WorldWideScience

Sample records for computing surface heat

  1. Computational flow and heat transfer of a row of circular jets impinging on a concave surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B.V.N.R.; Prasad, B.V.S.S.S. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Thermal Turbomachines Lab, Chennai (India)

    2008-04-15

    A computational investigation is carried out to study the flow and heat transfer from a row of circular jets impinging on a concave surface. The computational domain simulates the impingement cooling zone of a gas turbine nozzle guide vane. The parameters, which are varied in the study include jet Reynolds number (Re{sub d} = 5000-67800), inter-jet distance to jet diameter ratio (c/d = 3.33 and 4.67) and target plate distance to jet diameter ratio (H/d = 1, 3 and 4). The flow field, predicted with K-{omega} turbulence model and using Fluent 6.2.16, is characterized with the presence of a pair of counter rotating vortices, an upwash fountain flow and entrainment. The local pressure coefficient and Nusselt number variations along the concave plate are presented and these values are found to under predict the available experimental data by about 12%. (orig.)

  2. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  3. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  4. Computation of surface radiation and natural convection in a heated horticultural greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezrhab, Ahmed; Elfarh, Larbi [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Energetique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed, Oujda (Morocco); Naji, Hassan [Universite Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies/Polytech' Lille/LML UMR 8107, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Lemonnier, D. [ENSMA, Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study analyses the effects of the radiation exchange inside a horticultural greenhouse, under winter climatic conditions, according to the number of squared heating tubes used. These ones, hot and isothermal, are equidistant inside the greenhouse volume. The governing differential equations are discretized using a finite volume method and the coupling pressure-velocity problem is carried out by the SIMPLER algorithm. The algebraic systems obtained are solved by a conjugate gradient method. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines and average Nusselt number for Rayleigh number of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 6}. The contour lines show that the radiative effects are noted near the solid surfaces, and become increasingly important when the Rayleigh number increases. As a result, the rise in the value of Rayleigh number leads to an increase of the overall heat transfer within the greenhouse. (author)

  5. Analytic computation on the forcible thawing temperature field formed by a single heat transfer pipe with unsteady outer surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; YANG Wei-hao; QI Jia-gen; ZHANG Tao

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic research on the forcible thawing temperature field formed by a single heat transfer pipe with unsteady outer surface temperature was carried out by analytic computation according to the theory of similitude.The distribution law of thawing temperature field,calculation formulas of thawing radius b,heat flux density q and average thawing temperature (T) were obtained.It theoretically explains that the main influential factors of thawing radius b,heat flux density q and thawing average temperature (T) are K,f,Lλ and ω(f),but Lc affects little.Finally,based on the forcible thawing project of Hulusu air shaft lining,the field data indicate that the analytical formulas of this article are comparatively accurate.

  6. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  7. An Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Heating due to Surface Catalysis under Hypersonic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    flowfield inside the VKI Plasmatron facility. The probe, shown in Fig. 21, consists of a copper plate with a 12.5 mm nose radius and can host a 152x30 mm...the low-high-low insert, with the finite volume code Cosmic [29]. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 x, mm T , K...computations of the flow-field around the flat plate probe with the low-high-low catalytic insert have been performed with the code Cosmic [29]. Cosmic is a

  8. Experimental and computational study on laser heating of surface micromachined cantilevers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-01-01

    Microsystems are potentially exposed to laser irradiation during processing, diagnostic measurements, and, in some cases, device operation. The behavior of the components in an optical MEMS device that are irradiated by a laser needs to be optimized for reliable operation. Utilizing numerical simulations facilitates design and optimization. This paper reports on experimental and numerical investigations of the thermomechanical response of polycrystalline silicon microcantilevers that are 250 {micro}m wide, 500 {micro}m long, and 2.25 {micro}m thick when heated by an 808 nm laser. At laser powers above 400 mW significant deflection is observed during the laser pulse using a white light interferometer. Permanent deformation is detected at laser powers above 650 mW in the experiments. Numerical calculations using a coupled physics finite element code, Calagio, agree qualitatively with the experimental results. Both the experimental and numerical results reveal that the initial stress state is very significant. Microcantilevers deflect in the direction of their initial deformation upon irradiation with a laser.

  9. Earth's surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Davies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we estimate the average heat flow for different geologic domains as defined by global digital geology maps; and then produce the global estimate by multiplying it by the total global area of that geologic domain. The averaging is done on a polygon set which results from an intersection of a 1 degree equal area grid with the original geology polygons; this minimises the adverse influence of clustering. These operations and estimates are derived accurately using methodologies from Geographical Information Science. We consider the virtually un-sampled Antarctica separately and also make a small correction for hot-spots in young oceanic lithosphere. A range of analyses is presented. These, combined with statistical estimates of the error, provide a measure of robustness. Our final preferred estimate is 47±2 TW, which is greater than previous estimates.

  10. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  11. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  12. Computer modeling of heat treating austenitic and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, S. S.; Friedman, E.; Berman, R. M.

    1982-05-01

    The adequacy of the heat treating process depends upon the thermal cycle experienced by the material during heat treating in the furnace and quenching. While thermocouples placed at the surface of the material during heat treating can assure the adequacy of the process for the material at the surface, assurance that inner regions of the material are experiencing the proper temperature transient is not guaranteed. To assess present process standards for heat treating 17-4 PH stainless steel and air quenching Inoconel X after solution treatment, computer models of the heat transfer within the material were developed. Sensitivity studies were conducted to determine the effects of material bar diameter, peak temperature, material properties, heat transfer coefficients, and neighboring bar stock. The computer modeling provided an easy and inexpensive technique for determining the adequacy of present heat treating process standards and for ensuring that future standards will provide the desired requirements. Details of these sensitivity studies are presented.

  13. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-07-06

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  14. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  15. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyburczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  16. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  17. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  18. Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arola, R.; Martikainen, H.; Virta, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1993-12-31

    Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the basis of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results

  19. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  20. Computational approach to Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

  1. Evaporation of nanofluid droplet on heated surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chan Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experiment on the evaporation of nanofluid sessile droplet on a heated surface was conducted. A nanofluid of 0.5% volumetric concentration mixed with 80-nm-sized CuO powder and pure water were used for experiment. Droplet was applied to the heated surface, and images of the evaporation process were obtained. The recorded images were analyzed to find the volume, diameter, and contact angle of the droplet. In addition, the evaporative heat transfer coefficient was calculated from experimental result. The results of this study are summarized as follows: the base diameter of the droplet was maintained stably during the evaporation. The measured temperature of the droplet was increased rapidly for a very short time, then maintained constantly. The nanofluid droplet was evaporated faster than the pure water droplet under the experimental conditions of the same initial volume and temperature, and the average evaporative heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid droplet was higher than that of pure water. We can consider the effects of the initial contact angle and thermal conductivity of nanofluid as the reason for this experimental result. However, the effect of surface roughness on the evaporative heat transfer of nanofluid droplet appeared unclear.

  2. Flow Regimes of Mesoscale Circulations Forced by Inhomogeneous Surface Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Alamgir

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme process that increases uncertainty in future climate projections. Flow regimes of mesoscale circulations associated with surface heating due to urbanization have been investigated using a wavelet based computational fluid dynamics~(CFD) model. The results of our numerical model have been validated against that of a laboratory model, as well as reference numerical simulations. Characteristics of urban induced circulations have been studied for surface heat flux perturbation ($H_0$) between $28.93$Wm$^{-2}$ and $925.92$Wm$^{-2}$, and the results have been analyzed against available boundary layer measurements under similar physical conditions. Our primary study shows that urban/rural heat flux anomalies introduce strong oscillations in the convective boundary layer (CBL), and transfers a fraction of the turbulent kinetic energy vertically through internal waves. Such results complement previous investigators' hypothesis that temporal oscillations in urban-induced mesoscale cir...

  3. A computational study of heat transfer in a laminar oscillating confined slot jet impinging on an isothermal surface at low Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny ISSA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer in a laminar confined oscillating slot jet is numerically investigated. A uniform inlet velocity profile oscillating with an angle φ, having the following sinusoidal shape: φ= φmax*sin(2πft. φ is in radians, φmax is the maximum jet angle, and f is the oscillation frequency. The height-to-jet-width ratio (H/w was fixed to 5 and the fluid’s Prandtl number which is one of the dimensionless governing groups is 0.74. The other dimensionless groups characterizing this problem, which are, Strouhal’s number, St, and Reynolds number, Re, where varied. Re was in the range 100heat transfer enhancement was noticed in the stagnation region, when compared to the steady case. A similar enhancement was observed for Re=400 at St=0.75. At Re=100 no improvements were observed, where the flow showed a high vulnerability to severe oscillations, that drastically reduced heat removal ability. Jet flapping could be triggered at Re=400. But the flapping mode was most stable for St=0.75, in which case, heat transfer enhancement was detected.

  4. Heat Transfer Computations of Internal Duct Flows With Combined Hydraulic and Thermal Developing Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Towne, C. E.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Poinsatte, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the Navier-Stokes computations of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. A transition duct from an axisymmetric cross section to a non-axisymmetric cross section, is usually used to connect the turbine exit to the nozzle. As the gas turbine inlet temperature increases, the transition duct is subjected to the high temperature at the gas turbine exit. The transition duct flow has combined development of hydraulic and thermal entry length. The design of the transition duct required accurate surface heat transfer coefficients. The Navier-Stokes computational method could be used to predict the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. The Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical computational code was used in this study. The code was first studied for the computations of the turbulent developing flow properties within a circular duct and a square duct. The code was then used to compute the turbulent flow properties of a transition duct flow. The computational results of the surface pressure, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer coefficient were described and compared with their values obtained from theoretical analyses or experiments. The comparison showed that the Navier-Stokes computation could predict approximately the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow.

  5. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  6. A Mass Computation Model for Lightweight Brayton Cycle Regenerator Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a theoretical analysis of convective heat transfer across large internal surface areas, this paper discusses the design implications for generating lightweight gas-gas heat exchanger designs by packaging such areas into compact three-dimensional shapes. Allowances are made for hot and cold inlet and outlet headers for assembly of completed regenerator (or recuperator) heat exchanger units into closed cycle gas turbine flow ducting. Surface area and resulting volume and mass requirements are computed for a range of heat exchanger effectiveness values and internal heat transfer coefficients. Benefit cost curves show the effect of increasing heat exchanger effectiveness on Brayton cycle thermodynamic efficiency on the plus side, while also illustrating the cost in heat exchanger required surface area, volume, and mass requirements as effectiveness is increased. The equations derived for counterflow and crossflow configurations show that as effectiveness values approach unity, or 100 percent, the required surface area, and hence heat exchanger volume and mass tend toward infinity, since the implication is that heat is transferred at a zero temperature difference. To verify the dimensional accuracy of the regenerator mass computational procedure, calculation of a regenerator specific mass, that is, heat exchanger weight per unit working fluid mass flow, is performed in both English and SI units. Identical numerical values for the specific mass parameter, whether expressed in lb/(lb/sec) or kg/ (kg/sec), show the dimensional consistency of overall results.

  7. Role of radiogenic heat generation in surface heat flow formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khutorskoi, M. D.; Polyak, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    Heat generation due to decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes is considered in the Earth's crust of the Archean-Proterozoic and Paleozoic provinces of Eurasia and North America. The heat flow that forms in the mantle is calculated as the difference between the heat flow observed at the boundary of the solid Earth and radiogenic heat flow produced in the crust. The heat regime in regions with anomalously high radiogenic heat generation is discussed. The relationship between various heat flow components in the Precambrian and Phanerozoic provinces has been comparatively analyzed, and the role of erosion of the surfaceheat- generating layer has been estimated.

  8. Surface electrostatics: theory and computations

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, G.

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this work is to study the electrostatic response of materials accounting for boundary surfaces with their own (electrostatic) constitutive behaviour. The electric response of materials with (electrostatic) energetic boundary surfaces (surfaces that possess material properties and constitutive structures different from those of the bulk) is formulated in a consistent manner using a variational framework. The forces and moments that appear due to bulk and surface electric fields are also expressed in a consistent manner. The theory is accompanied by numerical examples on porous materials using the finite-element method, where the influence of the surface electric permittivity on the electric displacement, the polarization stress and the Maxwell stress is examined.

  9. A Variational Method for Estimating Near-Surface Soil Moisture and Surface Heat Fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuwen; ZHANG Weidong; QIU Chongjian

    2007-01-01

    A variational data assimilation method is proposed to estimate the near-surface soil moisture and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The method merges the five parts into a cost function, I.e., the differences of wind, potential temperature, and specific humidity gradient between observations and those computed by the profile method, the difference of latent heat fluxes calculated using the ECMWF land surface evaporation scheme and the profile method, and a weak constraint for surface energy balance. By using an optimal algorithm, the best solutions are found. The method is tested with the data collected at Feixi Station (31.41°N, 117.08°E) supported by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) during 7-30 June 2001. The results show that estimated near-surface soil moistures can quickly respond to rainfall, and their temporal variation is consistent with that of measurements of average soil moisture over 15-cm top depth with a maximum error less than 0.03 m3 m-3. The surface heat fluxes calculated by this method are consistent with those by the Bowen ratio method, but at the same time it can overcome the instability problem occurring in the Bowen ratio method when the latter is about -1. Meanwhile, the variational method is more accurate than the profile method in terms of satisfying the surface energy balance. The sensitivity tests also show that the variational method is the most stable one among the three methods.

  10. Effects of electrode surface roughness on motional heating of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kuan-Yu; Chuang, Issac L

    2016-01-01

    Electric field noise is a major source of motional heating in trapped ion quantum computation. While the influence of trap electrode geometries on electric field noise has been studied in patch potential and surface adsorbate models, only smooth surfaces are accounted for by current theory. The effects of roughness, a ubiquitous feature of surface electrodes, are poorly understood. We investigate its impact on electric field noise by deriving a rough-surface Green's function and evaluating its effects on adsorbate-surface binding energies. At cryogenic temperatures, heating rate contributions from adsorbates are predicted to exhibit an exponential sensitivity to local surface curvature, leading to either a large net enhancement or suppression over smooth surfaces. For typical experimental parameters, orders-of-magnitude variations in total heating rates can occur depending on the spatial distribution of absorbates. Through careful engineering of electrode surface profiles, our results suggests that heating ra...

  11. Identification of the Heat Transfer Coefficient at the Charge Surface Heated on the Chamber Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołdasz A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The inverse method was applied to determine the heat flux reaching the charge surface. The inverse solution was based upon finding the minimum of the error norm between the measured and calculated temperatures. The charge temperature field was calculated with the finite element method by solving the heat transfer equation for a square charge made of 15HM steel heated on all its surfaces. On the basis of the mean value of heat flux, the value of the heat transfer coefficient at each surface was determined depending on the surface temperature of the material heated.

  12. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  13. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Mario J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Givler, Richard C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  14. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  15. Heat kernel measures on random surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Klevtsov, Semyon

    2015-01-01

    The heat kernel on the symmetric space of positive definite Hermitian matrices is used to endow the spaces of Bergman metrics of degree k on a Riemann surface M with a family of probability measures depending on a choice of the background metric. Under a certain matrix-metric correspondence, each positive definite Hermitian matrix corresponds to a Kahler metric on M. The one and two point functions of the random metric are calculated in a variety of limits as k and t tend to infinity. In the limit when the time t goes to infinity the fluctuations of the random metric around the background metric are the same as the fluctuations of random zeros of holomorphic sections. This is due to the fact that the random zeros form the boundary of the space of Bergman metrics.

  16. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  17. Study on Surface Heat Budget of Various Pavements for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface heat budgets of various pavement surfaces are studied with the aim of mitigating the urban heat island effect. In this study, the thermal characteristics of pavements are examined using data from observations. The net radiation, surface temperature, temperature under the surface, conduction heat flux, and core weight for each experimental surface are recorded, together with the weather conditions at the time of observation. The latent heat flux is estimated from the observed weight of the cores. The surface heat budget under the same weather conditions is examined, and the sensible heat flux from each target surface is calculated. The parameters that influence the surface heat budget, for example, solar reflectance (albedo, evaporative efficiency, heat conductivity, and heat capacity, are examined. On a typical summer day, the maximum reduction in the sensible heat flux from that on a normal asphalt surface is about 150 W/m2 for an asphalt surface with water-retaining material and about 100 W/m2 for a cement concrete surface with water-retaining material, depending on the albedo of each surface.

  18. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  19. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  20. Effective heat strain index using pocket computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, E; Ryan, C

    1981-08-01

    An effective heat strain index (EHSI) using a hand calculator with memory is suggested for on-site evaluation of prevailing hot ambient conditions. The inputs to the programmed calculator include dry-bulb, wet-bulb and globe temperatures, and estimates of metabolism and air movements. The index is based on a program for calculation of the total heat balance and on the efficiency of sweating. The display of information on the ambient conditions EHSI display is one of following: no strain; low strain; high strain; or time limits of exposure.

  1. The modeling of heat affected zone (HAZ in submerged arc welding (SAW surfacing steel element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Winczek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work the bimodal heat source model in the description of the temperature field is presented. The electric arc was treated physically as one heat source, whose heat was divided: part of the heat is transferred by the direct impact of the electric arc, but another part of the heat is transferred to the weld by the melted material of the electrode. Computations of the temperature field during SAW surfacing of S355 steel element are carried out. The macrographic and metallographic analysis of the weld confirmed the depth and shapes of the fusion line and HAZ defined by the numerical simulation.

  2. A modified stanton number for heat transfer through fabric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shen-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stanton number was originally proposed for describing heat transfer through a smooth surface. A modified one is suggested in this paper to take into account non-smooth surface or fractal surface. The emphasis is put on the heat transfer through fabrics.

  3. Computation of surface roughness using optical correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M hamed; M Saudy

    2007-05-01

    The laser speckle photography is used to calculate the average surface roughness from the autocorrelation function of the aluminum diffuse objects. The computed results of surface roughness obtained from the profile shapes of the autocorrelation function of the diffuser show good agreement with the results obtained by the stylus profile meter.

  4. The measurement of surface heat flux using the Peltier effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewen, E.C. (Pavement Management Systems Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)); Hollands, K.G.T., Raithby, G.D. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    Calorimetric methods for measuring surface heat flux use Joulean heating to keep the surface isothermal. This limits them to measuring the heat flux of surfaces that are hotter than their surroundings. Presented in this paper is a method whereby reversible Peltier effect heat transfer is used to maintain this isothermality, making it suitable for surfaces that are either hotter or colder than the surroundings. The paper outlines the theory for the method and describes physical models that have been constructed, calibrated, and tested. The tested physical models were found capable of measuring heat fluxes with an absolute accuracy of 1 percent over a wide range of temperature (5-50C) and heat flux (15-500 W/m{sup 2}), while maintaining isothermality to within 0.03 K. A drawback of the method is that it appears to be suited only for measuring the heat flux from thick metallic plates.

  5. Carbon nanostructured surfaces for enhanced heat transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of high performance thermal systems has stimulated interest in methods to improve heat transfer rates. Considerable efforts have been made to increase heat transfer rates by implementing passive convective heat transfer enhancement methods that require no direct consumption of extern

  6. Carbon nanostructured surfaces for enhanced heat transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, Taha Jibril

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of high performance thermal systems has stimulated interest in methods to improve heat transfer rates. Considerable efforts have been made to increase heat transfer rates by implementing passive convective heat transfer enhancement methods that require no direct consumption of extern

  7. Carbon nanostructured surfaces for enhanced heat transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of high performance thermal systems has stimulated interest in methods to improve heat transfer rates. Considerable efforts have been made to increase heat transfer rates by implementing passive convective heat transfer enhancement methods that require no direct consumption of

  8. Surface computing and collaborative analysis work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Judith; Gossage, Stevenson; Hack, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personne...

  9. Automated Hybrid Microwave Heating for Lunar Surface Solidification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project addresses the need for a system that will provide automated lunar surface stabilization via hybrid microwave heating. Surface stabilization is...

  10. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the heating surface enhancement on the heat transfer coefficient for a vertical minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate effect of the heating surface enhancement on FC-72 flow boiling heat transfer for a vertical minichannel 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. Two types of enhanced heating surfaces were used: one with minicavities distributed unevenly, and the other with capillary metal fibrous structure. It was to measure temperature field on the plain side of the heating surface by means of the infrared thermography and to observe the two-phase flow patterns on the enhanced foil side. The paper analyses mainly the impact of the microstructured heating surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as heat transfer coefficient dependences on the distance along the minichannel length. The data obtained using two types of enhanced heating surfaces in experiments was compared with the data when smooth foil as the heating surface was used. The highest local values of heat transfer coefficient were obtained using enhanced foil with minicavities - in comparison to other cases. Local values of heat transfer coefficient received for capillary fibrous structure were the lowest, even compared with data obtained for smooth foil. Probably this porous structure caused local flow disturbances.

  12. Investigation and optimization of the depth of flue gas heat recovery in surface heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, V. V.; Bespalov, V. I.; Melnikov, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Economic issues associated with designing deep flue gas heat recovery units for natural gas-fired boilers are examined. The governing parameter affecting the performance and cost of surface-type condensing heat recovery heat exchangers is the heat transfer surface area. When firing natural gas, the heat recovery depth depends on the flue gas temperature at the condenser outlet and determines the amount of condensed water vapor. The effect of the outlet flue gas temperature in a heat recovery heat exchanger on the additionally recovered heat power is studied. A correlation has been derived enabling one to determine the best heat recovery depth (or the final cooling temperature) maximizing the anticipated reduced annual profit of a power enterprise from implementation of energy-saving measures. Results of optimization are presented for a surface-type condensing gas-air plate heat recovery heat exchanger for the climatic conditions and the economic situation in Tomsk. The predictions demonstrate that it is economically feasible to design similar heat recovery heat exchangers for a flue gas outlet temperature of 10°C. In this case, the payback period for the investment in the heat recovery heat exchanger will be 1.5 years. The effect of various factors on the optimal outlet flue gas temperature was analyzed. Most climatic, economical, or technological factors have a minor effect on the best outlet temperature, which remains between 5 and 20°C when varying the affecting factors. The derived correlation enables us to preliminary estimate the outlet (final) flue gas temperature that should be used in designing the heat transfer surface of a heat recovery heat exchanger for a gas-fired boiler as applied to the specific climatic conditions.

  13. Solutions manual and computer programs for physical and computational aspects of convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1989-01-01

    This book is designed to accompany Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer by T Cebeci and P Bradshaw and contains solutions to the exercises and computer programs for the numerical methods contained in that book Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer begins with a thorough discussion of the physical aspects of convective heat transfer and presents in some detail the partial differential equations governing the transport of thermal energy in various types of flows The book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students of aeronautical, chemical, civil and mechanical engineering It can also serve as a reference for the practitioner

  14. Computer simulation of carburizers particles heating in liquid metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are introduced the problems of computer simulation of carburizers particles heating (anthracite, graphite and petroleum coke, which are present in liquid metal. The diameter of particles, their quantity, relative velocity of particles and liquid metal and the thermophysical properties of materials (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity have been taken into account in calculations. The analysis has been carried out in the aspect of liquid metal carburization in metallurgical furnaces.

  15. Heat and mass transfer boundary conditions at the surface of a heated sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Anna-Lena; Lundström, T. Staffan

    2017-07-01

    This work numerically investigates how the boundary conditions of a heated sessile water droplet should be defined in order to include effects of both ambient and internal flow. Significance of water vapor, Marangoni convection, separate simulations of the external and internal flow, and influence of contact angle throughout drying is studied. The quasi-steady simulations are carried out with Computational Fluid Dynamics and conduction, natural convection and Marangoni convection are accounted for inside the droplet. For the studied conditions, a noticeable effect of buoyancy due to evaporation is observed. Hence, the inclusion of moisture increases the maximum velocities in the external flow. Marangoni convection will, in its turn, increase the velocity within the droplet with up to three orders of magnitude. Results furthermore show that the internal and ambient flow can be simulated separately for the conditions studied, and the accuracy is improved if the internal temperature gradient is low, e.g. if Marangoni convection is present. Simultaneous simulations of the domains are however preferred at high plate temperatures if both internal and external flows are dominated by buoyancy and natural convection. The importance of a spatially resolved heat and mass transfer boundary condition is, in its turn, increased if the internal velocity is small or if there is a large variation of the transfer coefficients at the surface. Finally, the results indicate that when the internal convective heat transport is small, a rather constant evaporation rate may be obtained throughout the drying at certain conditions.

  16. Computational Model of Heat Transfer on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torian, John G.; Rischar, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    SCRAM Lite (SCRAM signifies Station Compact Radiator Analysis Model) is a computer program for analyzing convective and radiative heat-transfer and heat-rejection performance of coolant loops and radiators, respectively, in the active thermal-control systems of the International Space Station (ISS). SCRAM Lite is a derivative of prior versions of SCRAM but is more robust. SCRAM Lite computes thermal operating characteristics of active heat-transport and heat-rejection subsystems for the major ISS configurations from Flight 5A through completion of assembly. The program performs integrated analysis of both internal and external coolant loops of the various ISS modules and of an external active thermal control system, which includes radiators and the coolant loops that transfer heat to the radiators. The SCRAM Lite run time is of the order of one minute per day of mission time. The overall objective of the SCRAM Lite simulation is to process input profiles of equipment-rack, crew-metabolic, and other heat loads to determine flow rates, coolant supply temperatures, and available radiator heat-rejection capabilities. Analyses are performed for timelines of activities, orbital parameters, and attitudes for mission times ranging from a few hours to several months.

  17. Link between Surface and Subsurface Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Olesen, Folke; Goettsche, Frank; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat islands exist in all diverse layers of modern cities, such as surface and subsurface. While both layers are typically investigated separately, the coupling of surface and subsurface urban heat islands is insufficiently understood. Hence, this study focuses on the interrelation of both zones and the influence of additional underground heat sources, such as heated basements, on this interaction. Using satellite derived land surface temperatures and interpolated groundwater temperature measurements the spatial properties of both heat islands are compared. Significant correlations of 0.5 up to more than 0.8 are found between surface and subsurface urban heat islands. If groundwater flow is considered this correlation increases by approximately 10%. Next we analyzed the dissimilarities between both heat islands in order to understand the interaction between the urban surface and subsurface. We find that local groundwater hotspots under the city center and industrial areas are not revealed in satellite derived land surface temperatures. Overall groundwater temperatures are higher than land surface temperatures in 95% of the analyzed area due to the influence of below ground anthropogenic heat sources such as sewage systems, district heating systems, and especially elevated basement temperatures. Thus, an estimation method is proposed that relates groundwater temperatures to mean annual land surface temperatures, building density, and elevated basement temperatures. Using this method regional groundwater temperatures can be accurately estimated with a mean absolute error of 0.9 K. Since land surface temperatures and building densities are available from remote sensing, this method has the potential for a large scale estimations of urban groundwater temperatures. Thus, it is feasible to detect subsurface urban heat islands on a global level and to investigate sustainable geothermal potentials using satellite derived data.

  18. Piston surface heat transfer during combustion in large marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    limited. The numerical investigation focused on the simulation of a hot turbulent gas jet impinging on a wall under very high pressure, thus approximating the process of the actual impingement of hot combustion gasses on the piston surface during combustion. The surface heat flux at the wall......In the design process of large marine diesel engines information on the maximum heat load on the piston surface experienced during the engine cycle is an important parameter. The peak heat load occurs during combustion when hot combustion products impinge on the piston surface. Although the maximum...... instrumentation and high engine running costs compared to automotive engines. Therefore the investigation in this work was carried out numerically with the use of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. At the same time, numerical work on detailed in-cylinder wall heat transfer in engines has been quite...

  19. Flow impinging effect of critical heat flux and nucleation boiling heat transfer on a downward facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Huai-En; Chen, Mei-Shiue; Chen, Jyun-Wei; Lin, Wei-Keng; Pei, Bau-Shei [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2015-05-15

    Boiling heat transfer has a high heat removal capability in convective cooling. However, the heat removal capability of downward-facing boiling is significantly worse than that of upward-facing cases because of the confined buoyancy effect. This study was inspired by the conception of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) condition relevant to the in-vessel retention (IVR) design of Westinghouse AP1000 plant. In the present study, a small-scale test facility had been established to investigate the local phenomena of boiling heat transfer under a downward-facing horizontal heated surface with impinging coolant flow. In this study, the surface temperature, heat flux information and several specific scenes of bubbles are taken down throughout the boiling processes for detailed investigation. It is observed that bubbles are confined under the downward-facing heated surface, which causes a worse heat transfer rate and a lower critical heat flux (CHF) limit than upward-facing boiling. Nevertheless, the impinging coolant flow is found to disturb the thermal boundary layer formed by the heated surface, so the CHF increases with an increase of coolant flow rate. In addition, during nucleate boiling, it is discovered that the growth, combination and dissipation of bubbles induce turbulent wakes and therefore enhance the heat transfer capability.

  20. Boiling Heat Transfer on Superhydrophilic, Superhydrophobic, and Superbiphilic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Amy Rachel; Kim, Chang-Jin 'CJ'; Attinger, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    With recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication, superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed. The statics and dynamics of fluids on these surfaces have been well characterized. However, few investigations have been made into the potential of these surfaces to control and enhance other transport phenomena. In this article, we characterize pool boiling on surfaces with wettabilities varied from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic, and provide nucleation measurements. The most interesting result of our measurements is that the largest heat transfer coefficients are reached not on surfaces with spatially uniform wettability, but on biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. We develop an analytical model that describes how biphilic surfaces effectively manage the vapor and liquid transport, delaying critical heat flux and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, we manufacture and test the first superbiphilic surfaces (juxtaposing superhydrophobic ...

  1. Laser pulse heating of surfaces and thermal stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir S; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Al-Qahtani, Hussain M

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser pulse heating and thermal stress analysis in materials surface. Analytical temperature treatments and stress developed in the surface region are also explored. The book will help the reader analyze the laser induced stress in the irradiated region and presents solutions for the stress field. Detailed thermal stress analysis in different laser pulse heating situations and different boundary conditions are also presented. Written for surface engineers.

  2. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck’s sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  3. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  4. Boiling Heat Transfer on Porous Surfaces with Vapor Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 杜建华; 王补宣

    2002-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer on porous coated surfaces with vapor channels was investigated experimentally to determine the effects of the size and density of the vapor channels on the boiling heat transfer. Observations showed that bubbles escaping from the channels enhanced the heat transfer. Three regimes were identified: liquid flooding, bubbles in the channel and the bottom drying out region. The maximum heat transfer occurred for an optimum vapor channel density and the boiling heat transfer performance was increased if the channels were open to the bottom of the porous coating.

  5. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  6. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  7. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  8. Mathematical Model of ComputerHeat Treatment and Its Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanJiansheng; ZhangWeimin; TianDong; GuJianfeng; HuMingjuan

    2004-01-01

    Computer simulation on heat treatment is the foundation of intelligent heat treatment. The simulations of temperature field,phase transformation, stress/strain complicate quenching operation were realized by using the model of three dimensional non-linear finite element method and the treatment methods of abruptly changing interface conditions. The simulation results basically fit those measured in experiments. The intelligent sealed multipurpose furnace production line has been developed based on the combination of computer simulation on gaseous carburizing and computer control technology. More than 3000 batches of workpieces have been processed on this production line, and all are up to standard. The application of computer simulation technology can significantly improve the loading ability and reliability of nitriding and carburizing workpieces, reduce heat treatment distortion, and shorten carburizing duration. It is recommended that the reliable product design without redundancy should be performed with the combination of the CAD of mechanical products, the CAE of materials selection and heat treatment, and the dynamic evaluation technology of product reliability.

  9. Investigation of Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer from Porous Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinZhiping; MaTongze; 等

    1994-01-01

    Experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer from porous surfaces at atmospheric pressure were performne.The porous surfaces are plain tubes coverd with metal screens.V-shaped groove tubes covered with screens,plain tubes sintered with screens.and V-shaped groove tubes sintered with screens,The experimental results show that sintering metal screens around spiral V-shaped groove tubes can greatly improve the boiling heat transfer,The boiling hystesis was observed in the experiment.This paper discusses the mechanism of the boiling heat transfer from those kinds of porous surfaces stated above.

  10. Boiling and quenching heat transfer advancement by nanoscale surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Ziegler, Kirk J; Chung, J N

    2017-07-21

    All power production, refrigeration, and advanced electronic systems depend on efficient heat transfer mechanisms for achieving high power density and best system efficiency. Breakthrough advancement in boiling and quenching phase-change heat transfer processes by nanoscale surface texturing can lead to higher energy transfer efficiencies, substantial energy savings, and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports breakthrough advancements on both fronts of boiling and quenching. The critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling and the Leidenfrost point temperature (LPT) in quenching are the bottlenecks to the heat transfer advancements. As compared to a conventional aluminum surface, the current research reports a substantial enhancement of the CHF by 112% and an increase of the LPT by 40 K using an aluminum surface with anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous texture finish. These heat transfer enhancements imply that the power density would increase by more than 100% and the quenching efficiency would be raised by 33%. A theory that links the nucleation potential of the surface to heat transfer rates has been developed and it successfully explains the current finding by revealing that the heat transfer modification and enhancement are mainly attributed to the superhydrophilic surface property and excessive nanoscale nucleation sites created by the nanoporous surface.

  11. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  12. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, A I; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2010-01-01

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the non-contact regions.We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  13. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  14. Barents Sea heat – transport, storage and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Skagseth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of the Barents Sea to variation in ocean heat transport and surface fluxes is explored using a 1-D column model. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force model results that reproduce the observed winter convection and surface warming and freshening well. Model results are compared to existing estimates of the ocean to air heat fluxes and horizontally averaged profiles for the southern and northern Barents Sea. Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production. The northern Barents Sea, the major part of the area, receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss in the north, the balance is achieved by long wave loss removing most of the solar heating, and the model also suggests a positive sensible heat gain. During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. Despite large changes the Barents Sea heat loss remains robust, the temperature adjusts, and the yearly cycle remains. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport probably leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  15. DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF AERODROMECOAING WITH HEATED SURFACE LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Piskunov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The developed constructions with heated by surface layers for aerodromes and auto roads when developed composition of electroconductive concrete reinforced with chemical electrical conductive fibres being used was researched. The experimentally obtained characteristics of ended conductive concrete reinforced with fibers were presented. Calculation by developed heated construction of shell was made.

  16. Effect of electric potential and heating on surface of KCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The purpose of the work is research of morphology of structural changes of a surface { 100} crystals KCl under action of heating and electric field potential enclosed to one of fasets of a crystal.

  17. Effect of electric potential and heating on surface of KCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feodorov; Victor; A.; Sterelukhin; Andrey; A.; Karyev; Leonid; G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work is research of morphology of structural changes of a surface { 100} crystals KCl under action of heating and electric field potential enclosed to one of fasets of a crystal.……

  18. Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-18

    Sep 18, 2008 ... Keywords: surface energy balance, sensible heat flux, latent energy flux, evaporation ... Hill et al., 1992; Thiermann and Grassl, 1992; Green et al.,. 1994; De ...... the time traces over rangeland grass near Ione (California).

  19. Thermal Characteristics of a Primary Surface Heat Exchanger with Corrugated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Won Seo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE with corrugated surfaces. The PSHE was experimentally investigated for a Reynolds number range of 156–921 under various flow conditions on the hot and cold sides. The inlet temperature of the hot side was maintained at 40 °C, while that of the cold side was maintained at 20 °C. A counterflow was used as it has a higher temperature proximity in comparison with a parallel flow. The heat transfer rate and pressure drop were measured for various Reynolds numbers on both the hot and cold sides of the PSHE, with the heat transfer coefficients for both sides computed using a modified Wilson plot method. Based on the results of the experiment, both Nusselt number and friction factor correlations were suggested for a PSHE with corrugated surfaces.

  20. Heat in the Barents Sea: transport, storage, and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well.

    Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production.

    The northern Barents Sea receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss annually in the north. The balance is achieved by a heat loss through long wave radiation all year, removing most of the summer solar heating.

    During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. The Barents Sea responds to such large changes by adjusting temperature and heat loss. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OVER THE DIMPLED SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sachin L. Borse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of years the focus on using concavities or dimples provides enhanced heat transfer has been documented by a number of researchers. Dimples are used on the surface of internal flow passages because they produce substantial heat transfer augmentation. This project work is concerned with experimentalinvestigation of the forced convection heat transfer over the dimpled surface. The objective of the experiment is to find out the heat transfer and air flow distribution on dimpled surfaces and all the results obtained are compared with those from a flat surface. The varying parameters were i Dimple arrangement on the plate i.e.staggered and inline arrangement and ii Heat input iiiDimple density on the plate. Heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number were measured in a channel with one side dimpled surface. Thespherical type dimples were fabricated, and the diameter and the depth of dimple were 6 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Channel height is 25.4mm, two dimple configurations were tested. The Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter was varied from 5000 to 15000.Study shown that thermal performance is increasing with Reynolds number. With the inline and staggered dimple arrangement, the heat transfer coefficients, Nusselt number and the thermal performance factors were higher for the staggered arrangement.

  2. Wind-Speed—Surface-Heat-Flux Feedback in Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Strong winds associated with dust devils can induce locally large heat fluxes from the surface, and resulting enhanced buoyancy may further intensify the dust devils. This positive wind—surface-heat-flux feedback is studied using a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer. A comparison of the results with and without the feedback process for the same environment demonstrates the significance of the feedback process for simulated dust devils.

  3. Computational design and refinement of self-heating lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-10-01

    The recently discovered self-heating lithium ion battery has shown rapid self-heating from subzero temperatures and superior power thereafter, delivering a practical solution to poor battery performance at low temperatures. Here, we describe and validate an electrochemical-thermal coupled model developed specifically for computational design and improvement of the self-heating Li-ion battery (SHLB) where nickel foils are embedded in its structure. Predicting internal cell characteristics, such as current, temperature and Li-concentration distributions, the model is used to discover key design factors affecting the time and energy needed for self-heating and to explore advanced cell designs with the highest self-heating efficiency. It is found that ohmic heat generated in the nickel foil accounts for the majority of internal heat generation, resulting in a large internal temperature gradient from the nickel foil toward the outer cell surface. The large through-plane temperature gradient leads to highly non-uniform current distribution, and more importantly, is found to be the decisive factor affecting the heating time and energy consumption. A multi-sheet cell design is thus proposed and demonstrated to substantially minimize the temperature gradient, achieving 30% more rapid self-heating with 27% less energy consumption than those reported in the literature.

  4. Surfaces for high heat dissipation with no Leidenfrost limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyed Mohammad; Irajizad, Peyman; Kashyap, Varun; Farokhnia, Nazanin; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2017-07-01

    Heat dissipation from hot surfaces through cooling droplets is limited by the Leidenfrost point (LFP), in which an insulating vapor film prevents direct contact between the cooling droplet and the hot surface. A range of approaches have been developed to raise this limit to higher temperatures, but the limit still exists. Recently, a surface architecture, decoupled hierarchical structure, was developed that allows the suppression of LFP completely. However, heat dissipation by the structure in the low superheat region was inferior to other surfaces and the structure required an extensive micro/nano fabrication procedure. Here, we present a metallic surface structure with no LFP and high heat dissipation capacity in all temperature ranges. The surface features the nucleate boiling phenomenon independent of the temperature with an approximate heat transfer coefficient of 20 kW m-2 K-1. This surface is developed in a one-step process with no micro/nano fabrication. We envision that this metallic surface provides a unique platform for high heat dissipation in power generation, photonics/electronics, and aviation systems.

  5. Condensation heat transfer on two-tier superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Vandadi, Aref; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2012-09-01

    We investigated water vapor condensation on a two-tier superhydrophobic surface in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and in a customer-designed vapor chamber. We have observed continuous dropwise condensation (DWC) on the textured surface in ESEM. However, a film layer of condensate was formed on the multiscale texture in the vapor chamber. Due to the filmwise condensation, the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface is lower than that of a flat hydrophobic surface especially under high heat flux situations. Our studies indicate that adaptive and prompt condensate droplet purging is the dominant factor for sustaining long-term DWC.

  6. Inspecting wood surface roughness using computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezeng

    1995-01-01

    Wood surface roughness is one of the important indexes of manufactured wood products. This paper presents an attempt to develop a new method to evaluate manufactured wood surface roughness through the utilization of imaging processing and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper a collimated plane of light or a laser is directed onto the inspected wood surface at a sharp angle of incidence. An optics system that consists of lens focuses the image of the surface onto the objective of a CCD camera, the CCD camera captures the image of the surface and using a CA6300 board digitizes the image. The digitized image is transmitted into a microcomputer. Through the use of the methodology presented in this paper, the computer filters the noise and wood anatomical grain and gives an evaluation of the nature of the manufactured wood surface. The preliminary results indicated that the method has the advantages of non-contact, 3D, high-speed. This method can be used in classification and in- time measurement of manufactured wood products.

  7. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  8. Computation of Radiation Heat Transfer in Aeroengine Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the highlights of the research completed for the NASA are summarized. This research has been completed in the form of two Ph.D. theses by Chai (1994) and Parthasarathy (1996). Readers are referred to these theses for a complete details of the work and lists of references. In the following sections, first objectives of this research are introduced, then the finite-volume method for radiation heat transfer is described, and finally computations of radiative heat transfer in non-gray participating media is presented.

  9. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  10. Radial and temporal variations in surface heat transfer during cryogen spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Walfre [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Liu Jie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Wang Guoxiang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Nelson, J Stuart [Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617 (United States); Aguilar, Guillermo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2005-01-21

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is a heat extraction process that protects the epidermis from thermal damage during dermatologic laser surgery. The objective of the present work is to investigate radial and temporal variations in the heat transferred through the surface of a skin phantom during CSC. A fast-response thermal sensor is used to measure surface temperatures every 1 mm across a 16 mm diameter of the sprayed surface of the phantom. An analytical expression based on Fourier's law and Duhamel's theorem is used to compute surface heat fluxes from temperature measurements. Results show that radial and temporal variations of the boundary conditions have a strong influence on the homogeneity of heat extraction from the skin phantom. However, there is a subregion of uniform cooling whose size is time dependent. It is also observed that the surface heat flux undergoes a marked dynamic variation, with a maximum heat flux occurring at the centre of the sprayed surface early in the spurt followed by a quick decrease. The study shows that radial and temporal variations of boundary conditions must be taken into account and ideally controlled to guarantee uniform protection during CSC of human skin.

  11. Inverse Estimation of Transient Heat Flux to Slab Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Miao; YANG Kai; LIU Yun-fei; GAO Xiao-wei

    2012-01-01

    The transient heat flux was calculated using a model for inverse heat conduction problems based on temper- ature measurements. The unknown heat flux was taken as an optimization variable and solved by minimizing the differences between the calculated temperatures and the measured ones. Several examples were given to show the ef- fectiveness and the accuracy of the inverse algorithm in estimating the transient heat flux to a slab surface. The re sults show that the inverse approach can be applied in the steel industry or in other areas where the target of investi- gation is inaccessible to direct measurements or difficult to be directly modeled.

  12. Heat transfer crisis on sintered porous surfaces – experimental investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik Tadeusz Michal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There were presented the results of theoretical analysis of boiling heat transfer on heating surfaces covered with thin-layered capillary porous structures. The paper discussed the results of experimental investigations into intralayer boiling crisis and accompanying phenomena. It was observed that the structural parameters of the porous covering affected the course of the process. Hysteresis phenomenon manifested itself when the heat flux initiating intralayer heat crisis was reached. The crisis mechanism hypotheses, the description of which was available in literature, were discussed.

  13. Tracking ocean heat uptake during the surface warming hiatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Lu, Jian

    2016-03-30

    Ocean heat uptake is observed to penetrate deep into the Atlantic and Southern Oceans during the recent hiatus of global warming. Here we show that the deep heat penetration in these two basins is not unique to the hiatus but is characteristic of anthropogenic warming and merely reflects the depth of the mean meridional overturning circulation in the basin. We find, however, that heat redistribution in the upper 350 m between the Pacific and Indian Oceans is closely tied to the surface warming hiatus. The Indian Ocean shows an anomalous warming below 50 m during hiatus events due to an enhanced heat transport by the Indonesian throughflow in response to the intensified trade winds in the equatorial Pacific. Thus, the Pacific and Indian Oceans are the key regions to track ocean heat uptake during the surface warming hiatus.

  14. Effect of surface etching on condensing heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Sung Chul; Park, Jae Won; Jung, Jiyeon; Choi, Chonggun; Choi, Gyu Hong; Hwang, Seung Sik; Chung, Tae Yong; Shin, Donghoon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Jun [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This study conducted experiments on humid air condensation during heat transfer in an air preheating exchanger attached to a home condensing boiler to improve thermal efficiency. An etchant composed of sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate was used to create roughness on the heat exchanger surface made from STS430J1L. A counter flow heat exchanger was fabricated to test the performance of heat transfer. Results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficients of all specimens treated with etchant improved with respect to the original specimens (not treated with etchant), and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the 60 s etching specimen increased by up to 15%. However, the increasing rate of the heat transfer coefficient was disproportional to the etching time. When the etching time specifically increased above 60 s, the heat transfer coefficient decreased. This effect was assumed to be caused by surface characteristics such as contact angle. Furthermore, a smaller contact angle or higher hydrophilicity leads to higher heat transfer coefficient.

  15. Modeling heat efficiency, flow and scale-up in the corotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter; Karlson, Torben

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of two different scale corotating disc scraped surface heat exchangers (CDHE) was performed experimentally. The findings were compared to predictions from a finite element model. We find that the model predicts well the flow pattern of the two CDHE's investigated. The heat transfer...

  16. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  17. The Effect of Diffusional Transport and Surface Catalysis on the Aerothermodynamic Heating for Martian Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henline, William D.; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    For the reentry heating of 70-degree blunt sphere-cones entering Mars at velocities in excess of 6 km/sec, a study was performed to determine the magnitude of both convective and catalytic heating on the cone forebody. Case studies of the peak heating conditions for the current NASA Mars Pathfinder entry probe, as well as the peak heating conditions of the proposed NASA Mars 2001 aerobraking orbiter mission were performed. Since the actual behavior of the chemical recombination of Mars atmosphere hypersonic shock layer species on heat shield materials is not known, and no experimental studies of any consequence have been done to determine surface reaction rates for the CO2 system, a parametric analysis of various reaction schemes and surface catalytic mechanistic models was performed. In many cases the actual Mars entry probe will have a heat shield composed of an ablative material which can either partially or completely preclude the existence of catalytic surface recombination phenomena. The extent of this blockage effect has not been examined at this time and is not considered in this effort. Instead only non-ablative computations are performed to separately evaluate the full extent of the surface catalysis and related diffusional phenomena. Parametric studies include peak heating point comparisons of non-catalytic, partially catalytic and fully catalytic total surface heat transfer for three difference surface recombination catalytic mechanisms (with and without simultaneous CO + O and O + O recombination) as well as with different species diffusion models. Diffusion model studies include constant Schmidt number (equal diffusivities) and the bifurcation, approximate multi-component diffusion model. Since the gas phase reaction kinetics for the Mars CO2 based atmosphere have also not been validated, the effect of two different (fast and slow) sets of gas kinetics on heat transfer is presented.

  18. Analysis of coupled heat and moisture transport on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomáš; Krejčí, Tomáš

    2017-07-01

    Coupled analysis of heat and moisture transport in complicated structural elements or in whole structures deserves a special attention because after space discretization, large number of degrees of freedom are needed. This paper describes possible solution of such problems based on domain decomposition methods executed on parallel computers. The Schur complement method is used with respect to nonsymmetric systems of algebraic equations. The method described is an alternative to other methods, e.g. two or more scale homogenization.

  19. Corrections for Convective Heat Flux Gauges Subjected to a Surface Temperature Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, M.; Reinarts, T.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out in an effort to determine the convective heat transfer corrections for circular heat flux gauges subjected to a surface temperature discontinuity. Solutions were obtained at a Reynolds number Of 1 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 4. The CFD results are compared with the existing correlations for the correction factors. In general, the CFD corrections exceed those provided by the correlations. The discrepancy increases with increasing upstream surface temperature, thus indicating the role of property variations, which are not accounted for in the correlations. A quasi-two-dimensional analysis is also performed to treat the cylindrical geometry of the heat flux gauges by area-averaging the computed two-dimensional results from CFD.

  20. Heat Flux Apportionment to Heterogeneous Surfaces Using Flux Footprint Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heat flux data collected from the Baiyangdian Heterogeneous Field Experiment were analyzed using the footprint method. High resolution (25 m) Landsat-5 satellite imaging was used to determine the land cover as one of four surface types: farmland, lake, wetland, or village. Data from two observation sites in September 2005 were used. One site (Wangjiazhai) was characterized by highly heterogeneous surfaces in the central area of the Baiyangdian: lake/wetland. The other site (Xiongxian) was on land with more uniform surface cover. An improved Eulerian analytical flux footprint model was used to determine "source areas" of the heat fluxes measured at towers located at each site from surrounding landscapes of mixed surface types.In relative terms results show that wetland and lake areas generally contributed most to the observed heat flux at Wangjiazhai, while farmland contributed most at Xiongxian. Given the areal distribution of surface type contributions, calculations were made to obtain the magnitudes of the heat flux from lake, wetland and farmland to the total observed flux and apportioned contributions of each surface type to the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Results show that on average the sensible heat flux from wetland and farmland were comparable over the diurnal cycle, while the latent heat flux from farmland was somewhat larger by about 30-50 W m-2 during daytime. The latent and sensible fluxes from the lake source in daytime were about 50 W m-2 and 100 W m-2 less, respectively, than from wetland and farmland. The results are judged reasonable and serve to demonstrate the potential for flux apportionment over heterogeneous surfaces.

  1. Aerodynamic heat transfer to RSI tile surfaces and gap intersections. [Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunavant, J. C.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of aerothermal heating tests of a simulated reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array, performed on the sidewall of a Mach-10 hypersonic tunnel. In particular, the heating characteristics of the tile array, such as they result from heating inside the tile-expansion-space providing gaps between individual tiles, are investigated. The results include the finding that heating on the upstream face of a tile is strongly affected by the interacting longitudinal gap flow.

  2. The role of a convective surface in models of the radiative heat transfer in nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com; Al-Mazroui, W.A.; Al-Hatmi, F.S.; Al-Lawatia, M.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The role of a convective surface in modelling with nanofluids is investigated over a wedge. • Surface convection significantly controls the rate of heat transfer in nanofluid. • Increased volume fraction of nanoparticles to the base-fluid may not always increase the rate of heat transfer. • Effect of nanoparticles solid volume fraction depends on the types of constitutive materials. • Higher heat transfer in nanofluids is found in a moving wedge rather than in a static wedge. - Abstract: Nanotechnology becomes the core of the 21st century. Nanofluids are important class of fluids which help advancing nanotechnology in various ways. Convection in nanofluids plays a key role in enhancing the rate of heat transfer either for heating or cooling nanodevices. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the role of a convective surface on the heat transfer characteristics of water-based nanofluids over a static or moving wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper Cu, alumina Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} are considered in preparation of nanofluids. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are made dimensionless with the similarity transformations. Numerical simulations are carried out through the very robust computer algebra software MAPLE 13 to investigate the effects of various pertinent parameters on the flow field. The obtained results presented graphically as well as in tabular form and discussed from physical and engineering points of view. The results show that the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation significantly depends on the surface convection parameter. If the hot fluid side surface convection resistance is lower than the cold fluid side surface convection resistance, then increased volume fraction of the nanoparticles to the base fluid may reduces the heat transfer rate rather than increases from the surface of

  3. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  4. A computer program for designing fin-and-tube heat exchanger for EGR cooler application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaiful, Marwan, M. A.; Tandian, N. P.; Bae, M.

    2016-03-01

    EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) cooler is a kind of heat exchanger that is used to cool exhaust gas recirculation prior to be mixed with fresh air in an intake manifold of vehicle in order to obtain good reduction of NOxemissions. A fin-and-tube heat exchanger is more preferred as an EGR cooler than a shell-and-tube heat exchanger in this study due to its compactness. Manually designing many configurations of fin-and-tube heat exchanger for EGR cooler application consumes a lot of time and is high cost. Therefore, a computer aided design process of EGR cooler is required to overcome this problem. The EGR cooler design process was started by arranging the sequences of calculation algorithm in a computer program. A cooling media for this EGR cooler is air. The design is based on the effectiveness-number transfer unit (NTU) method. The EGR cooler design gives the geometry, heat transfer surface area, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of the EGR cooler. Comparison of the EGR cooler Nusselt number obtained in this study and that reported in literature shows less than 6.2% discrepancy.

  5. Dropwise Evaporative Cooling of Heated Surfaces with Various Wettability Characteristics Obtained by Nanostructure Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-12-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to analyze dropwise evaporative cooling of heated surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The surface wettability was tuned by nanostructure modifications. Spray-cooling experiments on these surfaces show that surfaces with better wettability have better heat transfer rate and higher critical heat flux (CHF). Single droplet impingement evaporative cooling of a heated surface was then investigated numerically with various wettability conditions to characterize the effect of contact angle on spray-cooling heat transfer. The volume of fluid (VOF) model with variable-time stepping was used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain with the kinetic theory model used to predict the evaporation rate at the liquid-gas interface. The numerical results agree with the spray-cooling experiments that dropwise evaporative cooling is much better on surfaces with better wettability because of the better liquid spreading and convection, better liquid-solid contact, and stronger liquid evaporation.

  6. Surface heat loads on the ITER divertor vertical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J. P.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Escourbiac, F.; Hirai, T.; Panayotis, S.; Pitts, R. A.; Corre, Y.; Dejarnac, R.; Firdaouss, M.; Kočan, M.; Komm, M.; Kukushkin, A.; Languille, P.; Missirlian, M.; Zhao, W.; Zhong, G.

    2017-04-01

    The heating of tungsten monoblocks at the ITER divertor vertical targets is calculated using the heat flux predicted by three-dimensional ion orbit modelling. The monoblocks are beveled to a depth of 0.5 mm in the toroidal direction to provide magnetic shadowing of the poloidal leading edges within the range of specified assembly tolerances, but this increases the magnetic field incidence angle resulting in a reduction of toroidal wetted fraction and concentration of the local heat flux to the unshadowed surfaces. This shaping solution successfully protects the leading edges from inter-ELM heat loads, but at the expense of (1) temperatures on the main loaded surface that could exceed the tungsten recrystallization temperature in the nominal partially detached regime, and (2) melting and loss of margin against critical heat flux during transient loss of detachment control. During ELMs, the risk of monoblock edge melting is found to be greater than the risk of full surface melting on the plasma-wetted zone. Full surface and edge melting will be triggered by uncontrolled ELMs in the burning plasma phase of ITER operation if current models of the likely ELM ion impact energies at the divertor targets are correct. During uncontrolled ELMs in pre-nuclear deuterium or helium plasmas at half the nominal plasma current and magnetic field, full surface melting should be avoided, but edge melting is predicted.

  7. Sea Spray Effects on Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Andreas, E. L., and E. C. Monahan, 1999: The role of whitecap bubbles in air- sea heat and moisture exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press. ...1 Sea Spray Effects on Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes Edgar L Andreas U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 72 Lyme Road...www.crrel.usace.army.mil LONG-TERM GOAL The goal is to investigate, theoretically and through analyzing existing data, the role that sea spray plays in

  8. Experimental and Computational Study of Underexpanded Jet Impingement Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufer, Shann J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Picetti, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was performed to assess CFD modeling of a hypersonic-vehicle breach, boundary-layer flow ingestion and internal surface impingement. Tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. Four simulated breaches were tested and impingement heat flux data was obtained for each case using both phosphor thermography and thin film gages on targets placed inside the model. A separate target was used to measure the surface pressure distribution. The measured jet impingement width and peak location are in good agreement with CFD analysis.

  9. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  10. Laser heating of a cavity versus a plane surface for metal targets utilizing photothermal deflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. H.; Greif, R.; Russo, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    The effects of a cylindrical cavity in a metal surface on the energy coupling of a laser beam with the solid were investigated by using a photothermal deflection technique. The photothermal deflection of a probe beam over the cavity was measured while the bottom of the cavity was heated with a Nd-YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. Cavities in three different materials and with two different aspect ratios were used for the experiment. Temperature distributions in the solid and the surrounding air were computed numerically and used to calculate photothermal deflections for cavity heating and for plane surface heating. Reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity increased the photothermal deflection amplitude significantly with larger increases for materials with larger thermal diffusivity. The computed photothermal deflections agreed more closely with the experimental results when reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity was included in the numerical model. The overall energy coupling between a heating laser and a solid is enhanced by a cavity.

  11. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur YEMENİCİ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights

  12. Three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface with prescribed surface temperature and prescribed surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Tasawar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the mathematical modelling for three-dimensional flow of an incompressible Oldroyd- B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Mathematical formulation incorporates the effect of internal heat source/sink. Two cases of heat transfer namely the prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF are considered. Computations for the governing nonlinear flow are presented using homotopy analysis method. Comparison of the present analysis is shown with the previous limiting result. The obtained results are discussed by plots of interesting parameters for both PST and PHF cases. We examine that an increase in Prandtl number leads to a reduction in PST and PHF. It is noted that both PST and PHF are increased with an increase in source parameter. Further we have seen that the temperature is an increasing function of ratio parameter

  13. The influence of a radiated heat exchanger surface on heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sławomir

    2015-09-01

    The experiment leads to establish the influence of radiated surface development heat exchangers on the values of heat flux transferred with water flowing through the exchangers and placed in electric furnace chamber. The values of emissivity coefficients are given for the investigated metal and ceramic coatings. Analytical calculations have been made for the effect of the heating medium (flame) - uncoated wall and then heating medium (flame) - coated wall reciprocal emissivity coefficients. Analysis of the values of exchanged heat flux were also realized. Based on the measurement results for the base coating properties, these most suitable for spraying the walls of furnaces and heat exchangers were selected, and determined by the intensification of heat exchange effect. These coatings were used to spray the walls of a laboratory waste-heat boiler, and then measurements of fluxes of heat absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the boiler tubes covered with different type coatings were made. Laboratory tests and calculations were also confirmed by the results of full-scale operation on the metallurgical equipment.

  14. The influence of a radiated heat exchanger surface on heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Sławomir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment leads to establish the influence of radiated surface development heat exchangers on the values of heat flux transferred with water flowing through the exchangers and placed in electric furnace chamber. The values of emissivity coefficients are given for the investigated metal and ceramic coatings. Analytical calculations have been made for the effect of the heating medium (flame – uncoated wall and then heating medium (flame – coated wall reciprocal emissivity coefficients. Analysis of the values of exchanged heat flux were also realized. Based on the measurement results for the base coating properties, these most suitable for spraying the walls of furnaces and heat exchangers were selected, and determined by the intensification of heat exchange effect. These coatings were used to spray the walls of a laboratory waste-heat boiler, and then measurements of fluxes of heat absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the boiler tubes covered with different type coatings were made. Laboratory tests and calculations were also confirmed by the results of full-scale operation on the metallurgical equipment.

  15. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  16. Investigation of Si(001) stable surfaces in alternating current heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, T.; Koguchi, M.

    2016-11-01

    The topography of a Si(001) vicinal surface is investigated using reflection electron microscopy (REM) during alternating current (AC) heating of the surface in ultra-high vacuum. The normal direction of the surface is slightly tilted from the [001] direction at θx or θy on the x or y axis (they are orthogonal directions in the Si(001) surface), and the average widths of the terraces (a or b in x or y axis) are determined by θx or θy; the direction perpendicular to the incidence electron beam on the surface is selected as the x (horizontal) axis in each REM image. Alternating current heating changes each initial surface from stable to double-domain (DD), in which 2 × 1 and 1 × 2 terraces are arranged regularly with approximately equal width, at its transition temperature Tc; the dimer rows are parallel to the x or y axis in the 1 × 2 or 2 × 1 terraces. There are two types of stable surfaces in the vicinal surface. At temperatures below its Tc, the surface with horizontally (vertically) long terraces, where b a), changes to a 2 × 1 (1 × 2) surface with wide 2 × 1 (1 × 2) and narrow 1 × 2 (2 × 1) terraces. The terrace, the short side of which is parallel to its dimer row direction, grows to create a stable surface by thermal diffusion of Si atoms at temperatures below Tc. During AC heating, thermal diffusion plays a key role in analyzing the kinetics of the atoms on the surface because the thermal effect acts as the driving force for the atoms that have not yet evaporated from the surface. Then, by evaporating atoms from the vicinal surface, AC heating creates a DD surface at temperatures between its Tc and 1100 °C and a rugged surface consisting of small 2 × 1 and 1 × 2 terraces at temperatures above 1100 °C.

  17. 1983-2004 Heat Treatment Embraces Surface Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom Bell

    2004-01-01

    The origins of surface engineering lie in antiquity, with the practices in ancient Greece and China of hardening,tempering and crude form of case hardening using solid organic materials. The formation of the International Federation for Heat Treatment in 1971 later to include Surface Engineering has been pre-eminent in the globalisation of the rapidly developing discipline of surface engineering. The dominant effect of environmental aspects of surface engineering are discussed regarding the impact for change to light weight materials and the adoption of environmentally friendly plasma technologies.

  18. Limitations of floor heating - optimum heating surface design. Grenzen der Deckenheizung - optimale Heizflaechengestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, B.

    1994-06-01

    The publication on the use of cooling floors for heating purposes has resulted in the following questions amongst the professionals: Can rooms with relatively poor thermal insulation and customary outside air filtration, also be thermophysiologically heated in a permissible manner with radiant floor surfaces How do corner areas behave Can the radiator design be optimized where radiated temperature distribution is concerned The effects and the present limitations are indicated by means of practical examples. (orig.)

  19. A surface code quantum computer in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2015-10-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.

  20. The surface heat island of Rotterdam and its relationship with urban surface characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, L.; Zwart, S.; Verhagen, H.; Mauri, E.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal infrared high resolution satellite images from Landsat sensors were used to spatially quantify the surface heat island (SHI) of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Based on surface temperature maps retrieved on 15 summer days since 1984, the average surface temperature of each district and neighbo

  1. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    stack chimney heat exchanger is used for heating or cooling applications, what is the expected performance and how do the design parameters relate to this performance'. Simulation models were developed in the BPS tool ESP-r. The most important design parameters and their relative influence on the performance indicators were analysed based on sensitivity analysis (SA). From this analysis general design guidelines were derived ('optimal set of design parameters'). A multi objective optimization of the design parameters was performed on the simulation models, using the responsive surface methods and artificial neural network capabilities of optimization environment ModEContier to speed up the iteration process. In this optimization, 'heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually'. The uncertainty in the optimized results has been analysed using uncertainty analysis (UA). Finally, the appropriateness of deploying a complex, high resolution simulation has been evaluated by studying current modelling resolution selection methodology found in literature.

  2. Heat Flow for the Minimal Surface with Plateau Boundary Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kung Ching CHANG; Jia Quan LIU

    2003-01-01

    The heat flow for the minimal surface under Plateau boundary condition is defined to be aparabolic variational inequality, and then the existence, uniqueness, regularity, continuous dependenceon the initial data and the asymptotics are studied. It is applied as a deformation of the level sets inthe critical point theory.

  3. Convective boundary layers driven by nonstationary surface heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, R.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar radiation. Because the time scale of the associated change

  4. Cool down computer chips with liquid metal device driven by the heat of chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the soaring advances in computational speed, thermal management becomes a major concern in computer systems. To remove heat generated by computer chips or very large scale integrated circuits, a research team headed by Prof.

  5. Computational fluid flow and heat transfer. An engineering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcudean, Martha

    1991-05-01

    The purpose, method, and potential of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are discussed. Some examples of CFD and heat transfer applied to engineering problems are described. Simulation of casting in a permanent mold, gallium arsenide crystal growth, and the computation of discharge coefficients in film cooling of turbine blades are briefly described. It is shown the the CFD methods help to improve the understanding of the physics involved. They allow the influence of various parameters on the product or process to be investigated in a relatively inexpensive way. CFD constitutes a predictive tool which allows for product or process optimization. Discretization and solution methods used in the present examples are briefly described. Some limitations of the CFD methods are illustrated. The error introduced by false diffusion is shown for laminar flow around a bluff body. The improvement obtained by a higher order scheme is discussed. Some difficulties related to turbulence modelling are illustrated for the flow and heat transfer around the same bluff body. Turbulent swirling flow between concentric annuli is also discussed. Problems related to the slow convergence rate and major improvements obtained through applying multigrid convergence acceleration methods are shown for two and three dimensional opposing jets penetrating into a main flow.

  6. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  7. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-10-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  8. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2017-09-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  9. Selective surface functionalization of silicon nanowires via nanoscale joule heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inkyu; Li, Zhiyong; Pisano, Albert P; Williams, R Stanley

    2007-10-01

    In this letter, we report a novel approach to selectively functionalize the surface of silicon nanowires located on silicon-based substrates. This method is based upon highly localized nanoscale Joule heating along silicon nanowires under an applied electrical bias. Numerical simulation shows that a high-temperature (>800 K) with a large thermal gradient can be achieved by applying an appropriate electrical bias across silicon nanowires. This localized heating effect can be utilized to selectively ablate a protective polymer layer from a region of the chosen silicon nanowire. The exposed surface, with proper postprocessing, becomes available for surface functionalization with chemical linker molecules, such as 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilanes, while the surrounding area is still protected by the chemically inert polymer layer. This approach is successfully demonstrated on silicon nanowire arrays fabricated on SOI wafers and visualized by selective attachment of gold nanoparticles.

  10. Effect of carbon nanofiber surface morphology on convective heat transfer from cylindrical surface: Synthesis, characterization and heat transfer measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification is made by layers of carbon nanofiber (CNF) on a 50 μm nickel wire using Thermal chemical vapor deposition process (TCVD). Three different CNF layer morphologies are made, at 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C, to investigate the influence of morphology on hea

  11. Vapor bubble evolution on a heated surface containing open microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christopher J.; Glezer, Ari; Smith, Marc K.

    2011-11-01

    Power electronics require cooling technologies capable of high heat fluxes at or below the operating temperatures of these devices. Boiling heat transfer is an effective choice for such cooling, but it is limited by the critical heat flux (CHF), which is typically near 125 W/cm2 for pool boiling of water on a flat plate at standard pressure and gravity. One method of increasing CHF is to incorporate an array of microchannels into the heated surface. Microchannels have been experimentally shown to improve CHF, and the goal of this study is to determine the primary mechanisms associated with the microchannels that allow for the increased CHF. While the use of various microstructures is not new, the emphasis of previous work has been on heat transfer aspects, as opposed to the fluid dynamics inside and in the vicinity of the microchannels. This work considers the non-isothermal fluid motion during bubble growth and departure by varying channel geometry, spacing, and heat flux input using a level-set method including vaporization and condensation. These results and the study of the underlying mechanisms will aid in the design optimization of microchannel-based cooling devices. Supported by ONR.

  12. Analysis of selected surface characteristics and latent heat storage for passive solar space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.; Leigh, R.

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the value of various technical improvements in the solar collector and thermal storage subsystems of passive solar residential, agricultural, and industrial systems for two regions of the country. The evaluated improvements are: decreased emissivity and increased absorptivity of absorbing surfaces, decreased reflectivity, and decreased emissivity of glazing surface, and the substitution of sensible heat storage media with phase change materials. The value of each improvement is estimated by the additional energy savings resulting from the improvement.

  13. Heat mass transfer model of fouling process of calcium carbonate on heat transfer surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new heat mass transfer model was developed to predict the fouling process of calcium carbonate on heat transfer surface. The model took into account not only the crystallization fouling but also the particle fouling which was formed on the heat transfer surface by the suspension particles of calcium carbonate in the su- persaturated solution. Based on experimental results of the fouling process, the deposition and removal rates of the mixing fouling were expressed. Furthermore, the coupling effect of temperature with the fouling process was considered in the physics model. As a result the fouling resistance varying with time was obtained to describe the fouling process and the prediction was compared with experimental data under same conditions. The results showed that the present model could give a good prediction of fouling process, and the deviation was less than 15% of the experimental data in most cases. The new model is credible to predict the fouling process.

  14. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Tayfun Kilic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys. To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage.

  15. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Veli Tayfun; Unal, Emre; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2016-03-11

    All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys). To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum) at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage.

  16. Plasma–Surface Interactions Under High Heat and Particle Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory De Temmerman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface interactions studies under those very harsh conditions. While the ion energies on the divertor surfaces of a fusion device are comparable to those used in various plasma-assited deposition and etching techniques, the ion (and energy fluxes are up to four orders of magnitude higher. This large upscale in particle flux maintains the surface under highly non-equilibrium conditions and bring new effects to light, some of which will be described in this paper.

  17. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  18. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  19. Measurements and computational analysis of heat transfer and flow in a simulated turbine blade internal cooling passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louis M.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Simonyi, Patricia S.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Visual and quantitative information was obtained on heat transfer and flow in a branched-duct test section that had several significant features of an internal cooling passage of a turbine blade. The objective of this study was to generate a set of experimental data that could be used to validate computer codes for internal cooling systems. Surface heat transfer coefficients and entrance flow conditions were measured at entrance Reynolds numbers of 45,000, 335,000, and 726,000. The heat transfer data were obtained using an Inconel heater sheet attached to the surface and coated with liquid crystals. Visual and quantitative flow field results using particle image velocimetry were also obtained for a plane at mid channel height for a Reynolds number of 45,000. The flow was seeded with polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser light sheet. Computational results were determined for the same configurations and at matching Reynolds numbers; these surface heat transfer coefficients and flow velocities were computed with a commercially available code. The experimental and computational results were compared. Although some general trends did agree, there were inconsistencies in the temperature patterns as well as in the numerical results. These inconsistencies strongly suggest the need for further computational studies on complicated geometries such as the one studied.

  20. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  1. Embedded water-based surface heating part 2: experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    : hybrid 3D numerical model. Journal of Building Physics 33: 357-391). The thermal response of the system is tested in both long (16 h) and short (30 min) cycle experiments where the water flow alters between on and off. Temperature distribution, within the floor construction, and the heat exchange process...... are studied throughout the test cycles. The model underestimates the steady-state heat exchange from the pipe loop by 16% when boundary conditions and thermal properties according to the reference case are applied. Temperatures at the floor surface are assessed with good precision while temperatures......The transient operation of an embedded water-based floor heating system has been studied by means of a numerical simulation tool. Prior to this study, Caccavelli and Richard (Caccavelli D, Richard P (1994) Etude portant sur le dimensionnement d'un plancher chauffant a eau chaude en CIC. Rapport n...

  2. Investigation into flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel with enhanced heating surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of flow boiling in a minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating element for the working fluid (FC-72 that flows along the minichannel is a single-sided enhanced alloy foil made from Haynes-230. Microrecesses were formed on the selected area of the heating foil by laser technology. The observations of the flow structure were carried out through a piece of glass. Simultaneously, owing to the liquid crystal layer placed on the opposite side of the enhanced foil surface, it was possible to measure temperature distribution on the heating wall through another piece of glass. The experimental research has been focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e. the zone of boiling incipience and further development of boiling. The objective of the paper is determining of the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected images for increasing heat fluxes supplied to the heating surface. The flow structure photos were processed in Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes was developed in Techystem Globe software.

  3. MINIVER: Miniature version of real/ideal gas aero-heating and ablation computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Computer code is used to determine heat transfer multiplication factors, special flow field simulation techniques, different heat transfer methods, different transition criteria, crossflow simulation, and more efficient thin skin thickness optimization procedure.

  4. Evaluation of scale formation in waterwall heated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylasheva Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of forecasting assessments of the speed and the time of formation of depositions in the evaporator-tube elements of double-drum boilers. The values of thermal flow in the wall region of tank screens of boiler furnace are obtained, besides the velocity values of scaling metal corrosion products are obtained. Conclusions about the ability of forecasting unnominal situations and emergency risks dependent with damage to the screen surface heating pipes are made.

  5. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  6. Impact inducted surface heating by planetesimals on early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Maindl, T I; Lammer, H; Güdel, M; Schäfer, C; Speith, R; Odert, P; Erkaev, N V; Kislyakova, K G; Pilat-Lohinger, E

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the influence of impacts of large planetesimals and small planetary embryos on the early Martian surface on the hydrodynamic escape of an early steam atmosphere that is exposed to the high soft X-ray and EUV flux of the young Sun. Impact statistics in terms of number, masses, velocities, and angles of asteroid impacts onto the early Mars are determined via n-body integrations. Based on these statistics, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations result in estimates of energy transfer into the planetary surface material and according surface heating. For the estimation of the atmospheric escape rates we applied a soft X-ray and EUV absorption model and a 1-D upper atmosphere hydrodynamic model to a magma ocean-related catastrophically outgassed steam atmosphere with surface pressure values of 52 bar H2O and 11 bar CO2. The estimated impact rates and energy deposition onto an early Martian surface can account for substantial heating. The energy influx and conversion rate into internal ener...

  7. Penetrative turbulence associated with mesoscale surface heat flux variations

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Jahrul M

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates penetrative turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Using a large eddy simulation approach, we study characteristics of the mixed layer with respect to surface heat flux variations in the range from 231.48 W/m$^2$ to 925.92 W/m$^2$, and observe that the surface heterogeneity on a spatial scale of $20$ km leads to downscale turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Coherent fluctuations of mesoscale horizontal wind is observed at 100m above the ground. Such a surface induced temporal oscillations in the horizontal wind suggest a rapid jump in mesocale wind forecasts, which is difficult to parameterize using traditional one-dimensional ensemble-mean models. Although the present work is idealized at a typical scale (20km) of surface heterogeneity, the results help develop effective subgrid scale parameterization schemes for classical weather forecasting mesoscale models.

  8. Influence of radiant energy exchange on the determination of convective heat transfer rates to Orbiter leeside surfaces during entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Temperatures measured at the aerodynamic surface of the Orbiter's thermal protection system (TPS), and calorimeter measurements, are used to determine heating rates to the TPS surface during atmospheric entry. On the Orbiter leeside, where convective heating rates are low, it is possible that a significant portion of the total energy input may result from solar radiation, and for the wing, cross radiation from the hot (relatively) Orbiter fuselage. In order to account for the potential impact of these sources, values of solar- and cross-radiation heat transfer are computed, based upon vehicle trajectory and attitude information and measured surface temperatures. Leeside heat-transfer data from the STS-2 mission are presented, and the significance of solar radiation and fuselage-to-wing cross-radiation contributions to total energy input to Orbiter leeside surfaces is assessed.

  9. Stagnation point flow towards nonlinear stretching surface with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Zubair, M.; Ayub, M.; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Here the influence of the non-Fourier heat flux in a two-dimensional (2D) stagnation point flow of Eyring-Powell liquid towards a nonlinear stretched surface is reported. The stretching surface is of variable thickness. Thermal conductivity of fluid is taken temperature-dependent. Ordinary differential systems are obtained through the implementation of meaningful transformations. The reduced non-dimensional expressions are solved for the convergent series solutions. Convergence interval is obtained for the computed solutions. Graphical results are displayed and analyzed in detail for the velocity, temperature and skin friction coefficient. The obtained results reveal that the temperature gradient enhances when the thermal relaxation parameter is increased.

  10. Thermal and Physical Properties and Deposit Structure of Power Equipment Heating Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nerezko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows influence of heating surface material, design peculiarities, operational conditions of heat exchangers and water-chemical regime on chemical and structural composition of deposits, their heat conduction and porosity.

  11. Computer simulation of metal wire explosion under high rate heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Korchuganov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Synchronous electric explosion of metal wires and synthesis of bicomponent nanoparticles were investigated on the base of molecular dynamics method. Copper and nickel nanosized crystallites of cylindrical shape were chosen as conductors for explosion. The embedded atom approximation was used for calculation of the interatomic interactions. The agglomeration process after explosion metal wires was the main mechanism for particle synthesis. The distribution of chemical elements was non-uniform over the cross section of the bicomponent particles. The copper concentration in the surface region was higher than in the bulk of the synthesized particle. By varying the loading parameters (heating temperature, the distance between the wires) one can control the size and internal structure of the synthesized bicomponent nanoparticles. The obtained results showed that the method of molecular dynamics can be effectively used to determine the optimal technological mode of nanoparticle synthesis on the base of electric explosion of metal wires.

  12. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu

    2002-09-01

    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  13. Nanofluid flow and forced convection heat transfer over a stretching surface considering heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, M.; Valipour, P.; Shambooli, M.; Ayani, M.; Mirparizi, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, magnetic field effects on the forced convection flow of a nanofluid over a stretching surface in the presence of heat generation/absorption are studied. The equations of continuity, momentum and energy are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme featuring the shooting technique. Different types of nanoparticles as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) with water as their base fluid has been considered. The influence of significant parameters, such as magnetic parameter, volume fraction of the nanoparticles, heat generation/absorption parameter, velocity ratio parameter and temperature index parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are discussed. The results show that the values of temperature profiles increase with increasing heat generation/absorption and volume fraction of the nanoparticles but they decrease with increasing velocity ratio parameter and temperature index parameter. Also, it can be found that selecting silver as nanoparticle leads to the highest heat transfer enhancement.

  14. Modelling snowpack surface temperature in the Canadian Prairies using simplified heat flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Purushottam Raj; Yew Gan, Thian

    2005-11-01

    Three practical schemes for computing the snow surface temperature Ts, i.e. the force-restore method (FRM), the surface conductance method (SCM), and the Kondo and Yamazaki method (KYM), were assessed with respect to Ts retrieved from cloud-free, NOAA-AVHRR satellite data for three land-cover types of the Paddle River basin of central Alberta. In terms of R2, the mean Ts, the t-test and F-test, the FRM generally simulated more accurate Ts than the SCM and KYM. The bias in simulated Ts is usually within several degrees Celsius of the NOAA-AVHRR Ts for both the calibration and validation periods, but larger errors are encountered occasionally, especially when Ts is substantially above 0 °C. Results show that the simulated Ts of the FRM is more consistent than that of the SCM, which in turn was more consistent than that of the KYM. This is partly because the FRM considers two aspects of heat conduction into snow, a stationary-mean diurnal (sinusoidal) temperature variation at the surface coupled to a near steady-state ground heat flux, whereas the SCM assumes a near steady-state, simple heat conduction, and other simplifying assumptions, and the KYM does not balance the snowpack heat fluxes by assuming the snowpack having a vertical temperature profile that is linear. Copyright

  15. Surface urban heat island across 419 global big cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ottle, Catherine; Bréon, François-Marie; Nan, Huijuan; Zhou, Liming; Myneni, Ranga B

    2012-01-17

    Urban heat island is among the most evident aspects of human impacts on the earth system. Here we assess the diurnal and seasonal variation of surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) defined as the surface temperature difference between urban area and suburban area measured from the MODIS. Differences in SUHII are analyzed across 419 global big cities, and we assess several potential biophysical and socio-economic driving factors. Across the big cities, we show that the average annual daytime SUHII (1.5 ± 1.2 °C) is higher than the annual nighttime SUHII (1.1 ± 0.5 °C) (P urban area and suburban area, while the distribution of daytime SUHII correlates negatively across cities with the difference of vegetation cover and activity between urban and suburban areas. Our results emphasize the key role of vegetation feedbacks in attenuating SUHII of big cities during the day, in particular during the growing season, further highlighting that increasing urban vegetation cover could be one effective way to mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  16. Some aspects of the computer simulation of conduction heat transfer and phase change processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, A. D.

    1982-04-01

    Various aspects of phase change processes in materials are discussd including computer modeling, validation of results and sensitivity. In addition, the possible incorporation of cognitive activities in computational heat transfer is examined.

  17. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Isotope Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, NASA has used the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTGs have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency and the scarcity of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14.75 Earth days), isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 W with two GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (32% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a four-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of americium-241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling- convertor-based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from tens of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a substitute for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about one-fifth while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 W of electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot

  18. A computational model for heterogeneous heating during pulsed laser irradiation of polymers doped with light-absorbing microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    Doping of polymers with light-absorbing microparticles to increase their optical properties is a commonly used pre-treatment technique in laser processing of polymers. The presence of these particles plays an important role during laser heating of the polymer that influences its surface...... characteristics. This work presents a study based on a computational model of laser heating of polymer doped with light-absorbing microparticles accounting for the heterogeneous nature of heating. The work aims at gaining a fundamental insight into the nature of the heating process and to understand the role...... of microparticles. The results suggest that apart from the laser intensity and pulse duration, the properties of the microparticles including their size and distribution also play an important role during the laser heating of polymers....

  19. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of dry tower extended surfaces. Part I. Heat transfer and pressure drop data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    A compilation is presented of heat transfer and pressure drop data which were collected from literature reports on extended surface heat exchangers. The type of extended surfaces considered are tubular finned tubes as distinct from compact heat exchangers. These surfaces have a base tube to which additional surface was added by mechanical means. This additional surface is in the form of fins attached to the outside surface of the tube. These tubes are normally employed for heat transfer between a liquid and a gas. The liquid flows inside the tubes and the gas, normally air, flows outside the tubes. The fins are oriented so that their surface is transverse to the axis of the tubes. The gas flows across the tubes in a direction parallel to the fin surface.

  20. Attenuating the surface Urban Heat Island within the Local Thermal Zones through land surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Ouyang, Wanlu

    2017-02-01

    Inefficient mitigation of excessive heat is attributed to the discrepancy between the scope of climate research and conventional planning practice. This study approaches this problem at both domains. Generally, the study, on one hand, claims that the climate research of the temperature phenomenon should be at local scale, where implementation of planning and design strategies can be more feasible. On the other hand, the study suggests that the land surface factors should be organized into zones or patches, which conforms to the urban planning and design manner. Thus in each zone, the land surface composition of those excessively hot places can be compared to the zonal standard. The comparison gives guidance to the modification of the land surface factors at the target places. Specifically, this study concerns the Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Wuhan, China. The land surface is classified into Local Thermal Zones (LTZ). The specifications of temperature sensitive land surface factors are relative homogeneous in each zone and so is the variation of the LST. By extending the city scale analysis of Urban Heat Island into local scale, the Local Surface Urban Heat Islands (LSUHIs) are extracted. Those places in each zone that constantly maintain as LSUHI and exceed the homogenous LST variation are considered as target places or hotspots with higher mitigation or adaptation priority. The operation is equivalent to attenuate the abnormal LST variation in each zone. The framework is practical in the form of prioritization and zoning, and mitigation strategies are essentially operated locally.

  1. Aram Chaos and its constraints on the surface heat flux of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, S.; Zegers, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The surface heat flux of a planet is an important parameter to characterize its internal activity and to determine its thermal evolution. Here we report on a new method to constrain the surface heat flux of Mars during the Hesperian. For this, we explore the consequences for the martian surface heat

  2. Aram Chaos and its constraints on the surface heat flux of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, S.; Zegers, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The surface heat flux of a planet is an important parameter to characterize its internal activity and to determine its thermal evolution. Here we report on a new method to constrain the surface heat flux of Mars during the Hesperian. For this, we explore the consequences for the martian surface heat

  3. Flow, heat transfer, and free surface shape during the optical fiber drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihui

    1997-12-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model is introduced for analyzing glass and gas flows, heat transfer, and fiber formation during the optical fiber drawing process. This study consists of simulations in three different areas: the upper region, the tip region, and the whole furnace region. Conjugating the glass and gas flows and heat transfer, the shapes of an optical fiber as free surfaces in the upper neck-down and the tip regions are separately obtained by solving the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations. In the upper region simulation, a surface-to-surface radiation model is used for the enclosure which consists of the wall and the glass surface, and the Rosseland approximation radiation model is employed to account for the radiation effect in the glass region. In the tip region simulation, only the glass fiber region is considered and a convective heat transfer model on the fiber surface is employed to account for the energy exchange between the fiber surface and the purge gas. In the fiber, radiation in the axial direction is included. The whole furnace simulation uses a calculated fiber neck-down shape and an assumed fiber tip shape as a fixed interface and computes the convective heat transfer coefficient profile in the tip region which was used in the tip region simulation. The glass viscosity is temperature-dependent and significantly affects the fiber shape. The finite element code FIDAP is used in the study. The effects of various operating conditions such as draw speed, wall temperature distribution, and gas flow rate are studied.

  4. Contact angle and droplet heat transfer during evaporation on structured and smooth surfaces of heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Water evaporation in a wide range of droplet diameters and wall temperatures on the structured and smooth surfaces were studied experimentally. Linear dependence of evaporation rate (dV/dt) on a droplet radius varies when the volume is greater than 40-60 μl. The static contact angles on the structured surface vary with a droplet diameter for high wall superheating. Dependence of the contact angle on diameter for the corrugated surface is defined by a change in both potential energy barrier U and three-phase contact line tension τcl. This energy barrier for the structured wall changes with an increase in the initial droplet diameter and becomes constant for the large droplets. For high wall superheating, the power in the law of evaporation increases from 1 to 1.45 with an increase in the initial droplet diameter. Depending on the droplet radius, number of droplets and heater length, four different characters of evaporation are realized. Complete droplet evaporation time on structured surface is less than smooth wall. Heat transfer coefficient is greater for structured wall than smooth one. When simulating droplet evaporation and heat transfer, it is necessary to take into account free convection of air and vapor.

  5. A theoretical and computational study of lithium-ion battery thermal management for electric vehicles using heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Angelo; Cao, Dongpu; Jiang, Xi; Yang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    A simplified one-dimensional transient computational model of a prismatic lithium-ion battery cell is developed using thermal circuit approach in conjunction with the thermal model of the heat pipe. The proposed model is compared to an analytical solution based on variable separation as well as three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The three approaches, i.e. the 1D computational model, analytical solution, and 3D CFD simulations, yielded nearly identical results for the thermal behaviours. Therefore the 1D model is considered to be sufficient to predict the temperature distribution of lithium-ion battery thermal management using heat pipes. Moreover, a maximum temperature of 27.6 °C was predicted for the design of the heat pipe setup in a distributed configuration, while a maximum temperature of 51.5 °C was predicted when forced convection was applied to the same configuration. The higher surface contact of the heat pipes allows a better cooling management compared to forced convection cooling. Accordingly, heat pipes can be used to achieve effective thermal management of a battery pack with confined surface areas.

  6. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Heat mass transfer model of fouling process of calcium carbonate on heat transfer surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN ZhenHua; CHEN YongChang; MA ChongFang

    2008-01-01

    A new heat mass transfer model was developed to predict the fouling process of calcium carbonate on heat transfer surface.The model took into account not only the crystallization fouling but also the particle fouling which was formed on the heat transfer surface by the suspension particles of calcium carbonate in the su-persaturated solution.Based on experimental results of the fouling process,the deposition and removal rates of the mixing fouling were expressed.Furthermore,the coupling effect of temperature with the fouling process was considered in the physics model.As a result the fouling resistance varying with time was obtained to describe the fouling process and the prediction was compared with experimental data under same conditions.The results showed that the present model could give a good prediction of fouling process,and the deviation was less than 15% of the experimental data in most cases.The new model is credible to predict the fouling process.

  9. Droplet Impact on a Heated Surface under a Depressurized Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    Behavior of a water droplet of the diameter 1-3mm impacting on a heated surface under depressurized environment (100kPa -1kPa) has been studied. A syringe pump for droplet generation and a heated plate are set into a transparent acrylic vacuum chamber. The internal pressure of the chamber is automatically controlled at a target pressure with a rotary pump, a pressure transducer, and an electrical valve. A silicon wafer of the thickness 0.28 mm is mounted on the heater plate, whose temperature is directly measured by attaching a thermocouple on the backside. The droplet behavior is captured using a high-speed camera in a direction perpendicular to droplet velocity. Some unique behaviors of droplet are observed by decreasing the environmental pressure, which are considered to be due to two basic elements: Enhancement of evaporation due to the lowered saturation temperature, and shortage of pneumatic spring effect between the droplet and heated wall due to the lowered pressure of the air.

  10. Heat Transfer in a Forced Wall Jet on a heated Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-FrancoiseScibilia

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,an experimental investigation of a laminar wall jet in the presence of a heated wall with stationary particles on its surface,is reproted.The wall jet was submitted to external acoustic vibration amplifying the coherent structures appearing in the laminar region.A wind tunnel was used at very low Reynolds number,Mean velocity and turbulence intensity were measured by a constant temperature anemometer .Measurements were taken in the transition and turbulent regions.Embedded particles were outside the vissous sublayer and it was observed that their presence modifies significantly the flow characteristics in particular the boundary layer is thickened.This study can bring a better understanding of the structure of a flow when it is heated and forced on a rough wall.

  11. Dry heat exposures of surface exposed and embedded Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary technique used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts. Often, manufacturing procedures require heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. The existing specifications, however, do not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit if the hardware is exposed without controlled relative humidity. The intent of this study was to provide adequate data on the DHMR technique to support modification of four aspects of current requirements; expansion of acceptable time and temperature combinations used for spacecraft dry heat microbial reduction processes above 125° C, determining the effect that humidity has on spore lethality as a function of temperature, understanding the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance and to investigate the extended exposure requirement for materials that might contain embedded microorganisms. Spores from two bacterial species were tested, B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372 and B. sp. ATCC 29669, under three conditions encompassing 5 temperature points. Embedded experiments utilized a silicone rubber polymer that is commonly used on robotic spacecraft, and surface exposed experiments were performed under both ambient and vacuum-controlled humidity conditions. The results obtained support the use of DHMR protocols that extend the maximum temperature range from 125° C to 170° C, with either controlled or ambient humidity. If implemented, this will give projects bioburden reduction credit for shorter treatments at extended temperatures, and allow spacecraft to be processed in more readily available and less expensive facilities that do not have humidity control, with significant cost and schedule benefits. The study also demonstrated that the required heating time for materials presumed to have embedded bioburden is conservative.

  12. Surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of surface latent heat flux (SLHF from the epicentral regions of five recent earthquakes that occurred in close proximity to the oceans has been found to show anomalous behavior. The maximum increase of SLHF is found 2–7 days prior to the main earthquake event. This increase is likely due to an ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The increase of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is attributed to the increase in infrared thermal (IR temperature in the epicentral and surrounding region. The anomalous increase in SLHF shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake, provided that there is a better understanding of the background noise due to the tides and monsoon in surface latent heat flux. Efforts have been made to understand the level of background noise in the epicentral regions of the five earthquakes considered in the present paper. A comparison of SLHF from the epicentral regions over the coastal earthquakes and the earthquakes that occurred far away from the coast has been made and it has been found that the anomalous behavior of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is only associated with the coastal earthquakes.

  13. Monitoring the Surface Heat Island (shi) Effects of Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the effects of industrial enterprises on Land Surface Temperature (LST) and to retrieve Surface Heat Island (SHI) maps of these regions. SHI is one of the types of Urban Heat Island (UHI) and as the urban areas grow in a city, UHI effect becomes bigger. The city centre of Zonguldak was chosen as study area and Landsat 5 satellite data were used as materials. Zonguldak has important industrial enterprises like thermal power plants and iron and steel plant. ERDEMIR is the biggest iron and steel plant in Turkey and it is one of the biggest ones in Europe, as well. There are three operating thermal power plants in the region namely CATES, ZETES1 and ZETES2. In order to investigate these industrial regions, Landsat 5 satellite data were processed using mono-window algorithm to retrieve LST and they were acquired on 11.09.1987, 18.09.2007 and 29.09.2011, respectively. The obtained results revealed that from 1987 to 2011, spatial and temporal variability in LST in industrial enterprises became higher than the surroundings. Besides, the sizes of SHIs in 2011 are bigger than the ones in 1987. For the countries and governments, having industrial enterprises is crucial for the development and it is also important to present the community better conditions in life. Thus, decision makers should consider mitigating the effects of these regions on LST.

  14. MONITORING THE SURFACE HEAT ISLAND (SHI EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the effects of industrial enterprises on Land Surface Temperature (LST and to retrieve Surface Heat Island (SHI maps of these regions. SHI is one of the types of Urban Heat Island (UHI and as the urban areas grow in a city, UHI effect becomes bigger. The city centre of Zonguldak was chosen as study area and Landsat 5 satellite data were used as materials. Zonguldak has important industrial enterprises like thermal power plants and iron and steel plant. ERDEMIR is the biggest iron and steel plant in Turkey and it is one of the biggest ones in Europe, as well. There are three operating thermal power plants in the region namely CATES, ZETES1 and ZETES2. In order to investigate these industrial regions, Landsat 5 satellite data were processed using mono-window algorithm to retrieve LST and they were acquired on 11.09.1987, 18.09.2007 and 29.09.2011, respectively. The obtained results revealed that from 1987 to 2011, spatial and temporal variability in LST in industrial enterprises became higher than the surroundings. Besides, the sizes of SHIs in 2011 are bigger than the ones in 1987. For the countries and governments, having industrial enterprises is crucial for the development and it is also important to present the community better conditions in life. Thus, decision makers should consider mitigating the effects of these regions on LST.

  15. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface roughness and heat flux conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Alper Ozalp

    2006-02-01

    Choked converging nozzle flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that integrates the axisymmetric continuity, state, momentum and energy equations. To predict the combined effects of nozzle geometry, friction and heat transfer rates, analyses are conducted with sufficiently wide ranges of covergence half angle, surface roughness and heat flux conditions. Numerical findings show that inlet Mach and Nusselt numbers decrease up to 23.1% and 15.8% with surface heat flux and by 15.13% and 4.8% due to surface roughness. Considering each convergence half angle case individually results in a linear relation between nozzle discharge coefficients and exit Reynolds numbers with similar slopes. Heat flux implementation, by decreasing the shear stress values, lowers the risks due to wear hazards at upstream sections of flow walls; however the final 10% downstream nozzle portion is determined to be quite critical, where shear stress attains the highest magnitudes. Heat transfer rates are seen to increase in the streamwise direction up to 2.7 times; however high convergence half angles, heat flux and surface roughness conditions lower inlet Nusselt numbers by 70%, 15.8% and 4.8% respectively.

  16. Effects of thermal radiation and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porous medium in the presence of heat source or sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed M. A Elbashbeshy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal radiation and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porous medium in the presence of heat source or sink are studied. The governing time dependent boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations containing radiation parameter, permeability parameter, heat source or sink parameter, Prandtl number, and unsteadiness parameter. These equations are solved numerically by applying Nachtsheim-Swinger shooting iteration technique together with Rung-Kutta fourth order integration scheme. The velocity profiles, temperature profiles, the skin friction coefficient, and the rate of heat transfer are computed and discussed in details for various values of the different parameters. Comparison of the obtained numerical results is made with previously published results.

  17. Modeling and simulation of heat sinks for computer processors in COMSOL Multiphysics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the heat transfer of three desktop- computer heat sinks was analyzed. The objective of using these heat sinks is to avoid overheating of the computer’s processing unit and in turn reduce the corresponding loss in the unit’s service time. The heat sinks were modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics with the actual dimensions of the devices, and heat generation was modeled with a point source. In the next step, the heat sink designs were modified to achieve a lower temperature in the hi...

  18. Computational characterization of ordered nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    A vital and challenging task for materials researchers is to determine relationships between material characteristics and desired properties. While the measurement and assessment of material properties can be complex, quantitatively characterizing their structure is frequently a more challenging task. This issue is magnified for materials researchers in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, where material structure is further complicated by phenomena such as self-assembly, collective behavior, and measurement uncertainty. Recent progress has been made in this area for both self-assembled and nanostructured surfaces due to increasing accessibility of imaging techniques at the nanoscale. In this context, recent advances in nanomaterial surface structure characterization are reviewed including the development of new theory and image processing methods.

  19. Computation of Capillary Interactions among Many Particles at Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Koike, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a new computational method to efficiently estimate capillary interactions among many moving particles at a free surface. A novelty of the method is the immersed free surface (IFS) model that transforms the surface tension exerted on a three-phase contact line on a particle surface into the surface tension exerted on an artificially created virtual free surface in the particle. Using the IFS model along with a level set method and an immersed boundary method, we have reasonably simulated a capillary-force-induced self-assembly of particles that is common in coating-drying of particle suspension.

  20. Computation of Surface Integrals of Curl Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenglie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way of computing a surface integral when the vector field of the integrand is a curl field. Presented in some advanced calculus textbooks such as [1], the technique, as the author experienced, is simple and applicable. The computation is based on Stokes' theorem in 3-space calculus, and thus provides not only a means to…

  1. The Effect of Metallic TPS Panel Bowing on the Surface Heating of the X-33 Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant; Kontinos, Dean; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The thermal protection system of the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle consists of metallic honeycomb sandwich panels. Thermal gradients experienced during the descent phase of the trajectory result in a different rate of thermal expansion between the inner and outer face sheets of the metallic panels. This causes the panels to bow outward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is larger than that of the inner face sheet and inward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is less than that of he inner face sheet. This results in a quilted-type body surface. Using computational fluid dynamic analysis, this study will determine the effect the metallic TPS panel bowing has on the surface heating.

  2. Towards Physarum robots: computing and manipulating on water surface

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium of Physarym polycephalum is an ideal biological substrate for implementing concurrent and parallel computation, including combinatorial geometry and optimization on graphs. We report results of scoping experiments on Physarum computing in conditions of minimal friction, on the water surface. We show that plasmodium of Physarum is capable for computing a basic spanning trees and manipulating of light-weight objects. We speculate that our results pave the pathways towards design and implementation of amorphous biological robots.

  3. Versatile Density Functionals for Computational Surface Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorff, Jess

    Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy-to-computational c......Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy...... resampling techniques, thereby systematically avoiding problems with overfitting. The first ever density functional presenting both reliable accuracy and convincing error estimation is generated. The methodology is general enough to be applied to more complex functional forms with higher-dimensional fitting...

  4. Vaporization heat transfer of dielectric liquids on enhanced surfaces covered with screen wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C. B.; Chow, L. C.; Pais, M. R.; Baker, K.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the vaporization heat transfer characteristics for the dielectric liquid FC-72 on several wicking surfaces which may be used in flat-plate heat pipes. The wicking materials studied included microstructure enhanced surfaces and coarse surfaces covered with screen meshes. Experimental data for q versus deltaT curves and critical heat fluxes were obtained for the two different operating conditions of a heat pipe, evaporation, and shallow pool boiling. When the liquid level was above the heated surface, the height of the liquid level above the surface was varied from 0 to 10 mm. When the liquid level was below the heated surface, the distance from the liquid level to the edge of the surface was adjusted from 0 to 15 mm. Experimental results revealed that for shallow pool boiling when the heated surface was covered with a wire screen mesh, the heat transfer coefficient increased at lower heat fluxes but the critical heat flux (CHF) decreased for all the surfaces tested. In the case of evaporation, both CHF and the heat transfer coefficient increased as the microstructure surfaces were covered with screen meshes.

  5. Vaporization heat transfer of dielectric liquids on enhanced surfaces covered with screen wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C. B.; Chow, L. C.; Pais, M. R.; Baker, K.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the vaporization heat transfer characteristics for the dielectric liquid FC-72 on several wicking surfaces which may be used in flat-plate heat pipes. The wicking materials studied included microstructure enhanced surfaces and coarse surfaces covered with screen meshes. Experimental data for q versus deltaT curves and critical heat fluxes were obtained for the two different operating conditions of a heat pipe, evaporation, and shallow pool boiling. When the liquid level was above the heated surface, the height of the liquid level above the surface was varied from 0 to 10 mm. When the liquid level was below the heated surface, the distance from the liquid level to the edge of the surface was adjusted from 0 to 15 mm. Experimental results revealed that for shallow pool boiling when the heated surface was covered with a wire screen mesh, the heat transfer coefficient increased at lower heat fluxes but the critical heat flux (CHF) decreased for all the surfaces tested. In the case of evaporation, both CHF and the heat transfer coefficient increased as the microstructure surfaces were covered with screen meshes.

  6. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  7. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  8. A temperature prediction-correction method for estimating surface soil heat flux from soil temperature and moisture data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Surface soil heat flux is a component of surface energy budget and its estimation is needed in land-atmosphere interaction studies. This paper develops a new simple method to estimate soil heat flux from soil temperature and moisture observations. It gives soil temperature profile with the thermal diffusion equation and, then, adjusts the temperature profile with differences between observed and computed soil temperatures. The soil flux is obtained through integrating the soil temperature profile. Compared with previous methods, the new method does not require accurate thermal conductivity. Case studies based on observations, synthetic data, and sensitivity analyses show that the new method is preferable and the results obtained with it are not sensitive to the availability of temperature data in the topsoil. In addition, we pointed out that the soil heat flux measured with a heat-plate can be quite erroneous in magnitude though its phase is accurate.

  9. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon nan

  10. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; Meer, van der T.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon nan

  11. On computational experiments in some inverse problems of heat and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.

    2016-11-01

    The results of mathematical modeling of effective heat and mass transfer on hypersonic aircraft permeable surfaces are considered. The physic-chemical processes (the dissociation and the ionization) in laminar boundary layer of compressible gas are appreciated. Some algorithms of control restoration are suggested for the interpolation and approximation statements of heat and mass transfer inverse problems. The differences between the methods applied for the problem solutions search for these statements are discussed. Both the algorithms are realized as programs. Many computational experiments were accomplished with the use of these programs. The parameters of boundary layer obtained by means of the A.A.Dorodnicyn's generalized integral relations method from solving the direct problems have been used to obtain the inverse problems solutions. Two types of blowing laws restoration for the inverse problem in interpolation statement are presented as the examples. The influence of the temperature factor on the blowing restoration is investigated. The different character of sensitivity of controllable parameters (the local heat flow and local tangent friction) respectively to step (discrete) changing of control (the blowing) and the switching point position is studied.

  12. Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon.

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Emmanuel; Laroche, Marine; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this letter, we revisit the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near-field heat transfer. We also analyse the flux and find that there is a doping level that maximizes the heat flux.

  13. Vaporization heat transfer of dielectric liquids on a wick-covered surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C. B.; Chow, L. C.; Baker, K.

    1993-01-01

    Vaporization heat transfer characteristics were measured for the dielectric liquid FC-72 on a horizontal heated surface covered with wire screen wicks with the mesh number for the screens varying from 24 to 100. In such a situation the liquid level can be either higher or lower than the heated surface. When the liquid level was above the heated surface (shallow pool boiling), the height of the liquid level above the surface, h, was varied from 0 to 10 mm. When the liquid level was below the heated surface (evaporation through capillary pumping), the distance from the liquid level to the edge of the surface, L, was adjusted from 0 to 15 mm. Experimental data revealed that the critical heat flux (CHF) decreases as the mesh number is increased from 24 to 100 for both vaporation and shallow pool boiling, showing that the vapor-escaping limit is more important than the capillary limit in flat plate heat pipe application.

  14. Vaporization heat transfer of dielectric liquids on a wick-covered surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C. B.; Chow, L. C.; Baker, K.

    1993-01-01

    Vaporization heat transfer characteristics were measured for the dielectric liquid FC-72 on a horizontal heated surface covered with wire screen wicks with the mesh number for the screens varying from 24 to 100. In such a situation the liquid level can be either higher or lower than the heated surface. When the liquid level was above the heated surface (shallow pool boiling), the height of the liquid level above the surface, h, was varied from 0 to 10 mm. When the liquid level was below the heated surface (evaporation through capillary pumping), the distance from the liquid level to the edge of the surface, L, was adjusted from 0 to 15 mm. Experimental data revealed that the critical heat flux (CHF) decreases as the mesh number is increased from 24 to 100 for both vaporation and shallow pool boiling, showing that the vapor-escaping limit is more important than the capillary limit in flat plate heat pipe application.

  15. Mathematical and computer modeling of component surface shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashkov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The process of shaping technical surfaces is an interaction of a tool (a shape element) and a component (a formable element or a workpiece) in their relative movements. It was established that the main objects of formation are: 1) a discriminant of a surfaces family, formed by the movement of the shape element relatively the workpiece; 2) an enveloping model of the real component surface obtained after machining, including transition curves and undercut lines; 3) The model of cut-off layers obtained in the process of shaping. When modeling shaping objects there are a lot of insufficiently solved or unsolved issues that make up a single scientific problem - a problem of qualitative shaping of the surface of the tool and then the component surface produced by this tool. The improvement of known metal-cutting tools, intensive development of systems of their computer-aided design requires further improvement of the methods of shaping the mating surfaces. In this regard, an important role is played by the study of the processes of shaping of technical surfaces with the use of the positive aspects of analytical and numerical mathematical methods and techniques associated with the use of mathematical and computer modeling. The author of the paper has posed and has solved the problem of development of mathematical, geometric and algorithmic support of computer-aided design of cutting tools based on computer simulation of the shaping process of surfaces.

  16. Condensation heat transfer on micro and nano structured super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun; Hwang, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Condensation phenomena occur during the PCCS operation cooling the containment through phase change heat transfer. Accordingly it is important to enhance the condensation heat transfer performance. Condensation mode is commonly classified as filmwise condensation (FWC) and dropwise condensation (DWC). DWC heat transfer performance has an order of magnitude higher than FWC heat transfer performance. In DWC process, condensed liquid droplets attach to the surface and prevent transfer of heat to the cooled surface. Generally the condensate is removed by gravity. When removal rate of condensate is high, DWC heat transfer performance will be enhanced. In terms of removal rate, superhydrophobic surface, which is recently in the spotlight, is expected to have capability to enhance the DWC heat transfer efficiency by reducing droplet size. In this study, we investigated condensation heat transfer performance on micro and nano structured superhydrophobic surface. Condensation experiments on the micro and nano structured superhydrophobic surface were carried out and compared with those on the smooth hydrophobic surface in terms of heat transfer performance and condensed droplet morphologies. Through the experiments, we found that superhydrophobicity disappeared under the condensation circumstance. As a result, heat transfer performance on the superhydro-phobic structured surface decreased compared with that on the smooth hydrophobic surface. In order to enhance the condensation heat transfer performance with superhydrophobic property, condensation mechanism on superhydrophobic surface and the conditions for sustaining superhydrophobicity should be studied more.

  17. Easy-to-use application programs for decay heat and delayed neutron calculations on personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Application programs for personal computers are developed to calculate the decay heat power and delayed neutron activity from fission products. The main programs can be used in any computers from personal computers to main frames because their sources are written in Fortran. These programs have user friendly interfaces to be used easily not only for research activities but also for educational purposes. (author)

  18. Heated Permeable Stretching Surface in a Porous Medium Using Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sheikholeslami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, two-dimensional laminar-forced convection nanofluids flow over a stretching surface in a porous medium has been studied. The governing partial differential equations with the corresponding boundary conditions are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation, which is then solved numerically by the fourth order Runge–Kutta integration scheme featuring a shooting technique. Different models of nanofluid based on different formulas for thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity are used. Different types of nanoparticles as copper, silver, alumina and titanium Oxide with water and Ethylene glycol as their base fluids has been considered. The influence of significant parameters such as nanoparticle volume fraction, kind of nanofluid, Magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is discussed. The influence of significant parameters such as Thermal conductivity parameter, volume fraction of the nanoparticles, Permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter and Velocity ratio parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is discussed. It was found that choosing Titanium oxide as the nanoparticle and Ethylene glycol as base fluid proved to have the highest cooling performance for this problem.

  19. Approach to solution of coupled heat transfer problem on the surface of hypersonic vehicle of arbitrary shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Golovin, N. N.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.; Fortov, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an approach to solve conjugate heat- and mass-transfer problems is considered to be applied to hypersonic vehicle surface of arbitrary shape. The approach under developing should satisfy the following demands. (i) The surface of the body of interest may have arbitrary geometrical shape. (ii) The shape of the body can change during calculation. (iii) The flight characteristics may vary in a wide range, specifically flight altitude, free-stream Mach number, angle-of-attack, etc. (iv) The approach should be realized with using the high-performance-computing (HPC) technologies. The approach is based on coupled solution of 3D unsteady hypersonic flow equations and 3D unsteady heat conductance problem for the thick wall. Iterative process is applied to account for ablation of wall material and, consequently, mass injection from the surface and changes in the surface shape. While iterations, unstructured computational grids both in the flow region and within the wall interior are adapted to the current geometry and flow conditions. The flow computations are done on HPC platform and are most time-consuming part of the whole problem, while heat conductance problem can be solved on many kinds of computers.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on structure, surface composition, infrared emission and surface electrical properties of tourmaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengliang; Liu, Shuxin

    2017-02-01

    Crystal structure, surface composition, infrared emission properties and surface electrical properties of tourmaline from Guangxi of China, when subjected to heat treatment in air atmosphere had been studied by some methods, including X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Zeta potential analyzer, etc. Experimental results show that the unit cell of tourmaline would shrink during heat treatment because Fe2+ were oxidized. Moreover, the Fe3+/Fetotal inside tourmaline can be raised after treatment. Infrared normal total emissivity of tourmaline reaches 0.87, and infrared radiation energy density is 4.56 × 102W/m2. It can maintain excellent infrared emission properties at high temperature. Simultaneously, tourmaline presents negative Zeta potential in the aqueous solution, and its Zeta potential reaches ‑18.04 mV. Zeta potential of tourmaline was increased to ‑24.83 mV after heat treatment at 400∘C, and decrease to ‑11.78 mV after heat treatment at 600∘C. These findings may provide reference data for tourmaline’s application in the field of functional materials.

  1. Computational molecular basis for improved silica surface complexation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Nita; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2006-06-06

    The acidity and reactivity of surface sites on amorphous and crystalline polymorphs of silica and other oxides control their thermodynamic stability and kinetic reactivity towards reactants in surface-controlled processes of environmental, industrial, biomedical and technological relevance. Recent advances in computational methodologies such as CPMD and increasing computer power combined with spectroscopic measurements are now making it possible to link, with an impressive degree of accuracy, the molecular-level description of these processes to phenomenological, surface complexation models The future challenge now lies in linking mesoscale properties at the nanometer scale to phenomenological models that will afford a more intuitive understanding of the systems under consideration.

  2. Computer simulation of the relationship between selected properties of laser remelted tool steel surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonek, Mirosław; Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław

    2016-12-01

    Investigations >The language in this paper has been slightly changed. Please check for clarity of thought, and that the meaning is still correct, and amend if necessary.include Finite Element Method simulation model of remelting of PMHSS6-5-3 high-speed steel surface layer using the high power diode laser (HPDL). The Finite Element Method computations were performed using ANSYS software. The scope of FEM simulation was determination of temperature distribution during laser alloying process at various process configurations regarding the laser beam power and method of powder deposition, as pre-coated past or surface with machined grooves. The Finite Element Method simulation was performed on five different 3-dimensional models. The model assumed nonlinear change of thermal conductivity, specific heat and density that were depended on temperature. The heating process was realized as heat flux corresponding to laser beam power of 1.4, 1.7 and 2.1 kW. Latent heat effects are considered during solidification. The molten pool is composed of the same material as the substrate and there is no chemical reaction. The absorptivity of laser energy was dependent on the simulated materials properties and their surface condition. The Finite Element Method simulation allows specifying the heat affected zone and the temperature distribution in the sample as a function of time and thus allows the estimation of the structural changes taking place during laser remelting process. The simulation was applied to determine the shape of molten pool and the penetration depth of remelted surface. Simulated penetration depth and molten pool profile have a good match with the experimental results. The depth values obtained in simulation are very close to experimental data. Regarding the shape of molten pool, the little differences have been noted. The heat flux input considered in simulation is only part of the mechanism for heating; thus, the final shape of solidified molten pool will depend

  3. Contact angle hysteresis on randomly rough surfaces: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Robert; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2013-04-09

    Wetting is important in many applications, and the solid surfaces being wet invariably feature some amount of surface roughness. A free energy-based computational simulation is used to study the effect of roughness on wetting and especially contact angle hysteresis. On randomly rough, self-affine surfaces, it is found that hysteresis depends primarily on the value of the Wenzel roughness parameter r, increasing in proportion with r - 1. Micrometer-level roughness causes hysteresis of a few degrees.

  4. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  5. Towards Physarum Robots: Computing and Manipulating on Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Adamatzky; Jeff Jones

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is an ideal biological substrate for implementing concurrent and parallel com-putation, including combinatorial geometry and optimization on graphs. The scoping experiments on Physarum computing in conditions of minimal friction, on the water surface were performed. The laboratory and computer experimental results show that plasmodium of Physarum is capable of computing a basic spanning tree and manipulating of light-weight objects. We speculate that our results pave the pathways towards the design and implementation of amorphous biological robots.

  6. The impact of heat waves on surface urban heat island and local economy in Cluj-Napoca city, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Ioana; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Rus, Adina Viorica; Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Ciupertea, Antoniu-Flavius; Rus, Ionuţ

    2017-07-01

    The association between heat waves and the urban heat island effect can increase the impact on environment and society inducing biophysical hazards. Heat stress and their associated public health problems are among the most frequent. This paper explores the heat waves impact on surface urban heat island and on the local economy loss during three heat periods in Cluj-Napoca city in the summer of 2015. The heat wave events were identified based on daily maximum temperature, and they were divided into three classes considering the intensity threshold: moderate heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 90th percentile), severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature over the 95th percentile), and extremely severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 98th percentile). The minimum length of an event was of minimum three consecutive days. The surface urban heat island was detected based on land surface temperature derived from Landsat 8 thermal infrared data, while the economic impact was estimated based on data on work force structure and work productivity in Cluj-Napoca derived from the data released by Eurostat, National Bank of Romania, and National Institute of Statistics. The results indicate that the intensity and spatial extension of surface urban heat island could be governed by the magnitude of the heat wave event, but due to the low number of satellite images available, we should consider this information only as preliminary results. Thermal infrared remote sensing has proven to be a very efficient method to study surface urban heat island, due to the fact that the synoptic conditions associated with heat wave events usually favor cloud free image. The resolution of the OLI_TIRS sensor provided good results for a mid-extension city, but the low revisiting time is still a drawback. The potential economic loss was calculated for the working days during heat waves and the estimated loss reached more than 2.5 mil. EUR for each heat wave day

  7. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  8. Heat Transfer from a dc Laminar Plasma-Jet Flow to Different Solid Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟显; 潘文霞; 吴承康

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux distributions were measured by using transient method for an argon dc laminar plasma-jet flow impinging normally on a plate surface embedded with copper probes. Different powders were coated on the probe surfaces and the effect of powder coatings on the heat transfer from jet flow to the probe surface was examined.Experimental results show that the maximum values of the heat flux to the probe increase with the coating of fine metal powders, while for the surfaces coated with fine ceramic powders, the maximum values of heat flux decrease, compared with that to the bare copper probe surface.

  9. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanthesh, B., E-mail: bmanths@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, AIMS Institutes, Peenya, 560058 Bangalore (India); Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Gireesha, B.J., E-mail: bjgireesu@rediffmail.com [Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gorla, R.S. Reddy, E-mail: r.gorla@csuohio.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases. - Highlights: • Hydromagnetic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface is examined. • Cu, Al{sub 2}O3 and TiO{sub 2} types nanoparticles are taken into account. • Numerical solutions have been computed and addressed. • The values of skin-friction and Nusselt number are presented.

  10. Daytime sensible heat flux estimation over heterogeneous surfaces using multitemporal land-surface temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, F.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Maltese, A.; Rossi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Equations based on surface renewal (SR) analysis to estimate the sensible heat flux (H) require as input the mean ramp amplitude and period observed in the ramp-like pattern of the air temperature measured at high frequency. A SR-based method to estimate sensible heat flux (HSR-LST) requiring only low-frequency measurements of the air temperature, horizontal mean wind speed, and land-surface temperature as input was derived and tested under unstable conditions over a heterogeneous canopy (olive grove). HSR-LST assumes that the mean ramp amplitude can be inferred from the difference between land-surface temperature and mean air temperature through a linear relationship and that the ramp frequency is related to a wind shear scale characteristic of the canopy flow. The land-surface temperature was retrieved by integrating in situ sensing measures of thermal infrared energy emitted by the surface. The performance of HSR-LST was analyzed against flux tower measurements collected at two heights (close to and well above the canopy top). Crucial parameters involved in HSR-LST, which define the above mentioned linear relationship, were explained using the canopy height and the land surface temperature observed at sunrise and sunset. Although the olive grove can behave as either an isothermal or anisothermal surface, HSR-LST performed close to H measured using the eddy covariance and the Bowen ratio energy balance methods. Root mean square differences between HSR-LST and measured H were of about 55 W m-2. Thus, by using multitemporal thermal acquisitions, HSR-LST appears to bypass inconsistency between land surface temperature and the mean aerodynamic temperature. The one-source bulk transfer formulation for estimating H performed reliable after calibration against the eddy covariance method. After calibration, the latter performed similar to the proposed SR-LST method.

  11. On the Heat Transfer through a Solid Slab Heated Uniformly and Continuously on One of Its Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E.; Lara-Bernal, A.; Calderon, A.; Delgado-Vasallo, O.

    2011-01-01

    Some peculiarities of the heat transfer through a sample that is heated by the superficial absorption of light energy under continuous uniform illumination are discussed. We explain, using a different approach to that presented in a recent article published in this journal (Salazar "et al" 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 1053-9), that the front surface of…

  12. Piston surface heat transfer during combustion in large marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    In the design process of large marine diesel engines information on the maximum heat load on the piston surface experienced during the engine cycle is an important parameter. The peak heat load occurs during combustion when hot combustion products impinge on the piston surface. Although the maximum...... with burning off piston surface material. In this work the peak heat load on the piston surface of large marine diesel engines during combustion was investigated. Measurements of the instantaneous surface temperature and surface heat flux on pistons in large marine engines are difficult due to expensive...... was calculated under different conditions in the numerical setup in order to obtain information of the actual peak heat flux experienced at the piston in large marine diesel engines during combustion. The variation of physical parameters influencing the heat transfer during combustion included a variation...

  13. Thermal/Heat Transfer Analysis Using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) Enabled Computing Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project was to use GPU enabled computing to accelerate the analyses of heat transfer and thermal effects. Graphical processing unit (GPU)...

  14. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  15. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  16. Computer program grade for design and analysis of graded-porosity heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for numerical solution of differential equations that describe heat pipes with graded-porosity fibrous wicks is discussed. A mathematical problem is provided with a summary of the input and output steps used to solve it. The program is also applied to the analysis of a typical heat pipe.

  17. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, G. D.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Oudkerk, M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All ti

  18. A computer program for condensing heat exchanger performance in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendler, Boris

    1994-01-01

    A computer model has been developed which evaluates the performance of a heat exchanger. This model is general enough to be used to evaluate many heat exchanger geometries and a number of different operating conditions. The film approach is used to describe condensation in the presence of noncondensables. The model is also easily expanded to include other effects like fog formation or suction.

  19. A low-computational-cost inverse heat transfer technique for convective heat transfer measurements in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, F.; Greco, C. S.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; Cardone, G.

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of the convective wall heat flux in hypersonic flows may be particularly challenging in the presence of high-temperature gradients and when using high-thermal-conductivity materials. In this case, the solution of multidimensional problems is necessary, but it considerably increases the computational cost. In this paper, a low-computational-cost inverse data reduction technique is presented. It uses a recursive least-squares approach in combination with the trust-region-reflective algorithm as optimization procedure. The computational cost is reduced by performing the discrete Fourier transform on the discrete convective heat flux function and by identifying the most relevant coefficients as objects of the optimization algorithm. In the paper, the technique is validated by means of both synthetic data, built in order to reproduce physical conditions, and experimental data, carried out in the Hypersonic Test Facility Delft at Mach 7.5 on two wind tunnel models having different thermal properties.

  20. Computational and experimental investigation of supersonic convection over a laser heated target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Eric C.

    This research concerns the development and validation of simulation of the beam-target interaction to determine the target temperature distribution as a function of time for a given target geometry, surface radiation intensity and free stream flow condition. The effect of a turbulent supersonic flow was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Experiments were in the Virginia Tech supersonic wind tunnel with a Mach 4 nozzle, ambient total temperature, total pressure of 160 psi and Reynolds number of 5x107/m. The target consisted of a 6.35 mm stainless steel plate painted at black. The target was irradiated with a 300 Watt continuous beam Ytterbium fiber laser generating a 4 mm Gaussian beam at 1.08 micron 10 cm from the leading edge where a 4 mm turbulent boundary layer prevailed. An absorbed laser power of 65, 81, 101, 120 Watts was used leading to a maximum heat flux between 1035 to 1910 W/cm 2. The target surface and backside temperature was measured using a mid-wave infrared camera. The backside temperature was also measured using eight type-K thermocouples. Two tests are made, one with the flow-on and the other with the flow-off. For the flow-on case, the laser is turned on after the tunnel starts and the flow reaches a steady state. For the flow-off case, the plate is heated at the same power but without the supersonic flow. The cooling effect is seen by subtracting the flow-off temperature from the flow-on temperature. This temperature subtraction is useful in cancelling the bias errors such that the overall uncertainty is significantly reduced. A new conjugate heat transfer algorithm was implemented in the GASP solver and validated by predicting the temperature distribution inside a cooled nozzle wall. The conjugate heat transfer algorithm was used to simulate the experiments at 81 and 65 Watts. Most computations were performed using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model on a 280; 320 cell grid. A grid convergence study was performed. At 65 Watts

  1. A new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling system was proposed and established using the conduction shape factor. Measured data from references were used to validate the proposed model. The results showed that the ......In this paper, a new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling system was proposed and established using the conduction shape factor. Measured data from references were used to validate the proposed model. The results showed...... that the maximum differences between the calculated surface temperature and heat transfer using the proposed model and the measured data were 0.8 ºC and 8.1 W/m2 for radiant floor heating system when average water temperature between 40 ºC and 60 ºC. For the corresponding values were 0.3 ºC and 2.0 W/m2...... for radiant floor cooling systems when average water temperature between 10 ºC and 20 ºC. Numerically simulated data in this study were also used to validate the proposed model. The results showed that the surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor calculated by the proposed model agreed very well...

  2. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large......Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  3. A non-equilibrium model for soil heating and moisture transport during extreme surface heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Massman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing use of prescribed fire by land managers and increasing likelihood of wildfires due to climate change comes the need to improve modeling capability of extreme heating of soils during fires. This issue is addressed here by developing a one-dimensional non-equilibrium model of soil evaporation and transport of heat, soil moisture, and water vapor, for use with surface forcing ranging from daily solar cycles to extreme conditions encountered during fires. The model employs a linearized Crank–Nicolson scheme for the conservation equations of energy and mass and its performance is evaluated against dynamic soil temperature and moisture observations obtained during laboratory experiments on soil samples exposed to surface heat fluxes ranging between 10 000 and 50 000 W m−2. The Hertz–Knudsen equation is the basis for constructing the model's non-equilibrium evaporative source term. The model includes a dynamic residual soil moisture as a function of temperature and soil water potential, which allows the model to capture some of the dynamic aspects of the strongly bound soil moisture that seems to require temperatures well beyond 150 °C to fully evaporate. Furthermore, the model emulates the observed increase in soil moisture ahead of the drying front and the hiatus in the soil temperature rise during the strongly evaporative stage of drying. It also captures the observed rapid evaporation of soil moisture that occurs at relatively low temperatures (50–90 °C. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the model's success results primarily from the use of a temperature and moisture potential dependent condensation coefficient in the evaporative source term. The model's solution for water vapor density (and vapor pressure, which can exceed one standard atmosphere, cannot be experimentally verified, but they are supported by results from (earlier and very different models developed for somewhat different purposes and for different porous

  4. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  5. Reduction of trapped ion anomalous heating by in situ surface plasma cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous motional heating is a major obstacle to scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. While the source of this heating is not yet understood, several previous studies suggest that surface contaminants may be largely responsible. We demonstrate an improvement by a factor of four in the room-temperature heating rate of a niobium surface electrode trap by in situ plasma cleaning of the trap surface. This surface treatment was performed with a simple homebuilt coil assembly and commercially-available matching network and is considerably gentler than other treatments, such as ion milling or laser cleaning, that have previously been shown to improve ion heating rates. We do not see an improvement in the heating rate when the trap is operated at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to a role of thermally-activated surface contaminants in motional heating whose activity may freeze out at low temperatures.

  6. Effect of radiant heat on the surface hardness of glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, M J

    1994-12-01

    The use of heat to improve mechanical properties of materials is a widely accepted phenomenon. It has been studied in dentistry with a view to improving the properties of resin composite. Dental cements may benefit by the application of heat, in particular with regard to their early surface properties. This study was carried out to examine the effect of the application of radiant heat to the surface hardness of one type of glass polyalkenoate cement. It was found that raising the temperature of the surface of the cement to a maximum of 60 degrees C significantly improved the early surface hardness of the material. The application of a high level of heat also improved the surface hardness of the cement after 24 h compared to cement which had not been heat treated. The use of heat would appear to accelerate the matrix-forming reaction of the material and although further work is necessary this technique may have clinical application.

  7. An extension of computations for bond dissociation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetzold, R. C.; Shustorovich, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    An extension of the computational method for bond dissociation [R.C. Baetzold, J. Chem. Phys. 82 (1985) 5724] is presented. Total bond order is conserved to unity for the system {diatomic molecules plus surface} through chemisorption and eventual dissociation to atomic fragments. A complete potential energy curve for this profile shows an activation barrier ( ΔE) in accord with earlier analytic formulas [E.M. Shustorovich, Surface Sci. 150 (1985) L115].

  8. Using MathCad to Evaluate Exact Integral Formulations of Spacecraft Orbital Heats for Primitive Surfaces at Any Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, John

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of high speed computing Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques has become the preferred method for evaluating spacecraft orbital heats. Monte Carlo has its greatest advantage where there are many interacting surfaces. However Monte Carlo programs are specialized programs that suffer from some inaccuracy, long calculation times and high purchase cost. A general orbital heating integral is presented here that is accurate, fast and runs on MathCad, a generally available engineering mathematics program. The integral is easy to read, understand and alter. The integral can be applied to unshaded primitive surfaces at any orientation. The method is limited to direct heating calculations. This integral formulation can be used for quick orbit evaluations and spot checking Monte Carlo results.

  9. Effect of surface roughness on rarefied-gas heat transfer in microbearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen-Ming, E-mail: wenmingz@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Meng, Guang [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wei, Xue-Yong [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Peng, Zhi-Ke [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-01-30

    In this Letter, the rarefaction and roughness effects on the heat transfer process in gas microbearings are investigated. A heat transfer model is developed by introducing two-variable Weierstrass–Mandelbrot (W–M) function with fractal geometry. The heat transfer problem in the multiscale self-affine rough microbearings at slip flow regime is analyzed and discussed. The results show that rarefaction has more significant effect on heat transfer in rough microbearings with lower fractal dimension. The negative influence of roughness on heat transfer found to be the Nusselt number reduction. The heat transfer performance can be optimized with increasing fractal dimension of the rough surface. -- Highlights: ► A heat transfer model is described with fractal geometry. ► The rarefaction affects the heat transfer under lower fractal dimension. ► The negative influence of roughness on heat transfer is Nusselt number reduction. ► The heat transfer can be optimized with increasing fractal dimension.

  10. Numerical computation of sapphire crystal growth using heat exchanger method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Chen

    2001-05-01

    The finite element software FIDAP is employed to study the temperature and velocity distribution and the interface shape during a large sapphire crystal growth process using a heat exchanger method (HEM). In the present study, the energy input to the crucible by the radiation and convection inside the furnace and the energy output through the heat exchanger is modeled by the convection boundary conditions. The effects of the various growth parameters are studied. It is found that the contact angle is obtuse before the solid-melt interface touches the sidewall of the crucible. Therefore, hot spots always appear in this process. The maximum convexity decreases significantly when the cooling-zone radius (RC) increases. The maximum convexity also decreases significantly as the combined convection coefficient inside the furnace (hI) decreases.

  11. Analytical Study on Impingement Heat Transfer with Single—Phase Free—Surface Circular Liquid Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F.Ma; T.Masuoka; 等

    1996-01-01

    An analytical research was conducted to study heat transfer from horizontal surfaces to normally impinging circular jets under arbitrary-heat-flux conditions.The laminar thermal and hydraulic bound ary layers were divided into five regions of flow.General expressions of heat transfer coefficients were obtained in all the four regions of stagnation and wall jet zones before the hydraulic jump.

  12. Characterization methods of nano-patterned surfaces generated by induction heating assisted injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Ravn, Christian; Menotti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An induction heating-assisted injection molding (IHAIM) process developed by the authors is used to replicate surfaces containing random nano-patterns. The injection molding setup is developed so that an induction heating system rapidly heats the cavity wall at rates of up to 10◦C/s. In order to ...

  13. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  14. Evaporation of hydrocarbon compounds, including gasoline and diesel fuel, on heated metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardad, D.; Ladommatos, N. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    An investigation was carried out on the evaporation of various hydrocarbon liquids on heated surfaces. Single and multicomponent hydrocarbon compounds were used, including hexane, heptane, octane, a hexane-octane mixture, gasoline and diesel fuel. The heated surface included aluminium, mild steel, cast iron and copper. Tests were also carried out with different surface textures and surface coatings. The motivation for this work was a desire to improve understanding of the evaporation processes taking place in the inlet port and, to a lesser extent, within the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. The hydrocarbon compounds were released on the heated surfaces as individual small droplets, and the subsequent evaporation was recorded using a CCD (charge coupled device) camera. These observations were then used to ascertain the effects of material, surface temperature, surface textures, surface coating and liquid composition on the heat flux and other aspects of droplet behaviour. (Author)

  15. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  16. Estimation of surface latent heat fluxes from IRS-P4/MSMR satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Randhir Singh; B Simon; P C Joshi

    2001-09-01

    The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999 onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat ux by multivariate regression technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz at both vertical and horizontal polarizations. It is found that the surface LHF (Latent Heat Flux) is sensitive to all the channels. The coeficients were derived using the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data of three months: July, September, November of 1999. The NCEP daily analyzed latent heat uxes and brightness temperatures observed by MSMR were used to derive the coeficients. Validity of the derived coeficients was checked with in situ observations over the Indian Ocean and with NCEP analyzed LHF for global points. The LHF derived directly from the MSMR brightness temperature (Tb) yielded an accuracy of 35 watt/m2. LHF was also computed by applying bulk formula using the geophysical parameters extracted from MSMR. In this case the errors were higher apparently due to the errors involved in derivation of the geophysical parameters.

  17. Flow and heat transfer in compact offset strip fin surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqi DONG; Jiangping CHEN; Zhijiu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of air-side heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of offset strip fins and flat tube heat exchangers were performed. A series of tests were conducted for 9 heat exchangers with different fin space, fin height, fin strip length and flow length, at a constant tube-side water flow rate of 2.5 m3/h. The char-acteristics of the heat transfer and pressure drop of differ-ent fin space, fin height and fin length were analyzed and compared. The curves of the heat transfer coefficients vs. The pumping power per unit frontal area were then plot-ted. Moreover, the enhanced heat transfer mechanism of offset strip fins was analyzed using field synergy theory. The results showed that fin length and flow length have more obviously effect on the thermal hydraulic character-istics of offset strip fins.

  18. Studying heat transfer enhancement for water boiling on a surface with micro- and nanorelief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Lavrikov, A. V.; Shustov, M. V.; Chursin, P. S.; Chistyakova, A. V.; Zvonarev, Yu. A.; Zhukov, V. M.; Vasil'eva, L. T.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results from a study of heat transfer enhancement for bulk water boiling at atmospheric pressure on a surface with micro- and nanorelief, including a relief formed from silicon carbide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Horizontally oriented steel tube 1.2 mm in diameter and copper plate 15 × 3 mm in size were selected as test sections. The process was recorded by means of a video camera, and the values of heat transfer, critical heat fluxes, and contact angles were measured. The use of surface with micro- and nanorelief makes it possible to obtain a significantly higher critical heat flux and boiling heat transfer coefficient owing to a change of surface wettability. The results of investigations can find use in compact heat exchangers, refrigerating plants, heat pipes, in the mirrors of high-capacity lasers, in the targets and resonators of charged particle accelerators and for external cooling of reactor vessels under emergency conditions.

  19. Energy analysis of the engineering-economic optimization of convective heat-transfer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, N. M.

    1991-07-01

    The influence of the specific costs of the heat transfer surface, 1 kW of installed power of the blower and motor, 1 kW·h of electrical energy consumption by it, operating time of the surface, and other factors on the optimum specific power expenditure to force heat-transfer fluids through the ducts of heattransfer surfaces is investigated. The minimum engineering-economically justified operating time of the surface is determined.

  20. Technical paper: Environmental heat stress in football is increased in synthetic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Aragón Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Environmental heat stress is the result of ambient temperature, radiation, and relative humidity. During football practice on synthetic surfaces and no roof, solar radiation causes an important temperature increase of the playing surface. This technical note explains how heat stress is calculated according to the WBGT index (which does not consider playing surface temperature), and quantifies the increase in a synthetic surface compared to natural grass on the same site. Football practice sho...

  1. Characterisation of a grooved heat pipe with an anodised surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. Brusly; Ram Kumar, A. M.; Ramachandran, K.; Pillai, B. C.; Senthil Kumar, C.; Sharifpur, Mohsen; Meyer, Josua P.

    2017-03-01

    A grooved heat pipe (GHP) is an important device for managing heat in space applications such as satellites and space stations, as it works efficiently in the absence of gravity. Apart from the above application, axial GHPs are used in many applications, such as electronic cooling units for temperature control and permafrost cooling. Improving the performance of GHPs is essential for better cooling and thermal management. In the present study, the effect of anodization on the heat transfer characteristics of a GHP is studied with R600a as a working fluid. In addition, the effects of fill ratio, inclination angle and heat inputs on the heat transfer performance of a GHP are studied. Furthermore, the effect of heat flux on dimensional numbers, such as the Webber, Bond, Kutateladze and condensation numbers, are studied. The inclination angle, heat input and fill ratio of GHPs are varied in the range of 0°-90°, 25-250 W and 10-70 % respectively. It is found that the above parameters have a significant effect on the performance of a GHP. Due to the anodisation, the maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator is 39 % for a 90° inclination at a heat flux of 11 kW/m2. The reported performance enhancement of a GHP may be due to the large numbers of nucleation sites created by the anodisation process and enhancement in the capillary force due to the coating.

  2. Characterisation of a grooved heat pipe with an anodised surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. Brusly; Ram Kumar, A. M.; Ramachandran, K.; Pillai, B. C.; Senthil Kumar, C.; Sharifpur, Mohsen; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-06-01

    A grooved heat pipe (GHP) is an important device for managing heat in space applications such as satellites and space stations, as it works efficiently in the absence of gravity. Apart from the above application, axial GHPs are used in many applications, such as electronic cooling units for temperature control and permafrost cooling. Improving the performance of GHPs is essential for better cooling and thermal management. In the present study, the effect of anodization on the heat transfer characteristics of a GHP is studied with R600a as a working fluid. In addition, the effects of fill ratio, inclination angle and heat inputs on the heat transfer performance of a GHP are studied. Furthermore, the effect of heat flux on dimensional numbers, such as the Webber, Bond, Kutateladze and condensation numbers, are studied. The inclination angle, heat input and fill ratio of GHPs are varied in the range of 0°-90°, 25-250 W and 10-70 % respectively. It is found that the above parameters have a significant effect on the performance of a GHP. Due to the anodisation, the maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator is 39 % for a 90° inclination at a heat flux of 11 kW/m2. The reported performance enhancement of a GHP may be due to the large numbers of nucleation sites created by the anodisation process and enhancement in the capillary force due to the coating.

  3. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.Luiz F. E-mail: lfpires@cena.usp.br; Macedo, Jose R. de; Souza, Manoel D. de; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  4. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Irvine, T.F., Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  5. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Irvine, T.F., Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  6. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  7. A One-Source Approach for Estimating Land Surface Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of available energy between sensible heat and latent heat is important for precise water resources planning and management in the context of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST is a key variable in energy balance process and remotely sensed LST is widely used for estimating surface heat fluxes at regional scale. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero poses a great challenge for regional heat fluxes estimation in one-source energy balance models. To address this issue, we proposed a One-Source Model for Land (OSML to estimate regional surface heat fluxes without requirements for empirical extra resistance, roughness parameterization and wind velocity. The proposed OSML employs both conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analog formula of sensible heat flux (H to analytically estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae via a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX in United States and the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE in China, using remotely sensed retrievals as auxiliary data sets at regional scale. Validated against tower-based surface fluxes observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD of H and latent heat flux (LE from OSML are 34.5 W/m2 and 46.5 W/m2 at SMACEX site and 50.1 W/m2 and 67.0 W/m2 at MUSOEXE site. The performance of OSML is very comparable to other published studies. In addition, the proposed OSML model demonstrates similar skills of predicting surface heat fluxes in comparison to SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System. Since OSML does not require specification of aerodynamic surface characteristics, roughness parameterization and meteorological conditions with high spatial variation such as wind speed, this proposed method shows high potential for routinely acquisition of latent heat flux estimation

  8. BOILING OF WATER AND ORGANIC LIQUIDS ON LOW-TEMPERATURE POROUS SURFACES OF HEAT PIPES

    OpenAIRE

    Шаповал, Андрій Андрійович; Панов, Євген Миколайович; Сауліна, Юлія Валеріївна; Романчук, Борис Васильович; Трубійчук, Р. П.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental study results of the influence of porous metal fiber structures on the intensity of two-phase heat transfer of water and acetone boiling on porous surfaces in conditions of free movement and capillary transport of liquids are presented in the article. The experiments were realized using specially designed experimental installation simulated the operating conditions of heat pipes and thermosyphons. Such conditions are typical for two-phase heat transfer devices – heat pipes an...

  9. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer of steam on vertical titanium plates with different surface energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baojin, Qi; Li, Zhang; Hong, Xu; Yan, Sun [State-Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Visual experiments were employed to investigate heat transfer characteristics of steam on vertical titanium plates with/without surface modifications for different surface energies. Stable dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation were achieved on two surface modification titanium plates, respectively. Dropwise and rivulet filmwise co-existing condensation form of steam was observed on unmodified titanium surfaces. With increase in the surface subcooling, the ratio of area ({eta}) covered by drops decreased and departure diameter of droplets increased, resulting in a decrease in condensation heat transfer coefficient. Condensation heat transfer coefficient decreased sharply with the values of {eta} decreasing when the fraction of the surface area covered by drops was greater than that covered by rivulets. Otherwise, the value of {eta} had little effect on the heat transfer performance. Based on the experimental phenomena observed, the heat flux through the surface was proposed to express as the sum of the heat flux through the dropwise region and rivulet filmwise region. The heat flux through the whole surface was the weighted mean value of the two regions mentioned above. The model presented explains the gradual change of heat transfer coefficient for transition condensation with the ratio of area covered by drops. The simulation results agreed well with the present experimental data when the subcooling temperature is lower than 10 C. (author)

  10. Selecting the induction heating for normalization of deposited surfaces of cylindrical parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Валеріївна Бережна

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The machine parts recovered by electric contact surfacing with metal strip are characterized by high loading of the surface layer, which has a significant impact on their performance. Therefore, the improvement of the operational stability of fast-wearing machine parts through the use of combined treatment technologies is required. Not all the work-piece but just the worn zones are subjected to recovery with electric contact surfacing; the tape thickness and depth of the heat affected zone being not more than a few millimeters. Therefore, the most optimal in this case is the use of a local surface heating method of high frequency currents. This method has economical benefits because there is no need to heat the entire work-piece. The induction heating mode at a constant power density has been proposed and analytically investigated. The ratios that make it possible to determine the main heating parameters ensuring calculation of the inductor for the normalization of the reconstructed surface of cylindrical parts have been given. These parameters are: specific power, frequency and warm-up time. The proposed induction heating mode is intermediate between the quenching and cross-cutting heating and makes it possible to simultaneously obtain the required temperatures at the surface and at the predetermined depth of the heated layer of cylindrical parts with the normalization of their surfaces restored with electric contact surfacing

  11. Investigation of Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger Designs for Fission Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, Barry; Robbie, Malcolm; Geng, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Fission surface power is an option for future Moon and Mars surface missions. High power nuclear reactor heated Stirling convertors are an option to provide reliable power for long duration outpost operations. This report investigates various design approaches for the liquid metal to acceptor heat exchange and clarifies the details used in the analysis.

  12. Study of the heat-transfer crisis on heat-release surfaces of annular channels with swirl and transit flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the experimental study of the heat-transfer crisis on heat-release surfaces of annular channels with swirl and transit flow are presented. The experiments were carried out using electric heated annular channels with one and (or) two heat-release surfaces. For the organization of transit flow on a convex heat-release surface, four longitudinal ribs were installed uniformly at its perimeter. Swirl flow was realized using a capillary wound tightly (without gaps) on the ribs. The ratio between swirl and transit flows in the annular gap was varied by applying longitudinal ribs of different height. The experiments were carried out using a closed-type circulatory system. The experimental data were obtained in a wide range of regime parameters. Both water heated to the temperature less than the saturation temperature and water-steam mixture were fed at the inlet of the channels. For the measurement of the temperature of the heat-release surfaces, chromel-copel thermocouples were used. It was shown that the presence of swirl flow on a convex heatrelease surface led to a significant decrease in critical heat flows (CHF) compared to a smooth surface. To increase CHF, it was proposed to use the interaction of swirl flows of the heat carrier. The second swirl flow was transit flow, i.e., swirl flow with the step equal to infinity. It was shown that CHF values for a channel with swirl and transit flow in all the studied range of regime parameters was higher than CHF values for both a smooth annular channel and a channel with swirl. The empirical ratios describing the dependence of CHF on convex and concave heat-release surfaces of annular channels with swirl and transit flow on the geometrical characteristics of channels and the regime parameters were obtained. The experiments were carried out at the pressure p = 3.0-16.0 MPa and the mass velocity ρw = 250-3000 kg/(m2s).

  13. Numerical thermal analysis of water's boiling heat transfer based on a turbulent jet impingement on heated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghraie, D.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a numerical method for simulation of flow boiling through subcooled jet on a hot surface with 800 °C has been presented. Volume fraction (VOF) has been used to simulate boiling heat transfer and investigation of the quench phenomena through fluid jet on a hot horizontal surface. Simulation has been done in a fixed Tsub=55 °C, Re=5000 to Re=50,000 and also in different Tsub =Tsat -Tf between 10 °C and 95 °C. The effect of fluid jet velocity and subcooled temperature on the rewetting temperature, wet zone propagation, cooling rate and maximum heat flux has been investigated. The results of this study show that by increasing the velocity of fluid jet of water, convective heat transfer coefficient at stagnation point increases. More ever, by decreasing the temperature of the fluid jet, convective heat transfer coefficient increases.

  14. Observed and modeled surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, P.E. .; Koszalka, Inga Monika; LaCasce, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale budget calculations and numerical model process studies suggest that lateral eddy heat fluxes have an important cooling effect on the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) as it flows through the Nordic Seas. But observational estimates of such fluxes have been lacking. Here, wintertime surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas are estimated from surface drifter data, satellite data and an eddy-permitting numerical model. Maps of the eddy heat flux divergence suggest advecti...

  15. Long-term evolution of tidal heating and surface temperature on extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanova, Michaela; Behounkova, Marie

    2015-04-01

    Increasing number of detected extrasolar planets provides a unique statistical set that may help us to improve our knowledge about planetary evolution. Indirect detection methods employed in search for exoplanets are most sensitive to objects orbiting close to their host star and this criterion gets particularly important in the case of low-mass terrestrial planets. Here, we focus on long-term orbital and thermal evolution of a single planet subjected to stellar tides. Our approach combines evaluation of surface temperature as well as numerical computation of tidal effects on planetary orbit and internal heating. By calculating the tidal evolution of the orbit [1], we analyze the effect of initial orbital parameters (eccentricity, semi-major axis and rotational frequency) on secular changes in surface temperature and tidal dissipation. The maximum surface temperature and temperature gradient is computed during the process and it evolves together with the semi-major axis, the eccentricity and the ratio of spin and orbital frequency. Significant increase in the surface temperature is observed when the planet encounters a spin-orbit resonance. We solve the heat diffusion equation numerically for both 1D and 3D geometry in a thin spherical shell corresponding to a subsurface layer (see e.g. [2]), where the upper boundary condition is given by energy equilibrium and is strongly non-linear in temperature due to Stefan-Boltzmann law. Additionally, we solve the viscoelastic response to the tidal loading during orbital evolution. Following the method of [3,4], the tidal heating is evaluated for Maxwell or Andrade rheology in the time domain. We study disturbing potential caused by the body's deformation, the time dependence of phase lag and time lag during one orbit and compare our results with traditionally used constant tidal lag models (e.g. [1,5]). The effect of a 3D internal structure on the disturbing potential is investigated as well. This study is our first step

  16. High-resolution hot-film measurement of surface heat flux to an impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, T. S.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the complex coupling between surface heat transfer and local fluid velocity in convective heat transfer, advanced techniques are required to measure the surface heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several established flow velocity techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry and hot wire anemometry can measure fluid velocities at high spatial resolution (µm) and have a high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) characteristic. Equivalent advanced surface heat transfer measurement techniques, however, are not available; even the latest advances in high speed thermal imaging do not offer equivalent data capture rates. The current research presents a method of measuring point surface heat flux with a hot film that is flush mounted on a heated flat surface. The film works in conjunction with a constant temperature anemometer which has a bandwidth of 100 kHz. The bandwidth of this technique therefore is likely to be in excess of more established surface heat flux measurement techniques. Although the frequency response of the sensor is not reported here, it is expected to be significantly less than 100 kHz due to its physical size and capacitance. To demonstrate the efficacy of the technique, a cooling impinging air jet is directed at the heated surface, and the power required to maintain the hot-film temperature is related to the local heat flux to the fluid air flow. The technique is validated experimentally using a more established surface heat flux measurement technique. The thermal performance of the sensor is also investigated numerically. It has been shown that, with some limitations, the measurement technique accurately measures the surface heat transfer to an impinging air jet with improved spatial resolution for a wide range of experimental parameters.

  17. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  18. Unsteady stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet with prescribed surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ishak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the unsteady two dimensional stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet with prescribed surface heat flux. The governing partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables, and solved numerically. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter A, stretching/shrinking parameter ε and Prandtl number Pr on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied. It is found that the skin friction f′′(0 and the local Nusselt number 1θ(0 increase as the the unsteadiness parameter A increases. Moreover, the velocity and temperature increase as ε and Pr increase.

  19. Measurement of natural convective heat transfer coefficient along the surface of a heated wire using digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra

    2014-09-20

    In this paper, the local convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is measured along the surface of an electrically heated vertical wire using digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Experiments are conducted on wires of different diameters. The experimentally measured values are within the range as given in the literature. DHI is expected to provide a more accurate local convective heat transfer coefficient (h) as the value of the temperature gradient required for the calculation of "h" can be obtained more accurately than by other existing optical interferometric techniques without the use of a phase shifting technique. This is because in digital holography phase measurement accuracy is expected to be higher.

  20. The TX-model - a quantitative heat loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinki, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analysing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that would enable the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of advanced IR-thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX - model has been developed, based on the fact that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground have a temperature signature on the ground surface. Qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques primarily make use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss per unit length. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature profile perpendicular to the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but is also affected by other parameters such as burial depth, heat diffusivity, wind, precipitation and so on. In order to analyse the parameters influencing the TX- factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is by and large unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at different sites in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and USA through a co-operative research program organised and partially financed by the IEA District Heating Programme, Task III, and

  1. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  2. The effect of heating rate on the surface chemistry of NiTi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undisz, Andreas; Hanke, Robert; Freiberg, Katharina E; Hoffmann, Volker; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The impact of the heating rate on the Ni content at the surface of the oxide layer of biomedical NiTi is explored. Heat treatment emulating common shape-setting procedures was performed by means of conventional and inductive heating for similar annealing time and temperature, applying various heating rates from ~0.25 K s(-1) to 250 K s(-1). A glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy method was established and employed to evaluate concentration profiles of Ni, Ti and O in the near-surface region at high resolution. The Ni content at the surface of the differently treated samples varies significantly, with maximum surface Ni concentrations of ~20 at.% at the lowest and ~1.5 at.% at the highest heating rate, i.e. the total amount of Ni contained in the surface region of the oxide layer decreases by >15 times. Consequently, the heating rate is a determinant for the biomedical characteristics of NiTi, especially since Ni available at the surface of the oxide layer may affect the hemocompatibility and be released promptly after surgical application of a respective implant. Furthermore, apparently contradictory results presented in the literature reporting surface Ni concentrations of ~3 at.% to >20 at.% after heat treatment are consistently explained considering the ascertained effect of the heating rate.

  3. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  4. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  5. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  6. Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetian, Emil [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Aguilar, Guillermo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kimel, Sol [Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lavernia, Enrique J [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nelson, J Stuart [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2003-01-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux. (note)

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  8. Impact of currents on surface fluxes computation and their feedback on coastal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A twin numerical experiment was conducted in the seas of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean to assess the impact, at coastal scales, of the use of relative winds (i.e. taking into account ocean surface currents in the computation of heat and momentum fluxes through bulk formulas. The model, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, was implemented at 2 km of resolution in order to well resolve (sub-mesoscale dynamics. Small changes (1–2% in terms of spatially-averaged fluxes correspond to quite large spatial differences of such quantities (up to 15–20% and to comparably significant differences in terms of mean velocities of the surface currents. Wind power input of the wind stress to the ocean surface P results also reduced by a 15%, especially where surface currents are stronger. Quantitative validation with satellite SST suggests that such a modification on the fluxes improves the model solution especially in areas of cyclonic circulation, where the heat fluxes correction is predominant in respect to the dynamical correction. Surface currents changes above all in their fluctuating part, while the stable part of the flow show changes mainly in magnitude and less in its path. Both total and eddy kinetic energies of the surface current field results reduced in the experiment where fluxes took into account for surface currents. Dynamically, the largest correction is observed in the SW area where anticyclonic eddies approach the continental slope. This reduction also impacts the vertical dynamics and specifically the local upwelling that results diminished both in spatial extension as well in magnitude. Simulations suggest that, even at local scales and in temperate regions, it is preferable to take into account for such a component in fluxes computation. Results also confirm the tight relationship between local coastal upwelling and eddy-slope interactions in the area.

  9. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Gorla, R. S. Reddy; Abbasi, F. M.; Shehzad, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases.

  10. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fan-dan, E-mail: fandan_meng@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Yang-lun, E-mail: yuyanglun@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Zhang, Ya-mei, E-mail: zhangyamei@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Yu, Wen-ji, E-mail: yuwenji@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Gao, Jian-min, E-mail: gaojm@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the detailed chemical components contents change of bamboo due to heating. • Chemical analysis of bamboo main components during heating. • Identify the connection between the oxygen to carbon atomic ratio changes and chemical degradation. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  11. Effect of size sprinkled heat exchange surface on developing boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research of sprinkled heat exchangers. This type of research has become rather topical in relation to sea water desalination. This process uses sprinkling of exchangers which rapidly separates vapour phase from a liquid phase. Applications help better utilize low-potential heat which is commonly wasted in utility systems. Low-potential heat may increase utilization of primary materials. Our ambition is to analyse and describe the whole sprinkled exchanger. Two heat exchangers were tested with a similar tube pitch: heat exchanger no. 1 had a four-tube bundle and heat exchanger no. 2 had eight-tube bundle. Efforts were made to maintain similar physical characteristics. They were tested at two flow rates (ca 0.07 and 0.11 kg s−1 m−1 and progress of boiling on the bundle was observed. Initial pressure was ca 10 kPa (abs at which no liquid was boiling at any part of the exchanger; the pressure was then lowered. Other input parameters were roughly similar for both flow rates. Temperature of heating water was ca 50°C at a constant flow rate of ca 7.2 L min−1. Results of our experiments provide optimum parameters for the given conditions for both tube bundles.

  12. Sorption and agglutination phenomenon of nanofluids on a plain heating surface during pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen-hua; Liao, Liang [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200030 Shanghai (China)

    2008-05-15

    The pool nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments of water (H{sub 2}O) based and alcohol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) based nanofluids and nanoparticles-suspensions on the plain heated copper surface were carried out. The study was focused on the sorption and agglutination phenomenon of nanofluids on a heated surface. The nanofluids consisted of the base liquid, the nanoparticles and the surfactant. The nanoparticles-suspensions consisted of the base liquid and nanoparticles. The both liquids of water and alcohol and both nanoparticles of CuO and SiO{sub 2} were used. The surfactant was sodium dodecyl benzene sulphate (SDBS). The experimental results show that for nanofluids, the agglutination phenomenon occurred on the heated surface when the wall temperature was over 112{sup o}C and steady nucleated boiling experiment could not be carried out. The reason was that an unsteady porous agglutination layer was formed on the heated surface. However, for nanoparticles-suspensions, no agglutination phenomenon occurred on the heating surface and the steady boiling could be carried out in the whole nucleate boiling region. For the both of alcohol based nanofluids and nano-suspensions, no agglutination phenomenon occurred on the heating surface and steady nucleate boiling experiment could be carried out in the whole nucleate boiling region whose wall temperature did not exceed 112{sup o}C. The boiling heat transfer characteristics of the nanofluids and nanoparticles-suspensions are somewhat poor compared with that of the base fluids, since the decrease of the active nucleate cavities on the heating surface with a very thin nanoparticles sorption layer. The very thin nanoparticles sorption layer also caused a decrease in the solid-liquid contact angle on the heating surface which leaded to an increase of the critical heat flux (CHF). (author)

  13. What is the Role of the Sensible Heat Flux on the Surface Heat Budget of Multi-year Sea Ice?

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Peter S.; Persson, Ola G.; ANDREAS, EDGAR L.; Fairall, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    J1.4 The authors carried out a comprehensive measurement program to determine the surface energy budget at the SHEBA site. This paper will focus on the characteristics of the air-ice sensible heat flux and its role in the surface energy budget. The results discussed here are based on covariance measurements at the main tower site. We continuously sampled the sensible heat flux for almost an entire year at nominal levels of 2 m, 3 m, 5 m, 8 m and 18 m. The N...

  14. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. J.; Thakur, D. B.; Van der Meer, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon nano structures is achieved using thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition process (TCCVD) on a 50 μm pure nickel (Ni270) wire. The micro wire samples covered with CNF layers were subjected to a uniform flow from a nozzle. Heat transfer measurement was achieved by a controlled heat dissipation through the micro wire to attain a constant temperature during the flow. This measurement technique is adopted from hot wire anemometry calibration method. Synthesis of carbon nano structures, heat transfer surface characterization and measurement technique are evaluated. Preliminary results indicate that an average enhancement in Nusselt Number of 17% is achieved.

  15. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-06-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  16. Immersion condensation on oil-infused heterogeneous surfaces for enhanced heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  17. Performance Analysis and Application of Three Different Computational Methods for Solar Heating System with Seasonal Water Tank Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze and compare three different computational methods for a solar heating system with seasonal water tank heat storage (SHS-SWTHS. These methods are accurate numerical method, temperature stratification method, and uniform temperature method. The accurate numerical method can accurately predict the performance of the system, but it takes about 4 to 5 weeks, which is too long and hard for the performance analysis of this system. The temperature stratification method obtains relatively accurate computation results and takes a relatively short computation time, which is about 2 to 3 hours. Therefore, this method is most suitable for the performance analysis of this system. The deviation of the computational results of the uniform temperature method is great, and the time consumed is similar to that of the temperature stratification method. Therefore, this method is not recommended herein. Based on the above analyses, the temperature stratification method is applied to analyze the influence of the embedded depth of water tank, the thickness of thermal insulation material, and the collection area on the performance of this system. The results will provide a design basis for the related demonstration projects.

  18. A multi-resolution approach to heat kernels on discrete surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vaxman, Amir

    2010-07-26

    Studying the behavior of the heat diffusion process on a manifold is emerging as an important tool for analyzing the geometry of the manifold. Unfortunately, the high complexity of the computation of the heat kernel - the key to the diffusion process - limits this type of analysis to 3D models of modest resolution. We show how to use the unique properties of the heat kernel of a discrete two dimensional manifold to overcome these limitations. Combining a multi-resolution approach with a novel approximation method for the heat kernel at short times results in an efficient and robust algorithm for computing the heat kernels of detailed models. We show experimentally that our method can achieve good approximations in a fraction of the time required by traditional algorithms. Finally, we demonstrate how these heat kernels can be used to improve a diffusion-based feature extraction algorithm. © 2010 ACM.

  19. Based on Sea Surface Heat Fluxes and Observations of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from the Kenya Meteorological Department including gauging data from two small rivers were ... For this reason, heat conservation was used for the calculation of water exchange. .... (Knudsen, 1899). Figure 3 indicates a simple model.

  20. Measurement Procedure for Surface Emissivity of Heat-Shielding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is suggested for the measurement of the integral emissivity coefficient of heat-shielding materials in the temperature range close to the thermal destruction temperature.

  1. Computed Flow and Fluorescence Over the Ocular Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Longfei; Henshaw, W D; King-Smith, P E

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescein is perhaps the most commonly used substance to visualize tear film thickness and dynamics; better understanding of this process aids understanding of dry eye syndrome which afflicts millions of people. We study a mathematical model for tear film flow, evaporation, solutal transport and fluorescence over the exposed ocular surface during the interblink. Transport of the fluorescein ion by fluid flow in the tear film affects the intensity of fluorescence via changes in concentration and tear film thickness. Evaporation causes increased osmolarity and potential irritation over the ocular surface; it also alters fluorescein concentration and thus fluorescence. Using thinning rates from in vivo measurements together with thin film equations for flow and transport of multiple solutes, we compute dynamic results for tear film quantities of interest. We compare our computed intensity distributions with in vivo observations. A number of experimental features are recovered by the model.

  2. Surface-particle-emulsion heat transfer model between fluidized bed and horizontal immersed tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model, surface-particle-emulsion heat transfer model, is presented by considering voidage variance in emulsion in the vicinity of an immersed surface. Heat transfer near the surface is treated by dispersed particles touching the surface and through the emulsion when the distance from the surface is greater than the diameter of a particle. A film with an adjustable thickness which separates particles from the surface is not introduced in this model. The coverage ratio of particles on the surface is calculated by a stochastic model of particle packing density on a surface. By comparison of theoretical solutions with experimental data from some references, the mathematical model shows better qualitative and quantitative prediction for local heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal immersed tube in a fluidized bed.

  3. Computational Evaluation of Cyclic Strength of Carburized Gears from Heat-Resistant Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. Yu.

    2014-11-01

    An advanced model for computing the fatigue bending strength of gears fabricated from a complexly alloyed heat-resistant steel 16Kh3NVFMB-Sh (VKS-5) subjected to vacuum carburizing in acetylene is suggested. The model matches experimental data satisfactorily and has been used to develop a mode for vacuum carburizing of gears from the heat-resistant steel to provide a high fatigue resistance.

  4. Second law analysis of heat transfer surfaces in circulating fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, Afsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    The correct sizing of the heat transfer surfaces is important to ensure proper operation, load turndown, and optimization of circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). From this point of view, in this study, the thermodynamic second law analysis of heat transfer surfaces in CFBs is investigated theoretically in order to define the parameters that affect the system efficiency. Using a previously developed 2D CFB model which uses the particle-based approach and integrates and simultaneously predicts the hydrodynamics and combustion aspects, second law efficiency and entropy generation values are obtained at different height and volume ratios of the heat transfer surfaces for CFBs. Besides that, the influences of the water flow rates and heat exchanger tube diameters on the second law efficiency are investigated. Through this analysis, the dimensions, arrangement and type of the heat transfer surfaces which achieve maximum efficiency are obtained. (author)

  5. Numerical computation of constant mean curvature surfaces using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, J

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for computing two-dimensional constant mean curvature surfaces. The method in question uses the variational aspect of the problem to implement an efficient algorithm. In principle it is a flow like method in that it is linked to the gradient flow for the area functional, which gives reliable convergence properties. In the background a preconditioned conjugate gradient method works, that gives the speed of a direct elliptic multigrid method.

  6. Computational design of precipitation strengthened austenitic heat-resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2013-09-01

    A new genetic alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles is presented to calculate the optimal composition of MX carbonitrides precipitation strengthened austenitic heat-resistant steels. Taking the coarsening of the MX carbonitrides as the process controlling the life time for steels in high temperature use, the high temperature strength is calculated as a function of steel chemistry, service temperature and time. New steel compositions for different service conditions are found yielding optimal combinations of strength and stability of the strengthening precipitation for specific applications such as fire-resistant steels (short-time property guarantee) and creep-resistant steels (long-time property guarantee). Using the same modelling approach, the high temperature strength and lifetime of existing commercial austenitic creep-resistant steels were also calculated and a good qualitative agreement with reported experimental results was obtained. According to the evaluation parameter employed, the newly defined steel compositions may have higher and more stable precipitation strengthening factors than existing high-temperature precipitate-strengthened austenite steels.

  7. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  8. Optimal design of divertor heat sink with different geometric configurations of sectorial extended surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimza, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeepr@ipr.res.in [Divertor and First Wall Technology Development Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat – 382428, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Satpathy, Kamalakanta, E-mail: satpathy@ipr.res.in [Divertor and First Wall Technology Development Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat – 382428, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Khirwadkar, Samir, E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in [Divertor and First Wall Technology Development Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat – 382428, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Velusamy, Karupanna, E-mail: kvelu@igcar.gov.in [Mechanics and Hydraulics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Effect of design variables in enhancing heat removal potential with pumping power assessed. • The optimization objective is to minimize the thimble temperature. • Investigation of optimum design parameters for various Reynolds number. • Practicability of the optimum designs is verified through structural analysis. • Benchmark validation of divertor finger mock-up against in-house experiment and good agreement is achieved. - Abstract: Cooling of fusion reactor divertor by helium is widely accepted due to its chemical and neutronic inertness and superior safety aspect. However, its poor thermo physical characteristics need high pressure to remove large heat flux encountered in fusion power plant (DEMO). In the perspective of DEMO, it is desirable to explore efficient cooling technology for divertor that can handle high heat flux. Toward this, a novel sectorial extended surface (SES) was proposed by the authors Rimza et al. (2014) [2]. The present work focuses on design optimization of divertor finger mock-up with SES to enhance the thermal hydraulic performance. The maximum thimble temperature is considered as the vital design constraint. Various non-dimensional design variables, viz., relative pitch, thickness, jet diameter, the ratio of height of SES to jet diameter and circumferential position of the SES are considered for the present optimization study. The effects of design variables on thermal performance of the divertor are evaluated in the Reynolds number (Re) range of 7.5 × 10{sup 4}–1.2 × 10{sup 5}. The analysis reveals that, the heat transfer performance of divertor finger mock-up with SES is improved for two optimum designs having relative pitch and thickness of 0.30 and 0.56, respectively. Also, it is observed that finger mock-up heat sink with SES performs better, when the ratio of SES height to jet diameter, reduces to 0.75 at the cost of marginally higher pumping power. The effects of jet diameter and circumferential

  9. Heat and Mass Transfer during Chemical Vapor Deposition on the Particle Surface Subjected to Nanosecond Laser Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Quan; He, Yaling; Mao, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    A thermal model of chemical vapor deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) on the spherical particle surface under irradiation by a nanosecond laser pulse is presented in this paper. Heat and mass transfer on a single spherical metal powder particle surface subjected to temporal Gaussian heat flux is investigated analytically. The chemical reaction on the particle surface and the mass transfer in the gas phase are also considered. The surface temperature, thermal penetration depth, and deposited film thickness under different laser fluence, pulse width, initial particle temperature, and particle radius are investigated. The effect of total pressure in the reaction chamber on deposition rate is studied as well. The particle-level model presented in this paper is an important step toward development of multiscale model of LCVI.

  10. Computer simulation of ground coupled storage in a series solar assisted heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, John W.; Metz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    A quantitative study of the effect of thermal coupling between the ground and the heat storage element of a series solar assisted heat pump system is presented. The transient simulation computer program TRNSYS is used to simulate the solar portion of this system. A program to simulate the thermal interaction of the storage element with the ground is incorporated into TRNSYS as a sub-routine. This program calculates heat flow through the ground in discrete steps over space and time. Boundary conditions are established. The ground coupled storage is driven by thermal inputs from the solar portion of the system and from the changing ambient and ground temperatures.

  11. Analysis of Contact Melting Driven by Surface Heat Flux Around a Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S. Zhao; W.Z. Chen; F.R. Sun; Z.Y. Chen

    2008-01-01

    The contact melting of phase change material around a moving horizontal cylindrical heat source, which descended under its own weight, is investigated in this article. A melting model under constant surface heat flux is established. The analytical results for thickness and pressure distributions inside melt layer and steady melting velocity are obtained by using contact melting theory. The melting law is discussed, and compared with that of contact melting driven by temperature difference. It is found that quasi-steady melting velocity is determined by heat flux of heat source, and the variation of heat source density has less effect on melting velocity.

  12. Atomistic Method Applied to Computational Modeling of Surface Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of surface alloys is a growing research field that, in terms of the surface structure of multicomponent systems, defines the frontier both for experimental and theoretical techniques. Because of the impact that the formation of surface alloys has on surface properties, researchers need reliable methods to predict new surface alloys and to help interpret unknown structures. The structure of surface alloys and when, and even if, they form are largely unpredictable from the known properties of the participating elements. No unified theory or model to date can infer surface alloy structures from the constituents properties or their bulk alloy characteristics. In spite of these severe limitations, a growing catalogue of such systems has been developed during the last decade, and only recently are global theories being advanced to fully understand the phenomenon. None of the methods used in other areas of surface science can properly model even the already known cases. Aware of these limitations, the Computational Materials Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has developed a useful, computationally economical, and physically sound methodology to enable the systematic study of surface alloy formation in metals. This tool has been tested successfully on several known systems for which hard experimental evidence exists and has been used to predict ternary surface alloy formation (results to be published: Garces, J.E.; Bozzolo, G.; and Mosca, H.: Atomistic Modeling of Pd/Cu(100) Surface Alloy Formation. Surf. Sci., 2000 (in press); Mosca, H.; Garces J.E.; and Bozzolo, G.: Surface Ternary Alloys of (Cu,Au)/Ni(110). (Accepted for publication in Surf. Sci., 2000.); and Garces, J.E.; Bozzolo, G.; Mosca, H.; and Abel, P.: A New Approach for Atomistic Modeling of Pd/Cu(110) Surface Alloy Formation. (Submitted to Appl. Surf. Sci.)). Ternary alloy formation is a field yet to be fully explored experimentally. The computational tool, which is based on

  13. Conjugate Heat Transfer Study at Interior Surface of NGV Leading Edge with Combined Shower Head and Impingement Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Pujari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational study on conjugate heat transfer is carried out to present the behavior of nondimensional temperature and heat transfer coefficient of a Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV leading edge. Reynolds number of both mainstream flow and coolant impinging jets are varied. The NGV has five rows of film cooling holes arranged in shower head manner and four rows of impingement holes arranged in staggered manner. The results are presented by considering materials of different thermal conductivity. The results show that the mainstream flow affects the temperature distribution on the interior side of the vane leading edge for high conductivity material whereas it has negligible effects for low conductivity material. The effect of changing blowing ratio on internal heat transfer coefficient and internal surface temperature is also presented.

  14. Feedback system for divertor impurity seeding based on real-time measurements of surface heat flux in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D.; Burke, W.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Wolfe, S.

    2016-02-01

    Mitigation of the intense heat flux to the divertor is one of the outstanding problems in fusion energy. One technique that has shown promise is impurity seeding, i.e., the injection of low-Z gaseous impurities (typically N2 or Ne) to radiate and dissipate the power before it arrives to the divertor target plate. To this end, the Alcator C-Mod team has created a first-of-its-kind feedback system to control the injection of seed gas based on real-time surface heat flux measurements. Surface thermocouples provide real-time measurements of the surface temperature response to the plasma heat flux. The surface temperature measurements are inputted into an analog computer that "solves" the 1-D heat transport equation to deliver accurate, real-time signals of the surface heat flux. The surface heat flux signals are sent to the C-Mod digital plasma control system, which uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm to control the duty cycle demand to a pulse width modulated piezo valve, which in turn controls the injection of gas into the private flux region of the C-Mod divertor. This paper presents the design and implementation of this new feedback system as well as initial results using it to control divertor heat flux.

  15. Feedback system for divertor impurity seeding based on real-time measurements of surface heat flux in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D; Burke, W; Kuang, A Q; LaBombard, B; Lipschultz, B; Wolfe, S

    2016-02-01

    Mitigation of the intense heat flux to the divertor is one of the outstanding problems in fusion energy. One technique that has shown promise is impurity seeding, i.e., the injection of low-Z gaseous impurities (typically N2 or Ne) to radiate and dissipate the power before it arrives to the divertor target plate. To this end, the Alcator C-Mod team has created a first-of-its-kind feedback system to control the injection of seed gas based on real-time surface heat flux measurements. Surface thermocouples provide real-time measurements of the surface temperature response to the plasma heat flux. The surface temperature measurements are inputted into an analog computer that "solves" the 1-D heat transport equation to deliver accurate, real-time signals of the surface heat flux. The surface heat flux signals are sent to the C-Mod digital plasma control system, which uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm to control the duty cycle demand to a pulse width modulated piezo valve, which in turn controls the injection of gas into the private flux region of the C-Mod divertor. This paper presents the design and implementation of this new feedback system as well as initial results using it to control divertor heat flux.

  16. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies.

  17. Heat Flux at the Surface of Metal Foil Heater under Evaporating Sessile Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Marchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporating water drops on a horizontal heated substrate were investigated experimentally. The heater was made of a constantan foil with the thickness of 25 μm and size of 42 × 35 mm2. The temperature of the bottom foil surface was measured by the infrared (IR camera. To determine the heat flux density during evaporation of liquid near the contact line, the Cauchy problem for the heat equation was solved using the temperature data. The maximum heat flux density is obtained in the contact line region and exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 5–7. The average heat flux density in the region wetted by the drop exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 3–5. This fact is explained by the heat influx from the foil periphery to the drop due to the relatively high heat conductivity coefficient of the foil material and high evaporation rate in the contact line region. Heat flux density profiles for pairs of sessile droplets are also investigated.

  18. VASCo: computation and visualization of annotated protein surface contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thallinger Gerhard G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural data from crystallographic analyses contain a vast amount of information on protein-protein contacts. Knowledge on protein-protein interactions is essential for understanding many processes in living cells. The methods to investigate these interactions range from genetics to biophysics, crystallography, bioinformatics and computer modeling. Also crystal contact information can be useful to understand biologically relevant protein oligomerisation as they rely in principle on the same physico-chemical interaction forces. Visualization of crystal and biological contact data including different surface properties can help to analyse protein-protein interactions. Results VASCo is a program package for the calculation of protein surface properties and the visualization of annotated surfaces. Special emphasis is laid on protein-protein interactions, which are calculated based on surface point distances. The same approach is used to compare surfaces of two aligned molecules. Molecular properties such as electrostatic potential or hydrophobicity are mapped onto these surface points. Molecular surfaces and the corresponding properties are calculated using well established programs integrated into the package, as well as using custom developed programs. The modular package can easily be extended to include new properties for annotation. The output of the program is most conveniently displayed in PyMOL using a custom-made plug-in. Conclusion VASCo supplements other available protein contact visualisation tools and provides additional information on biological interactions as well as on crystal contacts. The tool provides a unique feature to compare surfaces of two aligned molecules based on point distances and thereby facilitates the visualization and analysis of surface differences.

  19. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  20. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k- ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  1. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  2. Laser Heat Treatment on Gear Surface and Its Practical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-yin; DAI Zhong-sen; SU Bao-rong

    2004-01-01

    Making gears with hardened tooth flank is one of the important developments in gear manufacturing. However, the conventional heat treating methods have a common shortcoming--producing big deformation. In this work, we demonstrate, by study, experiment and practical use, that not only has the laser heat treatment solved the difficult problems in conventional technique, but also it has great superiority. The use cases proved that the laser-treated gears are able to substitute for all the gears including gears with complicated shape, high precision and high performance imported gears and all those gears that cannot be manufactured by conventional methods. Moreover, our laser-treated gears have won quite good economic benefit.Obviously, the laser heat treatment for gears is a highly competitive technique having good prospects.

  3. Technical paper: Environmental heat stress in football is increased in synthetic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Aragón Vargas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental heat stress is the result of ambient temperature, radiation, and relative humidity. During football practice on synthetic surfaces and no roof, solar radiation causes an important temperature increase of the playing surface. This technical note explains how heat stress is calculated according to the WBGT index (which does not consider playing surface temperature, and quantifies the increase in a synthetic surface compared to natural grass on the same site. Football practice should be avoided during those hours with the highest solar radiation and temperature on this type of surface.

  4. Modelling, simulating and optimizing boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    developed as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE) and MATLAB has been applied for the integration of the models. In generalMATLAB has proved to be very stable for these DAE systems. Experimental verication has been carried out at a full scale plant equipped with instrumentation to verify heat....... The dynamic model has been developed for the purpose of determining boiler material temperatures and heat transfer from the ue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circulation in the evaporator circuit and hereby the water level uctuations in the drum. The dynamic model has been...

  5. Modelling, simulating and optimizing boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    developed as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE) and MATLAB has been applied for the integration of the models. In general MATLAB has proved to be very stable for these DAE systems. Experimental verification has been carried out at a full scale plant equipped with instrumentation to verify heat....... The dynamic model has been developed for the purpose of determining boiler material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circulation in the evaporator circuit and hereby the water level fluctuations in the drum. The dynamic model has been...

  6. Numerical modelling of temperature fields in the flow boiling liquid through a vertical minichannel with an enhanced heating surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of heat transfer research on flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel positioned vertically, with an enhanced surface. One of the channel walls was made of thin foil powered by direct current. This foil is enhanced on the side contacting fluid in the minichannel. It is possible to observe both surfaces of the minichannel through two openings covered with glass panes. One allows detecting temperature of the plain side of the foil by liquid crystal thermography. The opposite surface of the minichannel (from the enhanced side of the foil can be observed through the other glass pane. The observations of the flow structures allowed to calculate the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected two phase flow images. In mathematical modelling of the considered process stationary heat transfer in a glass pane, heating foil and boiling liquid can be described with Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, respectively. For completeness of the model a corresponding system of boundary conditions was given. The two-dimensional temperature fields of glass pane, heating foil and fluid was computed with the Trefftz method. The equalizing calculus used to smooth the measured data has reduced errors.

  7. Heat transfer analyses using computational fluid dynamics in the air blast freezing of guava pulp in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Okita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer during the freezing of guava pulp conditioned in large containers such as in stacked boxes (34 L and buckets (20 L and unstacked drums (200 L is discussed. The air velocities across the cross-section of the tunnel were measured, and the values in the outlet of the evaporator were used as the initial conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The model tested was turbulent standard k-ε. The CFD-generated convective heat transfer coefficients were mapped on the surfaces for each configuration and used in procedures for the calculation of freezing-time estimates. These estimates were compared with the experimental results for validation. The results showed that CFD determined representative coefficients and produced good correlations between the predicted and experimental values when applied to the freezing-time estimates for the box and drum configurations. The errors depended on the configuration and the adopted mesh (3-D grid construction.

  8. Coupled computational fluid-thermal investigation of hypersonic flow over a quilted dome surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Christopher; Bodony, Daniel; Geubelle, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    The hypersonic environment is characterized by the high temperatures that are generated in the fluid at a vehicle surface. In the effort to enable the operation of lightweight, reusable hypersonic vehicles, flexible, thin thermal protection panels have been considered to mitigate thermal loads. High surface temperatures create through-the-thickness thermal gradients which cause the panels to bow, resulting in changes to the external flow field and leading to a fully coupled fluid-thermal-structural problem. Certain aspects of the fluid-thermal (no structural) coupling were examined in a 1980s NASA Langley experiment of a Mach 5.74 laminar boundary past an array of spherical domes. We reexamine this case computationally using a high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a thermal solver to investigate the effects on the flow and resulting heat load on the structure due to the bowed panels. Specifically the surface temperature, surface heat flux, and downstream boundary developments are reported, and compared with experiment.

  9. Sensitivity analysis and numerical experiments on transient test of compact heat exchanger surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesheng REN; Lingjun LAI; Yongzheng CUI

    2008-01-01

    A single-blow transient testing technique con-sidering the effect of longitudinal heat conduction is sug-gested for determining the average convection heat transfer coefficient of compact heat exchanger surface. By matching the measured outlet fluid temperature vari-ation with similar theoretical curves, the dimensionless longitudinal conduction parameter λ1, the time constant of the inlet fluid temperature τ+, and the number of heat transfer units Ntu can be determined simultaneously using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear parameter estima-tion method. Both sensitivity analysis and numerical experiments with simulated measurements containing random errors show that the method in the present invest-igation provides satisfactory accuracy of the estimated parameter Ntu, which characterizes the heat transfer per-formance of compact heat exchanger surfaces.

  10. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles...... was determined for different solar heating systems. Three systems were investigated: solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems for combined space heating demand and domestic hot water supply, and large solar heating plants. The yearly thermal performance of the systems was calculated by detailed...... simulation models with collectors with a normal glass cover and with a glass cover with antireflection surfaces. The calculations were carried out for different solar fractions and temperature levels of the solar heating systems. These parameters influence greatly the thermal performance associated...

  11. IDENTIFYING THE LOCAL SURFACE URBAN HEAT ISLAND THROUGH THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current characterization of the Land Surface Temperature (LST at city scale insufficiently supports efficient mitigations and adaptations of the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI at local scale. This research intends to delineate the LST variation at local scale where mitigations and adaptations are more feasible. At the local scale, the research helps to identify the local SUHI (LSUHI at different levels. The concept complies with the planning and design conventions that urban problems are treated with respect to hierarchies or priorities. Technically, the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite image products are used. The continuous and smooth latent LST is first recovered from the raw images. The Multi-Scale Shape Index (MSSI is then applied to the latent LST to extract morphological indicators. The local scale variation of the LST is quantified by the indicators such that the LSUHI can be identified morphologically. The results are promising. It can potentially be extended to investigate the temporal dynamics of the LST and LSUHI. This research serves to the application of remote sensing, pattern analysis, urban microclimate study, and urban planning at least at 2 levels: (1 it extends the understanding of the SUHI to the local scale, and (2 the characterization at local scale facilitates problem identification and support mitigations and adaptations more efficiently.

  12. Synergetic Surface and Chemical Durability Study of the Aesthetically Enhanced Natural Quartz by Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Rout, Prajna P.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2017-03-01

    The change in surface behavior of natural quartz stone before and after heat treatment with metal oxides such as: cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper oxide (Cu2O) under vacuum and open atmosphere has been investigated. The surface feature, bulk density and hardness value of quartz changed after heat treatment, converting to a high value product. Difference in crystallinity of quartz, pre- and post-heat treatment was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The electron probe microanalysis results clearly explicated the diffusion of metal ion in quartz matrix exposed under vacuum atmosphere but as coating on the surface under open atmosphere. The structural transformation of quartz after heat treatment has been observed from the XRD data and well corroborated with the nanoindentation results. Durability of such quartz to chemical hazardous environment was observed. Thus, this communication demonstrates the change in physical and chemical characteristics of natural quartz stone after heat treatment under different atmosphere.

  13. Synergetic Surface and Chemical Durability Study of the Aesthetically Enhanced Natural Quartz by Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Rout, Prajna P.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2017-01-01

    The change in surface behavior of natural quartz stone before and after heat treatment with metal oxides such as: cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper oxide (Cu2O) under vacuum and open atmosphere has been investigated. The surface feature, bulk density and hardness value of quartz changed after heat treatment, converting to a high value product. Difference in crystallinity of quartz, pre- and post-heat treatment was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The electron probe microanalysis results clearly explicated the diffusion of metal ion in quartz matrix exposed under vacuum atmosphere but as coating on the surface under open atmosphere. The structural transformation of quartz after heat treatment has been observed from the XRD data and well corroborated with the nanoindentation results. Durability of such quartz to chemical hazardous environment was observed. Thus, this communication demonstrates the change in physical and chemical characteristics of natural quartz stone after heat treatment under different atmosphere.

  14. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  15. Effect of geometrical parameters of open microchannel surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of channel depth on the heat transfer coefficient during nucleate pool boiling. Experimental studies were performed for saturated deionized water, and Novec-649 as working fluids at atmospheric pressure. Copper surfaces were modified to form microchannels with different geometrical properties. The microchannels were from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm deep, 0.3 mm wide and spaced every 0.1 mm. The experiment was conducted for increasing heat flux up to the critical heat flux point. The surface modification provided an appreciably higher heat transfer coefficient compared to the smooth surface for all boiling liquids. The maximum heat transfer coefficient obtained exceeded 60 kW/m2K.

  16. Accuracy of surface heat fluxes from observations of operational satellites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    with uncertainties for same flux values resulting from climatological ship observations. For net satellite derived heat flux varying from 0 to 300 w/m sup(2) the uncertainties were found to be of the order of 50-90 w/m sup(2). For the same range of flux values...

  17. Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Performance of Pin Fin Heat Transfer Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sahiti, Naser

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is organized into nine Chapters. Chapter 2 gives an overview of some highly effec-tive heat transfer surfaces used basically for the enhancement of single-phase convective heat transfer in the air conditioning, refrigeration, unit air heater and automobile industries. It follows the analysis of basic parameters that influence the performance of the fins and at the end a rela-tively simple analytical method for the assessment of the order of the magnitude of heat transfer enhanceme...

  18. A computational study of salt diffusion and heat extraction in solar pond plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, Celestino [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Leonardi, Erminia [CRS4, Center for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico, POLARIS, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Maciocco, Luca [ADACAP, Advanced Acceleration Applications, Technoparc-rue Diesel 20, Fr-D1630 St. Genis Pouilly (France)

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the development of salt concentration profiles in a solar pond is investigated, the thermodiffusion contribution is also taken into account, using a one-dimensional mathematical model and a finite-difference approach. A novel scheme of heat extraction from the solar pond is presented, along with preliminary two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. (author)

  19. COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.

  20. A computational fluid dynamics model for designing heat exchangers based on natural convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Walle, van der T.; Speetjens, S.L.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model was created for the design of a natural convection shell-and-tube heat exchanger with baffles. The flow regime proved to be turbulent and this was modelled using the k¿¿ turbulence model. The features of the complex geometry were simplified considerably resulting

  1. Multi-sensor remote sensing parameterization of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faivre, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    The parameterization of heat transfer by remote sensing, and based on SEBS scheme for turbulent heat fluxes retrieval, already proved to be very convenient for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g. sem

  2. Heat waves measured with MODIS land surface temperature data predict changes in avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff

    2011-01-01

    Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...

  3. Analysis of the sensible heat flux from the exterior surface of buildings using time sequential thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyano, Akira; Asano, Kohichi; Kanamaru, Takehisa

    In this study, the distribution of surface temperature on the surface of two buildings having different characteristics was measured using a thermal infrared camera. Measurements were made in the summer, the period in Japan during which heat flux from buildings is of major interest, and again in the winter for comparison purposes. The heat characteristics of each building were obtained throughout the day by time-sequential thermography (TST), and the surface temperature of each physical element was classified according to temperature, shape, material and position. When the temperature of a surface could not be determined by an infrared camera mounted on the top of a building or a pole, temperature measurements were made using a hand-held IR camera. In addition, the sensible heat flux from each surface was calculated using TST and the surface area of each element as calculated from blueprints of the buildings.

  4. Computational modeling of latent-heat-storage in PCM modified interior plaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Maděra, Jiří; Trník, Anton; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    The latent heat storage systems represent a promising way for decrease of buildings energy consumption with respect to the sustainable development principles of building industry. The presented paper is focused on the evaluation of the effect of PCM incorporation on thermal performance of cement-lime plasters. For basic characterization of the developed materials, matrix density, bulk density, and total open porosity are measured. Thermal conductivity is accessed by transient impulse method. DSC analysis is used for the identification of phase change temperature during the heating and cooling process. Using DSC data, the temperature dependent specific heat capacity is calculated. On the basis of the experiments performed, the supposed improvement of the energy efficiency of characteristic building envelope system where the designed plasters are likely to be used is evaluated by a computational analysis. Obtained experimental and computational results show a potential of PCM modified plasters for improvement of thermal stability of buildings and moderation of interior climate.

  5. Computational modeling of latent-heat-storage in PCM modified interior plaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fořt, Jan; Maděra, Jiří; Trník, Anton; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek [Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    The latent heat storage systems represent a promising way for decrease of buildings energy consumption with respect to the sustainable development principles of building industry. The presented paper is focused on the evaluation of the effect of PCM incorporation on thermal performance of cement-lime plasters. For basic characterization of the developed materials, matrix density, bulk density, and total open porosity are measured. Thermal conductivity is accessed by transient impulse method. DSC analysis is used for the identification of phase change temperature during the heating and cooling process. Using DSC data, the temperature dependent specific heat capacity is calculated. On the basis of the experiments performed, the supposed improvement of the energy efficiency of characteristic building envelope system where the designed plasters are likely to be used is evaluated by a computational analysis. Obtained experimental and computational results show a potential of PCM modified plasters for improvement of thermal stability of buildings and moderation of interior climate.

  6. Experimental study of curvature effects on jet impingement heat transfer on concave surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the local and average heat transfer characteristics of a single round jet impinging on the concave surfaces was conducted in this work to gain in-depth knowledge of the curvature effects. The experiments were conducted by employing a piccolo tube with one single jet hole over a wide range of parameters: jet Reynolds number from 27000 to 130000, relative nozzle to surface distance from 3.3 to 30, and relative surface curvature from 0.005 to 0.030. Experimental results indicate that the surface curvature has opposite effects on heat transfer characteristics. On one hand, an increase of relative nozzle to surface distance (increasing jet diameter in fact enhances the average heat transfer around the surface for the same curved surface. On the other hand, the average Nusselt number decreases as relative nozzle to surface distance increases for a fixed jet diameter. Finally, experimental data-based correlations of the average Nusselt number over the curved surface were obtained with consideration of surface curvature effect. This work contributes to a better understanding of the curvature effects on heat transfer of a round jet impingement on concave surfaces, which is of high importance to the design of the aircraft anti-icing system.

  7. Experimental study of water droplets on over-heated nano/microstructured zirconium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seol Ha [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Division of Mechanical System Engineering, Incheon National University, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonwon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer performance of a droplet on a modified zirconium surface is evaluated. • Modified (nano/micro-) surfaces enhanced heat transfer rate and Leidenfrost point. • A highly wettable condition of the modified surface contributes the enhancement. • Nano-scaled modification indicates the higher performance of droplet cooling. • Investigation via visualization of the droplet support the heat transfer experimental data. - Abstract: In this study, we observed the behavior of water droplets near the Leidenfrost point (LFP) on zirconium alloy surfaces with anodizing treatment and investigated the droplet cooling performance. The anodized zirconium surface, which consists of bundles of nanotubes (∼10–100 nm) or micro-mountain-like structures, improved the wetting characteristics of the surface. A deionized water droplet (6 μL) was dropped onto test surfaces heated to temperatures ranging from 250 °C to the LFP. The droplet dynamics were investigated through high-speed visualization, and the cooling performance was discussed in terms of the droplet evaporation time. The modified surface provided vigorous, intensive nucleate boiling in comparison with a clean, bare surface. Additionally, we observed that the structured surface had a delayed LFP due to the high wetting condition induced by strong capillary wicking forces on the structured surface.

  8. Formation of high-carbon abrasion-resistant surface layers when high-energy heating by high-frequency currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu; Martyushev, N. V.; Miller, R. A.; Rubtsova, N. S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper shows the possibility of carburization of low-carbon steel surface layers using high-frequency currents. The mathematical modeling of carburization using high-energy heating by high-frequency currents (HEH HFC) has been carried out, the temperature fields formed during the given processing have been calculated, as well as the structural changes in the surface layers have been simulated. The features of the structure formation in the surface layers of low-carbon steel after carburizing via HEH HFC have been determined by optical and scanning microscopy, which is confirmed by the computational models. The rational mode of fusion via HEH HFC has also been determined (power density of the source qs = (1.5 ... 4.0) • 108 W m-2, (the relative travel speed of parts Vp = 5 ... 100 mm / sec), with forming the compressive retained stresses in the surface layer (σRS ≈ -300 ... -400 MPa).

  9. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  10. Heat pipe and surface mass transfer cooling of hypersonic vehicle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Gene T.; Modlin, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of determining the feasibility of cooling hypersonic vehicle leading-edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heating using heat pipe and mass transfer cooling techniques is addressed. A description is presented of a numerical finite-difference-based hypersonic leading-edge cooling model incorporating poststartup liquid metal heat pipe cooling with surface transpiration and film cooling to predict the transient structural temperature distributions and maximum surface temperatures of hypersonic vehicle leading edge. An application of this model to the transient cooling of a typical aerospace plane wing leading-edge section. The results of this application indicated that liquid metal heat pipe cooling alone is insufficient to maintain surface temperatures below an assumed maximum level of 1800 K for about one-third of a typical aerospace plane ascent trajectory through the earth's atmosphere.

  11. Estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes from land surface temperature and soil moisture observations using the particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Surface heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and play a crucial role in meteorology, hydrology, and climate change studies, but in situ observations are costly and difficult. It has been demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated from assimilation of land surface temperature (LST). One approach is to estimate a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) to scale the sum of turbulent heat fluxes, and an evaporative fraction (EF) that represents the partitioning between fluxes. Here the newly developed particle batch smoother (PBS) is implemented. The PBS makes no assumptions about the prior distributions and is therefore well-suited for non-Gaussian processes. It is also particularly advantageous for parameter estimation by tracking the entire prior distribution of parameters using Monte Carlo sampling. To improve the flux estimation on wet or densely vegetated surfaces, a simple soil moisture scheme is introduced to further constrain EF, and soil moisture observations are assimilated simultaneously. This methodology is implemented with the FIFE 1987 and 1988 data sets. Validation against observed fluxes indicates that assimilating LST using the PBS significantly improves the flux estimates at both daily and half-hourly timescales. When soil moisture is assimilated, the estimated EFs become more accurate, particularly when the surface heat flux partitioning is energy-limited. The feasibility of extending the methodology to use remote sensing observations is tested by limiting the number of LST observations. Results show that flux estimates are greatly improved after assimilating soil moisture, particularly when LST observations are sparse.

  12. Dissipation Effects on MHD Nonlinear Flow and Heat Transfer Past a Porous Surface with Prescribed Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscous and Joule dissipation effects are considered on MHD nonlinear flow and heat transfer past a stretching porous surface embedded in a porous medium under a transverse magnetic field. Analytical solutions of highly nonlinear momentum equation and confluent hypergeometric similarity solution of heat transfer equations in the case when the plate stretches with velocity varying linearly with distance are obtained. The effect of various parameters like suction parameter, Prandtl number, Magnetic parameter, and Eckert number entering into the velocity field, temperature distribution and skin friction co-efficient at the wall are discussed with the aid of graphs.

  13. Influence of magmatism on mantle cooling, surface heat flow and Urey ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Tackley, Paul J.

    2012-05-01

    Two-dimensional thermo-chemical mantle convection simulations are used to investigate the influence of melting-inducted differentiation on the thermal evolution of Earth's mantle, focussing in particular on matching the present-day surface heat flow and the 'Urey ratio'. The influence of internal heating rate, initial mantle temperature and partitioning of heat-producing elements into basaltic crust are studied. High initial mantle temperatures, which are expected following Earth's accretion, cause major differences in early mantle thermo-chemical structures, but by the present-day surface heat flux and internal structures are indistinguishable from cases with a low initial temperature. Assuming three different values of mantle heat production that vary by more than a factor of two results in small differences in present-day heat flow, as does assuming different partitioning ratios of heat-producing elements into crust. Indeed, all of the cases presented here, regardless of exact parameters, have approximately Earth's present-day heat flow, with substantial fractions coming from the core and from mantle cooling. As a consequence of the model present-day surface heat flow varying only slightly with parameters, the Urey ratio (the ratio of total heat production to the total surface heat flow) is highly dependent on the amount of internal heat production, and due to the large uncertainty in this, the Urey ratio is considered to be a much poorer constraint on thermal evolution than the heat flow. The range of present-day Urey ratio observed in simulations here is about 0.3 to 0.5, which is consistent with observational and geochemical constraints (Jaupart et al., 2007). Magmatic heat transport contributes an upper bound of 9% to Earth's present-day heat loss but a much higher fraction at earlier times—often more than convective heat loss—so neglecting this causes an overestimation of the Urey ratio. Magmatic heat transport also plays an important role in mantle

  14. Evaluation of heat transfer surfaces for compact recuperator using a CFD code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Babu, T. P.; Talekala, Mohammad Shekoor

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust recovery recuperator is mandatory in order to realize a thermal efficiency of 30% or higher for micro turbines. In this work an attempt is made to select the cross corrugated heat transfer surface with minimum core volume of a recuperator matrix using a CFD code. Analysis is carried out for selected cross corrugated heat transfer surface configurations. The relation between the minimum core volume from design calculation and average skin friction coefficient from CFD analysis has been established.

  15. Modelling of boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    the circulation in the evaporator circuit. The models have been developed as Differential-Algebraic-Equations (DAE) and MATLAB has been applied for the integration of the models. In general MATLAB has proved to be very stable for the relatively stiff equation systems. Experimental verification is planned......Dynamic models for simulating boiler performance have been developed. Models for the flue gas side and for the evaporator circuit have been developed for the purpose of determining material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate...... at a full scale plant equipped with instrumentation to verify heat transfer and circulation in the evaporator circuit....

  16. Modelling of Boiler Heating Surfaces and Evaporator Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    the circulation in the evaporator circuit. The models have been developed as Differential-Algebraic-Equation systems (DAE) and MATLAB has been applied for the integration of the models. In general MATLAB has proved to be very stable for these relatively stiff equation systems. Experimental verication is planned......Dynamic models for simulating boiler performance have been developed. Models for the ue gas side and for the evaporator circuit have been developed for the purpose of determining material temperatures and heat transfer from the ue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate...... at a full scale plant equipped with instrumentation to verify heat transfer and circulation in the evaporator circuit....

  17. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  18. ANL/HTP: a computer code for the simulation of heat pipe operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, G.A.

    1983-11-01

    ANL/HTP is a computer code for the simulation of heat pipe operation, to predict heat pipe performance and temperature distributions during steady state operation. Source and sink temperatures and heat transfer coefficients can be set as input boundary conditions, and varied for parametric studies. Five code options are included to calculate performance for fixed operating conditions, or to vary any one of the four boundary conditions to determine the heat pipe limited performance. The performance limits included are viscous, sonic, entrainment capillary, and boiling, using the best available theories to model these effects. The code has built-in models for a number of wick configurations - open grooves, screen-covered grooves, screen-wrap, and arteries, with provision for expansion. The current version of the code includes the thermophysical properties of sodium as the working fluid in an expandable subroutine. The code-calculated performance agrees quite well with measured experiment data.

  19. Macromolecular Chain at a Cellular Surface: a Computer Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Pandey, Ras

    2001-06-01

    Computer simulations are performed to study conformation and dynamics of relatively large chain macromolecule at the surface of a model cell membrane - a preliminary attempt to ultimately realistic model for protein on a cell membrane. We use a discrete lattice of size Lx × L × L. The chain molecule of length Lc is modelled by consecutive nodes connected by bonds on the trail of a random walk with appropriate constraints such as excluded volume, energy dependent configurational bias, etc. Monte Carlo method is used to move chains via segmental dynamics, i.e., end-move, kink-jump, crank-shaft, reptation, etc. Membrane substrate is designed by an ensemble of short chains on a flat surface. Large chain molecule is then driven toward the membrane by a field. We plan to examine the dynamics of chain macromolecule, spread of its density, and its conformation.

  20. A computational approach to calculate the heat of transport of aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lecce, Silvia; Albrecht, Tim; Bresme, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gradients induce concentration gradients in alkali halide solutions, and the salt migrates towards hot or cold regions depending on the average temperature of the solution. This effect has been interpreted using the heat of transport, which provides a route to rationalize thermophoretic phenomena. Early theories provide estimates of the heat of transport at infinite dilution. These values are used to interpret thermodiffusion (Soret) and thermoelectric (Seebeck) effects. However, accessing heats of transport of individual ions at finite concentration remains an outstanding question both theoretically and experimentally. Here we discuss a computational approach to calculate heats of transport of aqueous solutions at finite concentrations, and apply our method to study lithium chloride solutions at concentrations >0.5 M. The heats of transport are significantly different for Li+ and Cl− ions, unlike what is expected at infinite dilution. We find theoretical evidence for the existence of minima in the Soret coefficient of LiCl, where the magnitude of the heat of transport is maximized. The Seebeck coefficient obtained from the ionic heats of transport varies significantly with temperature and concentration. We identify thermodynamic conditions leading to a maximization of the thermoelectric response of aqueous solutions.

  1. Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, R D; Creswick, F A

    1978-03-01

    A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.

  2. Validation of the solar heating and cooling high speed performance (HISPER) computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D. B.

    1980-10-01

    Developed to give a quick and accurate predictions HISPER, a simplification of the TRNSYS program, achieves its computational speed by not simulating detailed system operations or performing detailed load computations. In order to validate the HISPER computer for air systems the simulation was compared to the actual performance of an operational test site. Solar insolation, ambient temperature, water usage rate, and water main temperatures from the data tapes for an office building in Huntsville, Alabama were used as input. The HISPER program was found to predict the heating loads and solar fraction of the loads with errors of less than ten percent. Good correlation was found on both a seasonal basis and a monthly basis. Several parameters (such as infiltration rate and the outside ambient temperature above which heating is not required) were found to require careful selection for accurate simulation.

  3. Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, R D; Creswick, F A

    1978-03-01

    A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Spectral Selectivity Surface for Both Solar Heating and Radiative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingke Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectral selectivity surface for both solar heating and radiative cooling was proposed. It has a high spectral absorptivity (emissivity in the solar radiation band and atmospheric window band (i.e., 0.2~3 μm and 8~13 μm, as well as a low absorptivity (emissivity in other bands aside from the solar radiation and atmospheric window wavelengths (i.e., 3~8 μm or above 13 μm. A type of composite surface sample was trial-manufactured combining titanium-based solar selective absorbing coating with polyethylene terephthalate (TPET. Sample tests showed that the TPET composite surface has clear spectral selectivity in the spectra of solar heating and radiation cooling wavelengths. The equilibrium temperatures of the TPET surface under different sky conditions or different inclination angles of surface were tested at both day and night. Numerical analysis and comparisons among the TPET composite surface and three other typical surfaces were also performed. These comparisons indicated that the TPET composite surface had a relative heat efficiency of 76.8% of that of the conventional solar heating surface and a relative temperature difference of 75.0% of that of the conventional radiative cooling surface, with little difference in cooling power.

  5. Progress in remote sensing of global land surface heat fluxes and evaporations with a turbulent heat exchange parameterization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelong; Su, Bob

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing has provided us an opportunity to observe Earth land surface with a much higher resolution than any of GCM simulation. Due to scarcity of information for land surface physical parameters, up-to-date GCMs still have large uncertainties in the coupled land surface process modeling. One critical issue is a large amount of parameters used in their land surface models. Thus remote sensing of land surface spectral information can be used to provide information on these parameters or assimilated to decrease the model uncertainties. Satellite imager could observe the Earth land surface with optical, thermal and microwave bands. Some basic Earth land surface status (land surface temperature, canopy height, canopy leaf area index, soil moisture etc.) has been produced with remote sensing technique, which already help scientists understanding Earth land and atmosphere interaction more precisely. However, there are some challenges when applying remote sensing variables to calculate global land-air heat and water exchange fluxes. Firstly, a global turbulent exchange parameterization scheme needs to be developed and verified, especially for global momentum and heat roughness length calculation with remote sensing information. Secondly, a compromise needs to be innovated to overcome the spatial-temporal gaps in remote sensing variables to make the remote sensing based land surface fluxes applicable for GCM model verification or comparison. A flux network data library (more 200 flux towers) was collected to verify the designed method. Important progress in remote sensing of global land flux and evaporation will be presented and its benefits for GCM models will also be discussed. Some in-situ studies on the Tibetan Plateau and problems of land surface process simulation will also be discussed.

  6. MICRO- AND NANOSCALE MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR PHASE CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ON PLANAR AND STRUCTURED SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, J; Cahill, DG; Hidrovo, CH; Moghaddam, S; Schmidt, AJ; Shi, L

    2014-07-23

    In this opinion piece, we discuss recent advances in experimental methods for characterizing phase change heat transfer. We begin with a survey of techniques for high-resolution measurements of temperature and heat flux at the solid surface and in the working fluid. Next, we focus on diagnostic tools for boiling heat transfer and describe techniques for visualizing the temperature and velocity fields, as well as measurements at the single bubble level. Finally, we discuss techniques to probe the kinetics of vapor formation within a few molecular layers of the interface. We conclude with our outlook for future progress in experimental methods for phase change heat transfer.

  7. Regionalization of surface heat fluxes and evapotranspiration over heterogeneous landscape of the Third Pole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention among the international academic community. It is centered on the Tibetan Plateau, stretching from the Pamir Plateau and Hindu-Kush on the west to the Hengduan Mountains on the east, and from the Kunlun and Qilian Mts on the north to the Himalayas on the south. Covering over 5,000,000 km2 in total and with an average elevation surpassing 4000 m. The exchange of energy and evapotranspiration (ET) between land surface and atmosphere over the Third Pole region play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. The parameterization methods based on satellite data and Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observations have been proposed and tested for deriving regional distribution of surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and ET over heterogeneous landscape. As cases study, the methods were applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area and Nepal area. To validate the proposed methods, the ground-measured surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux in the Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) TPEP are compared to the derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables, land surface heat fluxes and ET over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. These parameters show a wide range due to the strong contrast of surface features. And the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good agreement with ground measurements, and all the absolute percent difference is less than 10% in the validation sites. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methods are successful for the retrieval of land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous

  8. Heat transfer effect of an extended surface in downward-facing subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Abdul R., E-mail: khan@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet, E-mail: erkan@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Compare downward-facing flow boiling results from bare and extended surfaces. • Upstream and downstream temperatures were measured on the extended surface. • Downstream temperatures exceed upstream temperatures for all flow rates. • Bubble accumulation occurs downstream on extended surface. • Extended surface heat transfer lower than bare surface as flow rate reduced. - Abstract: New BWR containment designs are considering cavity flooding as an accident management strategy. Unlike the PWR, the BWR has many Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) penetrations in the lower head. During a severe accident scenario with core melt in the lower plenum along with cavity flooding, the penetrations may affect the heat transfer on the ex-vessel surface and disrupt fluid flow during the boiling process. A small-scale experiment was performed to investigate the issues existing in downward-facing boiling phenomenon with an extended surface. The results were compared with a bare (flat) surface. The mass flux of 244 kg/m{sup 2} s, 215 kg/m{sup 2} s, and 177 kg/m{sup 2} s were applied in this study. CHF conditions were observed only for the 177 kg/m{sup 2} s case. The boiling curves for both types of surfaces and all flow rates were obtained. The boiling curves for the highest flow rate showed lower surface temperatures for the extended surface experiments when compared to the bare surface. The downstream location on the extended surface yielded the highest surface temperatures as the flow rate was reduced. The bubble accumulation and low velocity in the wake produced by flow around the extended surface was believed to have caused the elevated temperatures in the downstream location. Although an extended surface may enhance the overall heat transfer, a reduction in the local heat transfer was observed in the current experiments.

  9. Differential temperature Carnot heat analysis shows that computing machines are thermodynamically irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael C.; Walker, Stuart D.

    2008-07-01

    We perform a differential temperature Carnot analysis of the changes in energy and entropy (degrees of freedom) associated with an ideal classical computing machine. Assuming that Carnot's maximum efficiency law is as equally applicable to a computing machine as to a mechanical machine, we find that useful computation is necessarily dissipative and thermodynamically irreversible. In addition, we find that copying or cloning of information is as dissipative as the original process employed to create the information (through a computation) in the first place. We prove minimum heat dissipation kT ln 2 per output calculation bit, where T is the thermodynamic temperature of unavoidable by-product bits (i.e. not the output calculation bits) rather than a generally assumed 'surrounding environment' temperature. Overall, this places computers into the same category as conventional machines, obeying the second law of thermodynamics and always operating below 100% efficiency, such that a perpetual calculating machine cannot exist.

  10. MHD flow and heat transfer of a micropolar fluid over a stretching surface with heat generation (absorption and slip velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A.A. Mahmoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of slip velocity on the flow and heat transfer for an electrically conducting micropolar fluid over a permeable stretching surface with variable heat flux in the presence of heat generation (absorption and a transverse magnetic field are investigated. The governing partial differential equations describing the problem are converted to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by using the similarity transformation, which is solved numerically using the Chebyshev spectral method. The effects of the slip parameter on the flow, micro-rotation and temperature profiles as well as on the local skin-friction coefficient, the wall couple stress and the local Nusselt number are presented graphically. The numerical results of the local skin-friction coefficient, the wall couple stress and the local Nusselt number are given in a tabular form and discussed.

  11. Electron beam heating effects during environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging of water condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Scott, J. H. J.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2011-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) show promise as promoters of dropwise condensation. Droplets with diameters below ˜10 μm account for the majority of the heat transferred during dropwise condensation but their growth dynamics on SHS have not been systematically studied. Due to the complex topography of the surface environmental scanning electron microscopy is the preferred method for observing the growth dynamics of droplets in this size regime. By studying electron beam heating effects on condensed water droplets we establish a magnification limit below which the heating effects are negligible and use this insight to study the mechanism of individual drop growth.

  12. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on the Inside Surface of an Inclined Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong Gie [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The present study is aimed at the determination of heat transfer characteristics on the inside surface of a tube while changing the inclination angle. Changes in pool boiling heat transfer coefficients on the inside surface of a 16.2 mm internal diameter has been studied experimentally at atmospheric pressure. Experiments were performed at six different inclination angles to investigate variations in the heat transfer coefficients due to the inclination angle change. Results for 30 .deg.≤θ≤90 .deg. are almost same whereas the result for θ =15 .deg. is different from the other angles. To predict the heat transfer coefficients an empirical correlation has been developed as ℎ{sub b} 1/(A + Blnq{sup )}. The developed correlation can predict the measured experimental data within ±4% error bound. Pool boiling is closely related with the design of passive type heat exchangers, which have been investigated in nuclear power plants to achieve safety functions in case of no power supply. Since the space for the installation of a heat exchanger is usually limited, developing more efficient heat exchangers is important. Several researchers have published results for the pool boiling on the outside surface. Jung et al. experimented boiling heat transfer in R-11 to investigate heat transfer mechanisms on the inside surface of a circular cylindrical tank. They simulated the surface by a flat plate. Somewhat detailed study on the inclination angle itself was previously done by Nishikawa et al. by using the combination of a plate and water. Jabardo and Filho performed an experimental study of forced convective boiling of refrigerants in a 12.7 mm internal diameter tube to investigate effects of physical parameters over the variations in local surface temperature. However, mechanisms of pool boiling are much different from those of the forced convective boiling. Kang investigated pool boiling heat transfer of water on the inside surface of a horizontal tube at atmospheric

  13. Computer modeling and ex vivo experiments with a (saline-linked) irrigated electrode for RF-assisted heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Javier; Perez, Juan J; Trujillo, Macarena; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-12-12

    Externally irrigated radiofrequency (RF) electrodes have been widely used to thermally ablate tumors in surface tissue and to thermally coagulate the transection plane during a surgical resection. As far as we know, no mathematical model has yet been developed to study the electrical and thermal performance of these electrodes, especially the role of the saline layer that forms around the electrode. Numerical models of a TissueLink device model DS3.0 (Salient Surgical Technologies, Portsmouth, NH, USA) were developed. Irrigation was modeled including a saline layer and a heat convection term in the governing equation. Ex vivo experiments based on fragments of bovine hepatic tissue were conducted to obtain information which was used in building the numerical model. We compared the 60°C isotherm of the computer results with the whitening contour in the heated samples. Computer and experimental results were in fine agreement in terms of lesion depth (2.4 mm in the simulations and 2.4 ± 0.6 mm in the experiments). In contrast, the lesion width was greater in the simulation (9.6 mm vs. 7.8 ± 1.8 mm). The computer simulations allowed us to explain the role of the saline layer in creating the thermal lesion. Impedance gradually decreased as heating proceeded. The saline was not observed to boil. In the proximity of the electrode (around 1 mm) the thermal lesion was mainly created by the RF power in this zone, while at a further distance the thermal lesion was created by the hot saline on the tissue surface by simple thermal conduction. Including the heat convection term associated with the saline velocity in the governing equation was crucial to verifying that the saline layer had not reached boiling temperature. The model reproduced thermal performance during heating in terms of lesion depth, and provided an explanation for: 1) the relationship between impedance, electrode insertion depth, and saline layer, and 2) the process of creating thermal lesions in the

  14. Critical thickness of an optimum extended surface characterized by uniform heat transfer coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Leontiou, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a periodic array of extended surfaces (fins) subjected to convection heat transfer with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis differs from the classical approach as (i) we consider two-dimensional heat conduction and (ii) the base of the fin is included in the heat transfer process. The problem is modeled as an arbitrary two-dimensional channel whose upper surface is flat and isothermal, while the lower surface has a periodic array of extensions/fins which are subjected to heat convection with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Using the generalized Schwarz-Christoffel transformation the domain is mapped onto a straight channel where the heat conduction problem is solved using the boundary element method. The boundary element solution is subsequently used to pose a shape optimization problem, i.e. an inverse problem, where the objective function is the normalized Shape Factor and the variables of the optimization are the parameters of the Sch...

  15. Impact of currents on surface flux computations and their feedback on dynamics at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olita, A.; Iermano, I.; Fazioli, L.; Ribotti, A.; Tedesco, C.; Pessini, F.; Sorgente, R.

    2015-08-01

    A twin numerical experiment was conducted in the seas around the island of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean) to assess the impact, at regional and coastal scales, of the use of relative winds (i.e., taking into account ocean surface currents) in the computation of heat and momentum fluxes through standard (Fairall et al., 2003) bulk formulas. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) was implemented at 3 km resolution in order to well resolve mesoscale processes, which are known to have a large influence in the dynamics of the area. Small changes (few percent points) in terms of spatially averaged fluxes correspond to quite large differences of such quantities (about 15 %) in spatial terms and in terms of kinetics (more than 20 %). As a consequence, wind power input P is also reduced by ~ 14 % on average. Quantitative validation with satellite SST suggests that such a modification of the fluxes improves the model solution especially in the western side of the domain, where mesoscale activity (as suggested by eddy kinetic energy) is stronger. Surface currents change both in their stable and fluctuating part. In particular, the path and intensity of the Algerian Current and of the Western Sardinia Current (WSC) are impacted by the modification in fluxes. Both total and eddy kinetic energies of the surface current field are reduced in the experiment where fluxes took into account the surface currents. The main dynamical correction is observed in the SW area, where the different location and strength of the eddies influence the path and intensity of the WSC. Our results suggest that, even at local scales and in temperate regions, it would be preferable to take into account such a contribution in flux computations. The modification of the original code, substantially cost-less in terms of numerical computation, improves the model response in terms of surface fluxes (SST validated) and it also likely improves the dynamics as suggested by qualitative comparison with

  16. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  17. Improvement of dropwise condensation heat transfer using hydrophobic nano porous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Hyun Dae [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently interest of passive system in thermal hydraulic safety system of nuclear power plants has been increased. Passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) is applied to SMART and APR+ for providing the sufficient cooling capacity against accident conditions. PRHRS is a device for removing the decay heat that cools steam through condensation heat transfer in emergency tank. Condensation is one of most important heat transfer methods in almost industry including the PRHRS. Condensation is classified, according to shape of condensate, into drop-wise condensation and film wise condensation. Drop-wise condensation (DWC) exhibits a significantly higher heat transfer coefficient than film wise condensation (FWC). Whether DWC or FWC occurs in a heat transfer surface is strongly affected by wettability of a surface. It is known that DWC is appears on low wettability surfaces while FWC is appears on high wettability one. In this study, nano-porous hydrophobic surfaces were prepared and tested for the improvement of dropwise condensation heat transfer performance.

  18. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Roxy; V B Sumithranand; G Renuka

    2014-06-01

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, pre-monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon seasons. The diurnal variation is characterized by a cross-over from negative to positive values at 0700 h, occurrence of maximum around noon and return to negative values in the late evening. The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat flux * is estimated in all seasons. Daytime surface energy balance at the surface on wet and dry seasons is investigated. The average Bowen’s ratio during the wet and dry seasons were 0.541 and 0.515, respectively indicating that considerable evaporation takes place at the surface. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be 0.742 and 0.795 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil thermal convection was adopted to calculate the surface heat flux, the energy balance closure was found to be improved. Thus on the land surface under study, the soil vertical water movement is significant.

  19. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xianai [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Duygu, E-mail: dkocaefe@uqac.ca [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Yasar [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Boluk, Yaman [University of Alberta, 3-142 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2W2 (Canada); Krause, Cornelia [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  20. A review of high-speed, convective, heat-transfer computation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide useful engineering formulations and to instill a modest degree of physical understanding of the phenomena governing convective aerodynamic heating at high flight speeds. Some physical insight is not only essential to the application of the information presented here, but also to the effective use of computer codes which may be available to the reader. A discussion is given of cold-wall, laminar boundary layer heating. A brief presentation of the complex boundary layer transition phenomenon follows. Next, cold-wall turbulent boundary layer heating is discussed. This topic is followed by a brief coverage of separated flow-region and shock-interaction heating. A review of heat protection methods follows, including the influence of mass addition on laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Also discussed are a discussion of finite-difference computer codes and a comparison of some results from these codes. An extensive list of references is also provided from sources such as the various AIAA journals and NASA reports which are available in the open literature.

  1. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  2. Optimization of Heat Exchangers with Dimpled Surfaces to Improve the Performance in Thermoelectric Generators Using a Kriging Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Tao; Yang, Xue; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2016-11-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust energy recovery. Electrical power generation is deeply influenced by temperature differences, temperature uniformity and topological structures of TEGs. When the dimpled surfaces are adopted in heat exchangers, the heat transfer rates can be augmented with a minimal pressure drop. However, the temperature distribution shows a large gradient along the flow direction which has adverse effects on the power generation. In the current study, the heat exchanger performance was studied in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The dimple depth, dimple print diameter, and channel height were chosen as design variables. The objective function was defined as a combination of average temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure loss. The optimal Latin hypercube method was used to determine the experiment points as a method of design of the experiment in order to analyze the sensitivity of the design variables. A Kriging surrogate model was built and verified according to the database resulting from the CFD simulation. A multi-island genetic algorithm was used to optimize the structure in the heat exchanger based on the surrogate model. The results showed that the average temperature of the heat exchanger was most sensitive to the dimple depth. The pressure loss and temperature uniformity were most sensitive to the parameter of channel rear height, h 2. With an optimal design of channel structure, the temperature uniformity can be greatly improved compared with the initial exchanger, and the additional pressure loss also increased.

  3. Heat Transfer through a Condensate Droplet on Hydrophobic and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Shreyas; Cha, Hyeongyun; Orejon, Daniel; Nawaz, Kashif; Singla, Nitish; Yeung, Yip Fun; Park, Deokgeun; Kang, Dong Hoon; Chang, Yujin; Takata, Yasuyuki; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2016-08-09

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing vapor condensation on nonwetting surfaces is crucial to a wide range of energy and water applications. In this paper, we reconcile classical droplet growth modeling barriers by utilizing two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations to study individual droplet heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces (90° distribution theory is incorporated to show that previous modeling approaches underpredict the overall heat transfer by as much as 300% for dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation. To verify our simulation results, we study condensed water droplet growth using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy on biphilic samples consisting of hydrophobic and nanostructured superhydrophobic regions, showing excellent agreement with the simulations for both constant base area and constant contact angle growth regimes. Our results demonstrate the importance of resolving local heat transfer effects for the fundamental understanding and high fidelity modeling of phase change heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces.

  4. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS is proposed for the estimation of atmospheric turbulent fluxes and evaporative fraction using satellite earth observation data, in combination with meteorological information at proper scales. SEBS consists of: a set of tools for the determination of the land surface physical parameters, such as albedo, emissivity, temperature, vegetation coverage etc., from spectral reflectance and radiance measurements; a model for the determination of the roughness length for heat transfer; and a new formulation for the determination of the evaporative fraction on the basis of energy balance at limiting cases. Four experimental data sets are used to assess the reliabilities of SEBS. Based on these case studies, SEBS has proven to be capable to estimate turbulent heat fluxes and evaporative fraction at various scales with acceptable accuracy. The uncertainties in the estimated heat fluxes are comparable to in-situ measurement uncertainties. Keywords: Surface energy balance, turbulent heat flux, evaporation, remote sensing

  5. Surface tension and specific heat of liquid Ni70.2Si29.8 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haipeng; WEI Bingbo

    2005-01-01

    The surface tension and specific heat of stable and metastable liquid Ni70.2Si29.8 eutectic alloy were measured by electromagnetic levitation oscillating drop method and drop calorimetry. The surface tension depends on temperature linearly within the experimental undercooling regime of 0-182 K (0.12 TE). Its value is 1.693 N·m-1 at the eutectic temperature of 1488 K, and the temperature coefficient is -4.23×10-4 N·m-1·K-1. For the specific heat measurement, the maximum undercooling is up to 253 K (0.17 TE). The specific heat is determined as a polynomial function of temperature in the experimental temperature regime. On the basis of the measured data of surface tension and specific heat, the temperature-dependent density, excess volume and sound speed of liquid Ni70.2Si29.8 alloy are predicted theoretically.

  6. Explanation of how to run the global local optimization code (GLO) to find surface heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S; Sahai, V; Stein, W

    1999-03-01

    From the evaluation[1] of the inverse techniques available, it was determined that the Global Local Optimization Code[2] can determine the surface heat flux using known experimental data at various points in the geometry. This code uses a whole domain approach in which an analysis code (such as TOPAZ2D or ABAQUS) can be run to get the appropriate data needed to minimize the heat flux function. This document is a compilation of our notes on how to run this code to find the surface heat flux. First, the code is described and the overall set-up procedure is reviewed. Then, creation of the configuration file is described. A specific configuration file is given with appropriate explanation. Using this information, the reader should be able to run GLO to find the surface heat flux.

  7. Convective Heat Transfer Between the Wall Surface of a Cavity and the External Main Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiwara, Masahiro; Katto, Yoshiro; Yokoyama, Masanori

    An experimental study has been made under the following conditions for convective heat transfer between the wall surface of a cavity of which both width and depth are 25 mm and the external main stream; the range of Reynolds numbers is from 104 to 105, and the ratio of tripping wire diameter to cavity width is 0.08. The oncoming boundary layer to a cavity is turbulent by the tripping wire with the existing study. Convective heat transfer between a cavity wall surface and the external main stream is treated by the following two phenomena; one is the heat transfer which is related to the temperature difference between the wall surface and the fluid in the cavity, and the other the heat transfer which is related to the temperature difference between the fluid in a cavity and the external mainstream. Experimental data obtained for the foregoing conditions is almost coincide with the existing dimensionless correlations of two of the authors.

  8. Performance assessment of thermal sensors during short-duration convective surface heating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niranjan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The determination of convective surface heating is a very crucial parameter in high speed flow environment. Most of the ground based facilities in this domain have short duration experimental time scale (~milliseconds) of measurements. In these facilities, the calorimetric heat transfer sensors such as thin film gauges (TFGs) and coaxial surface junction thermocouple (CSJT) are quite effective temperature detectors. They have thickness in the range of few microns and have capability of responding in microsecond time scale. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sensitivity are calibration parameter indicators that show the linear change in the resistance of the gauge as a function of temperature. In the present investigation, three of types of heat transfer gauges are fabricated in the laboratory namely, TFG made out of platinum, TFG made out of platinum mixed with CNT and chromel-alumel surface junction coaxial thermocouple (K-type). The calibration parameters of the gauges are determined though oil-bath experiments. The average value TCR and sensitivity of platinum TFG is found to be 0.0024 K-1 and 465 μV/K, while similar values of CSJT are obtained as, 0.064 K-1 and 40.5 μV/K, respectively. The TFG made out of platinum mixed with CNT (5 % by mass) shows the enhancement of TCR as well as sensitivity and the corresponding values are 0.0034 K-1 and 735 μV/K, respectively. The relative performances of heat transfer gauges are compared in a simple laboratory scale experiment in which the gauges are exposed to a sudden step heat load in convection mode for the time duration of 200 ms. The surface heat fluxes are predicted from the temperature history through one dimensional heat conduction modeling. While comparing the experimental results, it is seen that prediction of surface heat flux from all the heat transfer gauges are within the range of ±4 %.

  9. Analytical analysis of the Pennes bioheat transfer equation with sinusoidal heat flux condition on skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Yuan, Ping; Lin, Win-Li; Kou, Hong-Sen

    2007-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the temperature response of a semi-infinite biological tissue due to a sinusoidal heat flux at the skin. The Pennes bioheat transfer equation such as rho(t)c(t)( partial differentialT/ partial differentialt)+W(b)c(b)(T-T(a))=k partial differential(2)T/ partial differentialx(2) with the oscillatory heat flux boundary condition such as q(0,t)=q(0)e(iomegat) was investigated. By using the Laplace transform, the analytical solution of the Pennes bioheat transfer equation with surface sinusoidal heating condition is found. This analytical expression is suitable for describing the transient temperature response of tissue for the whole time domain from the starting periodic oscillation to the final steady periodic oscillation. The results show that the temperature oscillation due to the sinusoidal heating on the skin surface is unstable in the initial period. Further, it is unavailable to predict the blood perfusion rate via the phase shifting between the surface heat flux and the surface temperature. Moreover, the lower frequency of sinusoidal heat flux on the skin surface induces a more sensitive phase shift response to the blood perfusion rate change, but extends the beginning time of sampling because of the avoidance of the unavailable first cyclic oscillation.

  10. Heating and ion transport in a Y-junction surface-electrode trap

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Volin, C; Buikema, A; Nichols, C S; Stick, D; Brown, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We measure ion heating following transport throughout a Y-junction surface-electrode ion trap. By carefully selecting the trap voltage update rate during adiabatic transport along a trap arm, we observe minimal heating relative to the anomalous heating background. Transport through the junction results in an induced heating between 37 and 150 quanta in the axial direction per traverse. To reliably measure heating in this range, we compare the experimental sideband envelope, including up to fourth-order sidebands, to a theoretical model. The sideband envelope method allows us to cover the intermediate heating range inaccessible to the first-order sideband and Doppler recooling methods. We conclude that quantum information processing in this ion trap will likely require sympathetic cooling in order to support high fidelity gates after junction transport.

  11. X-Ray Computed Tomography Inspection of the Stardust Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karen M.; Schneberk, Daniel J.; Empey, Daniel M.; Koshti, Ajay; Pugel, D. Elizabeth; Cozmuta, Ioana; Stackpoole, Mairead; Ruffino, Norman P.; Pompa, Eddie C.; Oliveras, Ovidio; hide

    2010-01-01

    The "Stardust" heat shield, composed of a PICA (Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator) Thermal Protection System (TPS), bonded to a composite aeroshell, contains important features which chronicle its time in space as well as re-entry. To guide the further study of the Stardust heat shield, NASA reviewed a number of techniques for inspection of the article. The goals of the inspection were: 1) to establish the material characteristics of the shield and shield components, 2) record the dimensions of shield components and assembly as compared with the pre-flight condition, 3) provide flight infonnation for validation and verification of the FIAT ablation code and PICA material property model and 4) through the evaluation of the shield material provide input to future missions which employ similar materials. Industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a 3D inspection technology which can provide infonnation on material integrity, material properties (density) and dimensional measurements of the heat shield components. Computed tomographic volumetric inspections can generate a dimensionally correct, quantitatively accurate volume of the shield assembly. Because of the capabilities offered by X-ray CT, NASA chose to use this method to evaluate the Stardust heat shield. Personnel at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL) recently performed a full scan of the Stardust heat shield using a newly installed X-ray CT system at JSC. This paper briefly discusses the technology used and then presents the following results: 1. CT scans derived dimensions and their comparisons with as-built dimensions anchored with data obtained from samples cut from the heat shield; 2. Measured density variation, char layer thickness, recession and bond line (the adhesive layer between the PICA and the aeroshell) integrity; 3. FIAT predicted recession, density and char layer profiles as well as bondline temperatures Finally suggestions are made as to future uses

  12. Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns with High Viscous and Low Surface Tension Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan Tae; Lim, Dae Ho; Kang, Yong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Axial and overall heat transfer coefficients were investigated in a bubble column with relatively high viscous and low surface tension media. Effects of superficial gas velocity (0.02-0.1 m/s), liquid viscosity (0.1-3 Pa·s) and surface tension (66.1-72.9x10{sup -3} N/m) on the local and overall heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer field was composed of the immersed heater and the bubble column; a vertical heater was installed at the center of the column coaxially. The heat transfer coefficient was determined by measuring the temperature differences continuously between the heater surface and the column which was bubbling in a given operating condition, with the knowledge of heat supply to the heater. The local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas distributor and liquid surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid viscosity or surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient was well correlated in terms of operating variables such as superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension and liquid viscosity with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, and in terms of dimensionless groups such as Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers with a correlation of 0.92; h=2502U{sub G}{sup 0.236}{sub L}{sup -0.250}{sub L}{sup -}0{sup .028} Nu=3.25Re{sup 0.180}Pr{sup -0.067}We{sup 0.028}.

  13. Effect of droplet morphology on growth dynamics and heat transfer during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-02-28

    Condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces offers new opportunities for enhanced energy conversion, efficient water harvesting, and high performance thermal management. These surfaces are designed to be Cassie stable and favor the formation of suspended droplets on top of the nanostructures as compared to partially wetting droplets which locally wet the base of the nanostructures. These suspended droplets promise minimal contact line pinning and promote passive droplet shedding at sizes smaller than the characteristic capillary length. However, the gas films underneath such droplets may significantly hinder the overall heat and mass transfer performance. We investigated droplet growth dynamics on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces to elucidate the importance of droplet morphology on heat and mass transfer. By taking advantage of well-controlled functionalized silicon nanopillars, we observed the growth and shedding behavior of suspended and partially wetting droplets on the same surface during condensation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that initial droplet growth rates of partially wetting droplets were 6× larger than that of suspended droplets. We subsequently developed a droplet growth model to explain the experimental results and showed that partially wetting droplets had 4-6× higher heat transfer rates than that of suspended droplets. On the basis of these findings, the overall performance enhancement created by surface nanostructuring was examined in comparison to a flat hydrophobic surface. We showed these nanostructured surfaces had 56% heat flux enhancement for partially wetting droplet morphologies and 71% heat flux degradation for suspended morphologies in comparison to flat hydrophobic surfaces. This study provides insights into the previously unidentified role of droplet wetting morphology on growth rate, as well as the need to design Cassie stable nanostructured surfaces with tailored droplet

  14. Effects of heat flux on dropwise condensation on a superhydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Sun; Moriyama, Kiyofumi [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hang Jin [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kim, Moo Hwan [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The condensation heat transfer efficiencies of superhydrophobic surfaces that have ∼160.deg. contact angle under atmospheric conditions were investigated experimentally. The departing diameter and the contact angle hysteresis of droplets were measured by capturing front and tilted side views of condensation phenomena with a high speed camera and an endoscope, respectively. Condensation behaviors on the surface were observed at the micro-scale using an Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Apparently-spherical droplets formed at very low heat flux q' ∼20 kW/m{sup 2} but hemispherical droplets formed at high q' ∼ 440 kW/m{sup 2} . At high q', heat transfer coefficients were lower on the superhydrophobic surface than on a hydrophobic surface although the superhydrophobic surface is water repellent so droplets roll off. The results of contact angle hysteresis and ESEM image revealed that the reduced heat transfer of the surface can be attributed to the large size of departing droplets caused by adhesive condensed droplets at nucleation sites. The results suggest that the effect of q' or degree of sub-cooling of a condensation wall determine the droplet shape, which is closely related to removal rates of condensates and finally to the heat transfer coefficient.

  15. Surface energy balance closure in an arid region: role of soil and heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Berkowicz, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The large soil heat fluxes in hot desert regions are very important in energy balance studies. Surface energy balance (SEB) observations, however, reveal that there is an imbalance in Surface flux measurements and that it is difficult to isolate those flux measurements causing the imbalance errors.

  16. Synergistic effects of hydrogen plasma exposure, pulsed laser heating and temperature on rhodium surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Umstadter, K.; Wagner, R. S.; Mathys, D.; Duggelin, M.; Meyer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effect of hydrogen plasma exposure and surface heating, either continuous or by short laser pulses (5 ns), on the surface morphology of rhodium layers has been studied. Investigations were performed by reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray

  17. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  18. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  19. Metal surface defect formation arising by the laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min'ko, L. Y.; Chivel, Yuri A.

    1996-03-01

    Appearance on the surface of metals of microcraters, microparticles, and continuity breaks with characteristics sizes 1 - 10 micrometer was experimentally observed under the action of laser monopulses of duration 40 ns and 300 ns. The model of initial destruction of materials and generation of condensed particles based on exclusively thermal action of laser radiation and natural inhomogeneity of solids is developed.

  20. Computer Modeling VRF Heat Pumps in Commercial Buildings using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raustad, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are increasingly used in commercial buildings in the United States. Monitored energy use of field installations have shown, in some cases, savings exceeding 30% compared to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A simulation study was conducted to identify the installation or operational characteristics that lead to energy savings for VRF systems. The study used the Department of Energy EnergyPlus? building simulation software and four reference building models. Computer simulations were performed in eight U.S. climate zones. The baseline reference HVAC system incorporated packaged single-zone direct-expansion cooling with gas heating (PSZ-AC) or variable-air-volume systems (VAV with reheat). An alternate baseline HVAC system using a heat pump (PSZ-HP) was included for some buildings to directly compare gas and electric heating results. These baseline systems were compared to a VRF heat pump model to identify differences in energy use. VRF systems combine multiple indoor units with one or more outdoor unit(s). These systems move refrigerant between the outdoor and indoor units which eliminates the need for duct work in most cases. Since many applications install duct work in unconditioned spaces, this leads to installation differences between VRF systems and conventional HVAC systems. To characterize installation differences, a duct heat gain model was included to identify the energy impacts of installing ducts in unconditioned spaces. The configuration of variable refrigerant flow heat pumps will ultimately eliminate or significantly reduce energy use due to duct heat transfer. Fan energy is also studied to identify savings associated with non-ducted VRF terminal units. VRF systems incorporate a variable-speed compressor which may lead to operational differences compared to single-speed compression systems. To characterize operational differences, the computer model performance curves used

  1. Surface chemistry effects in finite element modeling of heat transfer in (micron)-fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havstad, M

    2000-12-07

    Equations for modeling surface chemical kinetics by the interaction of gaseous and surface species are presented. The formulation is embedded in a finite element heat transfer code and an ordinary differential equation package is used to solve the surface system of chemical kinetic equations for each iteration within the heat transfer solver. The method is applied to a flow which includes methane and methanol in a microreactor on a chip. A simpler more conventional method, a plug flow reactor model, is then applied to a similar problem. Initial results for steam reforming of methanol are given.

  2. Determination of local heat transfer coefficient on the surface of longitudinally finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, T.; Taler, J. [Cracow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Process and Power Engineering

    2008-06-15

    The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient is calculated from temperature measurements at interior points of the solid, and the measured fluid temperature. The unknown parameters associated with the solution were selected to achieve the closest least squares agreement between the computed and measured temperatures using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The nonlinear least - squares problem is parameterised by assuming the stair-case changes of the heat transfer coefficient on the boundary, or by expressing the space variations of the heat transfer coefficient in its functional form. The determination of the circumferential heat transfer coefficient distribution on the heated tube with two longitudinal fins in cross flow demonstrates the accuracy of the developed method. The actual experimental data were used. Experiments were performed with an array of vertical tubes arranged in staggered pattern. (orig.)

  3. Bubble dynamics and heat transfer for pool boiling on hydrophilic, superhydrophobic and biphilic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, E.; Palma, T.; Valente, T.; Moita, A. S.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a detailed analysis of bubble dynamics to describe pool boiling heat transfer in extreme wetting scenarios (superhydrophobic vs hydrophilic). A mechanistic approach, based on extensive post-processing allows quantifying the relative advantage of the superhydrophobic surfaces to endorse the onset of boiling at very low superheats (1-2K) vs their worse heat transfer performance associated to the swift formation of an insulating vapour film. Based on this analysis, a simple biphilic surface is created. The results suggest that for high heat fluxes, bubble dynamics is dominated by the emission of very small bubbles, which seems to affect the interaction mechanisms, precluding the emission of the large bubbles from the surface, thus compromising the good performance of the biphilic surfaces.

  4. LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF FREE SURFACE TURBULENT CHANNEL FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to study the free-surface turbulent channel flow with passive heat transfer. The three-dimensional filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation were numerically solved with dynamic Subgrid Scale (SGS) models for modeling turbulent stresses and heat flux. To compare the turbulent behavior of the free-surface and two-walled channel flows, the LES of two-walled turbulent channel flow was performed. The statistical quantities and flow structures of the free-surface turbulence with heat transfer in the vicinity of the free-surface were investigated. The results are also in good agreement with theoretical analysis and available results by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS).

  5. Transition process leading to microbubble emission boiling on horizontal circular heated surface in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Ichiro; Ando, Jun; Horiuchi, Kazuna; Saiki, Takahito; Kaneko, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Microbubble emission boiling (MEB) produces a higher heat flux than critical heat flux (CHF) and therefore has been investigated in terms of its heat transfer characteristics as well as the conditions under which MEB occurs. Its physical mechanism, however, is not yet clearly understood. We carried out a series of experiments to examine boiling on horizontal circular heated surfaces of 5 mm and of 10 mm in diameter, in a subcooled pool, paying close attention to the transition process to MEB. High-speed observation results show that, in the MEB regime, the growth, condensation, and collapse of the vapor bubbles occur within a very short time. In addition, a number of fine bubbles are emitted from the collapse of the vapor bubbles. By tracking these tiny bubbles, we clearly visualize that the collapse of the vapor bubbles drives the liquid near the bubbles towards the heated surface, such that the convection field around the vapor bubbles under MEB significantly differs from that under nucleate boiling. Moreover, the axial temperature gradient in a heated block (quasi-heat flux) indicates a clear difference between nucleate boiling and MEB. A combination of quasi-heat flux and the measurement of the behavior of the vapor bubbles allows us to discuss the transition to MEB. This work was financially supported by the 45th Research Grant in Natural Sciences from The Mitsubishi Foundation (2014 - 2015), and by Research Grant for Boiler and Pressurized Vessels from The Japan Boiler Association (2016).

  6. Heat Transfer in a Liquid-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor with Low Surface Tension Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HR Jin; H Lim; DH Lim; Y Kang; Ki-Won Jun

    2013-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics between the immersed heater and the bed content were studied in the riser of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed, whose diameter and height were 0.102 m (ID) and 2.5 m, respectively. Effects of liquid velocity, particle size, surface tension of liquid phase and solid circulation rate on the overall heat transfer coefficient were examined. The heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing particle size or solid cir-culation rate due to the higher potential of particles to contact with the heater surface and promote turbulence near the heater surface. The value of heat transfer coefficient increased gradually with increase in the surface tension of liquid phase, due to the slight increase of solid holdup. The heat transfer coefficient increased with the liquid veloc-ity even in the higher range, due to the solid circulation prevented the decrease in solid holdup, in contrast to that in the conventional liquid-solid fluidized beds. The values of heat transfer coefficient were well correlated in terms of dimensionless groups as well as operating variables.

  7. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  8. A refined computer program for the transient simulation of ground coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. W.; Metz, P. D.; Saunders, J. H.

    1983-04-01

    The use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage medium for various heat pump based space conditioning systems were investigated. A computer program ground coupled system (GROCS) was developed to model the behavior of ground coupling devices. The GROCS was integrated with TRNSYS, the solar system simulation program, to permit the simulation of complete ground coupled heat pump systems. Experimental results were compared to GROCS simulation results for model validation. It is found that the model has considerable validity. A refined version of the GROCS-TRNSYS program developed to model vertical or horizontal earth coil systems, which considers system cycling is described. The design of the program and its interaction with TRNSYS are discussed.

  9. Study on Absorption Heat transfer of Two-Dimensionally Constant Curvature Surface Tubes-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kiyoshi; Isshiki, Naotsugu

    In order to get better heat transfer coefficient of absorption in actual apparatus, it is considered that the wettability of the surface should be high, and that the thickness of liquid film should not be too thin or too thick all over the surface. So, new conception of two-dimensionally constant curvature surface (CCS) for absorption heat transfer has been introduced for the first time by the authors. First, theoretical CCS section curves of CCS tubes were calculated, and some of them were manufactured for the test. The wettability of CCS is tested and compared to the other finned tubes (radial fin tubes of triangular and rectangular profiles). As may be seen from photographs and compared to the other finned tubes, on the CCS surface, the thickness of liquid has shown to be even all over the surface without creating paticulary thick or thin place, so that, liquid films are very wettable on the CCS surface.

  10. Enhancement of Chamber Wall Heat Transfer by Surface Contouring (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-18

    for sample fabrication. The GRCop-84 was deposited to the required thickness (>0.200”) on smooth aluminum substrates by the cold spray process...thickness and surface finish (smoothness). No hot isostatic press (HIP) was done, because it would have provided very little, if any, benefit in terms of...error. During the firing sequence the gas upstream of the oxygen sonic nozzle underwent significant adiabatic compression which caused a

  11. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  12. Surface development of an aluminum brazing sheet during heating studied by XPEEM and XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullik, L.; Bertram, F.; Niu, Y. R.; Evertsson, J.; Stenqvist, T.; Zakharov, A. A.; Mikkelsen, A.; Lundgren, E.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM) was used in combination with other microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to follow the surface development of an aluminum brazing sheet during heating. The studied aluminum alloy sheet is a composite material designed for vacuum brazing. Its surface is covered with a native aluminum oxide film. Changes in the chemical state of the alloying elements and the composition of the surface layer were detected during heating to the melting temperature. It was found that Mg segregates to the surface upon heating, and the measurements indicate the formation of magnesium aluminate. During the heating the aluminum oxide as well as the silicon is observed to disappear from the surface. Our measurements is in agreement with previous studies observing a break-up of the oxide and the outflow of the braze cladding onto the surface, a process assisted by the Mg segregation and reaction with surface oxygen. This study also demonstrates how XPEEM can be utilized to study complex industrial materials.

  13. Computational study of the heat transfer of an avian egg in a tray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren Ozcan, S; Andriessens, S; Berckmans, D

    2010-04-01

    The development of an embryo in an avian egg depends largely on its temperature. The embryo temperature is affected by its environment and the heat produced by the egg. In this paper, eggshell temperature and the heat transfer characteristics from one egg in a tray toward its environment are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Computational fluid dynamics simulations have the advantage of providing extensive 3-dimensional information on velocity and eggshell temperature distribution around an egg that otherwise is not possible to obtain by experiments. However, CFD results need to be validated against experimental data. The objectives were (1) to find out whether CFD can successfully simulate eggshell temperature from one egg in a tray by comparing to previously conducted experiments, (2) to visualize air flow and air temperature distribution around the egg in a detailed way, and (3) to perform sensitivity analysis on several variables affecting heat transfer. To this end, a CFD model was validated using 2 sets of temperature measurements yielding an effective model. From these simulations, it can be concluded that CFD can effectively be used to analyze heat transfer characteristics and eggshell temperature distribution around an egg. In addition, air flow and temperature distribution around the egg are visualized. It has been observed that temperature differences up to 2.6 degrees C are possible at high heat production (285 mW) and horizontal low flow rates (0.5 m/s). Sensitivity analysis indicates that average eggshell temperature is mainly affected by the inlet air velocity and temperature, flow direction, and the metabolic heat of the embryo and less by the thermal conductivity and emissivity of the egg and thermal emissivity of the tray.

  14. Heat Transfer Performances of Pool Boiling on Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    2000-01-01

    Nucleate boiling, especially near the critical heat flux (CHF), can provide excellent economy along with high efficiency of heat transfer. However, the performance of nucleate boiling may deteriorate in a reduced gravity environment and the nucleate boiling usually has a potentially dangerous characteristic in CHF regime. That is, any slight overload can result in burnout of the boiling surface because the heat transfer will suddenly move into the film-boiling regime. Therefore, enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer becomes more important in reduced gravity environments. Enhancing nucleate boiling and critical heat flux can be reached using micro-configured metal-graphite composites as the boiling surface. Thermocapillary force induced by temperature difference between the graphite-fiber tips and the metal matrix, which is independent of gravity, will play an important role in bubble detachment. Thus boiling heat transfer performance does not deteriorate in a reduced-gravity environment. Based on the existing experimental data, and a two-tier theoretical model, correlation formulas are derived for nucleate boiling on the copper-graphite and aluminum-graphite composite surfaces, in both the isolated and coalesced bubble regimes. Experimental studies were performed on nucleate pool boiling of pentane on cooper-graphite (Cu-Gr) and aluminum-graphite (Al-Gr) composite surfaces with various fiber volume concentrations for heat fluxes up to 35 W per square centimeter. It is revealed that a significant enhancement in boiling heat transfer performance on the composite surfaces is achieved, due to the presence of micro-graphite fibers embedded in the matrix. The onset of nucleate boiling (the isolated bubble regime) occurs at wall superheat of about 10 C for the Cu-Gr surface and 15 C for the Al-Gr surface, much lower than their respective pure metal surfaces. Transition from an isolated bubble regime to a coalesced bubble regime in boiling occurs at a superheat of

  15. Frictional Heat-Induced Phase Transformation on Train Wheel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hang; PAN Tao; LI Li; YANG Cai-fu; CUI Yin-hui; JI Huai-zhong

    2008-01-01

    By combining thermomechanical coupling finite element analysis with the characteristics of phase transformation [continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve],the thermal fatigue behavior of train wheel steel under high speed and heavy load conditions was analyzed.The influence of different materials on the formation of the phase transformation zone of the wheel tread was discussed.The result showed that the peak temperature of wheel/track friction zone could be higher than the austenitizing temperature for braking.The depth of the austenitized region could reach a point of 0.9 mm beneath the wheel tread surface.The supercooled austenite is transformed to a hard and brittle martensite layer during the following rapid cooling process,which may lead to cracking and then spalling on the wheel tread surface.The decrease in carbon contents of the train wheel steel helps inhibit the formation of martensite by increasing the austenitizing temperature of the train wheel steel.When the carbon contents decrease from 0.7% to 0.4%,the Ac3 of the wheel steel is increased by 45 ℃,and the thickness of the martensite layer is decreased by 30%,which is helpful in reducing the thermal cycling fatigue of the train wheel tread such as spalling.

  16. Efficient heat-transfer surfaces assembled from partially finned flat-oval tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pis'mennyi, E. N.

    2011-04-01

    The state of finned convective heat-transfer surfaces and prospects for using them in power engineering and industry are briefly reviewed. The characteristics of a heat-recovery economizer made of partially finned flat-oval tubes are presented by way of comparing them with design versions employing known types of finned tubes, and the results gained from its operation downstream of a PTVM-30M boiler are given.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic two-phase dusty fluid flow and heat model over deforming isothermal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmazoglu, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of a magnetohydrodynamic viscous two-phase dusty fluid flow and heat transfer over permeable stretching or shrinking bodies. The wall boundary is subjected to a linear deformation as well as to a quadratic surface temperature. Such a highly nonlinear phenomenon, for the first time in the literature, is attacked to search for occurrence of exact solutions, whose numerical correspondences are already available for limited wall transpiration velocities. The obtained analytical solutions are found be in perfect line with the numerical computations. Besides this, exact solutions point to the existence of dual solutions for both permeable stretching and shrinking cases, which were not detected from the numerical studies up to date. The existence of such exact solutions and their parameter domain particularly depending on the wall suction or injection are successfully analyzed. The physical outcomes concerning the effects of suspended particles on the momentum and thermal boundary layers well-documented in the open literature can be best understood from the presented exact solutions.

  18. Counter-extrapolation method for conjugate interfaces in computational heat and mass transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guigao; Oulaid, Othmane; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a conjugate interface method is developed by performing extrapolations along the normal direction. Compared to other existing conjugate models, our method has several technical advantages, including the simple and straightforward algorithm, accurate representation of the interface geometry, applicability to any interface-lattice relative orientation, and availability of the normal gradient. The model is validated by simulating the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion system with a flat interface and the steady diffusion system with a circular interface, and good agreement is observed when comparing the lattice Boltzmann results with respective analytical solutions. A more general system with unsteady convection-diffusion process and a curved interface, i.e., the cooling process of a hot cylinder in a cold flow, is also simulated as an example to illustrate the practical usefulness of our model, and the effects of the cylinder heat capacity and thermal diffusivity on the cooling process are examined. Results show that the cylinder with a larger heat capacity can release more heat energy into the fluid and the cylinder temperature cools down slower, while the enhanced heat conduction inside the cylinder can facilitate the cooling process of the system. Although these findings appear obvious from physical principles, the confirming results demonstrates the application potential of our method in more complex systems. In addition, the basic idea and algorithm of the counter-extrapolation procedure presented here can be readily extended to other lattice Boltzmann models and even other computational technologies for heat and mass transfer systems.

  19. Fluid Analysis and Improved Structure of an ATEG Heat Exchanger Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.

  20. Counter-extrapolation method for conjugate interfaces in computational heat and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guigao; Oulaid, Othmane; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a conjugate interface method is developed by performing extrapolations along the normal direction. Compared to other existing conjugate models, our method has several technical advantages, including the simple and straightforward algorithm, accurate representation of the interface geometry, applicability to any interface-lattice relative orientation, and availability of the normal gradient. The model is validated by simulating the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion system with a flat interface and the steady diffusion system with a circular interface, and good agreement is observed when comparing the lattice Boltzmann results with respective analytical solutions. A more general system with unsteady convection-diffusion process and a curved interface, i.e., the cooling process of a hot cylinder in a cold flow, is also simulated as an example to illustrate the practical usefulness of our model, and the effects of the cylinder heat capacity and thermal diffusivity on the cooling process are examined. Results show that the cylinder with a larger heat capacity can release more heat energy into the fluid and the cylinder temperature cools down slower, while the enhanced heat conduction inside the cylinder can facilitate the cooling process of the system. Although these findings appear obvious from physical principles, the confirming results demonstrates the application potential of our method in more complex systems. In addition, the basic idea and algorithm of the counter-extrapolation procedure presented here can be readily extended to other lattice Boltzmann models and even other computational technologies for heat and mass transfer systems.

  1. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  2. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  3. Trends in Extremes of Surface Humidity, Temperature, and Summertime Heat Stress in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the past half century, the mean summertime temperature in China has increased, with nights warm ing more than days. Using surface station observations, we show that the frequency of extreme heat-stress events in China, caused by extremely hot and humid days as well as by heatwaves lasting for a few days, has increased over the period from 1951 to 1994. When humidity is high, hot weather can cause heat stress in humans. The increased heat-stress trend may pose a public health problem.

  4. Boiling Heat Transfer Measurements on Highly Conductive Surfaces Using Microscale Heater and Temperature Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Bae, S. W.; Whitten, M. W.; Mullen, J. D.; Quine, R. W.; Kalkur, T. S.

    1999-01-01

    Two systems have been developed to study boiling heat transfer on the microscale. The first system utilizes a 32 x 32 array of diodes to measure the local temperature fluctuations during boiling on a silicon wafer heated from below. The second system utilizes an array of 96 microscale heaters each maintained at constant surface temperature using electronic feedback loops. The power required to keep each heater at constant temperature is measured, enabling the local heat transfer coefficient to be determined. Both of these systems as well as some preliminary results are discussed.

  5. Nonlinear Nanofluid Flow over Heated Vertical Surface with Sinusoidal Wall Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear density temperature variations in two-dimensional nanofluid flow over heated vertical surface with a sinusoidal wall temperature are investigated. The model includes the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Using the boundary layer approximation, the two-dimensional momentum, heat, and mass transfer equations are transferred to nonlinear partial differential equations form and solved numerically using a new method called spectral local linearisation method. The effects of the governing parameters on the fluid properties and on the heat and nanomass transfer coefficients are determined and shown graphically.

  6. Heat transfer of impinging jet-array over convex-dimpled surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143, Taiwan (China); Jan, Yih Jena; Chang, Shuen Fei [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143, Taiwan (China)

    2006-08-15

    A detailed heat transfer measurement over a convex-dimpled surface of impinging jet-array with three eccentricities (E/H) between jet-centre and dimple-centre is performed. These surface dimples considerably modify heat transfers from smooth-walled scenarios due to different impinging topologies for jet array with modified inter-jet reactions. Heat transfer variations caused by adjusting jet Reynolds number (Re) and separation distance (S/D{sub j}) over the ranges of 5000=heat transfers. In conformity with the experimentally revealed heat transfer physics, a regression-type analysis is performed to generate a set of heat transfer correlations, which permit the evaluations of spatially averaged Nusselt numbers over central jet region of dimpled impinging surface. (author)

  7. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effect of Heating Rates on the Formable Oxide Scale on a C-Steel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.El-Meligi

    2004-01-01

    Oxide scale formation on a C-steel surface has been investigated using linear heating rates ranging from 0.1℃/min to 10℃/min at high temperatures. The studies on the oxide scale formation at high temperature (650℃) at slower heating rate (0.1℃/min) shows that the kinetic regime is linear. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the scale constituents are significantly influenced by the heating rate. The adherence of the scale was improved by using slower heating rate (0.1℃/min-≤650℃),while above such degree the scale was susceptible to cracking and flaking out of the alloy surface. In fact, the development of oxide growth stresses can cause considerable scale cracking. As well, variation of the crystallite sizes under the aforementioned conditions might affect the scale stacking to the alloy surface. The secondary electron detector images of the oxide scale shows that the scale was imperfectly smooth and there were a number of voids and defects in the scale skin, especially at fast heating rate. This observation could be attributed to defects of the as-received alloy. In general, slower heating rate reduced the defects of the scale and improved its adherence.

  9. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T T; Plawsky, Joel L; Wayner, Peter C; Chao, David F; Sicker, Ronald J

    2017-03-03

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  10. Induction heating for surface triggering styrene polymerization on titanium modified with ATRP initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélémy, Bastien; Devillers, Sébastien; Minet, Isabelle; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2011-02-15

    Titanium and its alloys present high interests for technological applications due to their high corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In combination with these remarkable characteristics, some Ti applications require specific surface properties that can be imparted with suitable surface functionalizations of the TiO(2) oxide layer. The present work aims to study the surface-initiated ATR polymerization of styrene on titanium substrates, using grafted 11-(2-bromoisobutyrate)-undecyl-1-phosphonic acid as initiator and to compare the impact of two different heating ways on the efficiency of this polymerization: induction vs. conventional heating. The ability of the initiator to bind titanium substrates and act as an initiator for ATRP of styrene is investigated: both heating conditions led to the polymerization of styrene on modified titanium substrates. However, induction heating appeared to be much more efficient than conventional heating, leading to the formation of a thicker, much denser polystyrene layer than conventional heating after only 1h of polymerization.

  11. Nanofluids for power engineering: Emergency cooling of overheated heat transfer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, B. I.; Moraru, V. N.; Sidorenko, S. V.; Komysh, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of emergency cooling of an overheated heat transfer surface using nanofluids in the case of a boiling crisis is explored by means of synchronous recording of changes of main heat transfer parameters of boiling water over time. Two nanofluids are tested, which are derived from a mixture of natural aluminosilicates (AlSi-7) and titanium dioxide (NF-8). It is found that the introduction of a small portions of nanofluid into a boiling coolant (distilled water) in a state of film boiling ( t heater > 500°C) can dramatically decrease the heat transfer surface temperature to 130-150°C, which corresponds to a transition to a safe nucleate boiling regime without affecting the specific heat flux. The fact that this regime is kept for a long time at a specific heat load exceeding the critical heat flux for water and t heater = 125-130°C is particularly important. This makes it possible to prevent a potential accident emergency (heater burnout and failure of the heat exchanger) and to ensure the smooth operation of the equipment.

  12. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  13. Near-field radiative heat transfer between arbitrarily-shaped objects and a surface

    CERN Document Server

    Edalatpour, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    A fluctuational electrodynamics-based formalism for calculating near-field radiative heat transfer between objects of arbitrary size and shape and an infinite surface is presented. The surface interactions are treated analytically via Sommerfeld's theory of electric dipole radiation above an infinite plane. The volume integral equation for the electric field is discretized using the thermal discrete dipole approximation (T-DDA). The framework is verified against exact results in the sphere-surface configuration, and is applied to analyze near-field radiative heat transfer between a complex-shaped probe and an infinite plane both made of silica. It is found that when the probe tip size is approximately equal to or smaller than the gap d separating the probe and the surface, coupled localized surface phonon (LSPh)-surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) mediated heat transfer occurs. In this regime, the net spectral heat rate exhibits four resonant modes due to LSPhs along the minor axis of the probe while the net tota...

  14. Experimental investigation of impingement heat transfer from a round rib-roughened surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Mustafa Kemal; Can, Muhiddin

    2017-04-01

    An experimental investigation on impingement heat transfer from a rib-roughened surface is performed. Single, double, and triple rib configurations are tested. The rib is also located at three different positions for a single rib case. The Reynolds number is varied from 10,000 to 50,000 whereas the dimensionless jet-to-surface distance (z/D) is kept constant as 8. Results show that, the Nusselt number decreases just before a rib. After the rib, however, the Nusselt number decreases by a larger amount. Since ribs cause a reincreasing in the Nusselt number after the stagnation point and since the stagnation point Nusselt number is not affected by ribs, they can be used to enhance heat transfer especially for spot cooling applications. It is also obtained that using ribs is more useful for low speed impinging jets, when heat transfer from the whole surface is considered.

  15. Self-heating effect induced by ion bombardment on polycrystalline Al surface nanostructures evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Wang; Y Zhen; H Wjiang; J T Liu

    2012-06-01

    We studied the self-heating effect during ion bombardment process on polycrystalline Al foils. An anisotropic surface morphology evolution has been observed. The adjacent peaks’ fusion along the direction perpendicular to the ion beam projection smoothen the surface. Fusion along the parallel direction has been suppressed due to Ar+ ion bombardment. It attributes to the result of the competition between the isotropic thermal effect, due to the self-heating effect by energy exchange between incident ions and Al surface, and the suppression by continuous ion bombardment with a certain incident angle. Varying the incident ion beam angle with the angular range 32° < < 82°, the ripple wave vector, , is found to be parallel to the ion beam direction, whereas for > 82° , is perpendicular to the beam direction. The critical angle, c, is close to 82°, which is different from Bradley and Harper’s prediction and attributes to the self-heating effect.

  16. METHODS TO DETECT ATMOSPHERIC AND SURFACE HEAT ISLANDS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HERBEL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of the urbanization process and its associated climatic effects is nowadays a major problem of large cities worldwide. One of these climatic effects is the urban heat island (UHI, that implies increased air and surface temperature values in the city when compared to the nearby rural areas. This phenomenon threatens the health of the population, especially during heat waves, affects the quality of the environment and the quality of life, and also generates significant costs to ensure the inhabitants' thermal comfort. In this study we present a review of the UHI concept and three of the main methods used to detect the atmospheric and surface urban heat islands. Satellite image data analysis seems an easier and time-saving solution, but due to its limitations, we consider that a combination of both surfaces and lower atmospheric layer temperature data analysis is the best choice in order to get accurate results of the intensity and spatial extension of the UHI.

  17. Nucleate boiling heat transfer from a structured surface - Effect of liquid intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A.K.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Saha, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2007-04-15

    A model of the suction evaporation mode in nucleate boiling from tunnel and pore structures is presented. The model is based on the analysis by Nakayama et al. [W. Nakayama, T. Daikoku, H. Kuwahara, T. Nakajima, Dynamic model of enhanced boiling heat transfer on porous surfaces - Part II. Analytical model, ASME J. Heat Transfer 102 (3) (1980) 451-456] and L.H. Chein and R.L. Webb [A nucleate boiling model for structured enhanced surfaces, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41 (14) (1998) 2183-2195]. Additionally, a detailed phenomenological model of liquid refill has been developed. It has been shown that the process of liquid refill and the time needed for it is strongly dependent on pool height. Effect of liquid pool height on bubble frequency has also been discussed. Finally, a generalized methodology is given for the prediction of boiling data from a structured surface. (author)

  18. Convective Heat Transfer from Castings of Ice Roughened Surfaces in Horizontal Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhan, Nihad; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Eight different types of ice growths, characterizing different types of roughness, were obtained from these plates, from which aluminum castings were made. Test strips taken from these castings were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, they could be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for parallel flow, which simulates horizontal flight, were studied. The results of this investigation can be used to help size heaters for wings, helicopter rotor blades, jet engine intakes, etc., or de-icing for anti-icing applications where the flow is parallel to the iced surface.

  19. Heat and mass transfer rates during flow of dissociated hydrogen gas over graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, V. K.; Sharma, O. P.

    1986-01-01

    To improve upon the performance of chemical rockets, the nuclear reactor has been applied to a rocket propulsion system using hydrogen gas as working fluid and a graphite-composite forming a part of the structure. Under the boundary layer approximation, theoretical predictions of skin friction coefficient, surface heat transfer rate and surface regression rate have been made for laminar/turbulent dissociated hydrogen gas flowing over a flat graphite surface. The external stream is assumed to be frozen. The analysis is restricted to Mach numbers low enough to deal with the situation of only surface-reaction between hydrogen and graphite. Empirical correlations of displacement thickness, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local non-dimensional heat transfer rate have been obtained. The magnitude of the surface regression rate is found low enough to ensure the use of graphite as a linear or a component of the system over an extended period without loss of performance.

  20. Development and validation of computational fluid dynamics models for prediction of heat transfer and thermal microenvironments of corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Ong

    Full Text Available We present Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD models of the coupled dynamics of water flow, heat transfer and irradiance in and around corals to predict temperatures experienced by corals. These models were validated against controlled laboratory experiments, under constant and transient irradiance, for hemispherical and branching corals. Our CFD models agree very well with experimental studies. A linear relationship between irradiance and coral surface warming was evident in both the simulation and experimental result agreeing with heat transfer theory. However, CFD models for the steady state simulation produced a better fit to the linear relationship than the experimental data, likely due to experimental error in the empirical measurements. The consistency of our modelling results with experimental observations demonstrates the applicability of CFD simulations, such as the models developed here, to coral bleaching studies. A study of the influence of coral skeletal porosity and skeletal bulk density on surface warming was also undertaken, demonstrating boundary layer behaviour, and interstitial flow magnitude and temperature profiles in coral cross sections. Our models compliment recent studies showing systematic changes in these parameters in some coral colonies and have utility in the prediction of coral bleaching.

  1. Numerical investigation of heat transfer performance of synthetic jet impingement onto dimpled/protrusioned surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Di

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic mesh methods and user defined functions are adopted and the shear stress transport k-ω turbulent model has been used in the numerical investigation of heat transfer performance of synthetic jet impingement onto dimple/protrusioned surface. The results show that the local time-averaged Nusselt number of the dimpled/protrusioned target surface tends to be much closer with that of flat cases with increasing of frequency. The heat transfer performance gets better when frequency increases. The area-averaged time-averaged Nusselt number of protrusioned target surface is the most close to that of flat cases when f = 320 Hz while it is the smallest among the synthetic jet cases in dimpled target surface. The heat transfer enhancement performance of synthetic jet is 30 times better than that of natural convection. The time-averaged Nusselt number of stagnation point in the protrusioned target surface is higher than that of flat target surface while it is lower in the dimpled surface than that of flat surface no matter in the synthetic jet, steady jet or natural convection cases. Meanwhile, the timeaveraged Nusselt number of stagnation point in the synthetic jet cases increases with the increasing of frequency. It is worth pointing out that the time-averaged Nusselt number of stagnation point is lower than that of steady cases when the frequency is low. However, it shows a bit higher than that of steady cases when f = 320 Hz.

  2. Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthurajan, H. [Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pashan, Pune 411021 (India)], E-mail: muthurajan_h@rediffmail.com; Sivabalan, R.; Pon Saravanan, N.; Talawar, M.B. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Sutarwadi, Pune 411 021 (India)

    2009-01-30

    The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-a-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion ({delta}H{sub e}) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9721 with a linear equation y = 0.9262x + 101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials.

  3. Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Pon Saravanan, N; Talawar, M B

    2009-01-30

    The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-à-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (DeltaH(e)) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9721 with a linear equation y=0.9262x+101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials.

  4. A simple mathematical procedure to estimate heat flux in machining using measured surface temperature with infrared laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Mzad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several techniques have been developed over time for the measurement of heat and the temperatures generated in various manufacturing processes and tribological applications. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. The appropriate technique for temperature measurement depends on the application under consideration as well as the available tools for measurement. This paper presents a procedure for a simple and accurate determination of the time-varying heat flux at the workpiece–tool interface of three different metals under known cutting conditions. A portable infrared thermometer is used for surface temperature measurements. A spline smoothing interpolation of the surface temperature history enables to determine the local heat flux produced during stock removal. The measured temperature is represented by a third-order spline approximation. Nonetheless, the accuracy of polynomial interpolation depends on how close are the interpolated points; an increase in degree cannot be used to increase the accuracy. Although the data analysis is relatively complicated, the computing time is very small.

  5. Interannual variability of surface heat fluxes in the Adriatic Sea in the period 1998-2001 and comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiggiato, Jacopo [Servizio Idro Meteorologico, ARPA Emilia Romagna, Viale Silvani 6, I-40122 Bologna (Italy) and Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Piazza Porta San Donato 1, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: jchiggiato@smr.arpa.emr.it; Zavatarelli, Marco [Universita di Bologna, Centro Interdipartimentale per la Ricerca sulle Scienze Ambientali, Via S. Alberto 163, I-47100 Ravenna (Italy); Castellari, Sergio [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via Donato Creti 12, I-40128 Bologna (Italy); Deserti, Marco [Servizio Idro Meteorologico, ARPA Emilia Romagna, Viale Silvani 6, I-40122 Bologna (Italy)

    2005-12-15

    Surface heat fluxes of the Adriatic Sea are estimated for the period 1998-2001 through bulk formulae with the goal to assess the uncertainties related to their estimations and to describe their interannual variability. In addition a comparison to observations is conducted. We computed the components of the sea surface heat budget by using two different operational meteorological data sets as inputs: the ECMWF operational analysis and the regional limited area model LAMBO operational forecast. Both results are consistent with previous long-term climatology and short-term analyses present in the literature. In both cases we obtained that the Adriatic Sea loses 26 W/m{sup 2} on average, that is consistent with the assessments found in the literature. Then we conducted a comparison with observations of the radiative components of the heat budget collected on offshore platforms and one coastal station. In the case of shortwave radiation, results show a little overestimation on the annual basis. Values obtained in this case are 172 W/m{sup 2} when using ECMWF data and 169 W/m{sup 2} when using LAMBO data. The use of either Schiano's or Gilman's and Garrett's corrections help to get even closer values. More difficult is to assess the comparison in the case of longwave radiation, with relative errors of an order of 10-20%.

  6. Laser ablation of metals: Analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, A.; Giardini Guidoni, A.; Kelly, R.; Flamini, C.; Orlando, S.

    1997-02-01

    The thermal effects produced by laser pulses (6 or 18 ns) absorbed by a solid target have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The energy which is absorbed serves to raise the temperature of the surface. The regimes to be considered are described by the heat-diffusion equation under conditions of what we term `normal vaporization'. Numerical solutions of the heat-diffusion equation lead to the temperature profiles produced within the target. The aim of this work is to present the results on heat flow in terms of the surface temperature and the velocity at which the surface recedes. Experimental data on the recession velocity and of the crater depth in relation to the thermophysical parameters of the metals Al, Cu, Nb, W, and Zn, are reported. The effect of the surface heating has also been examined in terms of the velocities of the plumes emitted from the targets. It is concluded that vaporization from the laser-heated targets is not the only relevant process but that one or both of laser-plume interaction and phase explosion may play a role in determining particle energies.

  7. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  8. ENSO related SST anomalies and relation with surface heat fluxes over south Pacific and Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Nuncio, M.; Satheesan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The role of surface heat fluxes in Southern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is studied using observation and ocean reanalysis products. A prominent dipole structure in SST anomaly is found with a positive (negative) anomaly center over south Pacific (65S-45S, 120W-70W) and negative (positive) one over south Atlantic (50S-30S, 30W-0E) during austral summer (DJF) of El Nino (LaNina). During late austral spring-early summer (OND) of El Nino (LaNina), anomalous northerly (southerly) meridional moisture transport and a positive (negative) sea level pressure anomaly induces a suppressed (enhanced) latent heat flux from the ocean surface over south Pacific. This in turn results in a shallower than normal mixed layer depth which further helps in development of the SST anomaly. Mixed layer thins further due to anomalous shortwave radiation during summer and a well developed SST anomaly evolves. The south Atlantic pole exhibits exactly opposite characteristics at the same time. The contribution from the surface heat fluxes to mixed layer temperature change is found to be dominant over the advective processes over both the basins. Net surface heat fluxes anomaly is also found to be maximum during late austral spring-early summer period, with latent heat flux having a major contribution to it. The anomalous latent heat fluxes between atmosphere and ocean surface play important role in the growth of observed summertime SST anomaly. Sea-surface height also shows similar out-of-phase signatures over the two basins and are well correlated with the ENSO related SST anomalies. It is also observed that the magnitude of ENSO related anomalies over the southern ocean are weaker in LaNina years than in El Nino years, suggesting an intensified tropics-high latitude tele-connection during warm phases of ENSO.

  9. Computer aided surface representation. Progress report, June 1, 1989--May 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a ``surface defined on a surface``. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is ``geometry processing``. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  10. A new hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes new and recent advances in the development of a hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer problems. The transfinite element methodology, while retaining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element formulations, is based on application of transform techniques in conjunction with classical Galerkin schemes and is a hybrid approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a viable hybrid computational methodology for applicability to general transient thermal analysis. Highlights and features of the methodology are described and developed via generalized formulations and applications to several test problems. The proposed transfinite element methodology successfully provides a viable computational approach and numerical test problems validate the proposed developments for conduction/convection/radiation thermal analysis.

  11. A new hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes new and recent advances in the development of a hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer problems. The transfinite element methodology, while retaining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element formulations, is based on application of transform techniques in conjunction with classical Galerkin schemes and is a hybrid approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a viable hybrid computational methodology for applicability to general transient thermal analysis. Highlights and features of the methodology are described and developed via generalized formulations and applications to several test problems. The proposed transfinite element methodology successfully provides a viable computational approach and numerical test problems validate the proposed developments for conduction/convection/radiation thermal analysis.

  12. Substrate Wetting Under the Conditions of Drop Free Falling on a Heated Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batischeva Ksenia A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an experimental study of a heated substrate wetting by drops of distilled water under the conditions of their free-falling. The studies were conducted using a shadow system, which consists of a light source, lens and high-speed video camera. It was found that the maximum wetted area of drop is directly proportional to its volume. The main ranges of evolution of distilled water drop behavior on the heated surface (change of geometry at contact with the surface have been conditionally divided.

  13. Thermal Characteristics of a Primary Surface Heat Exchanger with Corrugated Channels

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE) with corrugated surfaces. The PSHE was experimentally investigated for a Reynolds number range of 156–921 under various flow conditions on the hot and cold sides. The inlet temperature of the hot side was maintained at 40 °C, while that of the cold side was maintained at 20 °C. A counterflow was used as it has a higher temperature proximity in comparison with a parallel flow. The...

  14. Revisit of Joule heating in CE: the contribution of surface conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xiangchun

    2007-08-01

    We present in this short communication the true form of Joule heating in CE which considers the contribution of surface conductance. This increased conductivity of electrolyte solution within electrical double layer has never been discussed in previous studies. The resultant intensive heat generation near the capillary wall is demonstrated using numerical simulation to produce not a locally strong temperature rise, but an additional temperature elevation in the whole solution compared to the model neglecting surface conductance. The latter effect is, however, negligible in typical CE while it might become significant in very small channels.

  15. Influence of surface roughness and porosity of inclusion in water droplet on heat transfer enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova Anastasia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using high-speed camera, the experiments were performed to research evaporation of 10 μl water droplets containing 2 mm solid inclusions in the shape of cube, when heated (up to 850 K in combustion products of technical ethanol. Adding solid inclusions in water droplets allowed considerably decreasing (by 70% their evaporation times. Also, the artificial irregularities (roughness and porosity at the surfaces of solid inclusions were manufactured to increase heat transfer area. Such approach enabled to decrease evaporation times of heterogeneous liquid droplets in high-temperature gases by 40% (when comparing inclusions with artificial irregularities and smooth surface.

  16. Effects of water blowers on service life of combustion chamber heating surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habryka, A. (Zaklad Techniki Cieplnej i Gospodarki Energetycznej (Poland))

    1990-07-01

    Discusses control of fouling in steam generators of coal-fired power plants and the performance of water jet equipment. Heating surfaces of combustion chambers were monitored by optical probes, industrial television cameras, photo- and film cameras. Continuous observation was accompanied by temperature measurements with thermocouples. Negative effects of water jet application and experience gained in Poland, Estonia and in the FRG concerning periods of cleaning cycles are considered. Improved heating surface cleaning procedures and application of water-jet cleaners of the type used in the Thierbach and Jaenschwalde power plants (FRG) are recommended. 8 refs.

  17. Specific features of heat transfer on the external surface of smoke stacks blown by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneev, A. P.; Terekhov, V. I.

    2015-03-01

    Results of a full-scale experiment on studying heat transfer on the surface of a reinforced-concrete smoke stack blown by wind at the value of Reynolds number Re = 1.05 × 107 are presented. Comparison of the experimental results with the experimental data obtained previously by other researchers under laboratory conditions at Re cylinder in a transcritical streamlining mode. The data obtained in the present study open the possibility to estimate the average values of heat transfer coefficient on the surface of smoke stacks in a flow of atmospheric air at 4 × 106 < Re < 107.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer during Night Cooling with Different Ventilation Systems and Surface Emissivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2013-01-01

    Night-time ventilation is a promising approach to reduce the energy needed for cooling buildings without reducing thermal comfort. Nevertheless actual building simulation tools have showed their limits in predicting accurately the efficiency of night-time ventilation, mainly due to inappropriate...... air and the room, and floor emissivities. This extensive experimental study enabled a detailed analysis of the convective and radiative flow at the different surfaces of the room. The experimentally derived convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTC) have been compared to existing correlations...... ventilation, the convective heat transfer was well predicted by existing correlations. Nevertheless the change of floor emissivity influenced the CHTC at the surface of interest....

  19. Aspects of radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Palmer, B.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Arrays of fixed discrete surfaces are encountered in a number of important applications. Evaluating radiant heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is challenging because array optical properties are often nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. This article presents the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation heat transfer in several array geometries. The results show that for the array geometries included in the study, the extinction coefficient is strongly anisotropic and that optical properties are dependent on both the geometric arrangement of the elements and the scattering characteristics of individual elements.

  20. Formation of extreme surface turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Gavrikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in total oceanic heat loss in the North Atlantic is studied. The atmospheric circulation patterns enhancing ocean-atmosphere heat flux in regions with significant contributions of the extreme heat fluxes (up to 60% of the net heat loss) are analyzed. It is shown that extreme heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream and the Greenland and Labrador Seas occur in zones with maximal air pressure gradients, i.e., in cyclone-anticyclone interaction zones.

  1. The features of steel surface hardening with high energy heating by high frequency currents and shower cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancivsky, V. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu; Bataev, I. A.; Lobanov, D. V.; Martyushev, N. V.; Sakha, O. V.; Khlebova, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the process of surface hardening of steel 45 with the help of high energy heating by high frequency currents with simultaneous shower water cooling. We theoretically justified and experimentally proved a possibility of liquid phase forming in the course of heating not on the surface, but in the depth of the surface layer.

  2. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  3. Assessment of land surface temperature and heat fluxes over Delhi using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Surya Deb; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, Debashis

    2015-01-15

    Surface energy processes has an essential role in urban weather, climate and hydrosphere cycles, as well in urban heat redistribution. The research was undertaken to analyze the potential of Landsat and MODIS data in retrieving biophysical parameters in estimating land surface temperature & heat fluxes diurnally in summer and winter seasons of years 2000 and 2010 and understanding its effect on anthropogenic heat disturbance over Delhi and surrounding region. Results show that during years 2000-2010, settlement and industrial area increased from 5.66 to 11.74% and 4.92 to 11.87% respectively which in turn has direct effect on land surface temperature (LST) and heat fluxes including anthropogenic heat flux. Based on the energy balance model for land surface, a method to estimate the increase in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) has been proposed. The settlement and industrial areas has higher amounts of energy consumed and has high values of Has in all seasons. The comparison of satellite derived LST with that of field measured values show that Landsat estimated values are in close agreement within error of ±2 °C than MODIS with an error of ±3 °C. It was observed that, during 2000 and 2010, the average change in surface temperature using Landsat over settlement & industrial areas of both seasons is 1.4 °C & for MODIS data is 3.7 °C. The seasonal average change in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) estimated using Landsat & MODIS is up by around 38 W/m(2) and 62 W/m(2) respectively while higher change is observed over settlement and concrete structures. The study reveals that the dynamic range of Has values has increased in the 10 year period due to the strong anthropogenic influence over the area. The study showed that anthropogenic heat flux is an indicator of the strength of urban heat island effect, and can be used to quantify the magnitude of the urban heat island effect.

  4. Similarity Solutions on Mixed Convection Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Surface Saturated in a Porous Medium with Internal Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdows M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the mixed convection boundary layer flow from a horizontal surface embedded in a porous medium with exponential decaying internal heat generation (IHG. Boundary layer equations are reduced to two ordinary differential equations for the dimensionless stream function and temperature with two parameters: ε, the mixed convection parameter, and λ, the exponent of x. This problem is numerically solved with a system of parameters using built-in codes in Maple. The influences of these parameters on velocity and temperature profiles, and the Nusselt number, are thoroughly compared and discussed.

  5. Computer Modeling of Planetary Surface Temperatures in Introductory Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Timothy; Goodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Barker, T., and Goodman, J. C., Wheaton College, Norton, MA Computer modeling is an essential part of astronomical research, and so it is important that students be exposed to its powers and limitations in the first (and, perhaps, only) astronomy course they take in college. Building on the ideas of Walter Robinson (“Modeling Dynamic Systems,” Springer, 2002) we have found that STELLA software (ISEE Systems) allows introductory astronomy students to do sophisticated modeling by the end of two classes of instruction, with no previous experience in computer programming or calculus. STELLA’s graphical interface allows students to visualize systems in terms of “flows” in and out of “stocks,” avoiding the need to invoke differential equations. Linking flows and stocks allows feedback systems to be constructed. Students begin by building an easily understood system: a leaky bucket. This is a simple negative feedback system in which the volume in the bucket (a “stock”) depends on a fixed inflow rate and an outflow that increases in proportion to the volume in the bucket. Students explore how changing inflow rate and feedback parameters affect the steady-state volume and equilibration time of the system. This model is completed within a 50-minute class meeting. In the next class, students are given an analogous but more sophisticated problem: modeling a planetary surface temperature (“stock”) that depends on the “flow” of energy from the Sun, the planetary albedo, the outgoing flow of infrared radiation from the planet’s surface, and the infrared return from the atmosphere. Students then compare their STELLA model equilibrium temperatures to observed planetary temperatures, which agree with model ones for worlds without atmospheres, but give underestimates for planets with atmospheres, thus introducing students to the concept of greenhouse warming. We find that if we give the students part of this model at the start of a 50-minute class they are

  6. Effects of Surface Wettability and Roughness on the Heat Transfer Performance of Fluid Flowing through Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface characteristics, such as wettability and roughness, play an important role in heat transfer performance in the field of microfluidic flow. In this paper, the process of a hot liquid flowing through a microchannel with cold walls, which possesses different surface wettabilities and microstructures, is simulated by a transient double-distribution function (DDF two-phase thermal lattice Boltzmann BGK (LBGK model. The Shan-Chen multiphase LBGK model is used to describe the flow field and the independent distribution function is introduced to solve the temperature field. The simulation results show that the roughness of the channel wall improves the heat transfer, no matter what the surface wettability is. These simulations reveal that the heat exchange characteristics are directly related to the flow behavior. For the smooth-superhydrophobic-surface flow, a gas film forms that acts as an insulating layer since the thermal conductivity of the gas is relatively small in comparison to that of a liquid. In case of the rough-superhydrophobic-surface flow, the vortex motion of the gas within the grooves significantly enhances the heat exchange between the fluid and wall.

  7. The influence of heat accumulation on the surface roughness in powder-bed additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidinia, Mahdi; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-03-01

    The influence of heat accumulation on surface roughness during powder-bed additive manufacturing was investigated. A series of Ti-6Al-4V thin plates were produced by using an identical heat input by electron beam melting® (EBM). Spacing distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm were used. The surface roughness of as-built thin plates was measured using a two-axis profilometer. A numerical model was developed to study the influence of spacing distance on heat accumulation. An inverse relationship between the spacing distance and surface roughness was revealed. The experimental and numerical results showed that the surface quality of buildups could be controlled not only by process parameters, but also by the arrangement of components in the buildup chamber. At a constant spacing distance, an increase in the number of powder layers resulted in the accumulation of more heat between the thin plates. An increase in the spacing distance resulted in an upward translation of the Bearing Area Curve (BAC) toward shallower depths, with a reduced core roughness depth (Rk) and peak height (Rpk). A logarithmic regression equation was established from the experimental data. This equation could be used to predict the surface roughness of parts fabricated by EBM® in the studied range of spacing distances.

  8. Urban heat mitigation by roof surface materials during the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Ryu, Youngryel; Jiang, Chongya

    2015-12-01

    Roof surface materials, such as green and white roofs, have attracted attention in their role in urban heat mitigation, and various studies have assessed the cooling performance of roof surface materials during hot and sunny summer seasons. However, summers in the East Asian monsoon climate region are characterized by significant fluctuations in weather events, such as dry periods, heatwaves, and rainy and cloudy days. This study investigated the efficacy of different roof surface materials for heat mitigation, considering the temperatures both at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials during a summer monsoon in Seoul, Korea. We performed continuous observations of temperature at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials, and manual observation of albedo and the normalized difference vegetation index for a white roof, two green roofs (grass (Poa pratensis) and sedum (Sedum sarmentosum)), and a reference surface. Overall, the surface temperature of the white roof was significantly lower than that of the grass and sedum roofs (1.1 °C and 1.3 °C), whereas the temperature beneath the surface of the white roof did not differ significantly from that of the grass and sedum roofs during the summer. The degree of cloudiness significantly modified the surface temperature of the white roof compared with that of the grass and sedum roofs, which depended on plant metabolisms. It was difficult for the grass to maintain its cooling ability without adequate watering management. After considering the cooling performance and maintenance efforts for different environmental conditions, we concluded that white roof performed better in urban heat mitigation than grass and sedum during the East Asian summer monsoon. Our findings will be useful in urban heat mitigation in the region.

  9. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  10. Computational multi-fluid dynamics predictions of critical heat flux in boiling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr; Baudry, C.; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.; Merigoux, N.; Mechitoua, N.

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • A new mechanistic model dedicated to DNB has been implemented in the Neptune-CFD code. • The model has been validated against 150 tests. • Neptune-CFD code is a CFD tool dedicated to boiling flows. - Abstract: Extensive efforts have been made in the last five decades to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux in particular. Boiling crisis remains a major limiting phenomenon for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems. As a consequence, models dedicated to boiling flows have being improved. For example, Reynolds Stress Transport Model, polydispersion and two-phase flow wall law have been recently implemented. In a previous work, we have evaluated computational fluid dynamics results against single-phase liquid water tests equipped with a mixing vane and against two-phase boiling cases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new mechanistic model in a computational multi-fluid dynamics tool leading to wall temperature excursion and onset of boiling crisis. Critical heat flux is calculated against 150 tests and the mean relative error between calculations and experimental values is equal to 8.3%. The model tested covers a large physics scope in terms of mass flux, pressure, quality and channel diameter. Water and R12 refrigerant fluid are considered. Furthermore, it was found that the sensitivity to the grid refinement was acceptable.

  11. Air-side performance of a micro-channel heat exchanger in wet surface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisomba Raviwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of operating conditions on the air-side heat transfer, and pressure drop of a micro-channel heat exchanger under wet surface conditions were studied experimentally. The test section was an aluminum micro-channel heat exchanger, consisting of a multi-louvered fin and multi-port mini-channels. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of inlet relative humidity, air frontal velocity, air inlet temperature, and refrigerant temperature on air-side performance. The experimental data were analyzed using the mean enthalpy difference method. The test run was performed at relative air humidities ranging between 45% and 80%; air inlet temperature ranges of 27, 30, and 33°C; refrigerant-saturated temperatures ranging from 18 to 22°C; and Reynolds numbers between 128 and 166. The results show that the inlet relative humidity, air inlet temperature, and the refrigerant temperature had significant effects on heat transfer performance and air-side pressure drop. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for the micro-channel heat exchanger under wet surface conditions are proposed in terms of the Colburn j factor and Fanning f factor.

  12. Microscale heat transfer in a free jet against a plane surface

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A new two-layer model has been proposed to study microscale heat transfer associated with a developing flow boundary layer. As an example, a cold, microscale film of liquid impinging on an isothermal hot, horizontal surface has been investigated. The boundary layer is divided into two regions: a micro layer at microscale away from the surface and a macro layer at macroscale away from the surface. An approximate solution for the velocity and temperature distributions in the flow along the horizontal surface is developed, which exploits the hydrodynamic similarity solution for microscale film flow. The approximate solution may provide a valuable basis for assessing microscale flow and heat transfer in more complex settings.

  13. Image current heating on a metal surface due to charged bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian E. Lin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available When charged particles pass through a metal pipe, they are accompanied by an image current on the metal surface. With intense short bunches passing near or even into the metal surface, the peak image current density can be very high. This current may result in substantial temperature rise on the surface, especially in high peak current, multibunch operation. In this paper, we derive an explicit formula for the surface temperature rise due to this previously unrecognized pulsed heating effect and show that this effect dominates the proposed linear coherent light source collimator spoiler and wire scanner heating. Without proper account, it can result in component and instrument failures. The result also applies to optical transition radiation screens, profile screens, wire scanners, exit windows, and targets, which the beam crosses.

  14. Field experiment on coalmine heat disaster governance using cold source from surface water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; Zhu Guolong; Liu Yuqing; Duan Mengmeng; Wu Junyin

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the lack of cold source for underground cooling systems from either mine inflow or return air, field experiments were taken in a high temperature deep coal mine with abundant cold source from surface water. Taking Sanhejian coal mine as an example, this paper introduced the technology scheme of heat disaster governance using surface water cold source. The paper presents the basics of this field experiment at the beginning, following by the design and site layout of the cooling system including the analysis and calculation of cold source. Numerical calculation method is also applied based on the operation parameters to simulate the influence to the surface river ecosystem. The results suggest that the temperature of surface water shall be lower than 34 ?C after heat exchange, and when more cooling capacities are needed in the future, increasing the water flow is more favorable than increasing the cooling range of water, which is better for the ecological environment protection.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of an earth-air heat exchanger for ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowski, Andrzej; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Czechowska-Kosacka, Aneta

    2017-07-01

    Directive 2010/31/EU (EPBD Recast) obligates European Union members to improve energetic performance of the buildings. One of the crucial standards of energy-saving buildings are the passive houses, which are characterized by annual maximum space heating below 15 kWh/(m2.a) and the use of the specific primary energy for all domestic applications (also heating, hot water production and electricity) below 120 kWh/(m2.a). To achieve this standard there should be applied the solutions based on ground energy acquisition. One of them is the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHC) for ventilation systems. The article presents numerical simulations conducted by solving partial differential equations for three dimensional heat transfer. For the simulations it was applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique. The efficiency of EAHC was considered under different values of external temperature during the winter period (from -24 to -8 °C). Obtained results prove linear correlation with calculations of EAHC according to standards of the Polish National Energy Conservation Agency (NAPE). The slope of regression between outlet temperatures calculated with CFD model and NAPE standards, equals 0.59 which means, that according the CFD model, the efficiency of the exchanger is lower.

  16. Computer and graphics modeling of heat transfer and phase change in a wall with randomly imbibed PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    We describe the theoretical basis and computer implementation of a simulation code for heat transfer and phase change in a rectangular 2-dimensional region in which PCM has been randomly placed with a preassigned volume fraction.

  17. Effect of Favorable Pressure Gradients on Turbine Blade Pressure Surface Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Giel, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent measurements on a turbine rotor showed significant relaminarization effects. These effects were evident on the pressure surface heat transfer measurements. The character of the heat transfer varied with Reynolds number. Data were obtained for exit Reynolds numbers between 500,000 and 880,000. Tests were done with a high level of inlet turbulence, 7.5%. At lower Reynolds numbers the heat transfer was similar to that for laminar flow, but at a level higher than for laminar flow. At higher Reynolds numbers the heat transfer was similar to turbulent flow, when the acceleration parameter, K, was sufficiently small. The proposed paper discusses the experimental results, and also discusses approaches to calculating the surface heat transfer for the blade surface. Calculations were done using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes CFD analysis. The results of these tests, when compared with previous blade tests in the same facility, illustrate modeling difficulties that were encountered in CFD predictions. The two blades were in many ways similar. However, the degree of agreement between the same analysis and the experimental data was significantly different. These differences are highlighted to illustrate where improvements in modeling approaches are needed for transitional flows.

  18. Urban surface temperature behaviour and heat island effect in a tropical planned city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeb Qaid; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Jamei, Elmira; Manaf, Norhashima Abd; Said, Ismail; Ahmad, Mohd Hamdan

    2015-02-01

    Putrajaya is a model city planned with concepts of a "city in the garden" and an "intelligent city" in the tropics. This study presents the behaviour of the surface temperature and the heat island effect of Putrajaya. Findings show that heat island intensity is 2 °C on average at nighttime and negligible at daytime. But high surface temperature values were recorded at the main boulevard due to direct solar radiation incident, street orientation in the direction of northeast and southwest and low building height-to-street width ratio. Buildings facing each other had cooling effect on surfaces during the morning and evening hours; conversely, they had a warming effect at noon. Clustered trees along the street are effective in reducing the surface temperature compared to scattered and isolated trees. Surface temperature of built up areas was highest at noon, while walls and sidewalks facing northwest were hottest later in the day. Walls and sidewalks that face northwest were warmer than those that face southeast. The surface temperatures of the horizontal street surfaces and of vertical façades are at acceptable levels relative to the surface temperature of similar surfaces in mature cities in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean climates.

  19. Computer program grade 2 for the design and analysis of heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Edwards, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    This user's manual describes the revised version of the computer program GRADE(1), which designs and analyzes heat pipes with graded porosity fibrous slab wicks. The revisions are: (1) automatic calculation of the minimum condenser-end stress that will not result in an excess-liquid puddle or a liquid slug in the vapor space; (2) numerical solution of the equations describing flow in the circumferential grooves to assess the burnout criterion; (3) calculation of the contribution of excess liquid in fillets and puddles to the heat-transport; (4) calculation of the effect of partial saturation on the wick performance; and (5) calculation of the effect of vapor flow, which includes viscousinertial interactions.

  20. Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger Performance and Humidity Simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in buildings and promoting renewables are key objectives of European energy policies. Several technological measures are being developed to enhance the energy performance of buildings. Among these, geothermal systems present a huge potential to reduce energy consumption for mechanical ventilation and cooling, but their behavior depending on varying parameters, boundary and climatic conditions is not fully established. In this paper a horizontal air-ground heat exchanger (HAGHE system is studied by the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Summer and winter conditions representative of the Mediterranean climate are analyzed to evaluate operation and thermal performance differences. A particular focus is given to humidity variations as this parameter has a major impact on indoor air quality and comfort. Results show the benefits that HAGHE systems can provide in reducing energy consumption in all seasons, in summer when free-cooling can be implemented avoiding post air treatment using heat pumps.

  1. Experimental and computational investigations of heat and mass transfer of intensifier grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobzar, Leonid; Oleksyuk, Dmitry; Semchenkov, Yuriy [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The paper discusses experimental and numerical investigations on intensification of thermal and mass exchange which were performed by National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'' over the past years. Recently, many designs of heat mass transfer intensifier grids have been proposed. NRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' has accomplished a large scope of experimental investigations to study efficiency of intensifier grids of various types. The outcomes of experimental investigations can be used in verification of computational models and codes. On the basis of experimental data, we derived correlations to calculate coolant mixing and critical heat flux mixing in rod bundles equipped with intensifier grids. The acquired correlations were integrated in subchannel code SC-INT.

  2. Computational analysis of heat and mass transfer during microwave drying of timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadem S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for improvement in engineering design and process optimization for microwave drying of wood has stimulated the development of computer simulation techniques to predict temperature and moisture history and distribution wood sample. A three-dimensional comprehensive heat and mass transfer model was developed to simulate the free liquid, vapor, and bound water movement including consideration of internal heat generation in microwave drying of yellow poplar specimens. The model was solved using the finite element analysis with FEMLsoftware. The model predictions compared favorably with predicted and experimental solutions. The effect of changes of the most important parameters on the predictions of the model is also presented. The results showed that the variations of irradiation time, microwave power level and sample thickness played an important role in overall drying kinetics.

  3. Strong Near-Field Enhancement of Radiative Heat Transfer between Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Tomas; Hanzelka, Pavel; Zobac, Martin; Musilova, Vera; Fort, Tomas; Horak, Michal

    2012-11-01

    Near-field heat transfer across a gap between plane-parallel tungsten layers in vacuo was studied experimentally with the temperature of the cold sample near 5 K and the temperature of the hot sample in the range 10-40 K as a function of the gap size d. At gaps smaller than one-third of the peak wavelength λm given by Wien’s displacement law, the near-field effect was observed. In comparison with blackbody radiation, hundred times higher values of heat flux were achieved at d≈1μm. Heat flux normalized to the radiative power transferred between black surfaces showed scaling (λm/d)n, where n≈2.6. This Letter describes the results of experiment and a comparison with present theory over 4 orders of magnitude of heat flux.

  4. Transient mass transfer caused by local surface heating in close binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisette, J. J.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The surge of mass from one component of a binary system resulting from local surface heating is analyzed. The impact of such surges on the companion can produce transient phenomena such as those seen in X-ray binaries, RS CVn objects, and cataclysmic variables. The heating may be caused by nonlinear g-mode oscillations or by X-ray heating by the companion in X-ray binaries, among other possible mechanisms. As an example, model calculations have been performed for a surge, triggered by a relatively moderate local heating, in a hypothetical X-ray binary; the results show that such a surge can account for X-ray turn-ons.

  5. Surface heat transfer and flow properties of vortex arrays induced artificially and from centrifugal instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, C. S.; Ligrani, P. M.; Tuzzolo, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents and compares fluid-flow and heat transfer properties from artificially induced vortices in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer and naturally occurring vortices due to centrifugal instabilities in a curved-channel laminar flow. Pairs and arrays of vortices are artificially induced by placing half-delta wings on the plate surface. With both arrays and pairs of vortices, streamwise velocities and total pressures are high, and surface heat transfer is locally augmented in vortex downwash regions. In contrast to vortices in the arrays vortices in the pairs tend to move in the streamwise direction with significant divergence (when the common flow between pair is toward the wall) or convergence (when the common flow between pair is away from the wall). The vortices in the arrays cause maximum peak-to-peak heat transfer variations of up to 12 percent of local spanwise-averaged values for initial vortex spacings between 1 to 2.5 generator heights.

  6. Surface energy equation for heat transfer process in a pebble fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Castillo-Jiménez, V. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Herranz-Puebla, L.E. [División de Fisión Nuclear, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez-Rodríguez, R. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Steady and transient behaviors of the interfacial heat transfer in a fuel element. • Non-local averaging volume method for deriving the surface energy equation. • The method captures significant physical phenomena of the interfacial heat transfer. • Closure relationships are proposed in order to obtain the temperatures distribution. • The derived average equation represents an upscaling regarding the local description. - Abstract: In this paper the surface energy equation for the heat transfer process (HT) between the mixture of fuel (TRISO particles and graphite matrix) and coating in a fuel pebble is derived. The fuel pebble can be treated as a heterogeneous region (mixture of microspheres and graphite) interacting thermally with the homogeneous region (the coating or cladding). These two regions are separated by a boundary region where the properties and behavior differ from those of the adjoining regions. The methodology applied for deriving the surface energy equation is based on the classical theory on interfacial transport phenomena. The surface energy equation derived in this work is an average equation that represents an upscaling respect to the local description. The regions around the surface where changes in the physical phenomena are important are of the order of microns, in contrast with interfacial mass transfer between phases that may be several molecular diameters. The numerical analysis regarding the application of surface energy equation is presented in this work.

  7. Neutralized wettability effect of superhydrophilic Cr-layered surface on pool boiling critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hong Hyun; Jeong, Ui Ju; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The former method is deemed challenging due to longer development period and license issue. In this regard, FeCrAl, Cr, and SiC have been received positive attention as ATF coating materials because they are highly resistant to high temperature steam reaction causing massive hydrogen generation. In this study, Cr was selected as a target deposition material on the metal substrate because we found that Cr-layered surface becomes superhydrophilic, favorable to delaying the triggering of the critical heat flux (CHF). Thus in order to investigate the effect of Cr-layered superhydrophilic surfaces (under explored coating conditions) on pool boiling heat transfer, pool boiling experiment was conducted in the saturated deionized water under atmospheric pressure. As a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method, the DC magnetron sputtering technique was introduced to develop Cr-layered nanostructure. As a control variable of DC sputtering, substrate temperature was selected. Surface wettability and nanostructure were analyzed as major surface parameters on the CHF. We believe that highly dense micro/nano structure without nucleation cavities and inner pores neutralized the wettability effect on the CHF. Moreover, superhydrophilic surface with deficient cavity density rather hinders active nucleation. This emphasizes the importance of micro/nano structure surface for enhanced boiling heat transfer.

  8. HEAT TREATMENTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE DRIED NORWAY SPRUCE BOARDS: SACCHARIDES AND FURFURALS IN SAPWOOD SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Karlsson,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates that migrate to wood surfaces in sapwood during drying might influence properties such as mould susceptibility and colour. Sugars on the surface of Norway spruce boards during various heat treatments were studied. Samples (350mmx125mmx25mm were double-stacked, facing sapwood-side outwards, and dried at 110oC to a target moisture content (MC of 40%. Dried sub-samples (80 mm x 125 mm x 25 mm were stacked in a similar way and further heated at 110oC and at 130oC for 12, 24, and 36 hours, respectively. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose as well as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and furfural in the sapwood surface layer of treated wood were analysed using HPLC (RI- and UV-detectors. Carbohydrates degraded to a lower extent at 110oC than at 130oC. Furfural and to a larger extent HMF increased with treatment period and temperature. Heat treatment led to a decrease in lightness and hue of the sapwood surface of sub-samples, while chroma increased somewhat. Furthermore, considerably faster degradation (within a few minutes of the carbohydrates on the surface of the dried spruce boards was observed when single sub-samples were conductively hot pressed at 200oC. Treatment period and initial MC influenced the presence of the carbohydrates in wood surface as well as colour change (Eab of the hot pressed sub-samples.

  9. Verification of heat flux and temperature calculation on the control rod outer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Jan; Cebula, Artur

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The part of the control rod, which is the object of interest, is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold flows and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a numerical test which validates the method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). The comparison of the results achieved by two methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and IHCP, including a description of the IHCP method used in the calculation process, shows a very good agreement between the methods.

  10. Natural convection heat transfer on surfaces of copper micro-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ning; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chengwu; Jiang, Guilin

    2014-02-01

    The natural convection heat transfer characteristics and mechanism for copper micro-wires in water and air were investigated experimentally and numerically. The wires with diameters of 39.9, 65.8 and 119.1 μm were placed horizontally in water inside of a sealed tube and in air of a large room, respectively. Using Joule heating, the heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt numbers of natural convection for micro-wires in ultra pure water and air were obtained. A three dimensional incompressible numerical model was used to investigate the natural convection, and the prediction with this model was in reasonable accordance with the experimental results. With the decrease of micro-wire diameter, the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection on the surface of micro-wire becomes larger, while the Nu number of natural convection decreases in water and air. Besides, the change rate of Nu number in water decreases apparently with the increase of heat flux and the decrease of wire diameter, which is larger than that in air. The thickness of boundary layer on the wall of micro-wire becomes thinner with the decrease of diameter in both water and air, but the ratio of boundary layer thickness in water to the diameter increases. However, there is almost no change of this ratio for natural convection in air. As a result, the proportion of conduction in total heat transfer of natural convection in water increases, while the convective heat transfer decreases. The velocity distribution, temperature field and the boundary layer in the natural convection were compared with those of tube with conventional dimension. It was found that the boundary layer around the micro-wire is an oval-shaped film on the surface, which was different from that around the conventional tube. This apparently reduces the convection strength in the natural convection, thus the heat transfer presents a conduction characteristic.

  11. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  12. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  13. Brain Surface Heating After Exposure to Ultrasound: An Analysis Using Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michal E; Lombardo, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice to monitor brain pathologies in neonates after complicated deliveries. Animal studies have indicated that ultrasound may cause heating of brain tissues. To date, no study has explored brain surface heating by ultrasound during clinically relevant exposure. Hence, we investigated heating effects of B-mode and pulsed Doppler (PD) mode on ex vivo lamb brains using thermography. Five brains were scanned for 5 min in B-mode or for 3 min, 1 min, 30 s or 15 s in PD mode. Brain surface temperature was measured pre- and post-exposure using thermography. The highest mean temperature increase was recorded by B-mode (3.82 ± 0.43°C). All five PD exposure protocols were associated with surface temperature increases of 2.1-2.7°C. These outcomes highlight for the first time that B-mode ultrasound can contribute to brain surface heating during a routine cranial scan. Scan duration should be minimised whenever possible.

  14. Limitations of Heat Conductivity in Cryogenic Sensors Due to Surface Roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moktadir, Z.; Bruijn, M.P.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Ridder, M.; Mels, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The limitation of heat conductivity in cryogenic sensors due to surface roughness was discussed. It was found that at macroscopic scale and high temperatures, the transport coefficients were characteristic properties of the material and were independent of the shape and size of specimen. An

  15. The practical application of scintillometers in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis has collated one review chapter and five experiments concerned with addressing the question, 'how successful is the scintillometer method in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum and under what circumstances does it appear to fail?' Answering this question is impo

  16. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imba

  17. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imba

  18. Influence of tailored MLI for complex surface geometries on heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H.; Mayrhofer, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Complex, non-developable surfaces require a tailored multi-layer insulation (MLI) for lowest heat load. The most experiments showing the heat transfer through MLI are performed under quasi-ideal conditions determining the principle insulation quality. But the surface to be insulated in real cryostats implies feed-throughs and other non-developable surface parts. The thermal performance of MLI is degraded significantly at cutting points. To investigate this degrading effect a LN2-filled cylinder with a diameter of 219 mm and a length of 1820 mm was insulated with MLI and the heat load was measured by means of calorimetry. In addition the heat load to an insulated cylinder with eighteen branches was measured. Both cylinders have the same surface of 1.37 m2 for a comparison of the results. This article describes the experiments with different ways of tailoring the MLI for the cylinder with branches and discusses their results. It was shown that the cutting points at the branches have a significant degrading influence on the thermal performance of MLI.

  19. The practical application of scintillometers in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis has collated one review chapter and five experiments concerned with addressing the question, 'how successful is the scintillometer method in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum and under what circumstances does it appear to fail?'

  20. Sensible and latent heat flux from radiometric surface temperatures at the regional scale: methodology and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglietta, F.; Gioli, B.; Brunet, Y.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Matese, A.; Sarrat, C.; Zaldei, A.

    2009-01-01

    The CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) was designed to develop and test a range of methodologies to assess regional surface energy and mass exchange of a large study area in the south-western part of France. This paper describes a methodology to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes

  1. Investigation of change in surface morphology of heated surfaces upon pool boiling of magnetic fluids under magnetic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeian, Mostafa; Yildizhan, Melike-Mercan; Coşkun, Ömer; Ozkalay, Ebrar; Tekşen, Yiğit; Gulgun, Mehmet Ali; Funda Yagci Acar, Havva; Koşar, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Nanofluids are becoming a significant candidate for new generation coolants to be used in industrial applications. In order to reduce clustering and sedimentation of nanoparticles and improve the heat transfer performance simultaneously, magnetic fluids prepared with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in water, which were placed in a pool and were exposed to varying magnetic fields to actuate nanoparticles in the system. The effect of magnetic actuation on boiling heat transfer characteristics and on the surface morphology of the pool was examined. An average enhancement of 29% in boiling heat transfer was achieved via magnetic actuation with rather low magnetic field (magnetic flux densities up to 11 mT) densities. Furthermore, it was observed that magnetic actuation significantly prevented the deposition and sedimentation of the nanoparticles in the pool. Otherwise, significant destabilization of nanoparticles causing aggregation and heavy sedimentation was present as a result of the performed surface analysis. Even though magnetic actuation reduced the sedimentation on the macroscale, the deposition of a thick and porous film occurred onto the pool floor, increasing the surface roughness.

  2. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF FORMULA-SAE SIDEPODS FOR OPTIMUM RADIATOR HEAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. DE SILVA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.

  3. Computational prediction and control of energy consumption for heating in building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Petra; Vala, Jiří

    2017-07-01

    The significance of reasonable prediction and control of energy consumption in building structures follows from the natural requirements of the development of new materials, structures and technologies, as well as from the formal ones from European directives. This paper presents the method based on the generalized multiplicative Fourier decomposition, applied to a model of a building as certain thermal system. The design of the computational algorithm highlights the important contribution of solar radiation, as well as the design and control of the heating equipments. One illustrative numerical example shows the results of the practical implementation of this algorithm in the MATLAB environment.

  4. Pool boiling characteristics and critical heat flux mechanisms of microporous surfaces and enhancement through structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that microporous surfaces induce one of the highest enhancements in critical heat flux (CHF) during pool boiling. However, microporous surfaces may also induce a very large surface superheat (>100 °C) which is not desirable for applications such as microelectronics cooling. While the understanding of the CHF mechanism is the key to enhancing boiling heat transfer, a comprehensive understanding is not yet available. So far, three different theories for the CHF of microporous surfaces have been suggested: viscous-capillary model, hydrodynamic instability model, and dryout of the porous coatings. In general, all three theories account for some aspects of boiling phenomena. In this study, the theories are examined through their correlations with experimental data on microporous surfaces during pool boiling using deionized (DI) water. It was found that the modulation of the vapor-jet through the pore network enables a higher CHF than that of a flat surface based on the hydrodynamic instability theory. In addition, it was found that as the heat flux increases, a vapor layer grows in the porous coatings described by a simple thermal resistance model which is responsible for the large surface superheat. Once the vapor layer grows to fill the microporous structure, transition to film boiling occurs and CHF is reached. By disrupting the formation of this vapor layer through the fabrication of channels to allow vapor escape, an enhancement in the CHF and heat transfer coefficient was observed, allowing CHF greater than 3500 kW/m2 at a superheat less than 50 °C.

  5. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  6. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  7. Dynamic surface tension of heat transfer additives suitable for use in steam condensers and absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Yong-Du [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju, Chungnam, 314-701 (Korea); Kim, Kwang J.; Kennedy, John M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada-Reno, MS 312, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Additives are often effectively used in enhancing heat transfer by creating a surface tension gradient on the surface of a condensate film to induce Marangoni driven ''dropwise-like'' condensation. The objective of the current study is to use the Maximum Bubble Pressure Method (MBPM) to evaluate dynamic behavior of the surface tension of solutions of three different additives (2-ethoxy ethanol, isobutylamine, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) of varying concentrations with water. It was shown that the effects of 2-ethoxy ethanol on surface tension was primarily dependent on solute concentration and showed little dependence on time (i.e. surface age of bubble). While both isobutylamine and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol showed strong dependence on both concentration and time, the effects of the later were far more dramatic. The results for all solutions are presented as functions of concentration and time (i.e. surface age of bubble). (author)

  8. To Determination of Heating Speed of Surface Element of Module Industrial Furnace Recuperator of High-Temperature Heat Technologies at Engineering and Automotive and Tractor Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shidlovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of thermal stressed state of a cast-iron recuperator element wall in the case when a cast-iron needle recuperator operates in the state of  elasticity and elastic-plasticity.Heating speed evaluation of  heat-exchange surface at furnace start-up is given in the paper. 

  9. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  10. Surface Resistance of Jute Fibre/Polylactic Acid Biocomposite to Wet Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2016-04-01

    Jute fibre/polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because both resin and reinforcement come from renewable resources. Thus, it could be a more eco-friendly alternative to glass fibre composite [1] and to conventional wood-based panels made with phenol-formaldehyde resin which present many drawbacks for the workers and the environment [2]. Yet the water affinity of the natural fibres, the susceptibility of PLA towards hydrolysis and the low glass transition of the PLA raise a question about the surface resistance of such composites to wet heat in service condition for a furniture application [3]. In this work, the surface resistance of PLA/jute composite alone and with two different varnishes are investigated in regard to an interior application following the standard test method in accordance to BS EN 18721:2009: "Furniture: assessment of surface resistance to wet heat". It is compared to two common wood based panels, plywood and hardboard. After test, the composite material surface is found to be more affected than plywood and hardboard, but it becomes resistant to wet heat when a layer of biosourced varnish or petrol-based polyurethane varnish are applied on the surface.

  11. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  12. Surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with thiolated oligonucleotides in 10 seconds using selective microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, B.; Aslan, K. [Morgan State University, Department of Chemistry, 1700 East Cold Spring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21251 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This study demonstrates the proof-of-principle of rapid surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with oligonucleotides using low power microwave heating. Due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs, 2 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides were used as the model plasmonic nanostructured materials. Rapid surface modification of SNFs with oligonucleotides was carried out using two strategies (1) Strategy 1: for ss-oligonucleotides, surface hybridization and (2) Strategy 2: for ds-oligonucleotides, solution hybridization, where the samples were exposed to 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds microwave heating. To assess the efficacy of our new rapid surface modification technique, identical experiments carried out without the microwave heating (i.e., conventional method), which requires 24 hours for the completion of the identical steps. It was found that SNFs can be modified with ss- and ds-oligonucleotides in 10 seconds, which typically requires several hours of incubation time for the chemisorption of thiol groups on to the planar metal surface using conventional techniques. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Influence of pulsed laser heating on morphological relaxation of surface ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenner, M

    2005-07-01

    A continuum (Mullins-type) model is proposed for the nonisothermal, isotropic evolution of a crystal surface on which mass transport occurs by surface diffusion. The departure from constant temperature is assumed induced by incident pulsed radiation. It has been shown experimentally and theoretically [see, e.g., Yakunkin, High Temp. 26, 585 (1988); Yilbas and Kalyon, J. Phys. D. 34, 222 (2001)] that such a heating mode gives rise to the quasistationary regime, in which the surface temperature of a thick solid film oscillates about the mean value with the pulse repetition frequency. The implications of oscillatory driving with high frequency values on relaxation of surface ripples are examined; in particular, the traveling wave solutions with decreasing amplitude are detected numerically. Pulsed heating also results in faster smoothing of the ripple, compared to the case when the surface is at constant temperature which is same as the mean temperature in the pulsed heating mode. Impact on ripple shape is minor for ripple amplitudes considered.

  14. New experimental results on local heat transfer inside a rectangular channel with rib-roughened surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, D.; Gramazio, P.; Vitali, L.; Niro, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present new experimental results on local heat transfer characteristics of a forced air-flow through a 12-mm-height, rectangular channel of 1:10 aspect ratio, with square-cross-section ribs mounted onto the lower surface. Data are collected on a completely redesigned test section. Specifically, the electric heater is made of very thin copper tracks, in direct contact with the air flow and covering at 97.5% the channel lower surface to guarantee a very uniform heat flux. The copper tracks are laminated onto a 2-mm thick board of FR-4 glass epoxy to provide negligible heat conduction inside the plate and heat losses from its sides. Finally, the channel walls are in XPS and, into the upper one, a double glazing consisting of two 120 mm x 120 mm Germanium windows is mounted to allow optical access to the IR camera and to reduce local heat dispersions. Data here presented refer to convection over 4 mm x 2 mm ribs in transverse configuration for Reynolds numbers, based on the duct hydraulic diameter, ranging between 700 and 8000. Preliminary tests show how the new apparatus has significantly improved the quality, the ease and the quickness of the measurements.

  15. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Three Methods for Microwave Heating of Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2012-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization will be Ground Breaking technology for sustained exploration of space. Volatiles are present in planetary regolith, but water by far has the most potential for effective utilization. The presence of water at the lunar poles and Mars opens the possibility of using the hydrogen for propellant on missions beyond Earth orbit. Likewise, the oxygen could be used for in-space propulsion for lunar ascent/descent and for space tugs from low lunar orbit to low Earth orbit. Water is also an effective radiation shielding material as well as a valuable expendable (water and oxygen) required for habitation in space. Because of the strong function of water vapor pressure with temperature, heating regolith effectively liberates water vapor by sublimation. Microwave energy will penetrate soil and heat from within, much more efficiently than heating from the surface with radiant heat. This is especially true under vacuum conditions since the heat transfer rate is very low. The depth of microwave penetration is a strong function of the microwave frequency and to a lesser extent on regolith dielectric properties. New methods for delivery of microwaves into lunar and planetary surfaces is being prototyped with laboratory experiments and modeled with COMSOL MultiPhysics. Recent results are discussed.

  17. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas are major contributors to air pollution and climate change, causing impacts on human health that are amplified by the microclimatological effects of buildings and grey infrastructure through the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban greenspaces may be important in reducing surface...... in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce...... the adverse impacts of urbanization on microclimate, soil processes and human health....

  18. Heat Transfer Measurement and Modeling in Rigid High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Cunnington, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer in rigid reusable surface insulations was investigated. Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements in a vacuum were used to determine the combined contribution of radiation and solid conduction components of heat transfer. Thermal conductivity measurements at higher pressures were then used to estimate the effective insulation characteristic length for gas conduction modeling. The thermal conductivity of the insulation can then be estimated at any temperature and pressure in any gaseous media. The methodology was validated by comparing estimated thermal conductivities with published data on a rigid high-temperature silica reusable surface insulation tile. The methodology was also applied to the alumina enhanced thermal barrier tiles. Thermal contact resistance for thermal conductivity measurements on rigid tiles was also investigated. A technique was developed to effectively eliminate thermal contact resistance on the rigid tile s cold-side surface for the thermal conductivity measurements.

  19. Surface characterization of proteins using multi-fractal property of heat-denatured aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Tapobrata; Mishra, Hrishikesh; Sarkar, Subrata; Misra, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Multi-fractal property of heat-denatured protein aggregates (HDPA) is characteristic of its individual form. The visual similarity between digitally generated microscopic images of HDPA with that of surface-image of its individual X-ray structures in protein databank (PDB) displayed using Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) viewer is the basis of the study. We deigned experiments to view the fractal nature of proteins at different aggregate scales. Intensity based multi-fractal dimensions (ILMFD) extracted from various planes of digital microscopic images of protein aggregates were used to characterize HDPA into different classes. Moreover, the ILMFD parameters extracted from aggregates show similar classification pattern to digital images of protein surface displayed by VMD viewer using PDB entry. We discuss the use of irregular patterns of heat-denatured aggregate proteins to understand various surface properties in native proteins. PMID:18795110

  20. Sea and land surface temperatures, ocean heat content, Earth's energy imbalance and net radiative forcing over the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Habib B.; Cazenave, Anny; Meyssignac, Benoit; Schuckmann, Karina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's global mean surface temperature (GMST) has increased less rapidly since the early 2000s than during the previous decades. Here we investigate the regional distribution of the reported temperature slowdown, focusing on the 2003-2014 decade of most complete global datasets. We find that both land surface temperature (LST) and sea surface temperature (SST) have increased at a rate significantly lower than over the previous decades with small regional differences. While confirming cooling of eastern tropical Pacific during the last decade, our results show that the reduced rate of change is a global phenomenon. We further evaluate the time derivative of full-depth ocean heat content to determine the planetary energy imbalance based on three different approaches: in situ measurements, ocean reanalysis and an indirect measure through the global sea level budget. For the 2003-2014 time span, it is estimated to 0.5 +/- 0.06 Wm-2, 0.64 +/- 0.04 Wm-2, and 0.6 +/- 0.07 Wm-2, respectively for the 3 approaches. We constrain the ocean heat uptake rates using the EBAF energy imbalance time series from the CERES/TOA project and find significant agreement at interannual scales. Finally, we compute the net radiative forcing of the last decade, considering the radiative feedback from observed GMST and the 3 different rates of the total ocean heat content. We obtain values of 1.6 +/- 0.19 Wm-2, 1.75 +/- 0.17 Wm-2, and 1.70 +/- 0.19 Wm-2, respectively over 2003-2014. We find no evidence of decrease in the net radiative forcing in the recent years, but rather increase compared to the previous decades.