dan nilai bioeliminasi endosulfan dalam tubuh ikan mas sebesar 0,24% per jam.

  6. UZGOJ LIČINKI ŠARANA (Cyprinus carpio) U RECIRKULACIJSKOM SUSTAVU (RAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jelkić, Dinko; Opačak, Anđelko; Stević, Ivan; Ozimec, Siniša; Jug Dujaković, Jurica; Safner, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Postembrionalni uzgoj šarnskih ličinki u zatvorenom recirkulacijskom sustavu proveden je 2009. godine na ribnjačarstvu Ribnjak d.o.o., Donji Miholjac. Istraživanja su provedena u dvije pokusne skupine (A i B s po tri ponavljanja) s kontrolnom skupinom (C). Pokusnu skupinu A (3 tanka x 250 l) činilo je ukupno 150.000 ličinki (gustoća 200 ličinki•l-1), pokusnu skupinu B (3 tanka x 500 l) činilo je ukupno 600.000 ličinki (gustoća 400 ličinki•l-1), a kao kontrola (C) služio je ribnjak T-6 u stand...

  7. Improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm cryopreservation using a programable freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Gergely; Żarski, Daniel; Kása, Eszter; Staszny, Ádám; Várkonyi, Levente; Kollár, Tímea; Hegyi, Árpád; Bokor, Zoltán; Urbányi, Béla; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-10-01

    The applicability of a programmable freezer for the increased-scale cryopreservation of common carp sperm was investigated. The effect of different equilibration times, cryopreservation methods, extenders, dilution ratios, activating solutions on the post-thaw motility of common carp sperm was investigated. The suitable post-thaw storage time-interval as well as fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm was also examined. The motility, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and straightness (STR) values did not decrease significantly during 60min of equilibration neither in equilibrated nor thawed groups. Motility parameters of thawed sperm were similar using a conventional cryopreservation technique using a polystyrene box [motility (33%), VCL (47μm/s) and STR (88%)] and a programmable freezer: [motility (32%), VCL (54μm/s) and STR (89%)]. The highest motility and VCL was measured with a sugar based extender (grayling extender) at a ratio 1:9 (motility: 52%, VCL: 76μm/s) and 1:20 (motility: 49%, VCL: 76μm/s). The activating solution for cyprinids (ASC) could prolong sperm movement up for 2min. A storage time of six hours following thawing did not have a significant effect on the motility parameters of thawed carp sperm. Agglutination was observed during cryopreservation of an elevated volume of sperm whereas motility 47%, VCL 62μm/s and STR 91% were measured after thawing. Fertilization rate with thawed sperm (32%) was significantly lower compared to the control group (73%). According to our results, the developed method using a programmable freezer is suitable for the cryopreservation of elevated number of straws. However, carp sperm agglutination during freezing may have a negative effect on the fertilizing capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. extract in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmartiwi, Laksmi; Triastuti, Juni; Andriyono, Sapto; Umami, Mardiah Rahma

    2017-02-01

    Many procedures continuously in aquaculture and scientific research like tagging and vaccinating cause pain, involving damaging tissue and also cause stress responses in fish. Stress responses in fish influence liver because liver have vital role to supply energy and metabolism. Histology alteration in liver is caused by stress response like changes of vacuolation hepatocyte and characteristic colour. Triterpenoid was known had hepatoprotective activity. One of marine organism contained triterpenoid was sea cucumber. Result of research showed that liver tissue in fish with injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) as pain stimulus have histopathology damages such as pyknosis (medium damage level) and oedema (heavy damage level) after 8 hour injection. Injected Lidocaine 1mg/fish as analgesic drug have histopathology damages such as oedema (heavy damages level), necrosis and pyknosis (low damages level). Injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) and ethanolic extract of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. dose 5 mg/50 gr body weight shown histopathology damages such as necrosis, edema (medium damage level) and pyknosis (low damage level).

  9. Histopathological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shahafve

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diet on histopathological alterations of the gill, liver, kidney and intestine tissues in common carp. Fish were randomly distributed into 15 tanks, i.e. in five experimental groups; (I control fed with normal diet without solvent and aflatoxin, (II positive control received feed with only solvent, and (III-V fed on diets containing 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 of aflatoxin, respectively. After 21-days, 12 fish per treatment were randomly caught, anesthetized and euthanized. Then, histological sections of the tissues were prepared. The main aflatoxicosis symptoms in the gills were fusion and disorganisation of the secondary gill lamellae, shortening of the secondary lamellae, inflammation of mucous membranes, and exfoliation of the gill epithelium. Liver of the infected fish indicated cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, cellular hypertrophy, formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and necrosis of liver parenchyma. Expansion of Bowman’s space, necrosis of urinary tract, exfoliation and degeneration of the urinary tract epithelium, expansion of the urinary lumen and dilation of the urinary space were observed symptoms in the kidney. Changes in the intestine of the aflatoxin-treated fish were; expansion of goblet cells, necrosis of mucous layers, exfoliation of the mucous epithelium, and bleeding in the intestinal wall. The results indicates that feeding common carp with diets contaminated with aflatoxin, even in low concentrations (≤ 1.4 mg kg-1 feed can cause histopathological damages and disturb their physiological balance.

  10. Β-glucan-induced stimulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The response to pathogens and damage in vertebrates involves a series of organized and highly evolved molecular mechanisms leading to pathogen specific immune reactions and tissue regeneration as the wound healing process. Pathogen and damage‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs) rely o...

  11. Congener distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Llobregat River, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Ana [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Ethel [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: eeeqam@cid.csic.es; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Feral carp were collected at two Spanish rivers, Anoia and Cardener, showing PBDE levels from 29 to 638 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and from 54 to 744 ng/g lw, respectively. Sediments were also collected, showing PBDE contamination between 2 and 10 ng/g dry weight (dw). Differences in PBDE profiles between sediments and fish were noticed. Contribution of BDE-47 in sediment was up to 11%, whereas it contributed 37-90% of PBDEs in fish. Similar results were observed for BDE-154, which was only detected in one sediment sample, but presented high contribution in carp. In contrast, BDE-99 contributed up to 32% in sediments, but it was not detected in fish. Similar results were observed for BDE-153, BDE-183 and BDE-209. The main reason for their concentration decrease or absence in biota may be due to low bioavailability potential or due to biotransformation processes. - Differences in PBDE profiles between sediments and fish were observed, suggesting biotransformation in carp.

  12. Potensi Fitoplankton sebagai Sumber Daya Pakan pada Pemeliharaan Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio di BBPBAT Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Widiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem encountered in producing larvae  is the larvae  that got low due to high mortality. One attempt to overcome this problem is the use of phytoplankton as natural feed. The purpose of this study is to determine phytoplankton community structure and potential as a resource phytoplankton feed on larval rearing carp. The research was conducted in April 2012. The results showed that the phytoplankton found in the larval rearing pond goldfish are Class Bacillariophyceae (1 genera, Chlorophyceae (13 genera, and Cyanophyceae (7 genera. Phytoplankton Chlorophyceae group is a group that has the highest abundance of larval rearing carp pond. Diversity index of phytoplankton in pond carp larvae ranged from 0.65 to 1.64 (Low Diversity. Based on the preponderance index carp larvae utilize phytoplankton as natural feed by selecting the class Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceaea in early growth until the time nursery a preponderance index value respectively 87.76% and 12.23%.

  13. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  14. Combined exposure of carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) to cyanobacterial biomass and white spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikova, Miroslava; Navratil, Stanislav; Papezikova, Ivana; Ambroz, Petr; Vesely, Tomas; Pokorova, Dagmar; Mares, Jan; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Navratil, Lukas; Kopp, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Under environmental conditions, fish can be exposed to multiple stressors including natural toxins and infectious agents at the same time. This study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in fish. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass and an infection agent represented by the white spot disease can combine to enhance the effects on fish. Common carps were divided into four groups, each with 40 specimens for 20 days: control group, cyanobacterial biomass exposed group, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish (Ich) and cyanobacterial biomass-exposed fish + Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish. During the experiment we evaluated the clinical signs, mortality, selected haematological parameters, immune parameters and toxin accumulation. There was no mortality in control fish and cyanobacterial biomass-exposed fish. One specimen died in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish and the combined exposure resulted in the death of 13 specimens. The whole leukocyte counts (WBC) of the control group did not show any significant differences. Cyanobacteria alone caused a significant increase of the WBC on day 13 (p≤0.05) and on day 20 (p≤0.01). Also, I. multifiliis caused a significant elevation of WBC (p≤0.01) on day 20. Co-exposition resulted in WBC increased on day 13 and decrease on day 20, but the changes were not significant. It is evident from the differential leukocyte counts that while the increase of WBC in the group exposed to cyanobacteria was caused by elevation of lymphocytes, the increase in the group infected by I. multifiliis was due to the increase of myeloid cells. It well corresponds with the integral of chemiluminescence in the group infected by I. multifiliis, which is significantly elevated on day 20 in comparison with all other groups. We can confirm additive action of different agents on the immune system of fish. While single agents seemed to stimulate the immune response, the combination of both caused immunosuppression.

  15. Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Svobodová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of medicated feed, Rupin Special gran. ad us. vet. with oxytetracyclini chloridum as active ingredient (5 g kg-1 feed, on physical and chemical characteristics of a pond ecosystem and the health of carp of two age groups in a pilot operation. The medicated feed was administered in 8 doses (15 g kg-1 live weight. In the study, temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, microbiological, hydrobiological and hydrochemical variables of pond water were monitored. The fish health assessment was based on clinical, pathological-morphological and haematological examinations of 80 individuals in total. The examinations were made before, during, immediately after and 15 days after the administration of medicated feed. No effects on water quality were found. An important histological change after the application of 8 doses was the loss of haematopoietic tissue from the spleen, and dystrophic changes in the renal duct epithelium. A decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and in total blood plasma protein concentrations (P < 0.05 were observed already after the 3rd dose of Rupin Special. It follows from the results of the study that Rupin Special should be used in only 4 (exceptionally 6 doses, compared to the originally recommended 8 doses.

  16. QTL variations for growth-related traits in eight distinct families of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weihua; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Cao, Dingchen; Yan, Yunqin; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-05-05

    Comparing QTL analyses of multiple pair-mating families can provide a better understanding of important allelic variations and distributions. However, most QTL mapping studies in common carp have been based on analyses of individual families. In order to improve our understanding of heredity and variation of QTLs in different families and identify important QTLs, we performed QTL analysis of growth-related traits in multiple segregating families. We completed a genome scan for QTLs that affect body weight (BW), total length (TL), and body thickness (BT) of 522 individuals from eight full-sib families using 250 microsatellites evenly distributed across 50 chromosomes. Sib-pair and half-sib model mapping identified 165 QTLs on 30 linkage groups. Among them, 10 (genome-wide P <0.01 or P < 0.05) and 28 (chromosome-wide P < 0.01) QTLs exhibited significant evidence of linkage, while the remaining 127 exhibited a suggestive effect on the above three traits at a chromosome-wide (P < 0.05) level. Multiple QTLs obtained from different families affect BW, TL, and BT and locate at close or identical positions. It suggests that same genetic factors may control variability in these traits. Furthermore, the results of the comparative QTL analysis of multiple families showed that one QTL was common in four of the eight families, nine QTLs were detected in three of the eight families, and 26 QTLs were found common to two of the eight families. These common QTLs are valuable candidates in marker-assisted selection. A large number of QTLs were detected in the common carp genome and associated with growth-related traits. Some of the QTLs of different growth-related traits were identified at similar chromosomal regions, suggesting a role for pleiotropy and/or tight linkage and demonstrating a common genetic basis of growth trait variations. The results have set up an example for comparing QTLs in common carp and provided insights into variations in the identified QTLs affecting body growth. Discovery of these common QTLs between families and growth-related traits represents an important step towards understanding of quantitative genetic variation in common carp.

  17. Case studies of spinal deformities in ornamental koi, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, H N; Loh, R; Hong, Y C; Gibson-Kueh, S

    2017-01-01

    This is a study of vertebral deformities in ornamental koi based on computed radiography and skeletons cleaned by dermestid beetles (Dermestes maculatus). All koi developed gradual onset of swimming abnormalities as adults. Extensive intervertebral osteophyte formation correlated with age of fish and was associated with hindquarter paresis in one koi. Vertebral compression and fusion were the most common spinal deformities occurring at multiple sites, similar to findings in other farmed fish. Site-specific spinal deformities were thought to develop due to differences in swimming behaviour and rates of vertebral growth. One koi had offspring with spinal deformities. Spinal deformities are significant problems in both European and Australian food fish hatcheries. The heritability of vertebral deformities in farmed fish is reportedly low unless there is concurrent poor husbandry or nutritional deficiencies. The specific aetiologies for vertebral deformities in koi in this study could not be ascertained. Current knowledge on spinal deformities in the better studied European food fish species suggests multifactorial aetiologies. Future research should include prospective longitudinal studies of larger numbers of koi from hatch and consideration of all potential risk factors such as husbandry, nutrition, temperature, photoperiod and genetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Titin isoforms and kinematics of fast swimming carp larvae (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierts, I.L.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Titin, a striated-muscle specific protein spanning the distance between Z- and M-lines of sarcomeres, is held responsible for developing passive tension and for maintaining the central position of thick filaments in contracting sarcomeres. Different muscles express titin isoforms of different

  19. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F 2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F 1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F 1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F 1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F 1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F 2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F 2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F 2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F 2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEVELOPMЕNT OF POND FORAGE BASE WHEN REARING CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO FISH SEEDS AT FISH FARM «MERKURIY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grishin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the development of main components of natural forage base in nursery ponds during the period of rearing the carp fish seeds in monoculture. Methodology. Hydrobiological (bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and hydrochemical samples have been collected and processes according to generally accepted methods. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of the development of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos in nursery ponds have been studied when rearing young-of-the-year Lubin few scale carp, Antoninsko-Zozulenets carp and their reciprocal crosses in monoculture (50 thousand fish/ha. General water mineralization in ponds was 292.7–315.7 mg/dm3 and according to O.A. Alekin’s classification, pond water belonged to hydrocarbonate class of calcium group. Water pH was 7.4–7.5. Permanganate values were 12.5–14.9 mgO/dm3. On average, average ammonium nitrogen content, nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, mineral phosphorus, total iron did not exceed normative values. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of phyto-, bacterio-, zooplankton of nursery ponds have been studied. The seasonal development of phytoplankton was within 15.96–20.88 mg/dm3 with the predominance of Chlorococcales in the floristic spectrum. The development of bacterioplankton was within 5.08–5.81 mg/dm3. Zooplankton was dominated by cladoceran-copepod complex with average seasonal values of 5.27–17.20 g/m3. Zoobenthos was formed of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae and Chaoboridae with average seasonal biomasses of 0.51–1.8 g/m2. According to saprobic parameters, pond water belonged to β-mesosabrobic zone and corresponded to the water quality class II (“clean enough” category. Fish productivity of nursery ponds was within 617.2–815.2 kg/ha; output of carp young-of-the-year was within 39.82–43.56%, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 31.0–39.3 g. Originality. For the first time we carried out a comprehensive assessment of the natural forage base in nursery ponds when rearing carp fish seeds in the conditions of forest-steppe zone of Vinnitsa region at the fish farm “Merkuriy”. Practical value. The obtained data allow rearing high quality young-of-the-year Lubin few scale carp, Antoninsko-Zozulenets carp and their reciprocal crosses.

  1. CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF LIVER AND REPRODUCTION ABILITY OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN A IN FORMULATED FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet on the fatty acid composition of esterified cholesterol of liver and reproduction ability of brood carp females and males. Methodology. The experiment was conducted in pre-spawning period using three groups of brood carp. The control group of carp received standard granulated feed. Experimental groups of brood carps additionally received retynilatsetat in the composition of the above-mentioned fodder. Findings. It was found that the liver of females and males of brood carp of experimental groups, which received vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of feed in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period had shown a dose-dependent reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. At the same time, the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Originality. For the first time it was found that the liver of brood carp females and males, which received increased quantities of vitamin A in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had the reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Practical value. The content of esterified cholesterol and its acid composition in the liver of females and males of brood carp directly correlates with their reproductive ability. In particular, the liver of females of brood carp, which had a reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol and an increase in the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in its fatty acid composition, had of an increased working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, th output of larvae from eggs increases.

  2. Farelo de tungue in natura ou detoxificado na alimentação de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a substituição parcial de farinhas de origem animal pelo farelo de tungue como fonte proteica no arraçoamento de carpa húngara. Os tratamentos compreenderam a inclusão de farelo de tungue in natura ou detoxificado (obtido após aplicação de tratamento químico ao farelo, e o tratamento referência consistiu de base proteica composta por farinha de carne e ossos suína e farinha de peixe. O período de alimentação foi de 63 dias. No decorrer de 30 dias experimentais não foi observada diferença em indicadores de crescimento entre os animais que consumiram as rações controle e com farelo de tungue tratado quimicamente, porém o consumo da ração com farelo de tungue in natura provocou redução no desempenho até o final do período experimental. Após 63 dias de arraçoamento, alguns indicadores de crescimento mostraram-se inferiores também para o tratamento que continha farelo de tungue tratado em relação ao controle. A análise bioquímica no plasma e no fígado revelou aumento de triglicerídeos, glicogênio, glicose e a utilização de outras fontes, possivelmente aminoácidos, como precursores energéticos na produção de energia quando os animais consumiram a dieta com farelo de tungue in natura em relação às demais, o que refletiu na menor concentração de proteína e na maior deposição de gordura na carcaça. Em relação à atividade de enzimas digestivas, tripsina apresentou atividade aumentada no tratamento com farelo de tungue in natura e protease ácida, quimotripsina, amilase e lipase não foram alteradas em nenhum dos tratamentos avaliados.

  3. Higher attack rate of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at lower fish weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection

  4. INDUKSI KEKEBALAN SPESIFIK PADA IKAN MAS, Cyprinus carpio Linn. TERHADAP INFEKSI KOI HERPESVIRUS (KHV MELALUI TEKNIK KOHABITASI TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui masa induksi kekebalan spesifik hingga level protektif terhadap KHV pada populasi ikan mas yang diinfeksi secara buatan melalui teknik pemaparan terkontrol telah dilakukan pada skala laboratorium. Pemaparan terkontrol terhadap ikan positif KHV dilakukan selama 3 hari pada suhu 24oC-26oC, selanjutnya ikan dipindahkan ke wadah volume 300 liter yang diisi ikan uji sebanyak 200 ekor/wadah dan suhu air berkisar antara 31oC-34oC. Perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah periode induksi: (A periode induksi selama 1 minggu dari akhir masa pemaparan terhadap KHV, (B periode induksi selama 2 minggu dari akhir masa pemaparan terhadap KHV, (C periode induksi selama 3 minggu dari akhir masa pemaparan terhadap KHV, (D periode induksi selama 4 minggu dari akhir masa pemaparan terhadap KHV, dan (E tanpa periode induksi setelah dilakukan pemaparan terhadap KHV. Pada hari ke-21, seluruh kelompok perlakuan diinfeksi KHV secara buatan dengan teknik kohabitasi. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap tingkah laku, gejala klinis, dan mortalitas ikan uji yang dilakukan setiap hari hingga akhir percobaan. Rataan persentase sintasan ikan uji tertinggi pada akhir riset diperoleh pada periode induksi selama 3 minggu sebesar 53,75%; diikuti oleh periode induksi selama 2 minggu sebesar 33,75%; selama 1 minggu sebesar 18,75%; selama 4 minggu sebesar 12,5%; dan kelompok kontrol sebesar 7,5%. The research with the aim to study an effective period to develop specific immunity against Koi Herpesvirus on common carp population which was obtained by cohabitation technique had been done in laboratory scale. Cohabitation of KHV infected fish at 24oC-26oC was for 3 days, and then the fish was moved to fiber glass tank at 31oC-34oC to develop specific immunity. The treatments applied in the research were: (A a week period induction, (B two weeks period induction, (C three weeks period induction, (D four weeks period induction, and (E without period induction as a control group. Fish test were challenge to KHV infection at the end of each defined period induction by cohabitation method for 2 weeks lasting. Examination on behavior, clinical signs, and mortality of fish test were taken place daily. The results showed that the highest survival rate was found on three weeks period induction (53.75%, and followed by two weeks period induction (33.75%, one week period induction (18.75%, four weeks period induction (12.5%, and the lowest was found on the control (7.5%.

  5. Cloning of opioid receptors in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and their involvement in regulation of stress and immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadzinska, M.K.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In mammals opiate alkaloids and endogenous opioid peptides exert their physiological and pharmacological actions through opioid receptors (MOR, DOR and KOR) expressed not only on neuroendocrine cells but also on leukocytes. Therefore, opioids can modulate the immune response. We cloned and sequenced

  6. Functionality of a bacillus cereus biological agent in response to physiological variables encountered in cyprinus carpio aquaculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern aquaculture utilises intensive reticulated systems resulting in waste accumulation and proliferation of disease. Conventional chemical treatments cause resistance in pathogens and negative environmental impact. The potential of a Bacillus...

  7. The some biological features of carp population (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 in Lake İznik (Bursa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bostan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma İznik Gölü’nde Ocak-Aralık 2006 tarihleri arasında yapılmıştır. Araştırma boyunca 55 erkek, 64 dişi olmak üzere toplam 119 sazan yakalanmıştır. Sazan örneklerinin yaşları I-X, çatal boyları 8.8-70.4 cm, ağırlıkları 14-7362 g arasında değişim göstermiştir. Boy-ağırlık ilişkisi denklemi W=0.025567Lolarak belirlenmiştir. ,kondisyon faktörü dişilerde 1.983±0.097, erkeklerde 1.958±0.070

  8. Comparative thyroidology : thyroid gland location and iodothyronine dynamics in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, E.J.; Nguyen, N.K.; Boogaart, M. van den; Spanings, F.A.; Flik, G.; Klaren, P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In teleosts, the thyroid gland is mostly found in the subpharyngeal region. However, in several species thyroid follicles are found in, for example, heart, head kidney and kidney. Such heterotopic thyroid follicles are active, and considered to work in concert with the subpharyngeal thyroid. In

  9. Increased leptin expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Geven, E.J.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Stolte, H.H.; Spanings, F.A.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate

  10. Increased leptin expression in common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Geven, E.J.W.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Stolte, E.H.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate

  11. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in current economical conditions. Cladoceran cultivation is especially important during the period of its active consumption by fish in summer months, when a depletion of the natural forage base occur in ponds.

  12. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  13. Ultrastructural effects of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, metoprolol, diclofenac) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebskorn, R; Casper, H; Scheil, V; Schwaiger, J

    2007-02-01

    In order to assess potential effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic wildlife, laboratory experiments were conducted with carbamazepine, clofibric acid, metoprolol, and diclofenac using fish as test organisms. For each substance, at least one environmentally relevant concentration was tested. In liver, kidney, and gills of trout and carp exposed to carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and metoprolol, ultrastructural effects were qualitatively described and semi-quantitatively assessed. The obtained assessment values were compared with previously published data for diclofenac-induced effects in rainbow trout tissues. Quantitative analyses of protein accumulated in kidneys of diclofenac-exposed trout corroborated previously published data which indicated that diclofenac induced a severe glomerulonephritis resulting in a hyaline droplet degeneration of proximal kidney tubules. The investigations provided information on the general health status of the pharmaceutical-exposed fish, and allowed a differential diagnosis of harmful effects caused by these human pharmaceuticals in non-target species. For the different cytological effects observed, lowest observed effect concentration (LOECs) for at least three of the test substances (diclofenac, carbamazepine, metoprolol) were in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations (1 microg/L).

  14. Cryopreservation of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Sperm: Impact of Seeding and Freezing Rates on Post-Thaw Outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, Sergii; Sochorová, Denisa; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar; Dzyuba, Borys

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we examined various freezing protocols, effects of controlled seeding, and changes in cooling rate and determined the endpoint (temperature at which sample could be plugged into liquid nitrogen (LN) without visible effect on survival rate after thawing) to reveal the relative importance of each different stage of cooling on freezing success during cryobanking of carp sperm. Sperm samples from different individual carp males were frozen in 0.5 mL straws by conventional freezing. Cooling rates were determined by monitoring the sample's internal temperature. We compared four freezing protocols, which involved placing sperm samples at various levels (1, 3, 6, and 9 cm) above the LN surface (corresponding to -190°C, -150°C, -110°C, and -70°C, respectively) for 20 minutes followed by transferring the samples into LN. Freezing at 3 cm above the LN surface resulted in the highest motility (33% ± 8%) and velocity (118 ± 9 μm/s) of spermatozoa after thawing and diluting in swimming medium. We determined that -90°C is an optimal temperature at which immersing the samples in LN does not affect sperm motility after thawing and shorten the process of freezing for around three times. Motility of spermatozoa cryopreserved with or without a seeding procedure was not significantly different after thawing. Therefore, we hypothesize that supercooling the sample during the conventional freezing procedure is not the main damaging factor during carp spermatozoa cryopreservation. However, the cooling rate itself is important, because it determines the ability of the sperm to dehydrate and survive cryopreservation.

  15. Cortisol induces apoptosis in activated B cells, not in other lymphoid cells of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Flik, G.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    In mammalian T and B cells glucocorticoids (GS) regulate development and selection through induction of apoptosis; more recently GS-induced apoptosis has also been implicated in the removal of circulating, activated T and B cells following an immune response. In an earlier report we have given the

  16. [Effect of chronic anosmia on morphofunctional parameters of the gustatory system primary centers of the carp Cyprinus carpio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitsina, G V; Ruzhinskaia, N N; Gdovskiĭ, P A

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of neurons in primary centers of olfactory, external and intraoral gustatory systems in carp yearlings was studied at different time after bilateral anosming, with use of methods of morphometrical, biochemical, and histochemical analyses. The olfactory deafferentation produces centripetal translocation of olfactory bulbs and development of their degenerative changes. Chronic elimination of olfactory reception in carps leads to activation of neurons in the facial lobe of medulla--the primary center of the external gustatory system. The neuronal complexes of the vagus lobe representing the primary center of the intraoral taste did not have a similar reaction to elimination of the olfactory reception. The high level of central interaction of the fish olfactory and gustatory systems and its role in providing reliability of alimentary behavior are discussed.

  17. POTENCY AND EFFICACY TEST OF A VACCINE IN ADDITION WITH ADJUVANT AGAINST KOI HERPESVIRUS IN KOI (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Koi Herpesvirus (KHV is a malignant virus infecting the goldfish and koi in all stadia and cause mortality up to 95%. The purpose of this study was to determine the potency and efficacy of inactivated-vaccine in addition with adjuvant against KHV in koi fish. The viral propagation was done using a KF-1 cell line in 25 cm3 flask. The cultured virus was harvested on 12 days post inoculation, and then the harvested virus was inactivated with 0.1% formalin as inactivated-vaccine. Three hundred of test fish (10.38 ± 1.25 g maintained in 126 L of plastic containers with aeration, and fed with pellets twice a day. After 14 days of adaptation, the fish were divided into five treatments (A= vaccine; B= vaccine + Complete Freund’s Adjuvant; C= vaccine + Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant; K+= positive control, and K-= negative control and each treatment has four replicates. Vaccine was given by injecting intramuscularly of 0.1 mL per fish. All fish were challenged by injecting intramuscularly of 0.1 mL of KHV virus with concentration of 104.58 TCID50/mL after 21 days post vaccination. The results showed that the B treatment had higher (P<0.05 values of hematocrit level, lysozyme activity, and titer of antibody compared with positive control. In addition, the survival of fish in B treatment also had the highest percentages and significantly different compared to other treatments (P<0.05. The conclusion of this research was the application of inactivated KHV vaccine in 0.1% formalin with the addition of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant through the injection dose 0.1 mL fish-1 in 104.58 TCID50/mL capable to enhance the immune responses and raised the optimal protection of KHV antibody in koi fish.

  18. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA) FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tuchapska; S. Krazhan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enter...

  19. New data on Myxobolus longisporus (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill infecting parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, from Chinese lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Fiala, Ivan; Nie, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 263-268 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 424 Grant - others:National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 30025035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : Myxozoa * Myxobolus longisporus * SSU rDNA Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2003

  20. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Tuin, van der S.J.L.; Yang Guiwen,; Schopman, N.; Mroczek, A.; Hermsen, G.J.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and

  1. First appearance of Rodlet cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio) ontogeny and their possible roles during stress and infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazon, de A.F.; Huising, M.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Bastiaans, J.H.M.W.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The origin and function of rodlet cells (RCs) are still a matter of discussion. Whereas the exogenous hypothesis considers them parasites, the endogenous hypothesis regards them as a genuine fish cell population with a secretory and/or leukocyte function. In order to shed more light on these

  2. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    2013-01-01

    activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through......Wound healing is a complex and well-organized process in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively...... investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two...

  3. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Maria; Walker, Peter D; de Vries, Beitske J; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd E; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-07-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNFalpha, are good indicators of parasite-induced skin damage at 2 days post-parasite exposure. Up-regulation of gene transcription corresponded well with an increase in leucocytes, probably neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in skin samples collected at the sites of infection. We show that time-point controls are essential when studying gene expression, especially in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). In addition, we demonstrate that non-infected control samples isolated from the skin of infected fish are suitable autologous controls, at least until after larval A. japonicus have undergone their first moult and begun to demonstrate increased mobility over their host's integument. The observed results are indicative of A. japonicus affecting the skin as a whole organ, particularly after the parasites' first moult, a phenomenon which has a great impact on correct skin sampling for RNA isolation.

  4. Investigations Concerning Possibilities of Diagnosis and Treatement in One Pesthole of Bacterial Haemorrhagic Septicemia in Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on 7 alive samples in agonic or death stage, taken from an extensive exploitation pond, innorth-east Transylvanian zone, with an water surface of 0,2 ha and a total fish quantity of about 200 kg, secondsummer carp of an average weight of 300 g/individual. As a result of clinical, bacterioscopy and bacteriology andalso necropsy laboratory exam it were put in evidence some aspects. So, clinical exam has revealed, by the presenceof integument hemorrhagic ulcerous lesions, also the presence of some crustacaee ectoparasites, Argulus foliaceusspecies, which have made easier the disease spreading in whole effective. Necropsy exam puts in evidence, anatomyclinic,the presence of integument hemorrhagic lesions under a point or diffuse form, but also ulcers and muscle –cutaneous necrosis. As a following of bacterioscopy exam of smears done from pathologic material taken incutaneous lesions and colored by Gram method it was ascertained the presence of a bacterial polymorph flora, ofbacillus and cocobacillus type, Gram negative. Bacteriologic exam (cultural, realized on ordinary culture mediums(sauce, water and selective mediums (agar with blood isolates in pure culture germs from Aeromonas kind, basis onmorphological and cultural characters, which are framed in Aeromonas genus patterns described by specialityliterature. As a following of biochemical characters exam, with the help of multitest API20E system it wasestablished that Aeromonas spp. strains isolated, belong to hydrophila group 1 species, species which is responsibleof bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia performing in carp. By testing the sensitiveness to antibodies and chemiotherapyin strains which have been found as diagnosis (diffusiometric method of antibiogram, it was ascertained that group 1Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from disease pesthole, were in decreasing order sensitive to: Eurofloxocin,Florfenicol (Floron and Oxitetracycline and resistant to Ampiciline, Amoxicilin, Eritromicin.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine

  6. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite.

  7. Response of hexokinase enzymes and the insulin system to dietary carbohydrates in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    OpenAIRE

    Capilla, Encarnación; Médale, Françoise; Panserat, Stephane; Vachot, Christiane; Rema, Paulo; Gomes, Emidio; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The response of the common carp to diets with varying amounts of digestible starch, provided either as pea meal (LP, HP, 30 and 46% peas, respectively) or as cereal (LW, HW, 30 and 46% wheat, respectively), was studied and compared with the response to a carbohydrate-free protein-rich diet (CF). Here we focused on the utilisation of dietary carbohydrates by examining the relationship between dietary starch intake, hepatic hexokinase activities, circulating insulin and ...

  8. Response of hexokinase enzymes and the insulin system to dietary carbohydrates in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Encarnación; Médale, Françoise; Panserat, Stephane; Vachot, Christiane; Rema, Paulo; Gomes, Emidio; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2004-01-01

    The response of the common carp to diets with varying amounts of digestible starch, provided either as pea meal (LP, HP, 30 and 46% peas, respectively) or as cereal (LW, HW, 30 and 46% wheat, respectively), was studied and compared with the response to a carbohydrate-free protein-rich diet (CF). Here we focused on the utilisation of dietary carbohydrates by examining the relationship between dietary starch intake, hepatic hexokinase activities, circulating insulin and muscle insulin receptor system. Plasma glucose concentration and hepatic high Km hexokinase (glucokinase, GK) activity were not affected by the content of digestible starch, but 6 h after feeding enzyme activity was higher in the fish fed carbohydrate diets. Similarly, low Km hexokinase (HK) activity was also higher in the fish 24 h after feeding. Fat gain and protein retention were significantly improved by increased digestible starch intake, especially in the HP group, which in turn, presented the highest plasma insulin levels. Glycogen stores were moderately increased by the ingestion of digestible starch. The number of insulin receptors was greater in the CF group than in fish on carbohydrates, except the HP group. Our results confirmed that the common carp uses dietary carbohydrates efficiently, especially when there are provided by peas. This efficiency might be related to the enhanced response of postprandial insulin observed in the HP group.

  9. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  10. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fish were distributed in 500-liter tanks with flow-through water. Every fish was weighed and after the terminalexperiment, all groups’ livers and distal intestines were sampled. All fish grew normally (p>0.05 but fish fed with proteinreplacingmoringa leaves at 50 g kg-1 were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance and feed utilization. The studyindicated that the tested moringa leaf diet contains ingredients that could be used for fancy carp diets with possibly notover up to 20 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth and digestibility.

  11. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in fish and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver diseases in aquaculture. H. sabdariffa extract (100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) was added to the carp primary hepatocyte culture before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment of the hepatocytes with H. sabdariffa extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT, and MDA and increased the reduced activities of SOD and GSH-Px in a dose-dependent manner; post-treatment did not show any protective effect. The results suggest that H. sabdariffa extract can be potentially used for preventing rather than curing liver diseases in fish.

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of the toxicity of organothiophosphate pesticides to Daphnia magna and Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Du, T.; Griff, T.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2009-01-01

    Within the REACH regulatory framework in the EU, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models are expected to help reduce the number of animals used for experimental testing. The objective of this study was to develop QSAR models to describe the acute toxicity of organothiophosphate

  13. Identification and characterization of a new major histocompatibility complex class I gene in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, S H; Dixon, B; Figueroa, F; Egberts, E; Stet, R J

    1996-01-01

    In this study we report the finding of three representatives of a new group of major histocompatibility complex class I sequences in carp: Cyca-12 (Cyca-UA1*01), a full-length cDNA; Cyca-SP1 (Cyca-UAW1), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment from cDNA; and Cyca-G11 (Cyca-UA1*02), a partial genomic clone. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of Cyca-12, Cyca-SP1, and Cyca-G11 with classical and non-classical class I sequences from other species shows considerable conservation in regions that have been shown to be involved in maintaining the structure and function of class I molecules. The genomic organization of Cyca-12 has been elucidated by analysis of a partial genomic clone (Cyca-G11, in combination with PCR amplifications on genomic DNA of a homozygous individual. Although the genomic organization is similar to that found in class I genes from other species, the 3' untranslated region contains an intron which is unprecedented in class I genes, and intron 2 is exceptionally large (+/-14 kilobases). Southern blot analysis indicates the presence of multiple related sequences. In phylogenetic analyses, the Cyca-UA sequences cluster with class I genes from zebrafish and Atlantic salmon, indicating that the ancestral gene arose before the salmonid/cyprinid split, approximately 120-150 million years ago. The previously reported class I Cyca-Z genes from carp and Caau-Z genes from goldfish cluster as a completely separate lineage. A polyclonal antiserum (anti-Cyca12) was raised against a recombinant fusion protein containing most of the extracellular domains of Cyca-12. The antibodies showed substantial reactivity to the recombinant protein and an Mr 45000 protein in membrane lysates of spleen and muscle, as well as to determinants present on leucocytes in fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses. Erythrocytes and thrombocytes were found to be negative.

  14. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PERTUMBUHAN DENGAN KEBERADAAN GEN TAHAN PENYAKIT MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX (MHC PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wabah penyakit koi herpes virus (KHV di Indonesia yang terjadi sejak tahun 2002 merupakan salah satu faktor yang memicu kemerosotan produksi ikan mas budidaya. Pembentukan strain unggul ikan mas tahan KHV dapat menjadi solusi bagi permasalahan tersebut. Pemilihan genotip ikan mas tahan KHV dengan marka molekuler gen major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II, khususnya pada alel Cyca DAB 1*05 akan membantu dalam kegiatan seleksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keberadaan gen MHC-II pada populasi dasar G0 ikan mas strain Rajadanu dan hubungannya dengan pertumbuhan (bobot. Metode deteksi keberadaan gen MHC-II pada dua kelompok ikan dengan ukuran berbeda dilakukan dengan teknik PCR. Hubungan antara pertumbuhan ikan mas dengan persentase kemunculan gen MHC-II dianalisis dengan menggunakan program SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, sehingga diperoleh korelasi di antara keduanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan antara pertumbuhan dengan persentase keberadaan gen MHC-II berkorelasi negatif dengan nilai R = -0,742. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa semakin cepat pertumbuhan populasi ikan mas maka semakin sedikit persentase individu yang mempunyai gen MHC-II pada setiap populasi ikan mas. Sehingga populasi ikan mas yang pertumbuhannya lambat memiliki tingkat persentase positif MHC-II lebih tinggi (85,71%-100% dibandingkan populasi ikan mas yang pertumbuhannya cepat (42,86%-85,71%.

  15. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  16. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  17. THE OPTIMAL RATIO OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus AND COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY ON DEEP WATER POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond productivity can be increased by applied polyculture system in the deep pond. The purpose of this experiment is to examine the optimal ratio between nile tilapia and common carp, in order to increase the productivity. Nine concrete tanks (15 m2 with water depth of 2.2 m and were completed by water inlet, water outlet, and aeration. Both of nile tilapia and common carp with size ranging of 5-8 cm in total length were used. Stock density was 150 ind./m2. The difference ratio of both fish tilapia and carp of fish stocked as a treatment. The fish ratio this experiment were as followed: A 100%; B 80%:20%; C 60%:40%. Fish fed by pellet until at ad libitum. The duration of experiment was 100 days. Parameters such as survival, growth, and productivity were observed every ten days during the experiment period. Water quality parameters were also periodically observed. The results showed that survival of nile tilapia among the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05 where survival of common carp at B treatment was better than C treatment (P<0.05. The highest of growth of absolute weight (94.86±2.85 g and total length (14.71±1 cm of nile tilapia at B treatment was found (P<0.05 where the best of growth of absolute weight (106.52±10.47 g and total length (11.57±1.78 cm of common carp was also found at B treatment (P<0.05. Biomass productivity at B treatment was the highest compared with A treatment (P<0.05. Combination between polyculture and the deep water pond technology could increase productivity. The polyculture system and the deep water pond technology would be able to keep constant water quality within in the threshold accordance with the regulation for fish culture.

  18. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Melanomacrophage centers in kidney, spleen and liver: A toxic response in carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to mercury chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Pursetyo, Kustiawan Tri; Sulmartiwi, Laksmi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the potential of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) as a bioindicators of environment polluted with mercury chloride. This study used the carp fish that were kept in an environment that contained mercury chloride with a concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm for 21 days. The rate of accumulation of macrophages in the tissue of kidney, spleen and liver were measured by the activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase. The results showed that the MMCs in the spleen and liver tissue of the carp fish potential as the bio-indicators of polluted environment ≥0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The increased in accumulation of macrophages found in the kidney tissue of carp fish exposed to mercury chloride concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, although no significant difference with control (0 ppm). The suppressive effect of the accumulation of immune response showed at the carp fish liver tissue macrophages which were exposed to mercury chloride lower than carp fish that were not exposed.

  20. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  1. Características sensoriais e físicas de extratos e tofus de soja comum processada termicamente e livre de lipoxigenase

    OpenAIRE

    Ciabotti,Sueli; Barcelos,Maria de Fátima Píccolo; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Clemente,Paulo Roberto; Lima,Maria Aparecida Correa

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o processo de obtenção de extrato de soja e respectivo tofu, obtidos com a soja comum (BRS 133), soja comum submetida ao processo de branqueamento (BRS 133) e soja comum livre de lipoxigenase (BRS 213), verificando a influência do branqueamento dos grãos de soja comum, anterior à sua maceração, nas características sensoriais e físicas destes produtos. O processamento térmico (branqueamento dos grãos) a que a soja comum foi submetida mostrou-se impresci...

  2. As professoras da sala comum e seus dizeres: Atendimento educacional especializado nas salas de recursos multifuncionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Heiderscheidt Fuck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X16093Este trabalho apresenta os dizeres das professoras da Sala Comum sobre o Atendimento Educacional Especializado (AEE nas Salas de Recursos Multifuncionais (SRM. Tem como objetivo principal investigar o que as professoras sabem e esperam deste atendimento no contexto escolar. Para a construção dos dados utilizou-se a aplicação de questionários a 144 docentes do 1º ao 5º ano da rede municipal de Joinville, os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo de Franco (2012. Os resultados indicam que as professores da Sala Comum sabem que o AEE nas SRM destina-se aos alunos público-alvo da Educação Especial e tem como um dos objetivos disponibilizar recursos e adaptações, porém, esperam que este possa eliminar as necessidades/dificuldades dos estudantes para desenvolver a aprendizagem. Concluiu-se, que as questões apontadas pelas professoras pesquisadas, mostram-se coerentes com as funções do professor especializado, desde que se entenda que esta é uma responsabilidade que perpassa toda a organização escolar, envolvendo os profissionais inseridos neste processo. Evidenciou-se, ainda a insuficiência de troca/parceria entre as professoras da SRM e da Sala Comum, assim como a necessidade de maiores informações e formações no contexto escolar que tenham como foco o trabalho docente numa perspectiva colaborativa.  

  3. Atraso mental: denominador comum dos défices do metabolismo da creatina

    OpenAIRE

    Valongo, Carla

    2013-01-01

    O atraso mental (AM) afeta cerca de 3% da população dos países ocidentais. Na grande maioria dos casos as causas genéticas inerentes ao AM ainda não se encontram esclarecidas. Os doentes com défice do metabolismo da creatina têm como denominador comum o AM/atraso de desenvolvimento bem como atraso de linguagem, epilepsia e autismo. Estes défices englobam um grupo de doenças tratáveis: défices da biossíntese da creatina (envolve as enzimas arginina:glicina amidinotransferase e guanidinoacet...

  4. Imunodeficiência comum variável : manifestações gastrintestinais a Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Dinah Jacob da Silva de, 1967-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 2012 A imunodeficiência comum variável (IDCV) é segunda imunodeficiência primária mais frequente a seguir à deficiência selectiva de IgA. As manifestações gastrintestinais na IDCV apresentam uma prevalência de 20% a 60% e a infecção por Giardia lamblia é a causa infecciosa mais frequentemente identificada de diarreia e mal-absorção, em cerca de 30% dos doentes. Escassos estudos documentam a ...

  5. Estimates of combining ability and heterosis for growth traits in a full ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We attempted to determine the combining ability and heterosis of body weight by performing 3 × 3 complete diallel crosses derived by crossing three common carps (Cyprinus carpio var. jian, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus Temminck et Schlegel and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus). In total, 1650 fish were tagged when ...

  6. AS DEMANDAS CONSERVADORAS DO MOVIMENTO ESCOLA SEM PARTIDO E A BASE NACIONAL CURRICULAR COMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Macedo

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo busca entender como a emergência do movimento autodenominado Escola sem Partido (ESP e de suas demandas conservadoras deslocam as negociações políticas na elaboração da Base Nacional Curricular Comum. O argumento central é o de que as negociações em curso seguem pondo em funcionamento uma normatividade neoliberal, entendida em matriz pós-estrutural. São analisados a segunda versão da base e os sites de divulgação do ESP, tendo por pano de fundo a assunção pós-fundacional de que a política é uma luta por significação de demandas particulares de diferentes grupos.

  7. Seria a Metafísica Essencial à Ciência e ao Senso Comum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sandoval

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das declarações mais consensuais da História da Filosofia é a que diz que a Metafísica não é ciência, mas pensamento. Neste artigo, procurar-se-á defender a tese que a Metafísica é condição para o senso comum e a ciência. Primeiro, é mostrado que os termos ao qual nós utilizamos diariamente refletem nossa imagem de mundo. Quando pensamos e fazemos previsões, fazemos o uso espontâneo de termos com significado universal. Depois, é procurado evidenciar que a ciência naturalmente faz uso de termos com significado universal quando faz previsões. Finalmente, buscará apresentar que a Metafísica é anterior às nossas hipóteses e especulações.

  8. Chico Buarque, o homem comum e as trilhas do sertão-cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniere Silva Menezes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de imagens relativas ao homem comum e aos migrantes presentes nas composições de Chico Buarque. Atento leitor e talentoso artista, Chico, por meio de suas canções, revela apurado olhar sobre os trânsitos realizados por trabalhadores brasileiros em busca de melhores condições de vida. Ao mesmo tempo, o autor demonstra cuidadosa “escuta” em relação aos saberes e à criatividade desses homens e mulheres em sua busca por uma existência mais digna, pautada por gestos de partilha, pela vivência comunitária e por momentos de desejo, jogo, sonho e luta. Os versos, ritmos, melodias e harmonias do autor se deixam contaminar por criações da cultura popular oral, em diálogo com formas artísticas mais eruditas.

  9. Narrativas na formação comum de profissionais de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Aparecida Capozzolo

    Full Text Available Este texto relata a experiência de formação comum que ocorre desde 2007 no campus Baixada Santista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, no terceiro semestre de graduação, do eixo curricular trabalho em saúde. A experiência articula estudantes e docentes de diferentes áreas profissionais: educação física, fisioterapia, nutrição, psicologia e terapia ocupacional. São apresentadas as diretrizes e estratégias de organização do módulo 'Prática clínica integrada: análise de demandas e necessidades de saúde', que adota a produção de narrativas de histórias de vida e de questões de saúde de pessoas selecionadas por docentes em conjunto com as equipes da rede de serviços do município de Santos, São Paulo. As narrativas foram produzidas em encontros quinzenais dos estudantes com as pessoas acompanhadas em suas residências e de supervisões com os docentes. Realizouse análise de conteúdo de 120 relatórios de conclusão do módulo elaborados pelos estudantes nos anos de 2007 e 2008 visando identificar efeitos dessa proposta de formação. A elaboração de narrativas favoreceu aos estudantes ampliar a capacidade de escuta e a percepção da complexidade do processo saúdedoençacuidado, bem como de outros aspectos do que se tem denominado de 'clínica comum' às diversas profissões em saúde.

  10. Research of acute influence of new fertlizer «Rost-concentrate» on the hydrobionts Сyprinus carpio L. and Daphnia magna Straus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish and assess acute toxicity parameters of "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" acute toxicity for planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna Straus and carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio L. Methodology."ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" contains macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, which are valuable for the pond ecosystem, and trace elements in environmentally safe chelate form. We determined the vital (LC0, absolutely lethal (LC100 and median (LC50 drug concentrations on the test organisms such as crustacean D. magna (Cladocera and carp fingerlings C. carpio. The determination of acute lethal toxicity on D. magna was conducted according to DSTU 4173: 2003 that corresponded to the international standard ISO 6341: 2012, MOD [7]. The temperature of the experiment was 20±0.5 oC. The exposure time - 96 hours. Daphnia were not fed. Following "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" concentrations were tested: 100; 75; 50; 25; 10; 1; 0.5; 0.1; 0.05; 0.01; 0,005; 0,001 ml/dm3. We also determined the acute lethal toxicity on carp fingerings with an average weight of 6.78±0.63 grams following the standardized procedure [8]. Pond water was used in the experiment. Ten fish were placed into a 40 L aquarium. Following concentrations of "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" were investigated: 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 15; 20; 30; 40 mg/L. The exposure time was 24 hours. Water temperature was 19±1oC. LC50 drug median concentration was calculated according to G. Kerber method. Findings. The parameters of integral acute toxicity of "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" on typical organisms of fish pond ecosystems.With 96 h exposure on juvenile cladoceran D. magna, lethal concentration was LC100 = 5,00 ml/dm3, median concentration was LC50 = 0,15 ml/dm3, vital concentration was LC0 = 0,01 ml/dm3. According to the classification of toxic substances, the "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" is characterized by low toxicity on juvenile cladoceran D. magna. With 24 h exposure on carp

  11. [Luis Hidalgo y Carpio, Editor of Gaceta Médica de México (1818-1879)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Martha Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Luis Hidalgo y Carpio (1818-1879) was a notable physician who made important contributions to the field of medicine during his time. Nevertheless, reference sources on the aspect from Hidalgo y Carpio that we would like to emphasize (i.e. as an editor of a medical journal) are scarce since precisely when Hidalgo y Carpio was named President of the Medical Society (later the Academia Nacional de Medicina), in 1987, the publication of the Gaceta Médica de México was temporarily interrupted. Hidalgo y Carpio played a key role as an editor at a time when the medical community of Mexico required a means whereby the scientific achievements could be published and discussed among peers and colleagues. Under Hidalgo y Carpio, the Gaceta Médica de México soon reached a wide audience, not only as a periodical publication but also for the prestige of the Academy that represented.

  12. O PÚBLICO, O COMUM E O PRIVADO NA DINÂMICA DOS JOGOS OLÍMPICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto AMARO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho parte da interpretação do “comum” enquanto uma questão chave para a Comunicação. Logo em seguida, debatemos a relação entre os conceitos de comum, público e privado. Por último, agregamos ao texto algumas considerações sobre os Jogos Olímpicos e como esse megaevento é perpassado por essas esferas. A questão central deste artigo pode ser posta da seguinte forma: no esporte contemporâneo ainda é possível falar em um bem comum sendo gerido por atletas, praticantes amadores e espectadores?

  13. Potencial in vitro de Bacillus spp. no controle de Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens em feijoeiro-comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelynne Urzêdo Leão

    Full Text Available RESUMO O feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris é uma cultura de grande relevância na alimentação da população brasileira. A murcha-de-curtobacterium ou murcha bacteriana, causada por Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Cff. é uma doença vascular que acomete o feijoeiro causando danos significativos. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação in vitro de Bacillus spp. na inibição de dois isolados de Cff, colonização do sistema radicular e desenvolvimento de plântulas de feijoeiro-comum. Foram realizados dois ensaios in vitro para verificar a atividade antagônica dos isolados Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis e B. subtilis + B. lichenformis a dois isolados de Cff. Todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. apresentaram inibição no crescimento dos isolados de Cff. Não foi observada a colonização das raízes das plântulas de feijoeiro-comum, pelos isolados bacterianos avaliados.

  14. Central and peripheral interleukin-1β and interleukin-1 receptor I expression and their role in the acute stress response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.; Leon, K.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis), the equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in mammals, is activated during stress and leads to production and release of cortisol by the interregnal cells in the head kidney. In mammals, the cytokine

  15. Central and peripheral interleukin-1ß and interleukin-1 receptor I expression and their role in the acute stress response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.; Leon, K.M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis), the equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in mammals, is activated during stress and leads to production and release of cortisol by the interregnal cells in the head kidney. In mammals, the cytokine

  16. ABUNDANCE OF FOUR EXOTIC FISH SPECIES CYPRINUS CARPIO, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA, HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS IN THE URPOD BEEL OF GOALPARA DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Choudhury; Puranjit Das; Umesh C.Goswami

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infesta...

  17. Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing OmpAI confers protection against Aeromonas veronii challenge in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xing; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Long; Siddiqui, Shahrood Ahmed; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong; Shan, Xiao-Feng

    2017-11-16

    Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative pathogen capable of infecting both fish and mammals, including humans, and natural infection in fish results in irreparable damage to the aquaculture industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for presentation to the mucosa sites of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. In this study, we generated two recombinant Lactobacillus casei (surface-displayed or secretory) expressing the OmpAI of A.veronii and evaluated the effect on immune responses in fish model. A 1022 bp gene fragment of the 42 kDa OmpAI antigen of A.veronii was cloned into pPG-1 (surface-displayed) and pPG-2 (secretory) and electrotransformed into Lactobacillus casei CC16. The recombinant plasmid in L.casei could be stably inherited over 50 generations, and production of OmpAI protein had slight limited effects on cells growth. Treatment of common carp with the recombinant vaccine candidate stimulated high serum or skin mucus specific antibody titers and induced a higher lysozyme, ACP, SOD activity, while fish fed with Lc-pPG or PBS had no detectable immobilizing immune responses. Expression of IL-10, IL-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α genes in the group immunized with recombinant L.casei were significantly (P casei strains were directly delivered and survive throughout the intestinal tract, the recombinant OmpAI was also detected in intestine mucosal. The results showed that common carp received Lc-pPG1-OmpAI (66.7%) and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI (50.0%) had higher survival rates compared with the controls after challenge with A.veronii, indicating that Lc-pPG1-OmpAI and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI had beneficial effects on immune response and enhanced disease resistance of common carp against A.veronii infection. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of recombinant L.casei as oral vaccine against A.veronii infection in carps. The combination of OmpAI delivery and LAB approach may be a promising mucosal therapeutic agent for treating and controlling A.veronii. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Pengaruh Substitusi Silase Isi Rumen Dengan Persentase Yang Berbeda Dalam Pakan Buatan Terhadap Efisiensi Pakan, Pertumbuhan Dan Kelulushidupan Benih Ikan Mas (Cyprinus Carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Abdul Jamil; Hutabarat, Johanes; Arini, Endang

    2013-01-01

    One of the alternative raw material that has not been widely used as a feed composition and not compete with other food needs is rumen waste. Rumen waste can be used as an alternative material for the manufacture of feed. This purpose of this study is to review the Substitution effect of adding silage of rumen contents in the artificial feed to the efficiency of feed utilization, protein efficiency ratio, the relative growth rate, and survival rate of carp juvenile. The method used in this re...

  19. Evaluation of the Dressing Percentage of 3-year-old Experimental Scaly Crossbreds of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 in Relation to Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Buchtová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare dressing percentages, with relation to sex, of three bisexual groups of hybrid carp, i.e. Hungarian mirror carp and Northern mirror carp (M2 × M72, the hybrid line of Přerov scaly carp and Northern mirror carp (PS × M72, the hybrid line of P.erov scaly carp and Ropsha scaly carp (PS × ROP, and the pure line of P.erov scaly carp (PS in harvest size (K3. There were practically no differences in growth variables of male and female carp between the pure line PS carp and M2 × M72 and PS × ROP hybrids. Statistically significant differences in some variables between sexes were found in the scaly hybrid line PS × M72. Females in that group had significantly higher growth rates (TL and SL by 4.08% and 4.52%, respectively; p abs by 11.37%, 13.70% and 14.83%, respectively; p p p < 0.01 than that of ovaries of female carp (or, rather, the GSI of male carp was higher.

  20. Occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennie, D. T.; Sullivan, C. A.; Maguire, R. J. [Envirronment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Samples of 25 dead beluga whales from the St. Lawrence River estuary, as well as samples of 10 rainbow trout and three carps caught in western Lake Ontario were analyzed for total short and medium chain chlorinated paraffins using gas chromatography-low resolution negative chemical ionization spectroscopy. Both short and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins were quantitatively identified in all samples using two commercial preparations. Beluga results were found to be higher than concentrations reported for marine mammals in Europe, but comparable to total PCB and total DDT results for the same population of beluga whales. Results for freshwater species are comparable to those reported for fish sampled from other industrially impacted waterways in North America, but elevated compared to marine species from European studies. Comparisons of the results with gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectroscopy analysis from another study indicated that the two analytical techniques are not congruent. The differences may be accounted for by different effects of interfering organochlorine substances on the analysis of chlorinated paraffins. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...... antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered...

  2. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-9 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen’e [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Hongmei [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yannan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Min, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.min@gmail.com [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Jiangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The cDNA of caspase-9 in common carp was cloned. •The evolutionary conservation including caspase recruitment domain, large and small subunits was clarified. •The mRNA level of caspase-9 cannot be used as a major marker at an earlier point in the apoptotic cascade. •Caspase-9 cleavage form was detected. •Immunopositive staining was limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. -- Abstract: Caspase-9, the essential initiator caspase is believed to play a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling. In this study, we isolated the caspase-9 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-9, composed of 436 amino acids, showed approximately 47.6% identity and 64.7% similarity to human caspase-9. It also possessed a conserved caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD), a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that caspase-9 formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-9. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-9 transcripts were not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to cadmium (Cd). Whereas caspase-9 cleaved fragments were detected using Western blot analysis with the same Cd treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed immunoreactivities were predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after Cd treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-9 may play an essential role in Cd induced apoptosis.

  3. Effect of fish size on transmission of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) to common carps (Cyprinus carpio) and implications for intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish-borne trematodes are reported to affect the health of more than 40 million people worldwide. Few experimental studies are available on fish size dependent gain (attack rates of cercariae) or loss (mortality of metacercariae) of fish-borne trematodes. Aim was to quantify the relation between

  4. ACTH, alpha-MSH, and control of cortisol release: cloning, sequencing, and functional expression of the melanocortin-2 and melanocortin-5 receptor in Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, J.R.; Geven, E.J.W.; Burg, E.H. van den; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cortisol release from fish head kidney during the acute phase of the stress response is controlled by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary pars distalis (PD). Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and beta-endorphin, from the pars intermedia (PI), have been implicated

  5. Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary melanotropes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, E.H. van den; Metz, J.R.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) during stress responses. However, effects of stressors on plasma concentrations of these hormones are highly inconsistent among fish species. Here, we show that also within a

  6. Plasma -MSH and acetylated -endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary melanotropes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, E.H. van den; Metz, J.R.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) during stress responses. However, effects of stressors on plasma concentrations of these hormones are highly inconsistent among fish species. Here, we show that also within a

  7. Concentration of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish (Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta sp.) from the Kor River (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Taherianfard, Mahnaz

    2010-09-01

    Concentration of heavy metals in aquatic animals mainly occurs due to industrial contamination. In this study, the concentrations of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish and in water collected from three sections of the Kor River, Iran were determined using the inductively coupled plasma method. Pathological and hormonal changes due to metal contamination were also measured. The concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of fish from the middle sampling zone were significantly higher (p 0.05) were detected between the two sexes and species. High levels of metals were found in the ovaries and testes; estradiol in females and progesterone and testosterone in males from the middle study site were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than values from the other two sites. Pathological changes in blood cells, liver, and kidneys of fishes were significantly higher in highly polluted areas (middle sampling zone). These results show that industrial activities have polluted the river and that the maximum concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg were higher than the permissible levels for human consumption.

  8. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Zethof, J.; Louzao Martinez, L.; Andel, van W.F.M.; Lopez-Luna, J.; Flik, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus–pituitary–interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract

  10. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; Młocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed.

  11. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu

  12. State of the immune protection system of brood carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 based on vitamin E and selenium levels in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yurchak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the state of the immune system of brood carp, which were fed with a combined feed containing a liposomal preparation with vitamin E and organic compound of selenium microelement during pre-spawning period. Methodology: The study has been performed in three experimental ponds, in which carp females and males were placed after wintering. The first experimental group was fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/mg of the feed and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The second experimental group received the supplement of vitamin E at a concentration of 100 mg.kg and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The control group received the mentioned combined feed without addition of the vitamin-mineral supplement. After termination of 30-day pre-spawning feeding with the combined feed supplemented with vitamin E and selenium, blood samples for biochemical tests were collected from fish of the control and both experimental groups. Findings. It was found that pre-spawning feeding of carp females and males with combined feeds supplemented with the above mentioned vitamin-mineral additive had a positive effect on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish blood. Originality. The effect of the liposomal preparation with vitamin E and microelement Se fed to brood carp during the pre-spawning period on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish peripheral blood was studied for the first time. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in fish breeding centers and full-system fish farms for balanced feeding of brood fish.

  13. Microsatellite-based genetic variability and differentiation of hatchery and feral common carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes populations in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomljanović Tea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp production has an important status in Croatian aquaculture. In addition, the sport fishing of common carp in open waters is very popular, but it is often based on stocking from fish farms. Using fifteen microsatellites, 243 individuals from 5 hatchery and 5 feral populations have been analyzed. A total number of 148 alleles were recorded. However, the mean number of alleles per locus was remarkably low. Pairwise FST values (0.026-0.130 were significant (P<0.01, demonstrating differentiation among populations. The Markov chain method test showed that all the populations deviated from HWE (P <0.05. After sequential Bonferroni correction only the Vrana lake was in HWE in all the loci but MFW20. The factors that may result in genetic divergence and significant reduction of the observed heterozygosity are discussed. AMOVA results for 10 populations indicate that the percentage of the variation among populations was 6.26%, which is lower than the variation within populations (91.04%.

  14. The Effect of Tofu Liquid Waste on Mortality and Histopathology of Goldfish (Cyprinus carpio Kidney as a Biology Alternative Material Concept for Senior High School X Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Mayasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste of tofu is a liquid-byproduct of tofu production proces which is known as "whey". Most of the "whey" can not be utilized. Thus, the liquid waste of tofu that flowed directly into the river, without any extent process to neutralize will cause the death fish. The effect of tofu liquid waste can be observed throughout the histopathological observation (especially the kidneys. This study aims to determine the effect of tofu liquid waste on mortality and histopathology of goldfish kidney. This study employed an experimental method using goldfish with the size of 8-12cm. The data collection was started by preliminary test in which the liquid concentration were of 0 ml/L, 0,1 ml/L, 1 ml/L, 10 ml/L, and 100 ml/L, which then the real tests were conducted by using RAND method to obtain the concentration of 0 ml/L, 32 ml/L, 56 ml/L, 75 ml/L, and 87 ml/L. The LC50 goldfish observational data have been analyzed by using Probit Model Finney program "Quant"; meanwhile, the goldfish kidney taken per concentration unit as samples for histopathological observation. The results showed that the tofu liquid waste gave significant impact on mortality and the occurrence of goldfish kidney damage (histopathology, such as hemorrhage, congestion, and necrosis. Based on the data, this study can be recommended as enrichment of biology alternative material for X grade of senior high school at KD 3.10 i.e. to analyze the data of environmental changes and the impact of such changes for life.

  15. The first appearance of Rodlet cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ontogeny and their possible roles during stress and parasite infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazon, A.F.; Huising, M.O.; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Bastiaans, J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The origin and function of rodlet cells (RCs) are still a matter of discussion. Whereas the exogenous hypothesis considers them parasites, the endogenous hypothesis regards them as a genuine fish cell population with a secretory and/or leukocyte function. In order to shed more light on these

  16. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, J.; Vojtek, L.; Adámek, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2012), s. 1487-1493 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ichthyophthirius multifiliis * Channel catfish * Crowding stress * Arctic charr * Fish * Susceptibility * Monogeneans Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  17. Fatty acid profile in muscles of carp (Cyprinus carpio L. raised in a semi-intensive production system fed with grains, pelleted and extruded feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grains, pelleted and extruded feed on the fatty acid content in carp meat has not been examined yet. In this work, we present evidence that the high carbohydrate content in all three types of feed causes oleic acid to predominate in all meat samples. A higher PUFA content in the meat of fish fed with granulated feed was detected. The extruded feed diet led to 69% greater n-3, and 53% lower n-6 fatty acid contents. Their ratio is thus 2.64-fold higher than in meat of carp fed with pelleted feed. A higher content of n-3 fatty acids in fish fed with extruded feed was the consequence of higher DHA (1.6 times and EPA (3.3 times contents. The detected differences could be the consequence of the thermal treatment of extruded feed that makes the proteins, carbohydrates and lipids more accessible to fish than in a pelleted feed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  18. EFFECT OF FEEDING PREMIX VMA AND FEEDYEAST ON PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ONE-YEARS CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Deren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of feeding carp with VMA premix in a complex with fodder yeasts and separately on their productivity and some biochemical parameters of blood as well as to analyze the level of provision of the experimental groups of fish with natural feeds. Methodology. The study was based on experimental and laboratory methods adopted in fisheries, hydro-chemical, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The study has established that, at early season, the cultured fish was provided with natural feeds to a certain degree that was evidenced by the analysis of the gut content of experimental groups. At the end of the season the percentage of natural feed in the gut content was low, but this time fish received normalized amount of artificial feed. Hydrochemical parameters in experimental ponds were within normal limits, and temperature regime was optimal for carp growth and metabolism. When feeding of 1+ carp was supplemented with to VMA premix, fish productivity increased by 27.4%, mean weight increased by 12.9%, and the feed rate dropped by 14%. A complex introduction of VMA premix with fodder yeasts into main diet of carp resulted in these changes by 15.9, 36.8 and 28%, respectively. The experimental groups of fish showed an improvement in blood biochemical parameters, namely, a significantly increase in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin content, and a trend for an increase in the protein content of blood serum and its fractions. Hence, this method of the diet adjustment can be useful the most efficiently under condition that all indicated factors are present together, simultaneously and ensure the implementation of the main task of fish farm – optimum fish weight gain and effectiveness of feed use. Originality. For the first time we carried out an analysis of the effect of the introduction of the composition of VMA premix and fodder yeasts to the main diet of 1+ carp on the economic component of their culture and some physiological and biochemical parameters. Practical value. The obtained data will allow scientifically proven optimizing the composition of the diet for commodity carp and applying these developments in industrial conditions in order to improve the profitability of commodity fish farming.

  19. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-08-03

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Comparaison de populations de carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio à taille commerciale : intérêt d'une approche globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    1999-07-01

    Une discrimination géographique des populations est possible mais elle repose sur une approche globale intégrant l'ensemble des paramètres. Les différences semblent essentiellement liées aux conditions environnementales et permettent de distinguer les lots issus des régions où l'élevage est plus intensif et traditionnellement centré sur la carpe (Dombes, Forez, Lorraine et les lots correspondant à un élevage plus extensif et davantage orienté vers le marché du repeuplement (Allier, Brenne, Poitou-Charentes.

  1. High corticosterone and sex reversal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with adrenal hyperplasia caused by P450c17a2 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Komen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inheritance of adrenal hyperplasia, caused by 17a-hydroxylase deficiency, and its association with female to male sex reversal in common carp. Inbred strains used in this experiment were E4 (XX, female, normal), E5 (XX, male, adrenal hyperplasia) and E7

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  3. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead.

  4. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed.

  5. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  6. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in a controlled field test in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Edithe Andria-Mananjara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by farmers and consumers, for its good growth and supposed low number of intermuscular bones. We performed an on-farm experiment using a “common garden” design to control environmental variation, in order to compare the growth and survival, as well as the number of intermuscular bones of nude carp to two other common scale cover phenotypes of the same species, the mirror and scaly carps. We found that survival of nude carps was lower or equal to that of mirror carps at all stages of the farming process, while growth performance was lower than that of mirror carps in some ponds only. Globally, the biomass production per fish stocked was always lower in nude carp compared to mirror carp. The number of intermuscular bones was the same in nude, mirror and scaly carps. We conclude that as in Europe, it would be valuable to farm mirror rather than nude carps, as the supposed benefits of the latter are not supported by our experiment in typical Malagasy farming conditions.

  7. VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION AND REDUCED SERUM TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN FERAL MALE CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) CAPTURED NEAR A MAJOR METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. (R824760)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabon, J.; Louboutin, L.; Castric, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect i...

  9. Fish-friendly prophylaxis/disinfection in aquaculture: Low concentration of peracetic acid is stress-free to the carp (Cyprinus carpio) after repeated applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of peracetic acid (PAA) at low concentrations has been proved to be a broad functional and eco-friendly prophylaxis/disinfection method against various fish pathogens. Therefore, regular applications of low concentration PAA is sufficient to control (potential) pathogens in recirculatin...

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals muscle of common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L, 1758 from Ala gul and Alma gul wetlands of Golestan and consumption risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoushiravan Mohseni Bandpei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are importantly concerned due their biological accumulation and toxicity in terms of human health. Common carp is one of the most popular seafood in the North of Iran especially in Golestan province. In this descriptive-analytical research, about 30 samples of common carp were collected from Ala gul and (n: 24 and Alma gul (n: 6 wetlands. Once the samples were prepared by polarography device, the concentration of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were measured in the muscle tissue of carp. The value of THQ in children and adults was estimated according to the equations of risk assessment. The mean concentration of zinc, lead, copper and cadmium was 120.9 ±106, 7.92 ±7.9, 5.84 ±5.22 and 0.027 ±0.043 mg/kg in Ala gul wetland and 67.42±33.43, 3.24±1.04, 4.36±2.77 and 0.005±0.008 mg/kg in Alma gul wetland, respectively. The order of heavy metals’ concentration in both wetlands was Cd

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals muscle of common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L, 1758) from Ala gul and Alma gul wetlands of Golestan and consumption risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Anoushiravan Mohseni Bandpei

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are importantly concerned due their biological accumulation and toxicity in terms of human health. Common carp is one of the most popular seafood in the North of Iran especially in Golestan province. In this descriptive-analytical research, about 30 samples of common carp were collected from Ala gul and (n: 24) and Alma gul (n: 6) wetlands. Once the samples were prepared by polarography device, the concentration of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were measured in the muscle tissue...

  12. Características sensoriais e físicas de extratos e tofus de soja comum processada termicamente e livre de lipoxigenase Sensorial and physical characteristics of bleached and lipoxygenase-free soybean milk and curd

    OpenAIRE

    Sueli Ciabotti; Maria de Fátima Píccolo Barcelos; Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro; Paulo Roberto Clemente; Maria Aparecida Correa Lima

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o processo de obtenção de extrato de soja e respectivo tofu, obtidos com a soja comum (BRS 133), soja comum submetida ao processo de branqueamento (BRS 133) e soja comum livre de lipoxigenase (BRS 213), verificando a influência do branqueamento dos grãos de soja comum, anterior à sua maceração, nas características sensoriais e físicas destes produtos. O processamento térmico (branqueamento dos grãos) a que a soja comum foi submetida mostrou-se impresci...

  13. PEDAGOGIA CRÍTICO-PERFORMATIVA: TENSIONAMENTOS ENTRE O PRÓPRIO E O COMUM NO ESPAÇO-TEMPO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Pereira

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente texto consiste em uma breve reflexão sobre processos de interação entre educadores e educandos no contexto de uma prática pedagógica crítico-performativa. A investigação pretende analisar os elementos que constituem um dos anelos fundantes da prática educacional: o estabelecimento de uma vida em comum em um mundo pautado pelo próprio. Dito de outro modo, o estudo procura refletir, desde os pressupostos da Pedagogia crítico-performativa, da Estética Relacional e de alguns pensadores contemporâneos - como Jacques Rancière, Tzvetan Todorov e Giorgio Agamben -, sobre o jogo entre o próprio (do singular e o comum (do semelhante e/ou do plural em processos formativos mediados por prática pedagógica performativa. O trabalho se apresenta, assim, como sendo de caráter ensaístico, efetuando-se por meio da exploração de materiais eminentemente bibliográficos.

  14. Efeito da densidade de povoamento na produtividade final em carpas (Cyprinus carpio var specularis em fase de engorda, durante o verão Effect of population density on the productivity of carp (Cyprinus carpio var specularis, in the fattening stage, during the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Graeff

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito da densidade de povoamento na produtividade final, em carpas na fase de engorda, no período de verão. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (1; 0,5; e 0,33 peixes/m² e três repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 2,40 g e 5,35; 5,40 e 5,39 cm, respectivamente, nos tratamentos 1, 2 e 3, com 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% PB e 2925 kcal/kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente, na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. O comportamento dos tratamentos foi estudado por intermédio da análise de regressão. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso dos peixes foram 25,68; 28,66; e 31,21 cm e 255,00; 424,00; e 519,66 g, respectivamente. Os tratamentos 1 e 3 apresentaram modelo de regressão linear diferente do tratamento 2, que apresentou modelo quadrático. Na biomassa total, os resultados foram 1881; 1512; e 1302 kg/ha/período e os modelos de regressão significativos para os tratamentos 1e 3 foram lineares e para o tratamento 2 quadrático. A conversão alimentar apresentou modelo de regressão linear para todos tratamentos. Em condições similares, podem-se recomendar todas densidades sugeridas, com base na produção final e sobrevivência.This study aimed to evaluate impact of stocking density on final productivity in the production of mirror common carp in fattening stage, during the summer. A completely randomized design with three treatments (1, .5, .33 fishes/m² and three replicates was used. The fish were stocked with an average weight of 2.40 g and average length of 5.35, 5.40 and 5.39 cm, respectively, in the treatments 1, 2 and 3, with 45 days of age. The diets were formulated with 27% CP and 2925 kcal/kg of diet and supplied daily at a rate of 3% of body weight. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of each treatment. For the fish lengths, the results were 25.68, 28.66 and 31.21 cm, respectively. For the fish weights, the results were 255.00, 424.00, and 519.66 g. The treatments 1 and 3 showed a linear regression model, different from the treatment 2, that showed quadratic model. In the total biomass, the results were 1881, 1512 and 1302 kg/ha•period and the significant regression model were linear for treatments 1 and 3 and quadratic for treatment 2. The feed: gain showed a linear regression model for all treatments. In similar condition, it could be recommended all suggested densities, based on the final production and survival.

  15. Perfil de ácidos graxos e composição centesimal de carpas (Cyprinus carpio alimentadas com ração e com dejetos suínos Fatty acid profile and proximate composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio feed artificial food and pig manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Izabel Druzian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da alimentação com dejetos suínos na composição centesimal e no perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo de carpas. Amostras de carpas com 4-10 meses de idade, recolhidas em Santa Catarina, foram filetadas, trituradas e acondicionadas em atmosfera de nitrogênio (-18°C. Os valores (% de umidade, proteína e cinzas foram: 72,24; 14,85; e 2,16, respectivamente, para carpas alimentados com ração; e 83,33; 14,48; e 3,49 para carpas alimentadas com dejetos suínos. Os valores de sódio e potássio foram: 0,491% e 1,20% carpas/ração; e 2,28% e 0,367% carpas/dejetos suínos, respectivamente. Os teores de lipídios totais também apresentaram diferenças significativas: 9,88% carpas/ração e 1,69% carpas/dejetos suínos. O perfil de ácidos graxos mostrou tendências similares nos dois músculos. Portanto, verificou-se um efeito significativo da alteração da dieta sobre a composição do tecido muscular de carpas alimentadas com dejetos suínos, principalmente no conteúdo de minerais e de lipídios totais, embora a variação observada no conteúdo de lipídios totais não tenha se refletido na composição de ácidos graxos.This study investigated the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the carp muscle fed with pig manure. Carp with 4-10 months of age were collected in Santa Catarina. Muscle samples were sliced and then triturated in a multiprocessor and stored under gaseous nitrogen atmosphere (-18°C. The moisture, protein, and ash contents (% were as follows: 72.24; 14.85; e 2.16, respectively, for carp feed artificial food; and 83.33; 14.48; e 3.49 for carp feed pig manure. The contents of sodium and potassium were: 0.491% and 1.20% carp/artificial food; 2.28% and 0.367% carp/pig manure. The total lipids contents also presented significant differences: 9.88% carp/artificial food, and 1.69% carp/pig manure. Fatty acid profile showed similar tends in both muscles. Therefore, a significant difference in the total lipids and mineral contents of the carp tissue feed pig manure was detected, though the observed variation in total lipid content wasn’t reflected in the fatty acid composition.

  16. The regeneration of the tail fin actinotrichia of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758 under the action of naproxen A regeneração das actinotriquias da nadadeira caudal da carpa (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758 sob a ação do naproxeno

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    PK. Böckelmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A conglomerate of small, rigid, fusiform spicules known as actinotrichia sustains the edge of tail fins of teleost. After amputation, these structures show an extremely fast regenerative capacity. In this study we observed the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, naproxen, used in the treatment of degenerative articular diseases, during the process of actinotrichia regeneration. For this purpose, regenerating tissue from animals in contact with the drug was submitted to histochemical and ultrastructural analysis in comparison to tissue from animals under normal conditions, i.e., not in contact with the drug in question. Actinotrichia regeneration was similar in both animals, indicating that naproxen, at the dose used in the present study, did not interfere with actinotrichia synthesis during the regenerative process of the tail fin. This could be because naproxen did not influence the expression of the genes required for the regeneration process, such as the Sonic hedgehog (Shh gene, which is involved in actinotrichia formation.A borda da nadadeira caudal de teleósteo é sustentada por um conglomerado de espículas pequenas, rígidas e fusiformes chamadas actinotriquias. Essas estruturas, após a amputação, apresentam uma capacidade regenerativa extremamente rápida. Neste trabalho estudamos o efeito de uma droga anti-inflamatória não esteroide, o naproxeno, utilizada no tratamento de doenças articulares degenerativas, durante o processo de regeneração da actinotriquia. Para isso foram feitas análises histoquímicas e ultraestruturais do tecido em regeneração de animais em contato com a droga comparada com animais em condições normais, ou seja, sem contato com a droga em questão. Os animais em contato com a droga apresentaram a regeneração da actinotriquia de modo semelhante ao dos animais mantidos em condições normais, indicando que o naproxeno, na dose utilizada neste trabalho, não interferiu na síntese das actinotriquias durante o processo regenerativo da nadadeira caudal. Isto talvez seja porque o naproxeno não tenha influenciado a expressão dos genes necessários para o processo de regeneração, tal como o gene Sonic hedgehog (Shh, que está envolvido na formação da actinotriquia.

  17. Effects of subacute PVB-exposure (Arocolor 1254) on oxygen consumption, swimming behavior and biotransformation (GST-activity) of carp (Cyprinus carpio); Wirkung subakuter PCB-Exposition (Aroclor 1254) auf Sauerstoffverbrauch, Schwimmbewegung und Biotransformation (GST-Aktivitaet) des Karpfens (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Staaks, G.B.O.; Steinberg, C.E.W. [Leibniz Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, K.

    2005-07-01

    Objective and Background. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyle) are typical man-made environmental pollutants that cause a broad spectrum of effects in vertebrates. Although a lot has been studied about the toxic effects of xenobiotic substances on aquatic organisms, their subacute effects are not yet well known. Fish occupies a central position in freshwater food webs and therefore, carp was chosen to be our test organism. The aim of our study was the investigation of subacute effects of Aroclor 1254 (22 {mu}g l{sup -1}) on respiration, swimming activity, and biotransformation, allowing discussion of changed interaction between the available energy resources. Methods. The respiration experiments under controlled laboratory conditions were run for 29 days (5 d before, 16 d with and 8 d after chemical exposure) with exposed carp compared to the non-exposed fish. Furthermore, the BehavioQuant system quantitatively monitors the positions of each individual fish before (8 d) and during (21 d) PCB exposure and swimming activity (number of horizontal turnings s{sup -1}) of animals was calculated. Thereafter, liver samples were taken from animals for analysis of the phase 2 enzyme activity (glutathione-S-transferase). In the respiration experiments were 6 exposure, 6 control, and 3 solubilizer control groups (12 animals each group); in the behavioral experiments were 9 exposure, 6 control- and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group), and in the enzyme activity measurements were 9 exposure, 6 control and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group) examined. (orig.)

  18. Narrativas do comum: experimentações táticas contra o biopoder no caso Luther Blissett

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    Aline Roes Dalmolin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reflete sobre a criação de notícias falsas através da figura de Luther Blissett, uma identidade aberta adotada por estudantes e hackers na Itália durante a década de 1990. Essas micronarrativas escancararam a fragilidade do jornalismo local, além de ridicularizar a figura da mídia enquanto aliada do biopoder na sua busca constante por materiais sensacionalistas. À luz de conceitos como biopolítica e trabalho imaterial, procuramos compreender como Blissett emerge como resistência criativa, confrontando o poder comum da multidão e o biopoder.

  19. União aduaneira e harmonização tributária: o caso do imposto sobre valor agregado no mercado comum do Sul

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    Lima, Luís Afonso Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Trata do problema da harmonização dos impostos sobre valor agregado nos países do Mercado Comum do Sul. Traça um panorama histórico do regionalismo latino-americano. Aborda questões referentes a uniões aduaneiras e ao Mercado Comum do Sul, bem como tópicos de tributação. Realiza uma análise comparativa dos impostos sobre valor agregado nos países do Mercosul. Tece, por fim, comentários referentes a uma possível harmonização do imposto mencionado

  20. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bullheads (Ictalurus sp.), carp (Cyprinus carpio), a quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), a bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and a turtle were collected from Elk,...