WorldWideScience

Sample records for computing precarious affordances

  1. Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This entry presents the concept of affordances as part of an ecological approach to understanding how agents interact with objects in their environment. It examines some of the central developments of the concept, from J. J. Gibson’s original definition within psychology and Donald Norman’s design...

  2. Computers and Play in Early Childhood: Affordances and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenikina, Irina; Herrington, Jan; Peterson, Rob; Mantei, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The widespread proliferation of computer games for children as young as six months of age, merits a reexamination of their manner of use and a review of their facility to provide opportunities for developmental play. This article describes a research study conducted to explore the use of computer games by young children, specifically to…

  3. Affordable mobile robotic platforms for teaching computer science at African universities

    OpenAIRE

    Gyebi, Ernest; Hanheide, Marc; Cielniak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Educational robotics can play a key role in addressing some of the challenges faced by higher education in Africa. One of the major obstacles preventing a wider adoption of initiatives involving educational robotics in this part of the world is lack of robots that would be affordable by African institutions. In this paper, we present a survey and analysis of currently available affordable mobile robots and their suitability for teaching computer science at African universities. To this end, w...

  4. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  5. Seven Affordances of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: How to Support Collaborative Learning? How Can Technologies Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes 7 core affordances of technology for collaborative learning based on theories of collaborative learning and CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning) practices. Technology affords learner opportunities to (1) engage in a joint task, (2) communicate, (3) share resources, (4) engage in productive collaborative learning…

  6. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  7. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  8. Experiments for the validation of computer codes uses to assess the protection factors afforded by dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.; Kerlau, G.

    1988-09-01

    Two experimental campaigns were carried out to verify: 1) the method of assessing the mean kerma in a household used in the computer code BILL calculating the protection factor afforded by dwellings; 2) in what conditions the kerma calculated in cubic meshes of a given size (code PIECE) agreed with TLD measurements. To that purpose, a house was built near the caesium 137 source of the Ecosystem irradiator located at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center. During the first campaign, four experiments with different house characteristics were conducted. Some 50 TLSs locations describing the inhabitable volume were defined in order to obtain the mean kerma. 16 locations were considered outside the house. During the second campaign a cobalt 60 source was installed on the side. Only five measurement locations were defined, each with 6 TLDs. The results of dosimetric measurements are presented and compared with the calculations of the two computer codes. The effects of wall heterogeneity were also studied [fr

  9. Precarious Playbour: Modders and the Digital Games Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kücklich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer game modification, or "modding", is an important part of gaming culture as well as an increasingly important source of value for the games industry. The example of Counter-Strike, originally a modification of the first-person shooter Half-Life, and subsequently sold as a stand-alone product for Xbox and PC, shows that "mods" can not only increase the shelf-life of the games industry's products, but also inject a shot of much-needed innovation into an industry seemingly unable to afford taking commercial risks.Modders, however, are rarely remunerated for taking the risks the industry itself shuns. While successful modders, such as Counter-Strike's creator, Minh Le, enjoy a celebrity status that enables them to find employment in the games industry, many modders are either uninterested or unable to translate the social capital gained through modding into gainful employment. The precarious status of modding as a form of unpaid labour is veiled by the perception of modding as a leisure activity, or simply as an extension of play. This draws attention to the fact that in the entertainment industries, the relationship between work and play is changing, leading, as it were, to a hybrid form of "playbour".The following paper analyses the relationship between the modding community and the games industry from a political economy perspective, without disregarding the pleasures and rewards individual modders may derive from their work. Within this context, the questions of whether modders can be regarded in terms of a "dispersed multitude", and how the power that comes with this status can be realised more fully, deserve special attention. At the same time, this paper seeks to gain insight into the changing relationship between work and play in the creative industries, and the ideological ramifications of this change.

  10. Precarious, informalizing, and flexible work: transforming concepts and new understandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, D.; Bongiovi, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable body of academic and activist research that studies the prevalence of precariousness in contemporary societies. It goes by many names that are often interchangeable, including precarious work, precarity, informalization, and casualization. These are typically rooted in

  11. Affordances of the 'branch and bound' paradigm for developing computational thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Joris; Timmer, Mark

    As technological advances in engineering and computer science happen more and more quickly, we must shift focus from teaching specific techniques or programming languages to teaching something more transcending: computational thinking (Wing, 2006). Wing explained this concept later as “the thought

  12. Flexible employment, precarious employees? Job-, employer- and institutional explanations for numerical flexibility, and its relation to precarious employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of numerical flexibility and its relation to precarious employment in contemporary labour markets. Precarious employment is defined as the situation in which an employee has both insecure employment and insecure finances. More specifically, precarious employees are

  13. Precariousness and discontinuous work history in association with health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Anitta; Ek, Ellen; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Järvikoski, Timo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Precarious type of employment may have a negative impact on health, notably on low psychological wellbeing. The basis of the former relationship is constructed by definition and operationalisation of precariousness. In this research, we first experimented with a construct of work history in the operationalisation of precariousness and second studied the relationship between precariousness and health. The research data originated from a large population-based birth cohort (NFBC 1966). The study sample consists of 3449 respondents to the postal questionnaire at the age of 31 and the information supplemented by the register data of the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Health was measured by self-reports of doctor-diagnosed/treated illnesses and HSCL-25 for mental symptoms. Our operationalisation with a construct of discontinuous work history captured the precarious insecure relation to work. The precarious workers were found to have proportionally more mental symptoms in comparison with permanent workers. The perception of distress was stronger among precarious workers who perceived high job insecurity. However, there were no differences in doctor-diagnosed/treated illnesses between precarious and permanent workers. The study suggests that the construct of work history is a useful element in defining precariousness. The study also illustrates the association of precariousness, perceived job insecurity, and mental distress. The study suggests further research on disadvantages experienced by precarious workers.

  14. The affordances of broken affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Martin Gielsgaard; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2015-01-01

    We consider the use of physical and virtual objects having one or more affordances associated to simple interactions with them. Based on Kaptelinin and Nardi’s notion of instrumental affordance, we investigate what it means to break an affordance, and the two ensuing questions we deem most import...

  15. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  16. Computational thermodynamics and genetic algorithms to design affordable γ′-strengthened nickel–iron based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancret, F

    2012-01-01

    Computational thermodynamics based on the CALPHAD approach (Thermo-Calc software) are used to design creep-resistant and affordable superalloys for large-scale applications such as power plants. Cost is reduced by the introduction of iron and by avoiding the use of expensive alloying elements such as Nb, Ta, Mo, Co etc. Strengthening is ensured by the addition of W, and of Al and Ti to provoke the precipitation of γ′. However, the addition of iron reduces the maximum possible volume fraction of γ′. The latter is maximized automatically using a genetic algorithm during simulation, while keeping the alloys free of undesirable phases at high temperatures. New superalloys with 20 wt% Cr are designed, with Fe content up to 37 wt%. They should be forgeable, weldable, oxidation resistant and significantly cheaper than existing alloys with equivalent properties. (paper)

  17. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  18. Affective subjectivation in the precarious neoliberal academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duenas, Paola Ximena Valero; Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Brunila, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    as an organisation and the relationship between managers and academics; the governing through affect in the constant ambivalence between anxiety and self-development; and the power effects of these two together in creating neoliberal academic subjects. Both the strategy of working with fictional stories...... and the analytical stance allows opening up the public secrets of the ways in which neoliberal precarious conditions govern the lives and bodies of academics nowadays. Disclosing those secrets is a form of resistance against the violence of current affective subjectivation....

  19. Platform economy in Denmark – precarious employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    limited. Nevertheless the labour offered through the platforms has a precarious character for instance in terms of lower wages and poorer rights and protection compared to the labour at the traditional, offline labour market. One important issue here is also the confusion as to whether the worker......This paper takes a labour market perspective on the emerging concept of the 'sharing economy' or 'platform economy', which we use as a more appropriate term for the phenomenon. Platform economy is in the article understood as those business models that have emerged since the millennium, where...... digital platforms serve as the link between persons wanting to make use of certain activities, services etc. and those owning them and we only have an interest in the work-related platforms. That means platforms, where paid work is offered and demanded. International examples of this new phenomenon...

  20. SPATIAL DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY AND FINANCIAL PRECARIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei CHIRILA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is presented an territorial analysis2 taking into consideration the workforce occupational status and the incomes features of each of its socio-occupational categories. Two were calculated (based on the last Population Census with available data: the workforce precariousness index (which considers the labour resources that do not realize any income by their own forces and the relative average occupational poverty index (that takes into consideration the national average incomes level and the percentage of the occupational categories whose incomes are situated below the national average. A special attention was paid to the analysis of the institutional means conceived to diminish these phenomena and the vulnerabilities they imply, given the concept of financial territorial resources (European structural funds.

  1. Online Resistance to Precarious Archaeological Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hardy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The international cultural heritage economy has long been underpinned by a reserve army of unemployed/underemployed labour. The entry-level workforce is being further undermined and unpaid/underpaid labour is additionally being consolidated through the crisis and austerity measures. Independently and under different pressures, archaeologists across Europe have begun to use blogging, micro-blogging and other social media in concerted national efforts to document, analyse and resist exploitative and exclusive employment practices. This article focuses on the development of movements against unpaid labour (free archaeology in the UK, against unpaid and underpaid internship (volontariato and stage in Italy, and for employment (istihdam in Turkey. Using insights gained through observing and participating in these movements, and through running a research blog on precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry, this article examines the benefits and limits of blogging/micro-blogging as a tool for debate within the profession, communication with the public, and activism.

  2. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  3. Site-Mutation of Hydrophobic Core Residues Synchronically Poise Super Interleukin 2 for Signaling: Identifying Distant Structural Effects through Affordable Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longcan Mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A superkine variant of interleukin-2 with six site mutations away from the binding interface developed from the yeast display technique has been previously characterized as undergoing a distal structure alteration which is responsible for its super-potency and provides an elegant case study with which to get insight about how to utilize allosteric effect to achieve desirable protein functions. By examining the dynamic network and the allosteric pathways related to those mutated residues using various computational approaches, we found that nanosecond time scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations can identify the dynamic network as efficient as an ensemble algorithm. The differentiated pathways for the six core residues form a dynamic network that outlines the area of structure alteration. The results offer potentials of using affordable computing power to predict allosteric structure of mutants in knowledge-based mutagenesis.

  4. Is the High-Involvement Worker Precarious or Opportunistic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the recent trend in critical organization theory and sociological literature to regard employees in creative and high-involvement work as precarious. It does so by tapping into the perennial debate about control and ambiguity in organization studies. Its main contribution i...

  5. Household Role in Coping with Precarious Work. Evidence from Qualitative Research in Urban Romania and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preoteasa Ana Maria D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.

  6. Associating Drugs, Targets and Clinical Outcomes into an Integrated Network Affords a New Platform for Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Tudor; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Ursu, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    benefit from an integrated, semantic-web compliant computer-aided drug repurposing (CADR) effort, one that would enable deep data mining of associations between approved drugs (D), targets (T), clinical outcomes (CO) and SE. We report preliminary results from text mining and multivariate statistics, based...... on 7684 approved drug labels, ADL (Dailymed) via text mining. From the ADL corresponding to 988 unique drugs, the "adverse reactions" section was mapped onto 174 SE, then clustered via principal component analysis into a 5 x 5 self-organizing map that was integrated into a Cytoscape network of SE......Finding new uses for old drugs is a strategy embraced by the pharmaceutical industry, with increasing participation from the academic sector. Drug repurposing efforts focus on identifying novel modes of action, but not in a systematic manner. With intensive data mining and curation, we aim to apply...

  7. Precarious work and care responsibilities in the economic crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašková, Hana; Dudová, Radka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2017), s. 47-63 ISSN 0959-6801 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07898S; GA ČR GA15-13766S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech Republic * economic crisis * precarious work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.159, year: 2016 http://ejd.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/10/13/0959680116672279.full.pdf+html

  8. Mapping the digital panorama of precariousness. Ethnographic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Teli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years we have witnessed the widespread adoption of digital technologies, the individualization of social relations, and the growing relevance of informational capitalism and work precarity, its preferred working arrangements1. Such social transformations have been deeply correlated with the reshaping of the territories of collective action and the diffusion of feelings of fragility of human existence, feelings that Judith Butler defines as "precariousness" (2004.

  9. Precarious employment and the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Park, Shin-Goo; Hwang, Sang Hee; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-02-01

    Although the effect of occupation or employment status on suicide risk is notable, there are few studies on the effect of precarious employment on suicide. We compared suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in precarious workers and their non-precarious counterparts using a representative sample from South Korea. The 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data were used for this study. Information was obtained on 52,161 participants (41,063 employees with non-precarious work and 11,098 employees with precarious work). The outcome of the logistic regression model was the presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and the independent variables were the demographics, socioeconomic status, and health status. Employees with precarious work were more likely to exhibit suicidal ideation (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.28-1.55) and suicide attempts (OR=1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.27) than employees with non-precarious work. After controlling for income and education (Model 2) depressive feelings (Model 6), compared with unadjusted model, remained significant but the odds ratio was largely attenuated, indicating a strong association between suicidal risk and socioeconomic and feelings of depression. Precarious workers had a higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts than non-precarious workers. Our study suggests that precarious employment is an important risk for suicide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  11. Precarious Work in the Field of Academic Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Gleerup, Janne; Olsén, Peter

    In Denmark the labor market is strongly regulated by collective agreements and influential labor market organisations. It is surrounded by the so-called flexicurity model combining a high level of flexibility with a high level of social security. However, during the last decades the balance between...... flexibility and security has tipped in favor of flexibility and it is becoming increasingly difficult to acces social benefits. Spite the strong labor market regulation precarious work is spreading in Denmark and tendencies also appear among graduates. Danish trade unions of graduates become increasingly...

  12. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  13. Structuration of precarious employment in economically constrained firms : The case of Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, B.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Precarious employment practices such as short-term contracts, low pay and lack of voice have undesired outcomes for workers, because these impede employees in their ethical rights to freedom, well-being and equality. Still, precarious employment practice is common in sectors with restrained economic

  14. Narrative Self-Rescue: A Poetic Response to a Precarious Labour Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengelle, Reinekke

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a narrative response to a precariousness labour situation. The question it attempts to answer is: how does one cope with the precariousness and injustices of contemporary employment without becoming pessimistic or hopeless? The piece, based on the author's personal experience, argues that we can tell and write our career…

  15. Precarious Employment and Quality of Employment in Relation to Health and Well-being in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Mireia; Vanroelen, Christophe; Bosmans, Kim; Van Aerden, Karen; Benach, Joan

    2017-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the recent work on precarious employment and employment quality in relation to workers' health and well-being. More specifically, the article mainly reviews the work performed in the E.U. 7th Framework project, SOPHIE. First, we present our overarching conceptual framework. Then, we provide a compiled overview of the evidence on the sociodemographic and European cross-country distribution of employment quality and employment precariousness. Subsequently, we provide the current evidence regarding the relations with health and broader worker well-being indicators. A final section summarizes current insights on the pathways relating precarious employment and health and well-being. The article concludes with a plea for further data collection and research into the longitudinal effects of employment precariousness among emerging groups of workers. Based on the evidence compiled in this article, policymakers should be convinced of the harmful health and well-being effects of employment precariousness and (further) labor market flexibilization.

  16. Precarious work among young Danish employees- a permanent or transitory condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Dyreborg, Johnny; Lipscomb, Hester

    2018-01-01

    employees aged 18–24 in the healthcare sector, the metal industry and retail trade captured in 46 interviews involving 74 participants. Results are discussed taking into consideration the Nordic welfare model with an active labour marked policy. We conclude that precarious work is not, in fact, simply......There is broad agreement that precarious work is a growing problem, and that it is highly prevalent among young employees. The financial crisis in 2008 has reinforced the need for knowledge about how precarious work affects young employees. This paper explores how the concept of precarious work may...... a characteristic of young employees’ work as such, but rather it is related to their position in the labour market and the type of jobs in which they are employed. While some are in transition, others are at risk of being trapped in precarious and risky working conditions....

  17. A multidimensional approach to precarious employment: measurement, association with poor mental health and prevalence in the Spanish workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Vives Vergara, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychometric properties and construct validity of a multidimensional instrument to measure employment precariousness; to assess the association between employment precariousness and poor mental health; to estimate the prevalence and distribution of employment precariousness in the Spanish workforce; and to estimate the population attributable fraction of poor mental health due to employment precariousness. Methods: Cross-sectional study using data from the Psychos...

  18. Precarious Play: To Be or Not to Be Stanley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A.W.J. de Wildt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern game scholarship in the past two decades has known two dominant, yet paradoxical, tendencies in theorizing the subject of play: an interpellationary account and a deconstructivist one. Going from Miguel Sicart's concept of the ethical player as an initial compromise between the two, this article argues for an ideological subject of play that is a split subject. While a 'playing subject', as a phenomenologically present Foucaultian subject constructed by the governing structure of rules, we must recognize the parallel subjectivity of the fixed 'played subject', inherent to – and narrativized by – the game as an avatar, visual narrator or sheer content. In this constellation, the player shows to have a merely precarious position over the played, ready to lose control at the whim of the game.

  19. [Multidimensional measurement of precarious employment: social distribution and its association with health in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Julià, Mireia; Tarafa, Gemma; Mir, Jordi; Molinero, Emilia; Vives, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To show the prevalence of precarious employment in Catalonia (Spain) for the first time and its association with mental and self-rated health, measured with a multidimensional scale. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the II Catalan Working Conditions Survey (2010) with a subsample of employed workers with a contract. The prevalence of precarious employment using a multidimensional scale and its association with health was calculated using multivariate log-binomial regression stratified by gender. The prevalence of precarious employment in Catalonia was high (42.6%). We found higher precariousness in women, youth, immigrants, and manual and less educated workers. There was a positive gradient in the association between precarious employment and poor health. Precarious employment is associated with poor health in the working population. Working conditions surveys should include questions on precarious employment and health indicators, which would allow monitoring and subsequent analyses of health inequalities. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring employment precariousness in the European Working Conditions Survey: the social distribution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Vanroelen, Christophe; Vives, Alejandra; Martínez, José Miguel; Muntaner, Carles; Levecque, Katia; Benach, Joan; Louckx, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Precarious employment is becoming an increasingly important social determinant of health inequalities among workers. The way in which contemporary employment arrangements and their health consequences are addressed in empirical research is mostly based on the contract-related or employment instability dimension. A broader conceptual approach including various important characteristics of the degrading of employment conditions and relations is needed. The general objective of this paper is to empirically test a new multidimensional construct for measuring precarious employment in an existing database. Special focus is on the social distribution of precarious employment. A subsample of 21,415 participants in the EU-27 from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey-2005 was analysed. A cross-sectional study of the social distribution of precarious employment was conducted through the analysis of proportional differences according to gender, social class and credentials for the European Union as a whole and within each country. The 8 dimensions of the employment precariousness construct were represented by 11 indicators. In general, women, workers without supervisory authority, those with fewer credentials, and those living in Eastern and Southern European countries suffer the highest levels of precarious employment. Exceptionally, men, workers with supervisory authority and those with the highest credentials suffer the highest levels of long working hours, schedule unpredictability and uncompensated flexible working times. This article offers the first validation for an innovative multidimensional conceptualisation of employment precariousness applied to the analysis of existing survey data, showing the unequal distribution of precarious employment across the European labour force. This set of indicators can be useful for monitoring precarious employment.

  1. Precarious employment associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Man; Chang, Jisoon; Won, Eunsoo; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-08-15

    Precarious employment is one of the most important indicators of social disadvantage and is associated with poor mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association of precarious employment with depressive mood and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers, and the possible mediating or moderating effect of socioeconomic factors in the association between precarious work and mental health status. Data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) conducted between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Among the 24,173 participants, 6266 adult wage workers (3206 precarious and 3060 non-precarious workers) aged ≥19 years were included. Socioeconomic and health-related characteristics as well as depressive mood and suicidal ideation were investigated. Precarious employment was significantly associated with depressive mood in the logistic regression analyses adjusting for all potential confounding factors as covariates. The socioeconomic variables including age, gender, education level, marital status, household income, and occupation type were significantly related with depressive mood and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers. We also found that gender and household income had possible moderating effects on the association between precarious employment and suicidal ideation. Precarious work was associated with suicidal ideation only for male workers and worker with low or middle-lower income levels. Our study is based on a cross-sectional design, thus, we could not elucidate the causal relationship between the variables. Our study suggested that precarious employment plays a pivotal role in the mental health status of adult wage workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Blast injuries of the hands in precarious health situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, K C; Kossoko, H; Assi Djè Bi Djè, V; Yéo, S; Bonny, R; Richard Kadio, M

    2014-06-01

    The hands of "blast" resulting from the handling of unstable explosives. Their repercussion is functional and vital in trauma patients. The authors report their experience of care from the hands of blast in precarious health situation. Between 2001 and 2012, 33 hand blasts were supported in 30 injured civilians and military, received emergency, during and after armed conflict. Two women (6.7%) and 28 men (93.3%) were received, including four teenagers (13.3%) and 26 adults (86.7%). During the war, 15 officers weapon (50%) and three civilians (10%) underwent surgery, or 60% of hand injuries. In peacetime, civilians were mostly operated in 33.3% of cases, against 6.7% of cases of agents' weapon. Nineteen hands blast (57.6%) were observed during the war and 14 in peacetime, or 42.4% of cases. The average age was 25.2 years, with extremes of 12 and 50 years. Thirteen left hands (39.4%) and 20 right hands (60.6%) were operated. The lesion concerned all the anatomical structures of the hand. It was unilateral in 27 cases (81.9%) and bilateral in three cases (9.1%). Three types of hand trauma were observed and were as follows: trauma patients with injuries of the hand (18.2%), trauma of severe and isolated proximal hand or finger amputations (75.7%), and trauma of the hand without apparent seriousness (6.1%). The associated lesion was eye (one case), chest (one case), abdominal (five cases). Debridement was performed immediate emergency (93.9%) and delayed (6.1%). The treatment was surgical hemostasis, made mainly of amputations (69.7%) and regularization of digital stumps (12.1%). The repair was performed in 18.2% of cases. One death has been reported in a polytrauma patient with chest blast. Blast injuries of the hand are common in times of war in armed agents. The young people, manual workers and children are paying a heavy price in peacetime. As land mines which affect feet, instable hand grenades are left exposed in nature. In precarious health situation, instead of

  3. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  4. Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Ahonen, Emily; Vázquez, M Luisa; Pope, Catherine; Agudelo, Andrés Alonso; García, Ana M; Amable, Marcelo; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1980s, changes in the labor market have modified power relations between capital and labor, leading to greater levels of precarious employment among workers. Globalization has led to a growth in migration, as people leave their countries in search of work. We aimed to describe the dimensions of precarious employment for immigrant workers in Spain. Qualitative study using analytic induction. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Data quality was ensured by triangulation. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions. This study allowed us to describe the dimensions of precarious employment in immigrant workers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Precarious work among young Danish employees- a permanent or transitory condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Dyreborg, Johnny; Lipscomb, Hester

    2018-01-01

    There is broad agreement that precarious work is a growing problem, and that it is highly prevalent among young employees. The aim of this paper is to examine the discursive representations of precarious work among young employees aged 18-24 in the healthcare sector, the metal industry and retail...... their position and how they position themselves in relation to uncertainty and vulnerability at work. We conclude that precarious work is not, in fact, simply a characteristic of young employees’ work as such, but rather it is related to their position in the labor market and the type of jobs in which...... they are employed. While some are in transition, others are at risk of being trapped in precarious work....

  6. Global precarious employment and health inequalities: working conditions, social class, or precariat?

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaner,Carles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Changes in employment conditions since the 1980s have been referred to as precarious employment, and terms like flexible, atypical, temporary, part-time, contract, self-employed, irregular, or non-standard employment have also been used. In this essay I review some of the current critiques to the precarious employment construct and advance some potential solutions for its use in epidemiology and public health.

  7. The profound precariousness of work through temporary work agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Emilia Marica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of atypical work contracts in the field of industry relationships, as part of a major European trend towards gaining more flexibility in the labour market, is significant and cannot be overlooked in most member countries of the European Union. This finding is corroborated by the recent surveys conducted across Europe, that reveal the prevalence of these flexible ways of organizing work, over the archetypal template of the individual work contract. However, this range of atypical contractual arrangements and the great number of versions and subcategories they include, are describing a number of negative features that seem to characterize these new forms of employment. Since the field of atypical employment is complex and we cannot analyse the incidence of these negative effects for all the atypical methods of employment, in the following article we will limit ourselves to explore the pressing issues related to the system of temporary work through work agencies. As we shall see, all aspects of the salary field, of health and safety at work and the level of insecurity and instability of labour through temporary work agency reveals a strong character associated with this kind of precarious employment.

  8. Vital affordances, occupying niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokumaci, Arseli

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a new conceptual approach to disability and performance through a contribution that comes entirely from outside the disciplines; a re-theorisation of Gibson’s [1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates] theory of affordances....... Drawing on three visual ethnographies with differently disabled individuals, and building upon my previous consideration of performance as ‘affordance creation’ in itself [Dokumaci, A. 2013. “On Falling Ill.” Performance Research 18 (4): 107–115], the article conceptualises affordances as a form of micro......-activism–one that can allow us to unpack the entanglements of disability, performance, and matter. Putting Gibson’s theory in conversation with Canguilhem’s philosophy of life, it proposes the concept ‘vital affordances’ as a new way to think through this micro-activism, and the way disabled individuals might transform...

  9. Is quality affordable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The question “Is quality affordable?” is loaded with dynamite!Can a person who lives on less than US $1 per day afford a high-quality cataract operation? If the answer is ‘No’, then do we offer that person poor or low-quality services? Do people living in poverty have a ‘right’ to high-quality eye or health care? If the answer is ‘Yes’, then at what price and who should pay? Should we ignore quality and focus on affordability? Or should we provide high-quality services in the hope that someone else will pay?These are difficult questions, which policy makers, managers, and clinicians must face and try to answer.

  10. From Precarity to Precariousness and Back Again: Labour, Life and Unstable Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Rossiter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the distinction and passage between "precarity" and "precariousness". In surveying the various ways in which these terms have circulated, we wish to establish a framework within which questions of labour, life and social-political organisation can be understood. The various uncertainties defining contemporary life are carried over - and, we argue, internal to - the logic of informatisation. Our aim, however, is not to collapse respective differences into a totalising logic that provides a definitive assessment or system of analysis; rather, we seek to identify some of the forces, rhythms, discourses and actions that render notions such as creativity, innovation, and organisation, along with the operation of capital, with a complexity whose material effects are locally situated within transversal networks. Where there are instances of inter-connection between, say, the work of migrants packaging computer parts or cleaning offices and that of media labour in a call centre, software development firm or digital post-production for a film studio, we see a common expressive capacity predicated on the dual conditions of exploitation and uncertainty.

  11. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  12. [Precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Benavides, Fernando G; Vázquez, M Luisa; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; García, Ana M; Ahonen, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Benach, Joan

    2009-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health. A qualitative study was conducted using analytic induction. Criterion sampling, based on the Immigration, Work and Health project (Inmigración, Trabajo y Salud [ITSAL]) criterion (current definitions of 'legal immigrant' in Spain and in the literature) was used to recruit 44 undocumented immigrant workers from four different countries, living in four Spanish cities. The characteristics of precariousness perceived by undocumented immigrants included high job instability; disempowerment due to lack of legal protection; high vulnerability exacerbated by their legal and immigrant status; perceived insufficient wages and lower wages than coworkers; limited social benefits and difficulty in exercising their rights; and finally, long hours and fast-paced work. Our informants reported they had no serious health problems but did describe physical and mental problems associated with their employment conditions and legal situation. Our results suggest that undocumented immigrants' situation may not fit the model of precarious employment exactly. However, the model's dimensions can be expanded to better represent undocumented immigrants' situation, thus strengthening the general model. Precarious employment in this group can be defined as , as it affects their working and social lives. If these workers continue to be exposed to such precarious conditions, the impact on their health may increase.

  13. Employment Precariousness and Poor Mental Health: Evidence from Spain on a New Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Alejandra; Amable, Marcelo; Ferrer, Montserrat; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Muntaner, Carles; Benavides, Fernando G.; Benach, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence on the health-damaging effects of precarious employment is limited by the use of one-dimensional approaches focused on employment instability. This study assesses the association between precarious employment and poor mental health using the multidimensional Employment Precariousness Scale. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 5679 temporary and permanent workers from the population-based Psychosocial Factors Survey was carried out in 2004-2005 in Spain. Poor mental health was defined as SF-36 mental health scores below the 25th percentile of the Spanish reference for each respondent's sex and age. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPRs) of poor mental health across quintiles of employment precariousness (reference: 1st quintile) were calculated with log-binomial regressions, separately for women and men. Results. Crude PPRs showed a gradient association with poor mental health and remained generally unchanged after adjustments for age, immigrant status, socioeconomic position, and previous unemployment. Fully adjusted PPRs for the 5th quintile were 2.54 (95% CI: 1.95–3.31) for women and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.86–2.68) for men. Conclusion. The study finds a gradient association between employment precariousness and poor mental health, which was somewhat stronger among women, suggesting an interaction with gender-related power asymmetries. Further research is needed to strengthen the epidemiological evidence base and to inform labour market policy-making. PMID:23431322

  14. Non-standard Employment in the Nordics – towards precarious work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Nätti, Jouko; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2018-01-01

    This article examines non-standard employment and precariousness in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway). Drawing on data from the Labour Force Survey from 1995-2015, the article investigates and compares recent developments of non-standard employment in the countries and w...... to be largely integrated in the Nordic labour markets, it still entails precarious elements in certain countries. Norway and Denmark stand out as less insecure labour markets, while Finland and Sweden have more precariousness associated with non-standard employment.......This article examines non-standard employment and precariousness in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway). Drawing on data from the Labour Force Survey from 1995-2015, the article investigates and compares recent developments of non-standard employment in the countries...... and whether fixed-term contracts, temporary agency work, marginal part-time work and solo self-employment have precarious elements (income or job insecurity). We conclude that non-standard employment has remained rather stable in all four countries over time. However, although non-standard employment seems...

  15. An Observational Study of Suicide Death in Homeless and Precariously Housed People in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Kozloff, Nicole; Reis, Catherine; Schaffer, Ayal

    2017-07-01

    Homelessness has been identified as an important risk factor for suicide death, but there is limited research characterising homeless people who die by suicide. The goal of this study is to identify personal, clinical, and suicide method-related factors that distinguish homeless and precariously housed people who die from suicide from those who are not homeless at the time of suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in Toronto from 1998 to 2012. Data abstracted included housing status as well as other demographics, clinical variables such as the presence of mental illness, and suicide method. Of 3319 suicide deaths, 60 (1.8%) were homeless and 230 (6.9%) were precariously housed. Homeless and precariously housed people were each younger than nonhomeless people ( P suicide note. Homeless people and precariously housed were more likely to have died by fall/jump than nonhomeless people (62%, 57%, and 29%, respectively). Homeless and precariously housed people are overrepresented among suicide deaths in a large urban center and differ demographically, clinically, and in their suicide method from nonhomeless people who die by suicide. Targeted suicide prevention strategies should aim to address factors specific to homeless people.

  16. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  17. Affordances are Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pickering

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Peirce and Whitehead share a common project: to restrict the over-extension of reductionism, to show how matter must be sensate and to create an ontology of process and subjectivity. This article claims that biosemiotics can assist this project. Moreover, it shows that the concept of affordance is a means to produce a theory of causation that embraces physical, natural and cultural levels of order.

  18. Racialized Precarious Employment and the Inadequacies of the Canadian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the rise in precarious employment within Canada is tied to the ascendancy of neoliberalism, racialized persons have long been marginalized within the Canadian workforce and relegated to precarious workforce participation. Through an exploration of the relationship between precarious employment and racialized power structures, it will be demonstrated that while the moderate Keynesian welfare policies of the post–World War II era served to mitigate the experiences of those excluded from the workplace, racialized power structures were not fundamentally altered in that era. This critique offers a response to scholarship on the impact of neoliberalism that valorizes the welfare state without paying sufficient attention to its history of racial exclusions. It proposes new strategies to address these underlying inequalities within the existing structures of the Canadian workforce.

  19. Global precarious employment and health inequalities: working conditions, social class, or precariat?

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaner, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Changes in employment conditions since the 1980s have been referred to as precarious employment, and terms like flexible, atypical, temporary, part-time, contract, self-employed, irregular, or non-standard employment have also been used. In this essay I review some of the current critiques to the precarious employment construct and advance some potential solutions for its use in epidemiology and public health. Resumo: Mudanças nas condições de emprego desde os anos 1980s têm sido...

  20. Constructing Work and Subjectivities in Precarious Conditions: Psycho-Discursive Practices in Young People’s Interviews in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kesisoglou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Precarity is becoming the paradigmatic description of young people’s work conditions in crisis-ridden Greece, but also in other European countries. Focusing on interview data on the work experiences of young adults (18-26 years old, in urban centres of Greece, this study attempts to explore the ways in which informants account for working in precarious conditions and construct agency and subjectivity within these ways of accounting. The analysis drawing on insights from critical discursive social psychology indicates that participants construct precarious work conditions as widespread and banal a by treating precarious work as a sine qua non condition of youth employment, b by considering precarious work as an inherent trait of the Greek job-market, c by considering precarious work as a necessary step on a (biographical path leading to the desired and/or appropriate job, or d by adopting a “there is no other alternative” accounting, representing precarious job conditions as the only alternative to unemployment. The analysis also points out the ways in which participants orient themselves to a dilemma of stake and accountability, being concerned to position themselves as effortful subjects, while they are rhetorically constructing the banal regime of precarious labour. The discussion considers the need to bring into the scope of social and political psychology the specific nuances of precarious labour.

  1. Collective memory in labour identifications in the present. A study based on the case of young precarious workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Adamini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of collective memory in labour identifications in the present, through the study of young precarious workers. It develops a theoretical approach on youth identifications, precarious work and collective memory, a thematic linking that is rare in Labour Sociology. Willing to fill such vacancy area, we conducted a case study focused on young precarious workers who did internships in the call center of a public office in the period 2008-2012. From a qualitative approach we analyzed the discourses of interns as space crystallization of their identity forms. As a result we found that the conditions of precariousness in which these young were built as workers did not lead to their naturalization, but instead their identifications were crossed by the imagination of a wage society past, with stabilities and labor securities, which mobilized their protests against precarious work.

  2. An Ethnodrama on Work-Related Learning in Precarious Jobs: Racialization and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Jasjit K.; Slade, Bonnie; Mirchandani, Kiran; Maitra, Srabani; Shan, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project on the lived experiences of precarious workers in Toronto, Canada. Using interviews with women in part-time, contract, and temporary jobs in three sectors (telemarketing, retail, and garment), the project explores the ways in which racial hierarchies structure jobs as well as forms of resistance that…

  3. Policy Brief: Bargaining for social rights of precarious workers in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of the Barsori project was the contribution that social partners make to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project studied experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the

  4. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  5. Making care affordable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S

    1999-01-01

    The YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education (CARE) in Chennai, India runs an integrated care program ensuring appropriate and affordable care to everyone who needs it. The program includes both voluntary counseling/testing and hospital/home-based care. YRG CARE developed several strategies for the care program, which include 1) different fees for an HIV test, 2) free counseling service, 3) different charges for other care services, 4) a subsidized pharmacy (involving purchasing drugs directly from manufacturers and wholesalers, ordering free samples from manufacturers, and acquiring drugs through the drug component of its clinical research projects, from overseas hospitals, and from YRG CARE hospital and community-based patients who have not used them), and 5) subsidized meals.

  6. Affordances in activity theory and cognitive systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.; Andersen, H.H.K.; Bødker, S.

    2001-01-01

    on design for low level interaction modalities. To incorporate the concept of affordances in the design of human computer interaction it is necessary to systematically unravel affordances that supporthuman action possibilities. Furthermore, it is a necessity that Gibson's theory of affordances...... is supplemented by careful analyses of other human modalities and activities than visual perception. Within HMI two well established perspectives on HMI,Activity Theory (AT) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), have discussed such analyses and design of action possibilities focusing on providing computer...... to cover deeper semantic and pragmatic aspects of the ecology of work, as compared with the previous applications of Gibson's theory in HMI....

  7. Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affordance theory provides a useful lens to explore the action opportunities that arise between users and technology, especially in education. However developments in the theory have resulted both in confusion and misapplication, due partly to issues related to affordance theory's ontology. This paper outlines two ...

  8. Affordances Theory in Multilingualism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Singleton, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of affordances originating in Gibson's work (Gibson, 1977) is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010). Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated…

  9. Globalization and the rise of precarious employment: the new frontier for workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldbick, Sam; Labonte, Ronald; Mohindra, K S; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-06-01

    Global market integration over the past three decades has led to labour market restructuring in most countries around the world. Employment flexibility has been emphasized as a way for employers to restructure their organizations to remain globally competitive. This flexibility has resulted in the growth of precarious employment, which has been exacerbated by the global financial crisis and resulting recession in 2007/2008, and the ongoing economic uncertainty throughout much of the world. Precarious employment may result in short and long-term health consequences for many workers. This presents a deeper and more structural determinant of health than what health promoters have traditionally considered. It calls for a different understanding of workplace health promotion research and intervention that goes beyond enabling healthier lifestyle choices or advocating safer workplace conditions to ensuring adequate social protection floors that provide people with sufficient resources to lead healthy lives, and for advocacy for taxation justice to finance such protection.

  10. The Precariousness of Public Health: On Tuberculosis Control in Contemporary France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Through an ethnographic exploration of tuberculosis control in one of France's poorest regions, Seine-Saint-Denis, I interrogate the relationships between public health planning and interventions in conditions of multiple precarity. I show that the encounter between the feasible and the fantastic in the realm of public health generates feelings of absurdity and futility among medical professionals, characteristic of disease control in the precarious present. Precarity is neither a social and economic condition per se, nor is the link between disease and precarity static. It is a dynamic process of political inclusions, exclusions, and inequalities, which differ substantially within the unequal spheres of precarious lives. The contradictions in tuberculosis control that I describe are thus not only characteristic of French public health but of global public health today, where illusions in disease control encounter the exclusionary realities of social life.

  11. From 'precarious informal employment' to 'protected employment': The 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Melisa R.; Xhafa, Edlira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the discussions on the challenge of transitioning from precarious informal employment to more protected employment. This paper looks into a rather under-researched area - the role of trade unions in facilitating this process of 'transitioning' as well as in containing the spread of this type of employment. We refer to this process, along with its outcomes, as the 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions. Through 10 case studies from nine countries (Br...

  12. Precarious Rock Methodology for Seismic Hazard: Physical Testing, Numerical Modeling and Coherence Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anooshehpoor, Rasool; Purvance, Matthew D.; Brune, James N.; Preston, Leiph A.; Anderson, John G.; Smith, Kenneth D.

    2006-09-29

    This report covers the following projects: Shake table tests of precarious rock methodology, field tests of precarious rocks at Yucca Mountain and comparison of the results with PSHA predictions, study of the coherence of the wave field in the ESF, and a limited survey of precarious rocks south of the proposed repository footprint. A series of shake table experiments have been carried out at the University of Nevada, Reno Large Scale Structures Laboratory. The bulk of the experiments involved scaling acceleration time histories (uniaxial forcing) from 0.1g to the point where the objects on the shake table overturned a specified number of times. The results of these experiments have been compared with numerical overturning predictions. Numerical predictions for toppling of large objects with simple contact conditions (e.g., I-beams with sharp basal edges) agree well with shake-table results. The numerical model slightly underpredicts the overturning of small rectangular blocks. It overpredicts the overturning PGA for asymmetric granite boulders with complex basal contact conditions. In general the results confirm the approximate predictions of previous studies. Field testing of several rocks at Yucca Mountain has approximately confirmed the preliminary results from previous studies, suggesting that he PSHA predictions are too high, possibly because the uncertainty in the mean of the attenuation relations. Study of the coherence of wavefields in the ESF has provided results which will be very important in design of the canisters distribution, in particular a preliminary estimate of the wavelengths at which the wavefields become incoherent. No evidence was found for extreme focusing by lens-like inhomogeneities. A limited survey for precarious rocks confirmed that they extend south of the repository, and one of these has been field tested.

  13. The Hidden Social Costs of Precarious Employment: Parental Co-Residence, Marriage Timing, and Political Participation During Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kofman, Yelizavetta

    2015-01-01

    Precarious employment—that is, jobs that entail a nonstandard contract, are short term, and/or do not provide fringe benefits like health insurance and retirement savings—has become a widely discussed topic in the media and a key research topic among scholars. Despite increasing scholarly and public interest in precarious employment, however, few studies have considered the effects of such employment beyond typical work and career outcomes. Using longitudinal panel data from the National Lon...

  14. Daily news and daily bread: Precarious employment in the newspaper distribution sector in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuikem C. Nnaeme

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The outsourcing of newspaper distribution seems to be one of the sources of precarious employment for newspaper distribution contractors and their employees. Research Purpose: In an attempt to contribute to the debate on outsourcing, this paper explored the effects of outsourcing newspaper distribution on the labour market experiences of newspaper distribution contractors and their employees in Durban. Motivation for the study: The labour market experiences of workers in precarious employment, especially those in the lower echelon of newspaper distribution, are rarely known. Research Design, approach and method: The study is a qualitative research which sought to explore the experiences of newspaper distributors in Durban. In identifying the respondents non-probability sampling was used to identify information-rich respondents for interview sections. Also, the research used participant observation to deepen data from interviews. Main Findings: The research finds that the respondents were exposed to precarious employment conditions irrespective of whether they were contracted or not, seemingly because of outsourcing of newspaper distribution in Durban. Practical/Managerial Implications: The practical implication suggests that Basic Employment Act is not guiding how the respondents are being treated. Contribution/Value-Add: The paper specifically highlights the exploitation of newspaper distributors on the streets, as they are denied any form of employment benefits or employment security despite executing their job within severe working conditions.

  15. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  16. Precarious employment, ill health, and lessons from history: the case of casual (temporary) dockworkers 1880-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    An international body of scientific research indicates that growth of job insecurity and precarious forms of employment over the past 35 years have had significant negative consequences for health and safety. Commonly overlooked in debates over the changing world of work is that widespread use of insecure and short-term work is not new, but represents a return to something resembling labor market arrangements found in rich countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Moreover, the adverse health effects of precarious employment were extensively documented in government inquiries and in health and medical journals. This article examines the case of a large group of casual dockworkers in Britain. It identifies the mechanisms by which precarious employment was seen to undermine workers and families' health and safety. The article also shows the British dockworker experience was not unique and there are important lessons to be drawn from history. First, historical evidence reinforces just how health-damaging precarious employment is and how these effects extend to the community, strengthening the case for social and economic policies that minimize precarious employment. Second, there are striking parallels between historical evidence and contemporary research that can inform future research on the health effects of precarious employment.

  17. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  18. Affordances theory in multilingualism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.

  19. Characterizing the geomorphic setting of precariously balanced rocks using terrestrial laser scanning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, D. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is rapidly becoming an effective three-dimensional imaging tool. Precariously balanced rocks are a subset of spheroidally weathered boulders. They are balanced on bedrock pedestals and are formed in upland drainage basins and pediments of exhumed plutons. Precarious rocks are used as negative evidence of earthquake-driven extreme ground motions. Field surveys of PBRs are coupled with cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating techniques to determine their exhumation rates. These rates are used in statistical simulations to estimate the magnitudes and recurrences of earthquake-generated extreme ground shaking as a means to physically validate seismic hazard analyses. However, the geomorphic setting of PBRs in the landscape is poorly constrained when interpreting their exhumation rates from CRN surface exposure dates. Are PBRs located on steep or gentle hillslopes? Are they located near drainages or hillslope crests? What geomorphic processes control the spatial distribution of PBRs in a landscape, and where do these processes dominate? Because the fundamental hillslope transport laws are largely controlled by local hillslope gradient and contributing area, the location of a PBR is controlled by the geomorphic agents and their rates acting on it. Our latest efforts involve using a combination of TLS and airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to characterize the geomorphic situation of PBRs. We used a Riegl LPM 800i (LPM 321) terrestrial laser scanner to scan a ~1.5 m tall by ~1 m wide precariously balanced rock in the Granite Dells, central Arizona. The PBR was scanned from six positions, and the scans were aligned to a point cloud totaling 3.4M points. We also scanned a ~50 m by ~150 m area covering PBR hillslopes from five scan positions. The resulting 5.5M points were used to create a digital terrain model of precarious rocks and their hillslopes. Our TLS- and ALSM-generated surface models and DEMs provide a

  20. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  1. Collaborative Affordances of Medical Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Houben, Steven

    2017-01-01

    by Sellen and Harper (2003) on the affordances of physical paper. Sellen and Harper describe how the physical properties of paper affords easy reading, navigation, mark-up, and writing, but focuses, we argue, mainly on individual use of paper and digital technology. As an extension to this, Collaborative...... Affordances; being portable across patient wards and the entire hospital, by providing collocated access, by providing a shared overview of medical data, and by giving clinicians ways to maintain mutual awareness. We then discuss how the concept of Collaborative Affordances can be used in the design of new...... technology by providing a design study of a ‘Hybrid Patient Record’ (HyPR), which is designed to seamlessly blend and integrate paper-based with electronic patient records....

  2. Bullying and social media affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Brailas, Alexios

    2016-01-01

    What constitutes a good and sustainabledigital living?Social media literacyCan we talk about social media intelligence?Can we talk about digital intelligence?How bullying is complicated by special social media affordances?

  3. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  4. Imagined affordance: reconstructing a keyword for communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, G; Nagy, P

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology s...

  5. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔEAB. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔEAB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A-B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [EMP2/CBS] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔECC-MP, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔEAB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational

  6. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE AB . Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE AB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E MP2/CBS ] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE CC-MP , a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE AB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the

  7. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranzana, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Giordana, Anna, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Indarto, Antonius, E-mail: antonius.indarto@che.itb.ac.id; Tonachini, Glauco, E-mail: glauco.tonachini@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Corso Massimo D’Azeglio 48, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Causà, Mauro, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Pavone, Michele, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting

  8. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann

    2004-12-01

    The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.

  9. Precarious Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2016-01-01

    The role played by Denmark in the triangular slave trade and colonial chattel slavery is rarely part of the tale told about Danish literature. This article investigates the reflections of this history in Denmark and discusses how this particular colonial history and its relationship to literature...

  10. Precarious Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, Sheridan; Bansel, Peter; Ellwood, Constance; Gannon, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to hold thought open in a textual space that often forecloses thought. The authors present arguments but work them through poetry, memoir, pictures, and exposition. They frame this work in particular as an improvisation around--and intervention into--more familiar practices of collective biography, narrative, and art…

  11. Is precarious employment damaging to self-rated health? Results of propensity score matching methods, using longitudinal data in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Chang-Yup; Park, Jin-Kyung; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the health effects of precarious employment based on a counterfactual framework, using the Korea Labor and Income Panel Survey data. At the 4th wave (2001), information was obtained on 1991 male and 1378 female waged workers. Precarious work was defined on the basis of workers employed on a temporary or daily basis, part-time, or in a contingent (fixed short-term) job. The outcome was self-rated health with five response categories. Confounding factors included age, marital status, education, industry and occupation of current employment, household income, residential area, and prior health status. Propensity scores for each individual to be a precarious worker were calculated from logistic models including those covariates, and based on them, precarious workers were matched to non-precarious workers. Then, we examined the effects of precarious employment on health and explored the potential intermediary variables, using ordered logistic Generalized Estimating Equations models. All analyses were performed separately by gender. Precarious workers were found to be in a lower socioeconomic position and to have worse health status. Univariate matched analyses showed that precarious employment was associated with worse health in both men and women. By further controlling for socio-demographic covariates, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant. Job satisfaction, especially as related to job insecurity, and monthly wage further attenuated the effects. This suggests that to improve health status of precarious workers in Korea, policy strategies need to tackle the channeling of the socially disadvantaged into precarious jobs. Also, regulations to eliminate discrimination against precarious workers in working conditions or material reward should be introduced and enforced. There is no doubt that job insecurity, which is pervasive among workers in Korea, should be minimized by suspending market-oriented labor policies which rely on

  12. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  13. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  14. Affordable Care Act and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality care for older women, and ends the gender discrimination that requires women to pay more for the same insurance coverage ... the Affordable Care Act and 13 million more women will gain coverage by 2016. Maternity Coverage Preventive ... Expanded Insurance Coverage Endnotes Download "rb. ...

  15. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Precarious Situations of Care Workers in Home-Based Elder Care in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrženjak, Majda

    2018-02-01

    Based on policy analysis and individual interviews, the author analyzes the care workers' precarious situations in home-based elder care in Slovenia, a post-socialist, European Union country characterized by a rapidly aging population and delays in adapting a long-term care system to this new social risk. Employment and quasi-employment positions which coexist in home-based care can be sorted along two continuums: between public and market service; between formal and informal work. The author argues that working conditions in home-based care differ according to the position of the care worker on these two continuums, that is, being employed in public services, being self-employed, working in informal care markets, holding a status of family assistant, or being an informal family caregiver. Although the working conditions in public services are deteriorating, the analysis shows that precarity is more severe in market and informal care, while formalization and socialization of care bring about less precarious conditions.

  17. Precarious Working Conditions and Exploitation of Workers in the Nigerian Informal Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayofe Akinwale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Situations in the informal economy expose workers to dangers without opportunity for hazard pay, thereby reflecting exploitation. Based on the Marxist theory of conflict, this paper examines the extent of precarious working conditions and exploitation of workers in the Nigerian informal economy. A total of 500 respondents randomly selected from various informal economy organizations participated in the survey conducted in Lagos State, Nigeria. The findings revealed that most of the respondents (76.4% had worked for up to five years consecutively, followed by a few (18%, who had worked for up to ten years consecutively. Their monthly income ranged from 10,000 naira ($60 to 80,000 naira ($485. Their mean monthly income was 30,000 naira ($182. Most of them (73.5% worked for 10 to 12 hours daily, while 26.5% worked for seven to nine hours daily. The experience of low pay with relatively long daily working hours shows the extent of exploitation in the Nigerian informal economy. Several background characteristics, such as gender, age, level of education, and marital status influenced the workers’ experience of precarious working conditions and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a progressive workplace policy that can ensure decent work and adequate protection for workers in the Nigerian informal economy.

  18. Solidarity, territory and coercion. Explaining absence of conflict in the precarious agroindustrial workers, Region of Maule, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Baeza Rivas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on 53 interviews of agribusiness workers in four companies in the region of Maule (Chile, we try to understand the reasons for the "split " between the objective indicators of precarious work and low levels of conflict in agriculture, from the analysis of subjective dissatisfaction of salaried with their employment. This could be explained by territorial factors, traditionalism of labor relations and the fear of sanctions for companies to conflict. The results emphasize the need to further deepen the subjective precariousness from conceptual and methodological frameworks that emphasize biographical and professional life of workers

  19. How unemployment and precarious employment affect the health of young people: A scoping study on social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancea, Mihaela; Utzet, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    The impact of unemployment and precarious employment on the health of young people is not well understood. However, according to social causation, higher socio-economic positions and thus better working conditions are beneficial to health in general. We tried to synthesize the results of studies that test this hypothesis in the case of young people. We conducted a scoping study mapping all the academic articles published in the period 2006-2016 in Europe. The literature was searched in PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus. We identified 1770 studies, of which only 46 met the inclusion criteria. There are more studies that focus on the relationship between unemployment and health than between precarious employment and health (28 and 16, respectively). The vast majority of the studies (44) found support for the social causation hypothesis, the most common health outcomes being mental health disorders, health risk behaviour, poor quality of life and occupational injuries. The causal mechanisms behind this association relied mainly on the life-course perspective, the breadwinner model, and the lack of social and economic benefits provided by standard employment. There is evidence that young people are especially vulnerable to health problems when unemployed or working in precarious conditions. Active labour market and training programmes, inclusive social security measures, improved working conditions and targeted health programmes are important for addressing this vulnerability. Further research should strive to enhance the causal model by including a gender perspective, longitudinal data, more indicators on precariousness and third factor explanations.

  20. Tackling precarious work in public supply chains: A comparison of local government procurement policies in Denmark, Germany and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaehrling, Karen; Johnson, Mathew; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2018-01-01

    Through a cross-national comparative study of local government “best practice cases” of socially responsible procurement in Denmark, Germany and the UK, this article critically examines the role of labour clauses in addressing issues of low wages and precarious work in public supply chains...

  1. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K.; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the

  2. Mechanisms of biopower and neoliberal governmentality in precarious work: Mobilizing the dependent self-employed as independent business owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moisander, J.; Groß, C.; Eräranta, K.

    2018-01-01

    In the contemporary conditions of neoliberal governmentality, and the emerging ‘gig economy,’ standard employment relationships appear to be giving way to precarious work. This article examines the mechanisms of biopower and techniques of managerial control that underpin—and produce consent

  3. The global expansion of precarious employment, work disorganization, and consequences for occupational health: a review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, M; Mayhew, C; Bohle, P

    2001-01-01

    In this review of a range of studies on the health and safety effects of precarious employment in industrialized societies published since 1984, the authors examine the overall findings and methodological issues and identify areas in need of further research. Of the 93 published journal articles and monographs/book chapters reviewed, 76 studies found precarious employment was associated with a deterioration in occupational health and safety (OHS) in terms of injury rates, disease risk, hazard exposures, or worker (and manager) knowledge of OHS and regulatory responsibilities. Of the more than 25 studies each on outsourcing and organizational restructuring/downsizing, well over 90 percent find a negative association with OHS. The evidence is fairly persuasive for temporary workers, with 14 of 24 studies finding a negative association with OHS. The evidence is less strong for small business, and a handful of studies on part-time workers found no clear association with negative OHS outcomes (in some cases the reverse). Further research is needed to more clearly link health effects to particular business practices and neoliberal policies and to explore the regulatory implications of the growth of precarious employment. The authors suggest some ways to conceptualize the association between precarious employment and occupational health.

  4. Precarious Voices? Types of “Political Citizens” and Repertoires of Action among European Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Monticelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article’s goal is to explore the existence of ‘political citizens’ profiles across three European cities (Turin, Cologne and Lyon and to ascertain the role of an unstable occupational status on the repertoires of action deployed. For this purpose, a technique called latent class cluster analysis (LCCA is applied to a large sample, including young precarious and regular workers (deployed as a reference group. This technique allowed us to derive five descriptive probabilistic profiles of ‘political citizens’ and their repertoires of action in each city. The empirical findings underline the emergence of hybrid repertoires of action together with ‘single-issue’ or ‘cause-oriented’ forms of political participation. This study represents an attempt to encourage the dialogue between two strands of research in social sciences, namely sociology of work and political participation and to foster the formation of an innovative research agenda crossing these two fields.

  5. Making Precarious Immigrant Families and Weaving the Danish Welfare Nation-State Fabric 1970-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta; Moldenhawer, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the making of immigrant families as precarious elements in the governing of the population's welfare within the Danish welfare nation-state since the 1970s. The emphasis is on how immigrant families became a problem of welfare governing, and what knowledge practices...... and welfare technologies emerged as problem-solving responses. The article analyses a diverse set of national and local administrative documents advancing a polyhedron of intelligibility by which the authors discover how problem-solving complexes responsive to immigrant families change and sediment......, and ultimately, weave the fabric of a Danish welfare nation-state faced with non-Western immigration after the economic boom in the late 1960s....

  6. The impact of precarious employment on mental health: The case of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscone, F; Tosetti, E; Vittadini, G

    2016-06-01

    Although there has been a sizeable empirical literature measuring the effect of job precariousness on the mental health of workers the debate is still open, and understanding the true nature of such relationship has important policy implications. In this paper, we investigate the impact of precarious employment on mental health using a unique, very large data set that matches information on job contracts for over 2.7 million employees in Italy followed over the years 2007-2011, with their psychotropic medication prescription. We examine the causal effects of temporary contracts, their duration and the number of contract changes during the year on the probability of having one or more prescriptions for medication to treat mental health problems. To this end, we estimate a dynamic Probit model, and deal with the potential endogeneity of regressors by adopting an instrumental variables approach. As instruments, we use firm-level probabilities of being a temporary worker as well as other firm-level variables that do not depend on the mental illness status of the workers. Our results show that the probability of psychotropic medication prescription is higher for workers under temporary job contracts. More days of work under temporary contract as well as frequent changes in temporary contract significantly increase the probability of developing mental health problems that need to be medically treated. We also find that moving from permanent to temporary employment increases mental illness; symmetrically, although with a smaller effect in absolute value, moving from temporary to permanent employment tends to reduce it. Policy interventions aimed at increasing the flexibility of the labour market through an increase of temporary contracts should also take into account the social and economic cost of these reforms, in terms of psychological wellbeing of employees. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Precarious housing in the Salvokop neighbourhood: A challenge to churches in the inner City of Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Ntakirutimana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the daunting challenge of precarious housing in Salvokop located in the southern part of inner City of Tshwane, Gauteng Province. Insecure tenure, unmaintained dwellings, overcrowding, mushrooming of backyard shacks and the rise of the informal settlement, all that led to deep levels of vulnerability and neighbourhood deterioration. Current conditions show that life in that neighbourhood is fraught as substandard housing degenerated into slum and squalor. This concern emerged among other salient pressing issues of poverty and vulnerability from the World Café and Focus Groups with the inner city churches including those from Salvokop. The article set out to describe precarious housing, unpleasant living conditions owing to the fact that human beings stay in unsuitable dwellings while the environment deteriorates. Taking into account their circumstances, the article’s aim was to recapture the extent to which the residents suffer as a result of living in dwellings unfit for human habitation, rethinking an alternative model to respond. A theological agenda for future ecclesiological engagement was discerned forthwith recommendations. The article makes a contribution towards the theology of the city in that it stimulates church practices and housing of poor people in Tshwane. It does so by engaging in a unique way grassroots knowledge from the different inner city congregations. This process used the platform of surveys, World Café style gatherings and Focus Groups. In conversation with the primary source, this article also contributed with original data generated with the Salvokop residents whose stories helped to expend on horizons of housing, which is acknowledged. All the inner city church contributors of the realisation of the study objectives are also recognised.

  8. Effect of working hours and precarious employment on depressive symptoms in South Korean employees: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Long working hours and precarious employment are relatively common in South Korea. Since both can impact on mental health, this study examined their independent and combined effects on depressive symptoms of employees. Data were from the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS), 2010-2013. A total of 2733 full-time employees without depressive symptoms were analysed. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of the number of working hours per week (eg, 35-40 hours, 41-52 hours, 53-68 hours, and >68 hours) and employment status (permanent vs precarious employment) on depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) 11 scale. Compared with individuals working 35-40 hours/week, employees working above 68 hours (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.34) had higher odds of depressive symptoms after full adjustment. Similarly, precarious employees (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.75) showed worse mental health than permanent employees. In the combined effect model, employees in precarious employment who worked above 68 hours/week (OR, 2.03 95% CI 1.08 to 3.83) exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms compared with permanent employees working 35 to 40 hours/week. Long work hours and precarious employment status were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and addressing the vulnerable groups of employees to reduce the mental health burden of economically active individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Fisiognomica emozionale. Affordances, estasi, atmosfere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonino Griffero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through an atmospherological approach, primarily inspired by the so-called Aisthetik or New Aesthetics (Gernot Böhme and the New Phenomenology (Hermann Schmitz, the paper defines the atmospheric perception as a first pathemic impression and investigates the relationship between this kind of perception and the expressive qualities of the surrounding spaces. The aim is to understand atmospheres as (amodal, transmodal, sinaesthetic affordances that permeate the lived space, namely as ‘ecological’ and affective invites or meanings which are ontologically rooted in things and quasi-things.

  10. Affordability and Paradigms in Agent-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldur E. Barbat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at substantiating that in universities with scarce resources, applied Information Technologies (IT research is affordable, even in most advanced and dynamic sub-domains. This target is split into four specific objectives: a to set up a framework for IT research affordability in universities representative for current East-European circumstances; b to outline a workable approach based on synergistic leverage and to assess the paradigms prevalent in modern artificial intelligence through this ``affordability filter''; c to describe the evolution and the current stages of two undertakings exploiting paradigms founded on emergence (the sub-domains are stigmergic coordination and agent self-awareness; d to summarise for both sub domains the mechanisms and the architectonics (the focus is on computer science aspects; implementation details will be given in future papers. The results in both directions appear as promising and reveal significant potential for transdisciplinarity. From this perspective, the paper is a call to improved cooperation.

  11. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS: FROM TECHNICAL AFFORDANCES TO EDUCATIONAL AFFORDANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Valanides

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of these tools in education and in authentic and effective learning/teaching environments has become an issue of great concern among educators, researchers and other related audiences. All emphasize the need to design and develop technology-enhanced curricula and teaching/learning environments (formal, non-formal and informal that are developmentally appropriate for young and/or older learners. The vision is to integrate the tools and their associated technical affordance in teaching/learning environments in such a way, so that all learners, irrespective of their cognitive differences and abilities, could increase their learning gains, and develop the abilities and skills that are needed for citizens of the 21st century.

  13. Las fronteras de la precariedad: Percepciones y sentidos del trabajo de los jóvenes trabajadores precarios de hipermercados The borders of precariousness: Perceptions and meanings of work for young workers precarious of hypermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Longo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un estudio de caso en una gran empresa multinacional, el artículo se propone repensar el concepto de precariedad, a la luz de las percepciones y los sentidos que le atribuyen al trabajo los trabajadores precarizados. El estudio se centra en los jóvenes trabajadores, uno de los grupos más vulnerables y flexibilizados frente al mercado laboral; y se llevó a cabo en hipermercados, entendiendo que es en el sector servicios, donde se concentra el empleo de jóvenes en condiciones precarias. Se plantea que la precariedad es un estado histórico en la relación capital-trabajo, y por lo tanto debe pensarse en términos colectivos y no individuales.From a case study in a multinational company, the paper proposes to rethink the concept of precariousness, in the light of perceptions and meanings that workers attributed their labor. The study focuses on young workers, one of the most vulnerable and flexible group in the labor market, and was carried out in hypermarkets, understanding that it is in the service sector which concentrates youth employment in precarious conditions. It argues that precariousness is a historic form in the power relationship of capital and work, and therefore should be considered in terms collective rather than individual.

  14. The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Aronsson, Gunnar; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Stengård, Johanna; Westerlund, Hugo; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2017-12-01

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel 'locked-in', in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a 'loss of control', with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18-34, 35-44, and 45-54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1-2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6-1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  15. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES): psychometric properties of a new tool for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Alejandra; Amable, Marcelo; Ferrer, Montserrat; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Muntaner, Carles; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-08-01

    Despite the fact that labour market flexibility has resulted in an expansion of precarious employment in industrialised countries, to date there is limited empirical evidence concerning its health consequences. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) is a newly developed, theory-based, multidimensional questionnaire specifically devised for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers. To assess the acceptability, reliability and construct validity of EPRES in a sample of waged and salaried workers in Spain. A sample of 6968 temporary and permanent workers from a population-based survey carried out in 2004-2005 was analysed. The survey questionnaire was interviewer administered and included the six EPRES subscales, and measures of the psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ ISTAS21) and perceived general and mental health (SF-36). A high response rate to all EPRES items indicated good acceptability; Cronbach's alpha coefficients, over 0.70 for all subscales and the global score, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability; exploratory factor analysis using principal axis analysis and varimax rotation confirmed the six-subscale structure and the theoretical allocation of all items. Patterns across known groups and correlation coefficients with psychosocial work environment measures and perceived health demonstrated the expected relations, providing evidence of construct validity. Our results provide evidence in support of the psychometric properties of EPRES, which appears to be a promising tool for the measurement of employment precariousness in public health research.

  16. Unemployment, informal work, precarious employment, child labor, slavery, and health inequalities: pathways and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vanroelen, Christophe; Martínez, José Miguel; Vergara, Montserrat; Santana, Vilma; Castedo, Antía; Kim, Il-Ho; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the pathways and mechanisms of the relation between employment conditions and health inequalities. A significant amount of published research has proved that workers in several risky types of labor--precarious employment, unemployment, informal labor, child and bonded labor--are exposed to behavioral, psychosocial, and physio-pathological pathways leading to physical and mental health problems. Other pathways, linking employment to health inequalities, are closely connected to hazardous working conditions (material and social deprivation, lack of social protection, and job insecurity), excessive demands, and unattainable work effort, with little power and few rewards (in salaries, fringe benefits, or job stability). Differences across countries in the social contexts and types of jobs result in varying pathways, but the general conceptual model suggests that formal and informal power relations between employees and employers can determine health conditions. In addition, welfare state regimes (unionization and employment protection) can increase or decrease the risk of mortality, morbidity, and occupational injury. In a multilevel context, however, these micro- and macro-level pathways have yet to be fully studied, especially in middle- and low-income countries. The authors recommend some future areas of study on the pathways leading to employment-related health inequalities, using worldwide standard definitions of the different forms of labor, authentic data, and a theoretical framework.

  17. Image, Precariousness and the Logic of Cultural Production in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Cartier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretations of culture in Hong Kong have tended to portray the city in terms of the vanishing present, in some combination of the instant, fleeting and disappearing. This article redresses such language of lack to consider instead how the idea of precariousness in the realm of the cultural has been less a condition of cultural production than a cultural strategy. Street art, including alternative performance art and political graffiti, has made the city itself the site of roving cultural production: walls, street surfaces and passageways accommodate forms of expression that the city’s cultural institutions have only more recently and uneasily embraced. In these different modes of time-space, contemporary alternative art occupies transitory territory and locates its ‘precariousness’ in lack of definitive status and uncertain future – mimetic conditions of defining culture in Hong Kong society itself. Its measures, by contrast, emerge in Jacques Rancière’s distribution of the sensible: the ways in which they render what is visible, knowable and ultimately sayable. As objects generating negotiation, such contemporary cultural projects anticipate instabilities of the present, identify hegemonic political economic logics and seek modes of resistance. Within these perspectives, this discussion juxtaposes two simultaneous events: the exhibit ‘Memories of King Kowloon’ on the historic graffiti of Tsang Tsou-choi, and the stenciled graffiti of Ai Weiwei in public space during April and May 2011.

  18. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada Human precariousness and stylized existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.This article discusses the helplessness experienced by the consciousness vis-à-vis the absence of solid bases for its longings for happiness and for its symbolic representations. For this purpose, the object of reflection of the article is one of Albert Camus' philosophical essays, The Myth of Sisyphus, and we inquire into the possibility of an ethics that stylizes life without minimizing the painful precariousness of human existence. Making reference to certain texts by Foucault, we attempt to establish possible connections between Camus' ethics and an ethics of the aesthetics of existence as found in the thinkers of ancient Greece.

  19. The Securing of a Precarious Commerce: Exchanges between Seville and Yucatan (1590- 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cristina García Bernal

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This work underlines the importance of Yucatan's commercial relations across the Atlantic Ocean, as opposed to the traditional belief  that  these exchanges were small and  infrequent. Due to the margination and poverty of the province, in 1590 the Span­ish Crown granted Yucatan a license  to send two small  ships each year, with the necessary products. This license  allowed the securing of a trade that until  then had  been quite  precarious. This is why the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the move­ments of ships and merchandise between 1590 and 1600 lets us understand why, despite being considered secondary, this re­gion's commerce occupied, as seen from Seville, a considerable position among the  great amount of Atlantic trade. These analy­ses also reveal  why  during the  seventeenth  century Yucatan would come  to be  the  most  favored of the smaller posts along the Spain-Indies trading route.

  20. Precarious Pedagogies? The Impact of Casual and Zero-Hour Contracts in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lopes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Precarious work is associated with and characterizes the effects of neoliberal policy—the transference of economic risk onto workers, the erosion of workers’ rights, the flexibilization and casualization of work contracts, self-responsibility, financial insecurity, and emotional stress. In the Higher Education (HE sector, the number of insecure academic jobs, especially zero-hour contracts for hourly paid teaching and short-term contract research, has grown exponentially in recent years in response to the structural and fiscal changes within universities, which reflect these global shifts. This paper presents findings from a pilot study conducted with academics on casual contracts in HE institutions in England and Wales. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were undertaken with teachers (lecturers and tutors on hourly paid and zero-hour contracts to examine the relationship between their contractual situations and pedagogical practices. The research broadly seeks to contribute to ongoing discussions concerned with the impact of neoliberalism on higher education and specifically highlights the case of contingent lecturers as casualties of the casualization of the academic labor force.

  1. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  2. Occupational injuries in times of labour market flexibility: the different stories of employment-secure and precarious workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Giraudo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between labour market flexibility, job insecurity and occupational injuries is not univocal. The literature generally focuses on the temporary character of work arrangements rather than on the precarity of careers. The aim of this paper is to identify, without defining a priori what a precarious career is, the most common professional profiles of young people who entered the labour market in the 2000s and to correlate them with occupational injury risks. Methods Using the Whip-Salute database, which combines individual work and health histories, we selected the subjects under 30 years of age whose first appearance in the database is dated after 2000. The occupational history of each individual between 2000 and 2005 was described according to 6 variables (type of entry contract, number of contracts, number of jobs, economic activities, work intensity and duration of the longest period of non-employment. Workers were grouped into homogeneous categories using cluster analysis techniques, which enable to identify different career profiles. Injury rates were calculated for each cluster, and compared within and between the groups. Results We selected 56,760 workers in the study period, who were classified in 6 main career profiles. About 1/3 of the subjects presented an employment-secure career profile, while about 45 % of them were classified into 3 clusters showing precarious career profiles with different work intensities. Precarious workers present significantly higher injury rates than those with secure careers, with an increase in risk between 24 and 57 % (p < 0.05. The comparison of injury rates at the beginning and at the end of the study period revealed a significant decrease in all clusters, but the gap between secure and precarious workers remained wide. Conclusions Cluster analysis allowed to identify career patterns with clearly different characteristics. A positive association between injury

  3. Occupational injuries in times of labour market flexibility: the different stories of employment-secure and precarious workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Leombruni, Roberto; Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-02-13

    The relationship between labour market flexibility, job insecurity and occupational injuries is not univocal. The literature generally focuses on the temporary character of work arrangements rather than on the precarity of careers. The aim of this paper is to identify, without defining a priori what a precarious career is, the most common professional profiles of young people who entered the labour market in the 2000s and to correlate them with occupational injury risks. Using the Whip-Salute database, which combines individual work and health histories, we selected the subjects under 30 years of age whose first appearance in the database is dated after 2000. The occupational history of each individual between 2000 and 2005 was described according to 6 variables (type of entry contract, number of contracts, number of jobs, economic activities, work intensity and duration of the longest period of non-employment). Workers were grouped into homogeneous categories using cluster analysis techniques, which enable to identify different career profiles. Injury rates were calculated for each cluster, and compared within and between the groups. We selected 56,760 workers in the study period, who were classified in 6 main career profiles. About 1/3 of the subjects presented an employment-secure career profile, while about 45 % of them were classified into 3 clusters showing precarious career profiles with different work intensities. Precarious workers present significantly higher injury rates than those with secure careers, with an increase in risk between 24 and 57 % (p < 0.05). The comparison of injury rates at the beginning and at the end of the study period revealed a significant decrease in all clusters, but the gap between secure and precarious workers remained wide. Cluster analysis allowed to identify career patterns with clearly different characteristics. A positive association between injury risk and the level of career fragmentation was found. The association

  4. Insights into the use and affordances of social and collaborative applications for student projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola Ola Bankole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of social and collaborative computing has the potential of assisting learning and improving the ability to work together as part of a team. Team work is a graduate attribute that students need to acquire before transitioning from university into the workplace. The aim of this exploratory research was to provide insights into the use of social and collaborative applications by Computer Science students, and the emergent affordances student project teams have created with the use of these applications. It answers the questions: What elearning platforms or applications do students use to collaborate for team projects? What technology affordance draws students to use these applications? This study adopts affordance theory as the theoretical framework. Two types of content analysis: conventional content analysis and summative content analysis were used to analyse the data. Data was gathered using a pre-designed questionnaire with the teams during the first semester of 2016. Findings show that the university’s elearning platform is utilised for some of their courses; however students seem to prefer free and open source platforms. Student project teams used applications such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Dropbox, Google Drive, Google Docs, as well as email messages, to work jointly, and were successfully able to complete their team projects. Four types of technology affordances: communicative-affordance, document share-affordance, course resource-affordance, and integrity-affordance, were identified as being relevant.

  5. Populous, Precarious – Protected? The Paradox of Social Security for South Asian Agricultural Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Social security is firmly rising on the international agenda. Discourses that depart from the assumption that societies can only afford a certain level of social expenditure give way to a recognition that social security is an important investment in development. New

  6. 55 Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He combined affordances and perceptual information in a simple matrix, as shown in figure ... Secondly it shows up cases of False Affordances that appear to be useful ..... Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations.

  7. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by homeowners in the eligible property. Financing that would impair the continued affordability of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affordability standards. 572.120 Section 572.120 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  8. The concept of a structural affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alsmith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide an analysis of the concept of an “affordance” that enables one to conceive of “structural affordance” as a kind of affordance relation that might hold between an agent and its body. I then review research in the science of humanoid bodily movement to indicate the empirical reality of structural affordance.

  9. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...

  10. Affordances of agricultural systems analysis tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzler, Lenora; Klerkx, Laurens; Chan-Dentoni, Jacqueline; Posthumus, Helena; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Ridaura, Santiago López; Andersson, Jens A.; Baudron, Frédéric; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2018-01-01

    The increasingly complex challenges facing agricultural systems require problem-solving processes and systems analysis (SA) tools that engage multiple actors across disciplines. In this article, we employ the theory of affordances to unravel what tools may furnish users, and how those affordances

  11. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  12. What Does Electronic Conferencing Afford Distance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology for distance learning in higher education and examines the similarities and differences between face-to-face seminars and online discussions. Considers the concept of affordance in relation to information and communication technologies and distance education; and examines affordances of electronic conferencing and…

  13. Why Freeter and NEET are Misunderstood: Recognizing the New Precarious Conditions of Japanese Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the transition from school to work has radically changed over the past two decades. It has become prolonged, complicated and individualized (Bynner et al., 1997; Walther et al., 2004. Young people used to transition directly from school to stable employment, or with a very short unemployed period. In many European countries, this situation has been changing since the eighties: overall youth unemployment has increased, and many young people experience long periods of unemployment, government training schemes and part-time or temporary jobs. In Japan, this change has taken a decade later to appear, becoming prevalent by the late nineties (Inui, 2003. The transiting process has become not only precarious for young people, but also difficult for society to precisely understand the risks and problems. Traditionally, we have been able to recognize young people's situation by a simple category: in education, employed, in training or unemployed. However, these categories no longer accurately represent young people's state. In Japan, most young people used to move from school directly to full-time employment through the new graduate recruitment system (Inui, 1993. Therefore, in official statistics such as the School Basic Survey, 'employed' includes only those who are in regular employment, while those who are in part-time or temporary work are covered by the categories 'jobless' and 'others'. However, with the increase in non-full-time jobs in the nineties, these categories have become less useful for describing the actual employment conditions of young people. Indeed, this is why, in the late of nineties, the Japanese Ministry of Education changed the category name from 'jobless' to 'others'.

  14. On the Life and Deeds of San Precario, Patron Saint of Precarious Workers and Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Tarì

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Noi siamo la generazione post-socialista, la generazione del dopo guerra fredda, della fine delle burocrazie verticali e del controllo sull'informazione. Siamo un movimento globale e neuropeo, che porta avanti la rivoluzione democratica scaturita dal Sessantotto mondiale e lotta contro la distopia neoliberista oggi al culmine. Siamo ecoattivisti e mediattivisti, siamo i libertari della Rete e i metroradicali dello spazio urbano, siamo le mutazioni transgender del femminismo globale, siamo gli hacker del terribile reale. Siamo gli agitatori del precariato e gli insorti del cognitariato. Siamo anarcosindacalisti e postsocialisti. Siamo tutti migranti alla ricerca di una vita migliore. E non ci iconosciamo in voi, stratificazioni tetre e tetragone di ceti politici sconfitti già nel XX secolo. Non ci riconosciamo nella sinistra italyana.Manifesto Bio/Pop del Precariato Metroradicale, 20042004 has marked the beginning of the spreading "cult" of San Precario, Patron Saint of precarious, casual, sessional, temporary, flexible and fractional workers. The Saint appears in public spaces in occasion of rallies, marches, interventions and demonstrations, and its popularity has lead to development of a precise and colorful iconography, hagiography and rituals. This popularity conversely is also the sign of the gravity of the issue of precarity in Italy and Europe .San Precario epitomises current Italian activist practices. These practices, although specifically Italian, intersect with similar realities in Europe and are based on mythopoetic narratives and actions and mediatic embodiments. This paper analysis a variety of texts produced around San Precario, from posters, saint cards, product cards, videos, "official" narratives, personal accounts, relating them to the political debate surrounding precarity.

  15. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bohle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. METHODS: Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. RESULTS: Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.OBJETIVOS: O crescimento do número de empregos precários em países da OECD está largamente associado a efeitos negativos à saúde e segurança. Embora muitos

  16. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  17. "It's Totally Destroyed Our Life": Exploring the Pathways and Mechanisms Between Precarious Employment and Health and Well-being Among Immigrant Men and Women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Precarious employment is rapidly growing, but qualitative data on pathways to and mechanisms for health and well-being is lacking. This article describes the cumulative and intersecting micro-level pathways and mechanisms between precarious employment and health among immigrant men and women in Toronto. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted in 2014 with 15 women and 12 men from 11 countries of origin. The article describes how precarious employment, conceptualized by workers as encompassing powerlessness, economic insecurity, work for multiple employers, nonstandard and unpredictable schedules, hazardous working conditions, and lack of benefits and protections, negatively impacts workers' physical and mental health as well as that of their spouses or partners and children. It documents pathways to health and well-being, including stress, material and social deprivation, and exposure to hazards, as well as commuting difficulties and childcare challenges. Throughout, gender and migration are shown to influence experiences of work and health. The findings draw attention to dimensions of precarity and pathways to health that are not always highlighted in research and discourse on precarious employment and provide valuable insights into the vicious circle of precarious employment and health.

  18. 'Ayn mika: Traumatic experience, social invisibility, and emotional distress of sub-Saharan women with precarious status in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwahed

    2018-01-01

    Morocco has become a permanent transit country for tens of thousands of sub-Saharan migrants heading to Europe. Many of these migrants are women who have a precarious legal status and can no longer reach Europe, whose borders have been considerably securitized since September 11, 2001. They also have no wish to risk their lives again returning south across the Sahara Desert. This paper discusses the results of an exploratory research project conducted in Morocco on the relationships between the sub-Saharan migrant women's traumatic experiences, social invisibility, and emotional distress in the context of a massive securitization of Euro-Mediterranean borders.

  19. African Universities Need Affordable and Reliable Broadband ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... But it's a different story in most parts of Africa, where limited library ... on effective and affordable information and communication technology (ICT) ... who are using open-source software that complies with international open ...

  20. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    OpenAIRE

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel exper...

  1. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Tor

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented realit...

  2. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Explaining the relation between precarious employment and mental well-being. A qualitative study among temporary agency workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Kim; Hardonk, Stefan; De Cuyper, Nele; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    From an employee-perspective, temporary agency employment can be considered in two ways. According to the first perspective, agency jobs are associated with job characteristics that adversely affect mental well-being: job insecurity, low wages, a lack of benefits, little training, poorer prospects for the future, high working time flexibility, minimal trade union representation and problematic triadic employment relations. The other perspective underlines that flexibility, learning opportunities and freedom in agency employment enable workers to build the career of their choice, which may positively affect mental well-being. This article aims at interpreting and explaining these conflicting perspectives. In particular, we discuss the role of coping resources (control, support, trust and equity) in the stress pathway between characteristics of temporary agency employment and mental well-being. Semi-structured interviews with 12 Belgian temporary agency workers were conducted and analysed from a phenomenological perspective. The results reveal mainly how a lack of coping resources plays a key role in how (precarious) characteristics of temporary agency employment affect employees' mental well-being. This study illustrates the earlier assumed stress pathway between precarious employment and mental well-being, in which coping resources play an intermediary as well as a moderating role.

  4. Exploring precarious employment and women's health within the context of U.S. microenterprise using focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Rebekah; Lee, Jongwon

    2014-01-01

    Nursing has been a leader in exploring social determinants of health within the context of U.S. microenterprise and women's health. The purpose of this study was to explore precarious employment within the context of microenterprise and women's health using focus groups with clientele from New Mexico (NM). The specific aims were to identify (1) the health concerns of low-income women who utilized resources from Women's Economic Self-Sufficiency Team (WESST), and (2) the meaning of precarious employment in low-income women's lives. Fourteen women, ranging in age from 21-65 years, who were affiliated with regional WESST sites around NM participated in focus groups and completed a demographic questionnaire. Focus group data were analyzed using content analysis. The degree of interrater agreement was determined by calculating the Cohen's kappa, percentage agreement, and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). Two broad themes emerged from these data: (1) Working for Yourself and (2) Strategies. Although the women identified concerns about participation in microenterprise, flexibility, freedom, and feeling purposeful were motivators to pursue a small business. The kappa statistics on the five transcripts revealed poor inter-rater agreement, yet PABAK, which is a more sophisticated inter-rater reliability index, indicated that inter-rater agreement between the two raters was satisfactory. Despite the challenges associated with microenterprise in the US, women found value in working for themselves. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 78 FR 48170 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-12; HHS Computer Match No. 1307; SSA Computer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public... computer matching involving Federal agencies could be performed and adding certain protections for... Affordability Programs under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act''. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...

  6. Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden: a cohort study with multiple follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Bodin, Theo; Emmelin, Maria; Toivanen, Susanna; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-08-02

    The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people. Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18-34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job) and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135). Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0) when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population attributable fraction regarding poor mental health in the

  7. Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden: a cohort study with multiple follow-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Canivet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18–34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135. Results Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1–2.0 when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population

  8. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  9. What is an affordance? 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François; Rossetti, Yves; Badets, Arnaud

    2017-06-01

    About 40 years ago, James J. Gibson coined the term "affordance" to describe the action possibilities offered to an animal by the environment with reference to the animal's action capabilities. Since then, this notion has acquired a multitude of meanings, generating confusion in the literature. Here, we offer a clear operationalization of the concept of affordances and related concepts in the field of tool use. Our operationalization is organized around the distinction between the physical (what is objectively observable) and neurocognitive (what is subjectively experienced) levels. This leads us to propose that motor control (dorso-dorsal system), mechanical knowledge (ventro-dorsal system) and function knowledge (ventral system) could be neurocognitive systems respectively involved in the perception of affordances, the understanding of mechanical actions and the storage of contextual relationships (three action-system model; 3AS). We end by turning to two key issues that can be addressed within 3AS. These issues concern the link between affordances and tool incorporation, and the constraints posed by affordances for tool use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Affordances for robots: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Horton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the influence of Gibson's affordance theory on the design of robotic agents. Affordance theory (and the ecological approach to agent design in general has in many cases contributed to the development of successful robotic systems; we provide a brief survey of AI research in this area. However, there remain significant issues that complicate discussions on this topic, particularly in the exchange of ideas between researchers in artificial intelligence and ecological psychology. We identify some of these issues, specifically the lack of a generally accepted definition of "affordance" and fundamental differences in the current approaches taken in AI and ecological psychology. While we consider reconciliation between these fields to be possible and mutually beneficial, it will require some flexibility on the issue of direct perception.

  11. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  12. An Activity Theory Approach to Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Trettvik, Johan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the concept of affordance as it was originally introduced by J. J. Gibson, and elaborate on this concept, acknowledging, that the general theoretical landscape in psychology is in fundamental ways different from the situation in which Gibson found himself when he crafted...... the notion. Specifically we will suggest the inclusion of the ecological theory of perception in the paradigm of cultural historical psychology and activity theory developed in the former Soviet Union by most notably Lev Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. N. Leontjev and others. It will be suggested, that much...... of the confusion in HCI concerning the concept of affordance is a consequence of the attempt of using it inside a theoretical paradigm that is unable to capture and encompass one of the most essential aspect of Gibsons concept of affordance, that is its foundation in activity...

  13. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-06

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  14. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  15. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  16. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  18. Between Bethan and Me: A Dialogue on the Uncertain Promise of Education, Precarious Employment and What It Means to Be Productive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Remy Yi Siang

    2014-01-01

    The experience of precarious employment is growing across the occupational spectrum and some scholars have predicted that there will be a corresponding rise in anger, anomie, anxiety and alienation amongst those affected. Exploring more intimately how precarity might be differently experienced and confronted, this paper bases itself on a dialogue…

  19. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  20. Organizational Media Affordances : Operationalization and Associations with Media Use

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Ronald E.; Evans, Sandra K.; Pearce, Katy E.; Sivunen, Anu; Vitak, Jessica; Treem, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of affordances has been increasingly applied to the study of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in organizational contexts. However, almost no research operationalizes affordances, limiting comparisons and programmatic research. This article briefly reviews conceptualizations and possibilities of affordances in general and for media, then introduces the concept of organizational media affordances as organizational resources. Analysis of survey data from a large Nord...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  4. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...

  5. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  6. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  7. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott

    2016-11-01

    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  9. Affordability Constraints in Major Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    memo, does not provide a detailed recipe for those who must produce quantitative affordability constraints. Enclosure 8 of the January 7, 2015 version...3.0’s full title includes “Achieving Dominant Capabilities 2015 Lot 2028 Lot 2038 Lot $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $ 500 $600 $700 $800 $900 0 10000 20000

  10. The Affordances of Social Media Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucher, T.; Helmond, A.; Burgess, J.; Marwick, A.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the concept of affordance as a key term for understanding and analysing social media interfaces and the relations between technology and its users. In outlining its specific intellectual trajectory from psychology, to technology and design studies, sociology, and

  11. Towards Affordable Disclosure of Spoken Word Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Larson, M; Fernie, K; Oomen, J; Cigarran, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken word archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, the least we want to be

  12. Towards Affordable Disclosure of Spoken Heritage Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Fernie, K; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Oomen, J; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken heritage archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, we at least want to

  13. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  17. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  18. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  19. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  20. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  8. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic; Mantel, Bruno; Boulanger, Jérémie; Hérault, Romain; Dicks, Matt

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale), as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i) a horizontal-edge route (H) was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii) a vertical-edge route (V) afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii), a double-edge route (D) was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector) of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion), hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion), hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion) and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion). Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D route

  9. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route (H was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route (V afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route (D was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion, hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion, hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion. Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  17. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  18. Experiments on affordance in the journal "ecological psychology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trettvik, Johan

    2009-01-01

    There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances.......There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances....

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  20. A precarização e a divisão internacional e sexual do trabalho Precariousness and the international and sexual division of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hirata

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da referencia às pesquisas francesas sobre a questão da precarização do trabalho das mulheres, o artigo propõe alguns indicadores de trabalho precário, analisa os grupos sociais mais atingidos pelo trabalho precário e mostra a relação entre a vulnerabilidade crescente do emprego feminino e o processo de globalização. Algumas questões de atualidade social e cientifica, como a bi-polarização do emprego feminino e o crescimento da migração internacional das mulheres são a seguir estudadas, assim como as características do trabalho atual em que a precarização do emprego é concomitante à intensificação do trabalho e à flexibilização. Enfim, são analisados os pontos de vista que levam à legitimação social e científica desse processo de precarização do trabalho, e as alternativas a esse processo, provindas tanto dos juristas quanto dos movimentos sociais.The article examines the French researches on the precariousness of women's work, proposes some indicators of precarious employment, analyzes the most affected social groups, and demonstrates the relationship between the increasing vulnerability of women's employment and the process of globalization. Some current social and scientific issues, such as the bipolarization of female employment and the increase in international migration of women are examined in the paper, as well as the current characteristics of work, wherein precariousness is concomitant with intensification of work and flexibilization. To conclude, the author considers the views that lead to the social and scientific legitimacy of this process of precarious employment, and the alternatives to this process, provided both by jurists and social movements.

  1. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  2. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage. Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  3. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  5. Up-scaling expectations among Pakistan's HIV bureaucrats: entrepreneurs of the self and job precariousness post-scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has documented how the expansion of HIV programming has produced new subjectivities among the recipients of interventions. However, this paper contends that changes in politics, power and subjectivities may also be seen among the HIV bureaucracy in the decade of scale-up. One year's ethnographic fieldwork was conducted among AIDS control officials in Pakistan at a moment of rolling back a World Bank-financed Enhanced Programme. In 2003, the World Bank convinced the Musharraf regime to scale up the HIV response, offering a multimillion dollar soft loan package. I explore how the Enhanced Programme initiated government employees into a new transient work culture and turned the AIDS control programmes into a hybrid bureaucracy. However, the donor money did not last long and individuals' entrepreneurial abilities were tested in a time of crisis engendered by dependence on aid, leaving them precariously exposed to job insecurity, and undermining the continuity of AIDS prevention and treatment in the country. I do not offer a story of global 'best practices' thwarted by local 'lack of capacity', but an ethnographic critique of the transnational HIV apparatus and its neoliberal underpinning. I suggest that this Pakistan-derived analysis is more widely relevant in the post-scale-up decade.

  6. Poverty and Arbovirus Outbreaks: When Chikungunya Virus Hits More Precarious Populations Than Dengue Virus in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifay, Timothée; Douine, Maylis; Bonnefoy, Clémence; Hurpeau, Benoit; Nacher, Mathieu; Djossou, Félix; Epelboin, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, 3 successive arbovirus outbreaks, dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika virus, have occurred in French Guiana (FG). The primary objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic indicators of the first patients infected with CHIKV during the outbreak of 2014. The secondary objective was to compare those patients with patient infected by DENV and with the local population. A monocentric, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in Cayenne hospital in FG comparing a group of patients infected with CHIKV in 2014 with a group infected with DENV in 2013. Children aged less than 15 years and pregnant women were excluded. A total of 168 CHIKV patients were compared with 168 DENV patients. Factors associated with CHIKV were living in poor neighborhoods (82% vs 44%; odds ratio [OR], 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.35-10.2), having a precarious status (54% vs 33%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.49-3.78), and being born abroad (70% vs 35%; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.69-7.06). The present results suggest that early in the epidemic, the populations most at risk for CHIKV infection were the most socially vulnerable populations in the poorest neighborhoods, whereas DENV appeared to have affected a richer population and richer areas.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  8. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  9. What are the affordances of information and communication technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the notion that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT have affordances that epitomize the features of our late modern age (Giddens, 1991 and explores whether these affordances (Salomon, 1993, p. 51 can be used to facilitate particular approaches to educational practice. It argues that a clear articulation of these affordances would enable us to understand how these technologies can be most effectively used to support learning and teaching. We believe that any one affordance can be considered to have both positive and negative connotations and the paper draws on social and educational theory to provide an initial taxonomy of these affordances.

  10. Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context. Policy Research Working Paper 4517

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate,…

  11. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  12. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  14. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  15. Visual Descriptor Learning for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang

    2016-01-01

    by the task of grasping unknown objects given visual sensor information. The contributions from this thesis stem from three works that all relate to the task of grasping unknown objects but with particular focus on the visual representation part of the problem. First an investigation of a visual feature space...... consisting of surface features was performed. Dimensions in the visual space were varied and the effects were evaluated with the task of grasping unknown object. The evaluation was performed using a novel probabilistic grasp prediction approach based on neighbourhood analysis. The resulting success......-rates for predicting grasps were between 75% and 90% depending on the object class. The investigations also provided insights into the importance of selecting a proper visual feature space when utilising it for predicting affordances. As a consequence of the gained insights, a semi-local surface feature, the Sliced...

  16. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  17. Do already grasped objects activate motor affordances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iani, Cristina; Ferraro, Luca; Maiorana, Natale Vincenzo; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2018-04-07

    This study investigated whether in a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task affordance effects in response to picture of graspable objects emerge when these objects appear as already grasped. It also assessed whether the observed effects could be explained as due to spatial compatibility between the most salient part in the object/display and the hand of response rather than to action potentiation. To this aim, we conducted three behavioural experiments in which participants were required to discriminate the vertical orientation (upright vs. inverted) of an object presented in the centre of the screen, while ignoring the right-left orientation of its handle. The object could be presented alone, as already grasped, as partially masked (Experiment 1) or with a human hand close to its graspable side (Experiment 2). In addition, to assess the role of perceptual salience, the object could be presented with a human hand or a non-biological (a geometrical shape) distractor located opposite to the object's graspable side. Results showed faster responses when the object's handle was located on the same side of the responding hand with a larger effect when upright objects were shown as already grasped (Experiment 1) or when a hand was displayed close to its handle (Experiment 2), and a smaller reversed effect when the hand or the geometrical shape was located opposite to the handled side (Experiment 3). We interpreted these findings as indicating that handle orientation effects emerging in SRC tasks may result from the interplay between motor affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms.

  18. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  19. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective

  20. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O.

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit

  1. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs using Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn Random Forest based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach (direct bootstrapping), the state-space for a new...... affordance predictor is augmented with the output of previously learnt affordances. In the second approach (category based bootstrapping), we form categories that capture underlying commonalities of a pair of existing affordances and augment the state-space with this category classifier’s output. In addition......, we introduce a novel heuristic, which suggests how a large set of potential affordance categories can be pruned to leave only those categories which are most promising for bootstrapping future affordances. Our results show that both bootstrapping approaches outperform learning without bootstrapping...

  2. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  3. The Price of (Perceived Affordance: Commentary for Huron and Berec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gjerdingen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the symbolic objects in music and musical scores can permit affordances much as physical objects can. This construction of "affordance" places greater emphasis on cultural forms and human memory than the original idea proposed by James J. Gibson, and it aligns itself more closely with the refinements to "affordance" suggested by Donald Norman. For symbolic objects to permit strongly perceived affordances, it may be necessary for perceivers to have developed schematized perception in the course of over-learning culturally significant forms.

  4. Health workers' perceptions of access to care for children and pregnant women with precarious immigration status: health as a right or a privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthuyne, Karine; Meloni, Francesca; Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Rousseau, Cécile; Ricard-Guay, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian government's recent cuts to healthcare coverage for refugee claimants has rekindled the debate in Canada about what medical services should be provided to individuals with precarious immigration status, and who should pay for these services. This article further explores this debate, focussing on the perceptions of healthcare workers in Montreal, a large multiethnic Canadian city. In April-June 2010, an online survey was conducted to assess how clinicians, administrators, and support staff in Montreal contend with the ethical and professional dilemmas raised by the issue of access to healthcare services for pregnant women and children who are partially or completely uninsured. Drawing on qualitative analysis of answers (n = 237) to three open-ended survey questions, we identify the discursive frameworks that our respondents mobilized when arguing for, or against, universal access to healthcare for uninsured patients. In doing so, we highlight how their positions relate to their self-evaluations of Canada's socioeconomic situation, as well as their ideological representations of, and sense of social connection to, precarious status immigrants. Interestingly, while abstract values lead some healthcare workers to perceive uninsured immigrants as "deserving" of universal access to healthcare, negative perceptions of these migrants, coupled with pragmatic considerations, pushed most workers to view the uninsured as "underserving" of free care. For a majority of our respondents, the right to healthcare of precarious status immigrants has become a "privilege", that as taxpayers, they are increasingly less willing to contribute to. We conclude by arguing for a reconsideration of access to healthcare as a right, and offer recommendations to move in this direction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Embodiment as First Affordance: Tinkering, Tuning, Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Spatz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins from a discussion of philosophical realism and the turn towards close analysis of skilled material practices that characterizes many recent critical interventions. I examine the roots of this turn and suggest that skilled practice is a privileged site for the enactment and testing of realist ontologies. However, I question the extent to which realist thinkers have emphasized practices in which materials outside the human body are central over those in which embodiment itself is the primary medium of practice. Thinkers of realist ontology, I argue, have neglected embodiment as the primary site of an engagement with the fine-grained detail of the world. In contrast, I propose that realist ontologies developed through reference to technological engagements not only apply equally well to embodied practices but actually find their original and primary manifestation there. The body itself is the ‘first affordance’ and the site at which questions of realism and objectivity are first encountered and resolved in practice. I illustrate this point by considering how three modes of material engagement — tinkering, tuning, and tracking — manifest in embodied practices ranging from dance and sport to those of everyday life. I conclude by emphasizing the continuing political importance of embodiment as first affordance and its crucial place as a ‘fragile junction’ between ecology and technology.

  6. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  8. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  9. American surgery and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Steven C; Hoyt, David B; Hunter, John G; Joyce, Geoffrey; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2014-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to change the way we finance and deliver health care by coordinating the delivery of primary, specialty, and hospital services in accountable care organizations. The ways in which accountable care organizations will develop and evolve is unclear; however, the effects on surgeons and their patients will be substantial. High-value care in the ACA emphasizes quality, safety, resource use and appropriateness, and the patient's experience of care. Payment will be linked to these principles. Department chairs overseeing a clinical enterprise in academic medical centers now must add financial and quality measures to the traditional missions of education, research, and clinical service. At a time when surgical training is in dramatic evolution, with work hour limitations for residents and an emphasis on quality, productivity, and increasing oversight of trainees for faculty, residency programs will need to meet the increasing demands of an aging population and newly insured patients under the ACA. The American College of Surgeons, with its century-long commitment to quality improvement, research-based standards, and performance measurement and verification, has begun its Inspiring Quality Campaign, is developing new educational tools, and is preparing proposals for payment reform based on surgeons' participation in quality programs.

  10. La práctica del voluntariado: experiencias en contextos de precariedad The practice of volunteering: experiences in precarious contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Piccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan lineamientos generales, teóricos y metodológicos, y primeros resultados de una investigación que se ejecuta en un asentamiento situado en la zona sur de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Los protagonistas son un grupo de voluntarios/as, los habitantes del barrio y un grupo de psicólogos/as sociales recientemente incorporados a la relación entre ellos. Los objetivos generales son explorar las prácticas que despliegan los agentes e identificar el tipo de relación ya establecida entre los miembros del voluntariado y la comunidad. El método y las principales técnicas (entrevistas individuales y grupales y observación participante son cualitativos. Esta primera aproximación está centrada en el grupo voluntario en función de la elaboración de algunos resultados y, desde el punto de vista teórico, atendiendo sus distintas dimensiones, contextualizándolo e interrogando su definición.The general outline is presented , with its theoretical and methodological basis, as well as the first results of a Scolarship Plan for Master´s degree , " A pycho-social approach of the relationship among different actors in precarious contexts". The research is carried out in a settlement located in the south area of Buenos Aires City. The protagonists are a group of volunteers, the neighbourhood inhabitants and a group of social psychologists, recently incorporated . The general aims are to explore the practices performed by the agents and to identify the type of relation already established between the volunteering members and the community. The methodology and the main techniques (individual and collective interviews and active observation are cualitative. This first approach focuses on the group of volunteers in order to elaborate some results and, from the theoretical point of view, paying especial attention to its different dimensions, giving it a context and asking about its definition.

  11. Embodied perception: A proposal to reconcile affordance and spatial perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception,

  12. To be an affordable healthy house, case study Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Shanty

    2018-03-01

    House has a paramount meaning in human life. Provision of adequate housing will be able to improve the quality of life. Provision of an affordable house is a major step to fulfilling the needs of houses in the big city. Medan has built a lot of affordable houses, and mostly it takes place in the suburbs. Although the affordable house is for low-income people, it must be worthy of its physical condition, affordable in the budget and healthy for its users. House often saw only as physical alone, the provision of a house only to achieve solely in quantity regardless its quality. This study aims to examine the condition of affordable houses in the suburbs of Medan. The research method used qualitative descriptive, using indicator according to affordable healthy house standard according to the regulation in Indonesia and other related theories. This study took place in Medan by taking three areas in the suburbs of Medan. The results show that most affordable houses in the suburbs of Medan are unhealthy. There are several design recommendations for the houses to meet the affordable healthy house category; the most important is the addition of ventilation and window holes.

  13. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  14. Availability and affordability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted.

  15. Facilitating investment in affordable housing : Towards an Australian model. Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by

  16. Dissociating Simon and affordance compatibility effects: silhouettes and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Zissis

    2014-12-01

    When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  18. Centrioles: duplicating precariously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Laurence

    2007-09-04

    To assemble a mitotic spindle and accurately segregate chromosomes to progeny, a cell needs to precisely regulate its centrosome number, a feat largely accomplished through the tight control of centriole duplication. Recent work showing that the overexpression of centriolar proteins can lead to the formation of multiple centrioles in the absence of pre-existing centrioles challenges the idea that it is a self-replicating organelle.

  19. Resilience and precarious success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Mary D; Wears, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical case study to illustrate, corroborate, and perhaps extend some key generalizations about resilient performance in complex adaptive systems. The setting is a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy, a complex system embedded in the larger complex of the hospital, which provides chemotherapy and other high risk medications to children with cancer, sickle cell disease and autoimmune disorders. Recently the demands placed on this system have dramatically intensified while the resources allocated to the system have remained static. We describe the adaptations of this system in response to this additional stress. In addition, we discuss the risks associated with miscalibration about the system's adaptive capacity, and the tradeoff between the need to invest in adaptive capacity (to sustain performance when the system is stressed) versus the need to invest in efficient production (to sustain performance under normal circumstances and economic pressures). - Highlights: • We describe a complex adaptive system: a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy. • Work in this system has changed and intensified, but resources have remained static. • Staff's adaptive behaviors demonstrate graceful extensibility and fluency. • The HO staff has demonstrated extraordinary adaptive behaviors. • Leadership miscalibrates the efforts required to perform the pharmacy's work

  20. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  1. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Rodionova, Yulia; Falcetti, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability

  3. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.rodionova@ssees.ucl.ac.uk; Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability.

  4. Utility payments in Ukraine. Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom); Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability. (author)

  5. Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

    2012-02-01

    Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

  6. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  7. SPACEWAY: Providing affordable and versatile communication solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, E. J.

    1995-08-01

    By the end of this decade, Hughes' SPACEWAY network will provide the first interactive 'bandwidth on demand' communication services for a variety of applications. High quality digital voice, interactive video, global access to multimedia databases, and transborder workgroup computing will make SPACEWAY an essential component of the computer-based workplace of the 21st century. With relatively few satellites to construct, insure, and launch -- plus extensive use of cost-effective, tightly focused spot beams on the world's most populated areas -- the high capacity SPACEWAY system can pass its significant cost savings onto its customers. The SPACEWAY network is different from other proposed global networks in that its geostationary orbit location makes it a truly market driven system: each satellite will make available extensive telecom services to hundreds of millions of people within the continuous view of that satellite, providing immediate capacity within a specific region of the world.

  8. Critical Care Implications of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Anjali P; Dorman, Todd

    2016-03-01

    To provide an overview of key elements of the Affordable Care Act. To evaluate ways in which the Affordable Care Act will likely impact the practice of critical care medicine. To describe strategies that may help health systems and providers effectively adapt to changes brought about by the Affordable Care Act. Data sources for this concise review include search results from the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as sources relevant to public policy such as the text of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and reports of the Congressional Budget Office. As all of the Affordable Care Act's provisions will not be fully implemented until 2019, we also drew upon cost, population, and utilization projections, as well as the experience of existing state-based healthcare reforms. The Affordable Care Act represents the furthest reaching regulatory changes in the U.S. healthcare system since the 1965 Medicare and Medicaid provisions of the Social Security Act. The Affordable Care Act aims to expand health insurance coverage to millions of Americans and place an emphasis on quality and cost-effectiveness of care. From models which link pay and performance to those which center on episodic care, the Affordable Care Act outlines sweeping changes to health systems, reimbursement structures, and the delivery of critical care. Staffing models that include daily rounding by an intensivist, palliative care integration, and expansion of the role of telemedicine in areas where intensivists are inaccessible are potential strategies that may improve quality and profitability of ICU care in the post-Affordable Care Act era.

  9. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  10. Physics vs. computer science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, R.

    1982-01-01

    With computers becoming more frequently used in theoretical and experimental physics, physicists can no longer afford to be ignorant of the basic techniques and results of computer science. Computing principles belong in a physicist's tool box, along with experimental methods and applied mathematics, and the easiest way to educate physicists in computing is to provide, as part of the undergraduate curriculum, a computing course designed specifically for physicists. As well, the working physicist should interact with computer scientists, giving them challenging problems in return for their expertise. (orig.)

  11. Housing Affordability in Ghana: A focus on Kumasi and Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Department of Real ... affordable housing delivery system in Ghana. It found that ... markets; and hence has a significant impact on .... housing projects during this era were the ...... Table 4: Construction Materials in Kumasi and Tamale, 2010.

  12. Getting a grip on affordances, attention and visual fields

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Lotje van der; Theeuwes, Jan; Ellis, Rob

    2013-01-01

    van der Linden, L., Theeuwes, J., & Ellis, R. (2012). Getting a grip on affordances, attention, and visual fields. Poster presented at the 2012 William James Graduate School Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  13. the role of financial institutions towards affordable housing to urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    weak positive effect (=.345) of housing finance on affordable housing and contributed to ..... Officers and 81 selected beneficiaries (middle income earners) of the several ..... transaction has to be independently valued by the Chief. Government ...

  14. The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in India ... services for the poor likely contribute to gender inequality by restricting women's educational ... a state that performs poorly in terms of women's empowerment in India.

  15. Challenges of Integrating Affordable and Sustainable Housing in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Jamaludin, S. Z. H.; Mahayuddin, S. A.; Hamid, S. H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Developing countries including Malaysia have begun to comprehend the needs for affordable and sustainable housing development. The majority of the population is still aspiring for a comfortable, safe and reasonably priced house. Households in the low-middle income range face difficulties to find housing that can satisfy their needs and budget. Unfortunately, most of the housing development programs are considering affordability rather than sustainable aspects. Furthermore, developers are more interested in profit and neglect sustainability issues. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the challenges in integrating affordable housing and sustainable practices in Malaysia. This paper is produced based on an extensive literature review as a basis to develop strategies of integrated affordable and sustainable housing in Malaysia. The challenges are divided into four sections, namely market challenges, professional challenges, societal challenges and technological challenges. The outcomes of this paper will assist in the decision making involving housing development and in enhancing quality of life for sustainable communities.

  16. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  17. Developing an Assessment Framework for Affordable and Sustainable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pullen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable housing has been subject to research, practice and policy making for some considerable time. More recently attention has been drawn to the separate problem of declining affordability in housing. This paper describes research aimed at developing an assessment framework for both affordability and sustainability as part of the effort to incorporate both of these features into new housing projects. The research has a particular focus on developments aimed at urban densification. Background literature on both affordability and sustainability is reviewed as well as emerging schemes aimed at dealing with both aspects of housing developments. Performance indicators are identified and these are incorporated in an interim assessment framework which is tested using a group of industry experts. The research has highlighted areas where further development is required to attain quantitative assessments of affordable and sustainable housing developments

  18. Increasing the Supply of Affordable Housing in Urban India - Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Upasna

    2014-01-01

    The need for housing in today's world is irrefutable. The growing population, accompanied with the fast pace of urbanization, are producing great housing demand, in urban areas in particular. This study focused on one segment of housing - affordable housing, in Mumbai, India, the demand for which has been on a steady rise over the past decade. Though traditionally the State was the provider of affordable housing, private sector has been increasingly involved in the segment, beginning the econ...

  19. Embodied Perception: A Proposal to Reconcile Affordance and Spatial Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?al-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception, most of the empirical work evaluating Proffitt's approach focuses on the perception of spatial properties of the environment. We propose that theoretical and empirical efforts should be directed towar...

  20. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behaviour goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects.

  1. Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Victor Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design.

  2. Are essential medicines in Malaysia accessible, affordable and available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M

    2005-12-01

    To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain

  3. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of neurodiagnostic tests in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Hannah C; Berkowitz, Aaron L; Patenaude, Bryan N; McKenzie, Erica D; Wolper, Emma; Wahlster, Sarah; Fink, Günther; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-11-03

    To determine the availability, accessibility, and affordability of EEG, EMG, CSF analysis, head CT, and brain MRI for neurologic disorders across countries. An online, 60-question survey was distributed to neurology practitioners in 2014 to assess the presence, wait time, and cost of each test in private and public health sectors. Data were stratified by World Bank country income group. Affordability was calculated with reference to the World Health Organization's definition of catastrophic health expenditure as health-related out-of-pocket expenditure of >40% of disposable household income, and assessment of providers' perceptions of affordability to the patient. Availability of EEG and EMG is correlated with higher World Bank income group (correlation coefficient 0.38, test for trend p = 0.046; 0.376, p = 0.043); CSF, CT, and MRI did not show statistically significant associations with income groups. Patients in public systems wait longer for neurodiagnostic tests, especially MRI, EEG, and urgent CT (p private sector (US $55.25 vs $214.62, p income group is associated with a 29% decrease in the estimated share of the population who can afford a given test (95% confidence interval -33.4, 25.2; p income countries surveyed, only the top 10% or 20% of the population was able to afford tests below catastrophic levels. In surveyed lower-middle-income countries, >40% of the population, on average, could not afford neurodiagnostic tests. Neurodiagnostic tests are least affordable in the lowest income settings. Closing this "diagnostic gap" for countries with the lowest incomes is essential. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  5. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  6. Making Sense of Biodiversity: The Affordances of Systems Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; McPhearson, Timon

    2018-01-01

    We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings. Here, we review the often overlooked role of traits in the provisioning of ecosystem services as a potential bridge between affordance theory and applied systems ecology. We propose that many traits can be understood as the basis for the affordances offered by biodiversity, and that they offer a more fruitful way to discuss human-biodiversity relations than do the taxonomic information most often used. Moreover, as emerging transdisciplinary studies indicate, connecting affordances to functional traits allows us to ask questions about the temporal and two-way nature of affordances and perhaps most importantly, can serve as a starting point for more fully bridging the fields of ecology and environmental psychology with respect to how we understand human-biodiversity relationships.

  7. Computer Based Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, James D.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    Claims knowledge-based expert computer systems can meet needs of rural schools for affordable expert advice and support and will play an important role in the future of rural education. Describes potential applications in prediction, interpretation, diagnosis, remediation, planning, monitoring, and instruction. (NEC)

  8. The Role of Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Pecher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor affordances are important for object knowledge. Semantic tasks on visual objects often show interactions with motor actions. Prior neuro-imaging studies suggested that motor affordances also play a role in visual working memory for objects. When participants remembered manipulable objects (e.g., hammer greater premotor cortex activation was observed than when they remembered non-manipulable objects (e.g., polar bear. In the present study participants held object pictures in working memory while performing concurrent tasks such as articulation of nonsense syllables and performing hand movements. Although concurrent tasks did interfere with working memory performance, in none of the experiments did we find any evidence that concurrent motor tasks affected memory differently for manipulable and non-manipulable objects. I conclude that motor affordances are not used for visual working memory.

  9. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of affordances in Libras acquisition as second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Puhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Libras is a visual-spatial language used by the Brazilian deaf community. Following the principles of spatiality and vision, the user of the sign language resorts more easily to stimuli from the environment than the user of the oral language. Thus, the hypothesis of this research is that the affordances (environmental properties that enable psychologically possible actions would be a facilitator element in the process of Libras acquisition. In this paper we use the narrative and interpretive-qualitative research to discuss the role of affordances in the listener perception, interpretation and action cycle in Libras acquisition as second language. Results show that the Libras’ iconic signs can be considered important affordances in the early stages of the acquisition. It is also observed the importance of the permanence in the niche where Libras is used for the sign language development.

  11. Computational Streetscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Torrens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streetscapes have presented a long-standing interest in many fields. Recently, there has been a resurgence of attention on streetscape issues, catalyzed in large part by computing. Because of computing, there is more understanding, vistas, data, and analysis of and on streetscape phenomena than ever before. This diversity of lenses trained on streetscapes permits us to address long-standing questions, such as how people use information while mobile, how interactions with people and things occur on streets, how we might safeguard crowds, how we can design services to assist pedestrians, and how we could better support special populations as they traverse cities. Amid each of these avenues of inquiry, computing is facilitating new ways of posing these questions, particularly by expanding the scope of what-if exploration that is possible. With assistance from computing, consideration of streetscapes now reaches across scales, from the neurological interactions that form among place cells in the brain up to informatics that afford real-time views of activity over whole urban spaces. For some streetscape phenomena, computing allows us to build realistic but synthetic facsimiles in computation, which can function as artificial laboratories for testing ideas. In this paper, I review the domain science for studying streetscapes from vantages in physics, urban studies, animation and the visual arts, psychology, biology, and behavioral geography. I also review the computational developments shaping streetscape science, with particular emphasis on modeling and simulation as informed by data acquisition and generation, data models, path-planning heuristics, artificial intelligence for navigation and way-finding, timing, synthetic vision, steering routines, kinematics, and geometrical treatment of collision detection and avoidance. I also discuss the implications that the advances in computing streetscapes might have on emerging developments in cyber

  12. Affordances of Spreadsheets In Mathematical Investigation: Potentialities For Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Calder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, is concerned with the ways learning is shaped when mathematics problems are investigated in spreadsheet environments. It considers how the opportunities and constraints the digital media affords influenced the decisions the students made, and the direction of their enquiry pathway. How might the learning trajectory unfold, and the learning process and mathematical understanding emerge? Will the spreadsheet, as the pedagogical medium, evoke learning in a distinctive manner? The article reports on an aspect of an ongoing study involving students as they engage mathematical investigative tasks through digital media, the spreadsheet in particular. It considers the affordances of this learning environment for primary-aged students.

  13. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  14. Patterns in Health Care Access and Affordability Among Cancer Survivors During Implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Shui, Amy M; Perez, Giselle K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Moy, Beverly; Kuhlthau, Karen; Park, Elyse R

    2018-03-29

    Cancer survivors face ongoing health issues and need access to affordable health care, yet studies examining health care access and affordability in this population are lacking. To evaluate health care access and affordability in a national sample of cancer survivors compared with adults without cancer and to evaluate temporal trends during implementation of the Affordable Care Act. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey from 2010 through 2016 to conduct a population-based study of 30 364 participants aged 18 years or older. We grouped participants as cancer survivors (n = 15 182) and those with no reported history of cancer, whom we refer to as control respondents (n = 15 182), matched on age. We excluded individuals reporting a cancer diagnosis prior to age 18 years and those with nonmelanoma skin cancers. We compared issues with health care access (eg, delayed or forgone care) and affordability (eg, unable to afford medications or health care services) between cancer survivors and control respondents. We also explored trends over time in the proportion of cancer survivors reporting these difficulties. Of the 30 364 participants, 18 356 (57.4%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 63.5 (23.5) years. Cancer survivors were more likely to be insured (14 412 [94.8%] vs 13 978 [92.2%], P care (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.63), forgone medical care (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.45-2.12), and/or inability to afford medications (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.46-2.14) and health care services (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27-1.68) (P care decreased each year (B = 0.47; P = .047), and the proportion of those needing and not getting medical care also decreased each year (B = 0.35; P = .04). In addition, the proportion of cancer survivors who reported being unable to afford prescription medication decreased each year (B=0.66; P = .004) and the proportion of those unable to afford at least 1 of 6 services decreased each year (B = 0

  15. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  16. Subjective perception versus objective indicators of overcrowding and housing affordability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr; Lux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 695-717 ISSN 1566-4910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Housing * Indicators * Overcrowding * Housing affordability Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2016

  17. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  18. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  19. Energy affordability and the benefits system in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaci, Raffaele; Scarpa, Carlo; Valbonesi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of ways to define and measure the affordability of energy consumption, and we examine the emergence of energy poverty in Italy in the period from 1998 to 2011. The paper examines the eligibility criteria for claiming the benefits available to support energy consumption for vulnerable families and it identifies the potential beneficiaries. The study assesses the appropriateness of the eligibility criteria by comparing the population targeted by the policy with the population actually facing affordability problems. A simulation exercise, using the hypothetical scenario most likely to result in energy benefits being made available, shows that, regardless of the affordability index adopted, the provision of state energy benefits has little impact on fuel poverty. - Highlights: • The paper provides a discussion of alternative measure of energy affordability. • We examine the emergence of fuel poverty in Italy from 1998 to 2011. • We assess the appropriateness of the Italian energy benefits eligibility criteria. • A simulation shows that the energy benefits have little impact on fuel poverty

  20. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  1. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  2. Cost considerations in determining the affordability of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Affordability and value differ in patient groups with different baseline prognoses. This is illustrated below using the hazard ratio (HR) of survival rates obtained from a. Cochrane review[2] and personal communication ...

  3. Affordability of cataract surgery using the Big Mac prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van C. Lansingh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The price of cataract surgery does not consider the patient's capacity to pay, based on a simple tool such as the BMcI. This suggests affordability issues, particularly when patients work for minimum wages and/or do not have access to free health care.

  4. Affordances and Alignments: Continuing Challenges in Advising Undergraduate Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…

  5. The Affordances Of Repackaged Popular Music From The Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.R. Driessen (Simone)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis explores the affordances of repackaged popular music from the past. Particularly, how they feature in audiences’ reflections on different stages and transitions in their life course. Three case studies highlight different modes of repackaging and illustrate how

  6. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  7. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the enabling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The artic...

  8. The Messiness of Meaning Making: Examining the Affordances of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having incorporated a digital aspect to our academic literacy course, and having monitored this over the last three years, we have come to believe that online mentoring can serve as an essential form of tutoring and mentoring. Our study is located in the field of New Literacy Studies and examines the affordances of a digital ...

  9. Essential Medicines in Nigeria: Foregrounding Access to Affordable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Within every functional healthcare system, access to quality and affordable essential medicine stands out as one of the building blocks. However ... Keywords: Access to medicines, Essential medicines, Healthcare, Public health facilities, Counterfeit medicines, Traditional medicines, Health systems, Systems theory ...

  10. Educational Affordances and Learning Design in Music Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Leong, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Although music software has become increasingly affordable and widely adopted in today's classrooms, concerns have been raised about a lack of consideration for users' needs during the software development process. This paper examines intra- and inter-sectoral communication pertaining to software development and music education to shed light on…

  11. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  12. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  13. Gift Planning: You Can't Afford Not to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard H.; Gaudette, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The process of reaching out to donors and securing gifts from alumni and other community members presents its share of challenges for community colleges. But, as funding experts Richard H. Morley and Mike Gaudette of the Council for Resource Development write in "Gift Planning: You Can't Afford Not To," there exists a huge financial incentive for…

  14. A typology of affordances: untangling sociomaterial interactions through video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Mendelson, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we untangle the sociomaterial interactions between developers, users, and artifacts by analyzing what types of affordances occur in the interactions between actors and artifacts in the context of group generativity. Hereto, we conducted an in-depth ethnographic and interaction analysis

  15. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  16. Affordance Theory and Multiple Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordt, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    This article argues that the concept of affordances as put forward by James J. Gibson can make a major contribution to our understanding of multilingualism. It can throw some light on multilingualism in general as well as on specific aspects like successful and unsuccessful transfer, the challenges involved in teaching for multilingualism,…

  17. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  18. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD strategies on physical activity (PA among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19 and 52% (n = 15 respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054. There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031; while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033. Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures. Keywords: Active design, Physical activity, Built environment, Affordable housing

  19. To Do or Not to Do: Dopamine, Affordability and the Economics of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Mourra, Devry

    2018-01-01

    Five years ago, we introduced the thrift hypothesis of dopamine (DA), suggesting that the primary role of DA in adaptive behavior is regulating behavioral energy expenditure to match the prevailing economic conditions of the environment. Here we elaborate that hypothesis with several new ideas. First, we introduce the concept of affordability, suggesting that costs must necessarily be evaluated with respect to the availability of resources to the organism, which computes a value not only for the potential reward opportunity, but also the value of resources expended. Placing both costs and benefits within the context of the larger economy in which the animal is functioning requires consideration of the different timescales against which to compute resource availability, or average reward rate. Appropriate windows of computation for tracking resources requires corresponding neural substrates that operate on these different timescales. In discussing temporal patterns of DA signaling, we focus on a neglected form of DA plasticity and adaptation, changes in the physical substrate of the DA system itself, such as up- and down-regulation of receptors or release probability. We argue that changes in the DA substrate itself fundamentally alter its computational function, which we propose mediates adaptations to longer temporal horizons and economic conditions. In developing our hypothesis, we focus on DA D2 receptors (D2R), arguing that D2R implements a form of “cost control” in response to the environmental economy, serving as the “brain’s comptroller”. We propose that the balance between the direct and indirect pathway, regulated by relative expression of D1 and D2 DA receptors, implements affordability. Finally, as we review data, we discuss limitations in current approaches that impede fully investigating the proposed hypothesis and highlight alternative, more semi-naturalistic strategies more conducive to neuroeconomic investigations on the role of DA in

  20. To Do or Not to Do: Dopamine, Affordability and the Economics of Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A. Beeler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Five years ago, we introduced the thrift hypothesis of dopamine (DA, suggesting that the primary role of DA in adaptive behavior is regulating behavioral energy expenditure to match the prevailing economic conditions of the environment. Here we elaborate that hypothesis with several new ideas. First, we introduce the concept of affordability, suggesting that costs must necessarily be evaluated with respect to the availability of resources to the organism, which computes a value not only for the potential reward opportunity, but also the value of resources expended. Placing both costs and benefits within the context of the larger economy in which the animal is functioning requires consideration of the different timescales against which to compute resource availability, or average reward rate. Appropriate windows of computation for tracking resources requires corresponding neural substrates that operate on these different timescales. In discussing temporal patterns of DA signaling, we focus on a neglected form of DA plasticity and adaptation, changes in the physical substrate of the DA system itself, such as up- and down-regulation of receptors or release probability. We argue that changes in the DA substrate itself fundamentally alter its computational function, which we propose mediates adaptations to longer temporal horizons and economic conditions. In developing our hypothesis, we focus on DA D2 receptors (D2R, arguing that D2R implements a form of “cost control” in response to the environmental economy, serving as the “brain’s comptroller”. We propose that the balance between the direct and indirect pathway, regulated by relative expression of D1 and D2 DA receptors, implements affordability. Finally, as we review data, we discuss limitations in current approaches that impede fully investigating the proposed hypothesis and highlight alternative, more semi-naturalistic strategies more conducive to neuroeconomic investigations on the

  1. To Do or Not to Do: Dopamine, Affordability and the Economics of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A; Mourra, Devry

    2018-01-01

    Five years ago, we introduced the thrift hypothesis of dopamine (DA), suggesting that the primary role of DA in adaptive behavior is regulating behavioral energy expenditure to match the prevailing economic conditions of the environment. Here we elaborate that hypothesis with several new ideas. First, we introduce the concept of affordability, suggesting that costs must necessarily be evaluated with respect to the availability of resources to the organism, which computes a value not only for the potential reward opportunity, but also the value of resources expended. Placing both costs and benefits within the context of the larger economy in which the animal is functioning requires consideration of the different timescales against which to compute resource availability, or average reward rate. Appropriate windows of computation for tracking resources requires corresponding neural substrates that operate on these different timescales. In discussing temporal patterns of DA signaling, we focus on a neglected form of DA plasticity and adaptation, changes in the physical substrate of the DA system itself, such as up- and down-regulation of receptors or release probability. We argue that changes in the DA substrate itself fundamentally alter its computational function, which we propose mediates adaptations to longer temporal horizons and economic conditions. In developing our hypothesis, we focus on DA D2 receptors (D2R), arguing that D2R implements a form of "cost control" in response to the environmental economy, serving as the "brain's comptroller". We propose that the balance between the direct and indirect pathway, regulated by relative expression of D1 and D2 DA receptors, implements affordability. Finally, as we review data, we discuss limitations in current approaches that impede fully investigating the proposed hypothesis and highlight alternative, more semi-naturalistic strategies more conducive to neuroeconomic investigations on the role of DA in adaptive

  2. Os modos de ser da informalidade: rumo a uma nova era da precarização estrutural do trabalho? The ways of being of informality: towards a new era of structural precarious work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antunes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado das transformações e metamorfoses nos países capitalistas, estamos diante de um intenso e significativo processo de informalização e precarização da classe trabalhadora. Compreender os modos de ser dessa processualidade, seus elementos explicativos, bem como suas conexões com a lei do valor é o principal objetivo deste texto. Em oposição à afirmação do fim do trabalho, podemos constatar uma expressiva precarização e informalidade do trabalho, que ocorre nas formas de trabalho parcial, subcontratado e precarizado.As a result of the transformations and metamorphoses in the capitalist countries, we are facing an intense and significant process of making the working class informal and precarious. The aim of this article is to understand the ways of being of that process, its reasons, as well as its connections with the law of value. In opposition to the statement related to the end of work, we find out an expressive precarious and informal character of work, which occurs as partial, subcontracted and precarious work.

  3. Glucose intolerance and General Health Questionnaire 12-item version scores of male two-shift workers stratified by precariousness of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between precariousness of work, glucose intolerance and psychological wellbeing for male workers, stratified by age. I recruited 2542 manufacturing two-shift workers, aged from 35 to 54 years. Glucose intolerance was defined as fasting plasma glucose of ≥100mg/dL or current medication of diabetes mellitus. The rating scale of General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12) was used for evaluating psychological well-being. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of glucose intolerance by aging in permanent workers. In addition, the prevalence of glucose intolerance except 30s and the prevalence of positive GHQ-12 scores except 50s of permanent workers were both significantly higher than that of temporary workers in each age class. Temporary workers in this study sign contracts for 3 years, and heather worker's effect, compared with permanent workers, would be reflected in this study. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crisis, precariedad y desigualdad de género en España y en Italia (Crisis, precariousness and gender inequality in Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Alcañiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La crisis de 2008 ha precarizado el mercado laboral de España e Italia, mediante medidas de flexibilización así como reduciendo las políticas de cuidado y ayudas familiares. El objetivo del presente artículo se centra en comparar a las mujeres italianas y españolas desde la perspectiva de la precariedad y la desigualdad, mediante la utilización de datos secundarios obtenidos de fuentes oficiales europeas y estatales. Los resultados manifiestan diferencias entre las mujeres españolas y las italianas basadas por una parte, en la estructura económica y laboral existente en cada uno de los estados y por otra, en la mayor o menor presencia de las relaciones de género tradicionales. | The financial crisis of 2008 has led to a precarious labour market in Spain and Italy, the result of measures that have increased the flexibility of work conditions in each country and reduced the number of policies that foster welfare and aid for families. This article will compare Italian and Spanish women by focusing on insecurity and inequality, using secondary data obtained from official European and government sources. The results show differences between Italian and Spanish women, which are based on the financial and labour structure of these countries on the one hand, and the extent to which each country exhibits traditional gender relations on the other.

  5. Trabalho precário e precarização institucional nos Estados Unidos Precarious work and the institutional precarization in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Kesselman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as bases institucionais do trabalho precário nos Estados Unidos através de um duplo processo de precarização: da relação contratual tradicional e, dada a fragmentação do quadro institucional, a inadaptação da lei trabalhista dos Estados Unidos. O texto procura enfatizar a importância do estatuto do trabalhador - a relação contratual de emprego - para o acesso do mesmo aos direitos e benefícios sociais básicos. Os efeitos da recente crise econômica e a resposta das políticas públicas são discutidos na conclusão.We analyze the institutional underpinnings of precarious work in the United States through a double process of precarization: of the traditional contractual relationship and given the fragmented institutional framework and the inadaptation of U.S. labor law. The importance of the employee status - the contractual employment relationship - for access to social rights and basic benefits is emphasized. Effects of the recent economic crisis and public policy response are discussed in conclusion.

  6. Manganese Silylene Hydride Complexes: Synthesis and Reactivity with Ethylene to Afford Silene Hydride Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jeffrey S; Emslie, David J H; Britten, James F

    2017-05-22

    Reaction of the ethylene hydride complex trans-[(dmpe) 2 MnH(C 2 H 4 )] (1) with Et 2 SiH 2 at 20 °C afforded the silylene hydride [(dmpe) 2 MnH(=SiEt 2 )] (2 a) as the trans-isomer. By contrast, reaction of 1 with Ph 2 SiH 2 at 60 °C afforded [(dmpe) 2 MnH(=SiPh 2 )] (2 b) as a mixture of the cis (major) and trans (minor) isomers, featuring a Mn-H-Si interaction in the former. The reaction to form 2 b also yielded [(dmpe) 2 MnH 2 (SiHPh 2 )] (3 b); [(dmpe) 2 MnH 2 (SiHR 2 )] (R=Et (3 a) and Ph (3 b)) were accessed cleanly by reaction of 2 a and 2 b with H 2 , and the analogous reactions with D 2 afforded [(dmpe) 2 MnD 2 (SiHR 2 )] exclusively. Both 2 a and 2 b engaged in unique reactivity with ethylene, generating the silene hydride complexes cis-[(dmpe) 2 MnH(R 2 Si=CHMe)] (R=Et (4 a), Ph (4 b)). Compounds trans-2 a, cis-2 b, 3 b, and 4 b were crystallographically characterized, and bonding in 2 a, 2 b, 4 a, and 4 b was probed computationally. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Perception of Affordances and Experience of Presence in Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Grabarczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in virtual reality technology raise a question about the experience of presence and immersion in virtual environments. What is immersion and what are the conditions for inducing the experience of virtual presence? In this paper, we argue that crucial determinants of presence are perception of affordances and sense of embodiment. In the first section of this paper, we define key concepts and introduce important distinctions such as immersion and presence. In the second and third sections, we respectively discuss presence, immersion and their determinants in detail. In the fourth and fifth sections, we argue for the importance of perception of affordances and sense of embodiment in increasing the degree of presence. Finally, we show the consequences of our view and discuss possible future implications.

  8. High School Girls’ Everyday Aesthetics on Instagram: The Affordance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou-Chun Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores high school girls’ Instagram aesthetic practices based on the affordance theory. We conduct in-depth interviews and photo analyses of 10 subjects to reveal how these girls interact with the app’s interface, and what strategic practices they have developed to interact with the affordances preset by Instagram. The findings demonstrate that Instagram has become a realm for everyday aesthetics due to its design priority on photos. These high school girls navigate in plural art worlds as they share their reframed photos with a variety of social groups, of which each has its own discrete aesthetic convention. This indicates that Instagram’s interface design has successfully associated itself with taste and beauty, eliciting these girls to collect more reframing apps in order to achieve their own distinction. As a result, aesthetics takes shape in everyday life, but they take their own aestheticized life as the real one.

  9. Small businesses and the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Nicholson, Jennifer L; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several short- and long-term provisions designed to help small businesses pay for and maintain health insurance for their workers, and to allow workers without employer coverage to gain access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance. Provisions include a small business tax credit to offset premium costs for firms that offer coverage starting this taxable year, establishment of state-based insurance exchanges that promise to lower administrative costs and pool risk more broadly, and creation of new market rules and an essential benefit standard to protect small firms and their workers. Analysis shows that up to 16.6 million workers are in firms that would be eligible for the tax credit in 2010 to 2013. Over the next 10 years, small businesses and organizations could receive an estimated $40 billion in federal support through the premium credit program.

  10. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Elizabeth; Garland, Victoria; Peters, Dominique; Doucette, John; Thanik, Erin; Rajupet, Sritha; Sanchez, Sadie H

    2018-06-01

    This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD) strategies on physical activity (PA) among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID) Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH) incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV) served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19) and 52% (n = 15) respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI) and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054). There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031); while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033). Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures.

  11. System Qualities Ontology, Tradespace and Affordability (SQOTA) Project: Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    effectiveness and practicality 3. Balance Agility, Assurance, and Affordability: Develop SE MPTs that work with high assurance in the face of... work supported, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Department of Defense through the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and...model-driven, set-based, full life cycle approaches. These will enable much more rapid, concurrent, flexible, scalable definition and analysis of the

  12. Augmented Reality in science education – affordances for student learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    Most extant studies examining augmented reality (AR) have focused on the technology itself. This paper presents findings addressing the issue of AR for educational purposes based on a sequential survey distributed to 35 expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries. There was consensus among experts in relation to a focus on ‘learning before technology’, and they in particular supplemented affordances identified in literature with perspectives re...

  13. Paying for Cures: Perspectives on Solutions to the "Affordability Issue".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Sarah Karlsberg; Messner, Donna; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Tambor, Ellen; Towse, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Curative therapies and other medicines considered "game-changing" in terms of health gain can be accompanied by high demand and high list prices that pose budget challenges to public and private payers and health systems-the so-called affordability issue. These challenges are exacerbated when longer term effectiveness, and thus value for money, is uncertain, but they can arise even when treatments are proven to be highly cost-effective at the time of launch. This commentary reviews innovative payment solutions proposed in the literature to address the affordability issue, including the use of credit markets and of staged payments linked to patient outcomes, and draws on discussions with payers in the United States and Europe on the feasibility or desirability of operationalizing any of the alternative financing and payment strategies that appear in the literature. This included a small number of semistructured interviews. We conclude that there is a mismatch between the enthusiasm in the academic literature for developing new approaches and the scepticism of payers that they can work or are necessary. For the foreseeable future, affordability pressures will continue to be handled by aggressive price bargaining, high co-pays (in systems in which this is possible), and restricting access to subgroups of patients. Of the mechanisms we explored, outcomes-based payments were of most interest to payers, but the costs associated with operating such schemes, together with implementation challenges, did not make them an attractive option for managing affordability. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  15. Structuring Payment to Medical Homes After the Affordable Care Act

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Samuel T.; Abrams, Melinda K.; Baron, Richard J.; Berenson, Robert A.; Rich, Eugene C.; Rosenthal, Gary E.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Landon, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for acco...

  16. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The arti......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes....... The article draws on critical comments and extends Hutchby’s concept of affordance. Even if Hutchby does not study an artefact as a micro-level phe-nomenon from an engineering perspective and only considers the consumption of an arte-fact, we use him to study the development of artefacts in NPD. Hutchby...... to negotiate technical and non-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer’s problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra...

  17. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  18. Normative Interfaces: Affordances, Gender, and Race in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Cirucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates social network site affordances and their implications for perceptions of marginalized communities. I employ Facebook as a case study and speak with young adult users to comprehend how socially marginalized groups are perceived through Facebook’s affordances. In particular, I consider: How familiar are users with Facebook’s tools and functionalities? How are issues of gender and race represented through the site’s interface? How do users conceive of gender and race? The findings suggest that gender is perceived as a more important identifier than race and that Facebook is post-racial, because of the user interface choices made. In addition, my participants view Facebook as an official social space that should include “authentic” identities; although Facebook has shaped authentic to mean accurate. I conclude that while the construction of affordances is a negotiation between user, interface, and designer, the designers have the most power because they have created the spaces in ways that will most benefit Facebook. In addition, users who are more situated in the socio-cultural majority have no desire to enact agency within Facebook’s structure because they are accustomed to forms and official documents that are well suited to fit their identification needs.

  19. Cost and affordability of healthy food in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P R; Coveney, J; Verity, F; Carter, P; Schilling, M

    2012-01-01

    As in many other countries, Australian consumers have recently had to accommodate increases in costs of basic food, and during the financial year 2007-2008 overall food prices rose by nearly 4%. Food costs are mediating factors in food choice, especially for low-income groups, where food security is often tenuous. There are reports that rural populations may have higher levels of food insecurity, although the evidence is often contradictory. To assess cost and affordability of food in rural areas this study used the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) methodology, which has been applied in a number of settings. The HFBs were costed at supermarkets and stores in different locations with different degrees of rurality. Compared with metropolitan areas, healthy food is more expensive in rural areas; costs are even higher in more remote areas. The overall affordability of HFB in rural areas was not significantly different from metro areas. The main difference concerned low socio-economic status (SES) groups, where the proportion of household income spent on the HFB was three times that of higher SES groups. The unaffordability of healthy food, or 'food stress' in low SES groups is a concern, especially when this group carries the greatest burden of diet-related disease. Findings suggest that there is a need to consider both rurality and SES when developing policy responses to decrease the cost and increase the affordability of healthy foods in rural and remote areas.

  20. S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.

  1. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Parchoma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  2. Work, precariousness and unionism: workers and work cooperatives Trabalho, precarização e sindicalismo: os trabalhadores e as cooperativas de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Carlos Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the precarious employment conditions at employee ownership and the role of unions face to this new situation. Cooperatives have multiplied all over the country and the assumed self-management in cooperatives is used, in great measure, as a way of lowering costs. After a period of hesitation facing the new reality, and still oriented according to different areas, industrial sectors and political orientation, unions have been classifying cooperatives in true or false. True cooperatives have the support of unions while false cooperatives, which include greater number of workers, are combated or simply ignored. Keywords: Workers cooperatives. Flexible work. Self-management. Unionism. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a terceirização industrial e a precarização do trabalho a partir da recuperação de uma forma de organização do trabalho descontextualizada de seus objetivos originais: o trabalho autogestionário em cooperativas de trabalho e os sindicatos frente a essas cooperativas. Muito disseminada pelo país a pretensa autogestão em cooperativas é utilizada, em grande medida, como forma de barateamento de custos empresariais. Após período de hesitação frente a esse quadro, a atuação sindical incide sobre uma classificação que visa separar os empreendimentos autogestionários entre verdadeiros ou falsos. Ainda que com posturas diferenciadas por ramos, setores produtivos e orientações específicas, as centrais sindicais têm apoiado aquelas consideradas cooperativas verdadeiras e combatido as que consideram falsas e que, ironicamente, englobam maior número de trabalhadores, e que terminam sendo ignorados pelo sindicato. Palavras-chave: Cooperativas de trabalho. Trabalho flexível. Trabalho autogestionário. Sindicalismo.

  3. Learning outcomes afforded by self-assessed, segmented video–print combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Koumi

    2015-01-01

    Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video–print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational attributes, motivational influences and teacher personalisation. The video affordances are examined through a framework of pedagogic design principles...

  4. Computation as Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance

    2017-01-01

    Artists increasingly utilize computational tools to generate art works. Computational approaches to art making open up new ways of thinking about agency in interactive art because they invite participation and allow for unpredictable outcomes. Computational art is closely linked...... to the participatory turn in visual art, wherein spectators physically participate in visual art works. Unlike purely physical methods of interaction, computer assisted interactivity affords artists and spectators more nuanced control of artistic outcomes. Interactive art brings together human bodies, computer code......, and nonliving objects to create emergent art works. Computation is more than just a tool for artists, it is a medium for investigating new aesthetic possibilities for choreography and composition. We illustrate this potential through two artistic projects: an improvisational dance performance between a human...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.102 - What are eligible affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible affordable housing activities? 1000.102 Section 1000.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... § 1000.102 What are eligible affordable housing activities? Eligible affordable housing activities are...

  6. User Costs and Housing Expenses : Towards a more Comprehensive Approach to Affordability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Heylen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently housing affordability has reached the agenda in Flanders and the Netherlands, giving a good reason to present a review of the concept of affordability and different definitions. The concept of short-term affordability, which is concerned with financial access to a dwelling and is based on

  7. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...

  8. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  9. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  10. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  11. Understanding on-line community: the affordances of virtual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruhleder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of on-line venues for learning are emerging as virtual communities become more accessible and commonplace. This paper looks at one particular virtual community, an on-line degree programme at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, which offers an M.S. in Library and Information Science (called LEEP. It draws on a framework presented by Mynatt, et al. (1998, which provides a lens for talking about on-line community as a set of affordances. This framework is applied to illustrate the interactions, artefacts, and expectations that shape this community.

  12. Exploring Affordances of Social Media Use in Election Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    case study of the political parties’ use of Facebook in the Danish general election in 2011. Our preliminary findings reveal three main categories of affordances that the political parties wish to pursue: 1) they want to facilitate direct communication to promote political interests and create room...... for dialogue in a controlled environment, 2) they want to project an image of authenticity through an informal media, and 3) they want to create interaction and involvement through dynamic relationships with voters. A closer look at the parties’ actual use of Facebook reveals that their intention of generating...

  13. Learning Objects and Grasp Affordances through Autonomous Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a system for autonomous learning of visual object representations and their grasp affordances on a robot-vision system. It segments objects by grasping and moving 3D scene features, and creates probabilistic visual representations for object detection, recognition and pose estimation...... image sequences as well as (3) a number of built-in behavioral modules on the one hand, and autonomous exploration on the other hand, the system is able to generate object and grasping knowledge through interaction with its environment....

  14. Did the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate Increase Premiums?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs Depew; James Bailey

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on insurance premiums. The expansion of dependent coverage under the ACA allows young adults to remain on their parent's private health insurance plans until the age of 26. We find that the mandate has led to a 2.5-2.8 percent increase in premiums for health insurance plans that cover children, relative to single-coverage plans. We find no evidence that the mandate caused an increase in the amount of the employe...

  15. An Investigation Into Design Criteria for Affordable Housing Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdul Lateef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable housing provision constitutes a very large scheme in any countries due to income distribution and national development. The supply of housing depends on many activities and processes. The purpose of the houses is to meet the requirement of the householders therefore design criteria must address the users’ requirements. The establishment of the design criteria constitutes an important activity at the initial phase of the housing development. The design criteria are prepared by the design team in collaboration with many stakeholders especially the householders. Housinsg design criteria are the requirements that must be considered prior to construction of the housing. Lack of adequate information on the design criteria would lead to poor householders’ satisfactions, increase in maintenance cost, abandonments and completed but not occupy housing. In Malaysia, many of these consequences are prevalent. However, while information on the house owners’ requirements is inconclusive, this current research set out to investigate the design criteria of affordable housing. The increase in the affordable housing gap in Malaysia can be reduced if the designers have a comprehensive understanding of users’ requirements and the design criteria. Through a cross sectional survey questionnaire, comprising 25 criteria, 7 criteria were found to be extremely critical. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy indicated that the strength of the relationships among variables was strong (KMO =0.716. Bartlett’s test of sphericity, which tests the overall significance of all the correlations within the correlation matrix, was significant χ2 (325 = 1825.075, p<0.001, indicating the data were drawn from the same population and that the criteria were related.Sustainability considerations are now being considered by the providers of affordable housing. Deductively, the results lead to the conclusion that a major factor responsible for the poor

  16. Augmented Reality in science education – affordances for student learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    2016-01-01

    Most extant studies examining augmented reality (AR) have focused on the technology itself. This paper presents findings addressing the issue of AR for educational purposes based on a sequential survey distributed to 35 expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from...... four countries. There was consensus among experts in relation to a focus on ‘learning before technology’, and they in particular supplemented affordances identified in literature with perspectives related to interactivity, a creator perspective and inquiry based science. Expert reflections were...

  17. The affordances and use of green citizen engagement web tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse if and how three different green web applications create the basis for different levels of environmental citizen participation. This is relevant in both an e-governance context and an environmental policy context, as it is normally assumed that ICT...... that differences in affordance translates into differences in use. Theoretically, the paper departs from Contextual New Medium Theory. This theory focuses on technological practices, and demonstrates how these are created in interplay between technology, policy ideas and actor skills. Empirically, the paper...

  18. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  19. Drug affordability-potential tool for comparing illicit drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshkova, Teodora; Cunningham, Andrew; Royuela, Luis; Singleton, Nicola; Saggers, Tony; Sedefov, Roumen

    2018-06-01

    The importance of illicit drug price data and making appropriate adjustments for purity has been repeatedly highlighted for understanding illicit drug markets. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has been collecting retail price data for a number of drug types alongside drug-specific purity information for over 15 years. While these data are useful for a number of monitoring and analytical purposes, they are not without their limitations and there are circumstances where additional adjustment needs to be considered. This paper reviews some conceptual issues and measurement challenges relevant to the interpretation of price data. It also highlights the issues with between-country comparisons of drug prices and introduces the concept of affordability of drugs, going beyond purity-adjustment to account for varying national economies. Based on a 2015 European data set of price and purity data across the heroin and cocaine retail markets, the paper demonstrates a new model for drug market comparative analysis; calculation of drug affordability is achieved by applying to purity-adjusted prices 2015 Price Level Indices (PLI, Eurostat). Available data allowed retail heroin and cocaine market comparison for 27 European countries. The lowest and highest unadjusted prices per gram were observed for heroin: in Estonia, Belgium, Greece and Bulgaria (lowest) and Finland, Ireland, Sweden and Latvia (highest); for cocaine: the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom (lowest) and Turkey, Finland, Estonia and Romania (highest). The affordability per gram of heroin and cocaine when taking into account adjustment for both purity and economy demonstrates different patterns. It is argued that purity-adjusted price alone provides an incomplete comparison of retail price across countries. The proposed new method takes account of the differing economic conditions within European countries, thus providing a more sophisticated tool for cross

  20. Awareness on Sustainable Affordable Housing Among Homebuyers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns about the delivery of Sustainable Affordable Housing (SAH in Malaysia. The built environment, operation and demolishment of housing have the profound impact on our nature environment. SAH can be a solution toward sustainability development because it considered from an environmental friendly, socially enhancing, and economically benefits perfectives towards housing development. This paper aims to explore the awareness of homebuyers in Malaysia towards sustainable affordable housing. This research used the method of unstructured interview among homebuyers toward SAH in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the study, the awareness of homebuyers in SAH are relatively inadequate. Respondents are required the brief explanation on concept and elements of SAH for continue the interview. Based on Porter Five Forces Model, homebuyers’ requirements hold the bargaining power of customers to determine the features of housing provided by property provider. The knowledge of homebuyers on SAH is crucial for the sustainable development, because homebuyers are one of the key drivers for implementing the sustainable requirements in housing development.

  1. Sonic mediatization of the book: affordances of the audiobook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Have

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses cultural changes resulting from the growing number of audiobook users and changes in audiobook use emerging from digital technological developments of the past decade. The sonification of the written text is inscribed in the general transformation and mediatization of the printed book but offers radically different affordances than do visually perceived e-books. New portable digital audio media change the act of reading, moving it towards fields of practice in which reading has not been common before: the gym, the bicycle ride, gardening, resting in the dark, etc. From being a medium typically associated with children, the visually handicapped, or the dyslexic, the audiobook has developed into a popular phenomenon, which, we argue, has as much in common with other kinds of mediated mobile listening practices, like music and radio listening, as it has with the reading of printed books. Taking an inductive approach from the micro-level of the individual’s use, the term affordances will be used as a methodological tool within the concept of mediatization.

  2. Aldo van Eyck’s Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Withagen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck’s play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck’s play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars that tends to characterize van Eyck’ play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children.

  3. Cortical processing of object affordances for self and others’ action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMaranesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of objects does not rely only on visual brain areas, but also involves cortical motor regions. In particular, different parietal and premotor areas host neurons discharging during both object observation and grasping. Most of these cells often show similar visual and motor selectivity for a specific object (or set of objects, suggesting that they might play a crucial role in representing the potential motor act afforded by the object. The existence of such a mechanism for the visuomotor transformation of object physical properties in the most appropriate motor plan for interacting with them has been convincingly demonstrated in humans as well. Interestingly, human studies have shown that visually presented objects can automatically trigger the representation of an action provided that they are located within the observer’s reaching space (peripersonal space. The affordance effect also occurs when the presented object is outside the observer’s peripersonal space, but inside the peripersonal space of an observed agent. These findings recently received direct support by single neuron studies in monkey, indicating that space-constrained processing of objects in the ventral premotor cortex might be relevant to represent objects as potential targets for one’s own or others' action.

  4. Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Fredlund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.

  5. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  6. Social Media, Privacy, and Self-Disclosure: The Turbulence Caused by Social Media’s Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Trepte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The struggle we currently perceive in terms of social media privacy may be the result of the incompatible natures of “warm” and “cold” affordances. Whereas social media’s warm affordances reflect long-standing privacy routines and expectations, cold affordances seem to challenge and sometimes violate them. Sharing under the realm of warm affordances means sharing according to the routines and habits we know. Sharing under the realm of cold affordances means understanding social media’s terms and conditions and how they reflect on our relationships and experiences - similar to assimilating to a new culture that seems opaque and constantly in flux.

  7. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S; Massey, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ - the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities.

  8. Computer codes for RF cavity design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.

    1992-08-01

    In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity toning and matching problems

  9. Computer codes for RF cavity design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.

    1992-01-01

    In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity tuning and matching problems. (Author) 8 refs., 10 figs

  10. Academe's Still-Precarious Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    For years, libertarians had fought laws and policies barring Communists from teaching as direct assaults on the First Amendment, while supporters of loyalty programs had painted all Communists as mental slaves of Moscow. In 1952 the Supreme Court upheld New York's 1949 Feinberg Law, which required detailed procedures for investigating the loyalty…

  11. How Precarious Is Contingent Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2015-01-01

    agree. This study focuses on a number of non-pay conditions for contingent employees, compared to permanent staff, under the assumption that these conditions are cumulatively negative. The article is based on utilizes a survey of app.4,900 employees (response rate 57%), asking questions concerning...

  12. The affordable care ACT on loyalty programs for federal beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Justin J; Williams, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    To discuss changes in the law that allow community pharmacy loyalty programs to include and offer incentives to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The retailer rewards exception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its change to the definition of remuneration in the civil monetary penalties of the Anti-Kickback Statute now allow incentives to be earned on federal benefit tied prescription out-of-pocket costs. The criteria required to design a compliant loyalty program are discussed. Community pharmacies can now include Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries in compliant customer loyalty programs, where allowed by state law. There is a need for research directly on the influence of loyalty programs and nominal incentives on adherence.

  13. AN UNCERTAIN FEDERALISM: THE STATES AND THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, L Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial assessment of the Affordable Care Act's recent implementation experience in the states. Drawing on state-level and regional analyses that have been coordinated by the ACA Implementation Network--a cooperative effort involving researchers in 35 states--this article highlights the uncertain policy environment associated with the politics and complexities of the ACA. Understanding the ACA implementation experience requires an appreciation for political context, but must also take into account underlying demographic, market, and state administrative capacity issues in the states. There are indications that the ACA implementation experience is moving from a highly charged partisan nature to a more accommodating posture long associated with intergovernmental relations between the federal and state government in health and human services administration. In short, the key questions going forward will turn on how, not whether, the ACA is implemented.

  14. ADAM (Affordable Desktop Application Manager): a Unix desktop application manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebana, M.; Marquina, M.; Ramos, R.

    1996-01-01

    ADAM stands for Affordable Desktop Application Manager. It is a GUI developed at CERN with the aim to ease access to applications. The motivation to develop ADAM came from the unavailability of environments like COSE/CDE and their heavy resource consumption. ADAM has proven to be user friendly: new users are able to customize it to their needs in few minutes. Groups of users may share through ADAM a common application environment. ADAM also integrates the Unix and the PC world. PC users can excess Unix applications in the same way as their usual Windows applications. This paper describes all the ADAM features, how they are used at CERN Public Services, and the future plans for ADAM. (author)

  15. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  16. Three Words and the Future of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    As an essential part of its effort to achieve near universal coverage, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) extends sizable tax credits to most people who buy insurance on the newly established health care exchanges. Yet several lawsuits have been filed challenging the availability of those tax credits in the thirty-four states that refused to set up their own exchanges. The lawsuits are premised on a strained interpretation of the ACA that, if accepted, would make a hash of other provisions of the statute and undermine its effort to extend coverage to the uninsured. The courts should reject this latest effort to dismantle a critical feature of the ACA. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  17. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    What does it mean to cooperate? How do we share meanings and actions in order to reach a common goal? In this paper we explore the relation between cooperative coordination and heart rate. We argue that in cooperative contexts participants synchronize their heart rhythms according to two factors......: the affordances of the task at hand and the gradual consolidation of collaborative practices. Six groups of participants were instructed to construct LEGO models of six abstract notions (“responsibility”, “knowledge”, “justice” etc.), both individually and in groups. We combine video analysis and heart rate...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...

  18. Design and construction of an optical compact and affordable tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.C.; Perez Moret, Y.; Arronte, M.; Ponce, L.

    2009-01-01

    The following paper presents a new design allowing a reduction on the amount of required optical elements for the construction of the optical tweezers, which results in a compact and affordable system. The latter is composed by a 40 mW Nd: YAG (532 nm) laser and commercially available optics and mounts. A virtual instrument, developed using Lab View 8.0, controls both a XYZ table and a web camera for visualizing. The quality of the laser beam at the end of optical system was characterized using the knife-edge method, resulting in a Gaussian shaped (TEM00) intensity profile. It is presented as well the necessary information to align and calibrate each optical element. (Author)

  19. Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2015-01-01

    explored the integration of paper and digital technology, there are still a wide range of open issues in the design of technologies that integrate digital and paper-based medical records. This paper studies the use of one such novel technology, called the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR), that is designed......The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approaches...... to digitally augment a paper medical record. We report on two studies: a field study in which we describe the benefits and challenges of using a combination of electronic and paper-based medical records in a large university hospital and a deployment study in which we analyze how 8 clinicians used the Hy...

  20. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  1. The challenge of making nuclear technologies acceptable, accessible and affordable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is more than five decades since the first successful demonstration of nuclear power for commercial electricity production. The same decades have also seen the successful demonstration of several other applications of nuclear technologies that can contribute directly to human development, as for example, in the Food and Agriculture, Human and animal Health, Environment and Water sectors. In spite of several successful demonstrations and applications in these fields, it is somewhat strange that their full potential is yet to be realized. More importantly, their availability to populations across the world is highly skewed. Three barriers have been identified for the wide spread use of nuclear technologies for development- Acceptability, Accessibility and Affordability. It is an unfortunate twist of fate that the first public demonstration of nuclear technology was its destructive power. The following demonization of anything nuclear was further compounded by the discussions on the unresolved questions on tackling long lived radioactive wastes, our inability to arrive at a global consensus on nuclear disarmament and issues of nuclear proliferation. These have certainly had a negative impact on the public acceptance of nuclear technologies across the board. While the recent concerns on the global climate change following the emission of carbon-di-oxide from excessive hydrocarbon burning for meeting our increasing energy needs have revived the interest in nuclear energy, a lot needs to be done to de-demonize nuclear technologies in public mind leading to increased acceptance of nuclear technologies for development. Lack of resources, infrastructure and trained man power also have a negative impact on the accessibility and affordability of the nuclear technologies for development. It is argued that only education holds the key for this. The role of international partnerships is also highlighted in realizing the full potential of nuclear technologies for

  2. Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor, methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments, and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants. The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications.

  3. Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; St Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide survey in 2011 of availability and consumer prices of 60 essential medicines in Haiti using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. The survey was conducted in 163 medicine outlets in four health care sectors (public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors). Medicine prices were expressed as ratios relative to the International Reference Price. Affordability was calculated by comparing the costs of treatment for common conditions with the salary of the lowest paid government worker and was compared to available data from four Latin American countries. For generic medicines, the availability in public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors was 20%, 37%, 24% and 23% of medications, respectively. Most of the available medicines were priced higher than the International Reference Price. The lowest paid government worker would need 2.5 days' wages to treat an adult respiratory infection with generic medicines from the public sector. For treatment of common conditions with originator brands (OB) purchased from a retail pharmacy, costs were between 1.4 (anaerobic bacterial infection) and 13.7 (hyperlipidemia) days' wages, respectively. Treatment of pediatric bacterial infections with the OB of ceftriaxone from a retail pharmacy would cost 24.6 days' wages. Prices in Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua were frequently lower for comparable medications. The availability of essential medicines was low and prices varied widely across all four sectors. Over 75% of Haitians live on less than US$ 2.00 /day; therefore, most medication regimens are largely unaffordable

  4. Flow and the pedagogical affordances of computer games: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoulou, Photini; Avraamidou, Lucy; Vrasidas, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theories of symbolic interactionism, social constructivism, and flow, this research examines the integration of the electronic game of the World Food Programme of the UN “Food Force” in a unit on active citizenship and poverty eradication. The research was conducted in two ninth-grade

  5. Flow and the Pedagogical Affordances of Computer Games: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoulou, Photini; Avraamidou, Lucy; Vrasidas, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theories of symbolic interactionism, social constructivism, and flow, this research examines the integration of the electronic game of the World Food Programme of the UN "Food Force" in a unit on active citizenship and poverty eradication. The research was conducted in two ninth-grade classes of an urban high school in…

  6. 3D printed mitral valve models: affordable simulation for robotic mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premyodhin, Ned; Mandair, Divneet; Ferng, Alice S; Leach, Timothy S; Palsma, Ryan P; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Khalpey, Zain I

    2018-01-01

    3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue. Silicone-moulded MV models were fabricated for 2 morphologies: the normal MV and the P2 flail. The moulded valves were plication and suture tested in a laparoscopic trainer box with a da Vinci Si robotic surgical system. One cardiothoracic surgery fellow and 1 attending surgeon qualitatively evaluated the ability of the valves to recapitulate tissue feel through surveys utilizing the 5-point Likert-type scale to grade impressions of the valves. Valves produced with the moulding and casting method maintained anatomical dimensions within 3% of directly 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene controls for both morphologies. Likert-type scale mean scores corresponded with a realistic material response to sutures (5.0/5), tensile strength that is similar to real MV tissue (5.0/5) and anatomical appearance resembling real MVs (5.0/5), indicating that evaluators 'agreed' that these aspects of the model were appropriate for training. Evaluators 'somewhat agreed' that the overall model durability was appropriate for training (4.0/5) due to the mounting design. Qualitative differences in repair quality were notable between fellow and attending surgeon. 3D computer-aided design, 3D printing and fabrication techniques can be applied to fabricate affordable, high-quality educational models for technical training that are capable of differentiating proficiency levels among users. © The Author 2017

  7. Analysis of a mammography teaching program based on an affordance design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ping; Eikman, Edward A; Kealy, William; Qian, Wei

    2006-12-01

    The wide use of computer technology in education, particularly in mammogram reading, asks for e-learning evaluation. The existing media comparative studies, learner attitude evaluations, and performance tests are problematic. Based on an affordance design model, this study examined an existing e-learning program on mammogram reading. The selection criteria include content relatedness, representativeness, e-learning orientation, image quality, program completeness, and accessibility. A case study was conducted to examine the affordance features, functions, and presentations of the selected software. Data collection and analysis methods include interviews, protocol-based document analysis, and usability tests and inspection. Also some statistics were calculated. The examination of PBE identified that this educational software designed and programmed some tools. The learner can use these tools in the process of optimizing displays, scanning images, comparing different projections, marking the region of interests, constructing a descriptive report, assessing one's learning outcomes, and comparing one's decisions with the experts' decisions. Further, PBE provides some resources for the learner to construct one's knowledge and skills, including a categorized image library, a term-searching function, and some teaching links. Besides, users found it easy to navigate and carry out tasks. The users also reacted positively toward PBE's navigation system, instructional aids, layout, pace and flow of information, graphics, and other presentation design. The software provides learners with some cognitive tools, supporting their perceptual problem-solving processes and extending their capabilities. Learners can internalize the mental models in mammogram reading through multiple perceptual triangulations, sensitization of related features, semantic description of mammogram findings, and expert-guided semantic report construction. The design of these cognitive tools and the

  8. Uma estética da precariedade: migrações e trocas interculturais no cinema de Ozualdo Candeias (1967-1992 An esthetics of precariousness: migration and intercultural exchanges in the cinema of Ozualdo Candeias (1967-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Aparecida Teles

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a relação cinema e história através da estética da precariedade elaborada pelo cineasta Ozualdo Candeias. A mobilidade, a oralidade caipira, a precariedade esteticamente elaboradas através das mesclas entre a ficção e o documentário, da desconstrução de clichês do cinema clássico são trocas culturais, entre o mundo urbano e o rural, suscitadas pelo processo de industrialização e urbanização, vivido intensamente em São Paulo, a partir dos anos 50 do século XX.This article analyses the relation between cinema and history through the esthetics of the precariousness elaborated by a film director called Ozualdo Candeias. The mobility, the countryman orality as well as the precariousness esthetically worked out by mixing fiction and documentary, the disconstruction of classical cinema clichés are cultural trades between the urban world and the rural one raised by the industrialization and urbanization process intensified in the fifties of XXth century.

  9. Virtual Character Animation Based on Affordable Motion Capture and Reconfigurable Tangible Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina; Cannavo, Alberto; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Software for computer animation is generally characterized by a steep learning curve, due to the entanglement of both sophisticated techniques and interaction methods required to control 3D geometries. This paper proposes a tool designed to support computer animation production processes by leveraging the affordances offered by articulated tangible user interfaces and motion capture retargeting solutions. To this aim, orientations of an instrumented prop are recorded together with animator's motion in the 3D space and used to quickly pose characters in the virtual environment. High-level functionalities of the animation software are made accessible via a speech interface, thus letting the user control the animation pipeline via voice commands while focusing on his or her hands and body motion. The proposed solution exploits both off-the-shelf hardware components (like the Lego Mindstorms EV3 bricks and the Microsoft Kinect, used for building the tangible device and tracking animator's skeleton) and free open-source software (like the Blender animation tool), thus representing an interesting solution also for beginners approaching the world of digital animation for the first time. Experimental results in different usage scenarios show the benefits offered by the designed interaction strategy with respect to a mouse & keyboard-based interface both for expert and non-expert users.

  10. Issues - III. Renewable energies and financial issues - The organisation of a renewable energy sector: the supply in wood-fuel in Auvergne; profitable ecology: which incentive financial and tax tools in favour of renewable energies?; the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production: a precarious support mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, Laurence; Taverne, Marie; Guerra, Fabien; Rouge, Sandra; Gelas, Helene

    2012-01-01

    A first article reports the results of an investigation of the organisation of wood-fuel supply in the French region of Auvergne (presentation of the supply chain analysis, use of the transaction cost theory, factors affecting organisational choices within supply chains). The second article presents and comments the various incentive financial and tax measures in favour of renewable energies (State tax incentives for companies and for individuals, local incentives, and financial incentives). The third article outlines the precarious legal character of the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production, as well as the precarious will of the Government regarding this mandatory purchase

  11. Tobacco affordability, sales and excise revenues in the 28 European Union countries in 2011-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Guidelines for the FCTC Article 6 state: When establishing their levels of taxation, Parties should make tobacco products less affordable over time in order to reduce consumption. The objective is to estimate the impact of changes in tobacco affordability on tobacco consumption and tobacco excise revenues in 2011-2014 in 28 European Union countries. Material and Methods Tobacco affordability index was calculated using the Eurostat data on harmonized consumer price i...

  12. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved ...

  13. Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high...

  14. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-09-29

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved in Parkinson's disease, but find no evidence that there is an increased sensitivity to the effects of object affordances on voluntary action.

  15. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved in Parkinson's disease, but find no evidence that there is an increased sensitivity to the effects of object affordances on voluntary action. PMID:19616073

  16. Grasping the World: Object-Affordance Effect in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sevos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For schizophrenic patients, the world can appear as deprived of practical meaning, which normally emerges from sensory-motor experiences. However, no research has yet studied the integration between perception and action in this population. In this study, we hypothesize that patients, after having controlled the integrity of their visuospatial integration, would nevertheless present deficit in sensory-motor simulation. In this view, we compare patients to control subjects using two stimulus-response compatibility (SRC tasks. Experiment 1 is performed to ensure that visuo-spatial integration is not impaired (Simon Effect. Experiment 2 replicates a study from Tucker and Ellis (1998 to explore the existence of sensory-motor compatibility between stimulus and response (Object Affordance. In control subjects, the SRC effect appears in both experiments. In schizophrenic patients, it appears only when stimuli and responses share the same spatial localization. This loss of automatic sensory-motor simulation could emerge from a lack of relation between the object and the subject’s environment.

  17. Affordable CZT SPECT with dose-time minimization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, James W.; Harris, Brian W.; Radley, Ian

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE Pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays are used in molecular imaging applications that can enable precision medicine, including small-animal SPECT, cardiac SPECT, molecular breast imaging (MBI), and general purpose SPECT. The interplay of gamma camera, collimator, gantry motion, and image reconstruction determines image quality and dose-time-FOV tradeoffs. Both dose and exam time can be minimized without compromising diagnostic content. METHODS Integration of pixelated CZT detectors with advanced ASICs and readout electronics improves system performance. Because historically CZT was expensive, the first clinical applications were limited to small FOV. Radiation doses were initially high and exam times long. Advances have significantly improved efficiency of CZT-based molecular imaging systems and the cost has steadily declined. We have built a general purpose SPECT system using our 40 cm x 53 cm CZT gamma camera with 2 mm pixel pitch and characterized system performance. RESULTS Compared to NaI scintillator gamma cameras: intrinsic spatial resolution improved from 3.8 mm to 2.0 mm; energy resolution improved from 9.8% to reconstruction, result in minimized dose and exam time. With CZT cost improving, affordable whole-body CZT general purpose SPECT is expected to enable precision medicine applications.

  18. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise ( 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  19. The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansions and Personal Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Kyle J; Waidmann, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    Using a novel data set from a major credit bureau, we examine the early effects of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions on personal finance. We analyze less common events such as personal bankruptcy, and more common occurrences such as medical collection balances, and change in credit scores. We estimate triple-difference models that compare individual outcomes across counties that expanded Medicaid versus counties that did not, and across expansion counties that had more uninsured residents versus those with fewer. Results demonstrate financial improvements in states that expanded their Medicaid programs as measured by improved credit scores, reduced balances past due as a percent of total debt, reduced probability of a medical collection balance of $1,000 or more, reduced probability of having one or more recent medical bills go to collections, reduction in the probability of experiencing a new derogatory balance of any type, reduced probability of incurring a new derogatory balance equal to $1,000 or more, and a reduction in the probability of a new bankruptcy filing.

  20. Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

    2010-01-01

    Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority.

  1. Priority Setting, Cost-Effectiveness, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) may be the most important health law statute in American history, yet much of the most prominent legal scholarship examining it has focused on the merits of the court challenges it has faced rather than delving into the details of its priority-setting provisions. In addition to providing an overview of the ACA's provisions concerning priority setting and their developing interpretations, this Article attempts to defend three substantive propositions. First, I argue that the ACA is neither uniformly hostile nor uniformly friendly to efforts to set priorities in ways that promote cost and quality. Second, I argue that the ACA does not take a single, unified approach to priority setting; rather, its guidance varies depending on the aspect of the healthcare system at issue (Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Medicare, essential health benefits) and the factors being excluded from priority setting (age, disability, life expectancy). Third, I argue that cost-effectiveness can be achieved within the ACA's constraints, but that doing so will require adopting new approaches to cost-effectiveness and priority setting. By limiting the use of standard cost-effectiveness analysis, the ACA makes the need for workable rivals to cost-effectiveness analysis a pressing practical concern rather than a mere theoretical worry.

  2. Precise, flexible and affordable gene stacking for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqiang; Ow, David W

    2017-09-03

    The genetic engineering of plants offers a revolutionary advance for crop improvement, and the incorporation of transgenes into crop species can impart new traits that would otherwise be difficult to obtain through conventional breeding. Transgenes introduced into plants, however, can only be useful when bred out to field cultivars. As new traits are continually added to further improve transgenic cultivars, clustering new DNA near previously introduced transgenes keep from inflating the number of segregating units that breeders must assemble back into a breeding line. Here we discuss various options to introduce DNA site-specifically into an existing transgenic locus. As food security is becoming a pressing global issue, the old proverb resonates true to this day: "give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime." Hence, we describe a recombinase-mediate gene stacking system designed with freedom to operate, providing an affordable option for crop improvement by less developed countries where food security is most at risk.

  3. Structuring payment to medical homes after the affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Samuel T; Abrams, Melinda K; Baron, Richard J; Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C; Rosenthal, Gary E; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for accountable care organizations, consider opportunities for integration, and discuss implications for policy makers and payers considering ACO models. The PCMH and ACO are complementary approaches to reformed care delivery: the PCMH ultimately requires strong integration with specialists and hospitals as seen under ACOs, and ACOs likely will require a high functioning primary care system as embodied by the PCMH. Aligning payment incentives within the ACO will be critical to achieving this integration and enhancing the care coordination role of primary care in these settings.

  4. Alcohol affordability and alcohol demand: cross-country trends and panel data estimates, 1975 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2014-04-01

    Relatively little is known about cross-country differences in alcohol affordability or factors that determine differences in affordability over time. This information is potentially important for alcohol policy, especially policies that focus on higher taxes or prices to reduce total alcohol consumption. This study estimates cross-country alcohol consumption relationships using economic models incorporating income and prices and alternative models based on alcohol affordability. The data and analysis are restricted to higher income countries. Data for alcohol consumption per capita (ages 15+) are analyzed for 2 samples: first, 17 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for the period 1975 to 2000; second, 22 countries in the European Union for the period from 2000 to 2008. Panel data models are utilized, with country and time fixed-effects to control for confounding influences. In economic demand models, covariates are real per capita income and real alcohol price indices. In affordability models, income is divided by prices to yield an index of alcohol affordability. Analysis of data trends reveals that much of the increase in affordability is due to rising real incomes, and not falling real prices. Economic models of demand perform slightly better statistically, but differences are not substantial as income and affordability are highly correlated. For both samples, exogenous rates of growth of alcohol consumption are negative. Price and income elasticities, on average, are within the range of prior estimates. Affordability elasticities are between 0.21 and 0.25. Although alcohol affordability is a valid concept statistically, its use in policy discussions tends to hide underlying causes of changes in affordability. A better approach is a comparison and analysis of trends and cross-country differences in real incomes and real alcohol prices together with the affordability index. Country-level analysis of income and price

  5. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  6. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... real life problem faced by public housing authorities using innovations in affordable housing design... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5689-N-05] 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition AGENCY: Office of Policy...

  7. 78 FR 73204 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Innovation in Affordable Housing Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... response to a real life affordable housing design issue. The goals of this new competition are: To... competition will officially open on January 6, 2014, when the real life affordable housing design issue is... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [FR-5745-N-01] Announcement of Requirements and...

  8. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M.; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    Background In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are

  9. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Activities § 1000.104 What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? The following families... Indian area. (b) A non-low income Indian family may receive housing assistance in accordance with § 1000...

  10. The Role of Affordances in the Evolutionary Process Reconsidered A Niche Construction Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; van Wermeskerken, Margot

    Gibson asserted that affordances are the primary objects of perception. Although this assertion is especially attractive when considered in the context of evolutionary theory, the role that affordances play in the evolution of animals' perceptual and action systems is still unclear. Trying to

  11. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program Funding for Title VI Native American Programs Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act Medicare...

  12. Students' Affordance of Teleologic Explanations and Anthropomorphic Language in Eliciting Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study ascertains that the students' affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics is influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students' affordance of…

  13. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) announces in this notice the release of the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar for public comment. Interested persons are encouraged to learn about the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html.

  14. Obstacles and Affordances for Integer Reasoning: An Analysis of Children's Thinking and the History of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.; Lewis, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    We identify and document 3 cognitive obstacles, 3 cognitive affordances, and 1 type of integer understanding that can function as either an obstacle or affordance for learners while they extend their numeric domains from whole numbers to include negative integers. In particular, we highlight 2 key subsets of integer reasoning: understanding or…

  15. Improving perceptions of healthy food affordability: results from a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Abbott, Gavin; Thornton, Lukar E; Worsley, Anthony; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2014-03-10

    Despite strong empirical support for the association between perceived food affordability and dietary intake amongst families with a lower socioeconomic position (SEP), there is limited evidence of the most effective strategies for promoting more positive perceptions of healthy food affordability among this group. This paper reports findings from a pilot intervention that aimed to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability amongst mothers. Participants were 66 mothers who were the parents of children recruited from primary schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs. Intervention group participants viewed a slideshow focussed on healthy snack food affordability that illustrated cheaper healthier alternatives to common snack foods as well as food budgeting tips and price comparison education. A mixed between-within ANCOVA was conducted to examine group differences in perceived affordability of healthy food across three time points. Results revealed no difference in perceived affordability of healthy food between the two groups at baseline whereas at post-intervention and follow-up, mothers in the intervention group perceived healthy food as more affordable than the control group. Focussing on education-based interventions to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability may be a promising approach that complements existing nutrition promotion strategies.

  16. Effects of Affordance Perception on the Initiation and Actualization of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Joanne; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown information specifying some affordances may be faster or easier to perceive than others. This article investigates the effect of affordance perception on the time taken to initiate and perform an action. In particular it focuses on how action timing varies as a function of a

  17. Affordance estimation for vision-based object replacement on a humanoid robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail; Wächter, Mirko; Szedmak, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding replacements of missing objects, involved in the execution of manipulation tasks. Our approach is based on estimating functional affordances for the unknown objects in order to propose replacements. We use a vision-based affordance estimation syste...

  18. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football : effects of distance and social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Heijmerikx, Johan; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for accurate passing in association football is that a player perceives the affordances, that is, the opportunities for action, of a given situation. The present study examined how affordances shape passing in association football by comparing the performance of pass-kicks in two task

  19. 16 CFR 1061.8 - Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protection afforded. 1061.8 Section 1061.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.8 Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded... State or local requirement provides a significantly higher degree of protection from the risk of injury...

  20. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. This meeting will... held via the Internet using a Webcast and teleconference. Registrants will receive an Internet access... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. Based upon input...

  1. A Framework for Aligning Needs, Abilities and Affordances to Inform Design and Practice of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Dawson, Kara; Sahay, Shilpa

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for enhancing our awareness of user-centered design in educational technology through a more explicit and systematic alignment between the needs of educational technology users (learners and educators) and the affordances provided by the technology. First, we define the term "affordance" and discuss it from…

  2. Some perspectives on affordable healthcare systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y T; Yan, Y S; Poon, C C Y

    2007-01-01

    Consistent with the global population trend, China is becoming an aging society. Over one-fifth of the world's elderly population (aged 65 and over) lives in China. Statistics show that the elderly populace in China constitutes 8% of the total population in 2006 and the percentage will be tripled to become 24% in 2050. As a result, there is inevitably an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease that accounted for almost 80% of all deaths in China in 2005. On the other hand, from 1978 to 2003, the total expenditure on healthcare in China increased from 11.02 billion RMB up to 658.41 billion RMB, and in terms of GDP, it is an increase from 3.04% to 5.62%. The annual average increase (12.1%) in healthcare investment is therefore even higher than the annual rate of GDP increase (9.38%) during the last two decades. Meeting the long-term healthcare needs of this growing elderly population and escalating healthcare expenditure pose a grim challenge to the current Chinese healthcare system and the solvency of state budgets. In fact, the healthcare services in China have become less accessible since the early 1980s when its costs soared up. The rising costs have prevented many Chinese people from seeking early medical care. The phenomenon has created a wide disparity in seeking healthcare between urban and rural areas. These trends are of particular concern to the elderly, who have higher healthcare needs yet lesser means to afford the services. Furthermore, according to the 3rd National Health Service Survey, 79.1% of rural residents and 44.8% of urban citizens did not have any form of medical insurance. Such a low percentage of coverage of medical insurance indicates that many people may not be able to afford medical services when they suffer from severe diseases. Therefore, there is a great need of a more effective and low-cost healthcare system. A new system that can allow multi-level, multi-dimensional and standardized healthcare services for urban and rural

  3. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  4. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  5. Cancer preventive services, socioeconomic status, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Affordable and personalized lighting using inverse modeling and virtual sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrayee; Chen, Benjamin; Richards, Jacob; Dhinakaran, Aparna; Agogino, Alice; Martin, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have great potential to enable personalized intelligent lighting systems while reducing building energy use by 50%-70%. As a result WSN systems are being increasingly integrated in state-ofart intelligent lighting systems. In the future these systems will enable participation of lighting loads as ancillary services. However, such systems can be expensive to install and lack the plug-and-play quality necessary for user-friendly commissioning. In this paper we present an integrated system of wireless sensor platforms and modeling software to enable affordable and user-friendly intelligent lighting. It requires ⇠ 60% fewer sensor deployments compared to current commercial systems. Reduction in sensor deployments has been achieved by optimally replacing the actual photo-sensors with real-time discrete predictive inverse models. Spatially sparse and clustered sub-hourly photo-sensor data captured by the WSN platforms are used to develop and validate a piece-wise linear regression of indoor light distribution. This deterministic data-driven model accounts for sky conditions and solar position. The optimal placement of photo-sensors is performed iteratively to achieve the best predictability of the light field desired for indoor lighting control. Using two weeks of daylight and artificial light training data acquired at the Sustainability Base at NASA Ames, the model was able to predict the light level at seven monitored workstations with 80%-95% accuracy. We estimate that 10% adoption of this intelligent wireless sensor system in commercial buildings could save 0.2-0.25 quads BTU of energy nationwide.

  7. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  8. Tempting foods and the affordability axiom: Food cues change beliefs about the costs of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Baskett, Kaily; Bradshaw, Hannah K; Prokosch, Marjorie L; DelPriore, Danielle J; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DIRAC distributed computing services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2014-01-01

    DIRAC Project provides a general-purpose framework for building distributed computing systems. It is used now in several HEP and astrophysics experiments as well as for user communities in other scientific domains. There is a large interest from smaller user communities to have a simple tool like DIRAC for accessing grid and other types of distributed computing resources. However, small experiments cannot afford to install and maintain dedicated services. Therefore, several grid infrastructure projects are providing DIRAC services for their respective user communities. These services are used for user tutorials as well as to help porting the applications to the grid for a practical day-to-day work. The services are giving access typically to several grid infrastructures as well as to standalone computing clusters accessible by the target user communities. In the paper we will present the experience of running DIRAC services provided by the France-Grilles NGI and other national grid infrastructure projects.

  10. Transuranic Computational Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2018-02-26

    Recent developments in the chemistry of the transuranic elements are surveyed, with particular emphasis on computational contributions. Examples are drawn from molecular coordination and organometallic chemistry, and from the study of extended solid systems. The role of the metal valence orbitals in covalent bonding is a particular focus, especially the consequences of the stabilization of the 5f orbitals as the actinide series is traversed. The fledgling chemistry of transuranic elements in the +II oxidation state is highlighted. Throughout, the symbiotic interplay of experimental and computational studies is emphasized; the extraordinary challenges of experimental transuranic chemistry afford computational chemistry a particularly valuable role at the frontier of the periodic table. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bringing Back the Social Affordances of the Paper Memo to Aerospace Systems Engineering Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Scott; Holloway, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is a relatively new field that brings together the interdisciplinary study of technological components of a project (systems engineering) with a model-based ontology to express the hierarchical and behavioral relationships between the components (computational modeling). Despite the compelling promises of the benefits of MBSE, such as improved communication and productivity due to an underlying language and data model, we observed hesitation to its adoption at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. To investigate, we conducted a six-month ethnographic field investigation and needs validation with 19 systems engineers. This paper contributes our observations of a generational shift in one of JPL's core technologies. We report on a cultural misunderstanding between communities of practice that bolsters the existing technology drag. Given the high cost of failure, we springboard our observations into a design hypothesis - an intervention that blends the social affordances of the narrative-based work flow with the rich technological advantages of explicit data references and relationships of the model-based approach. We provide a design rationale, and the results of our evaluation.

  12. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    2017-08-01

    In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are affordable. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how affordability is defined and measured in healthcare. MEDLINE, EMBASE and EconLit databases (2005-July 2016) were searched using terms covering affordability and budget impact, combined with definitions, thresholds and restrictions, to identify articles describing a definition of affordability with respect to new medicines. Additional definitions were identified through citation searching, and through manual searches of European health technology assessment body websites. In total, 27 definitions were included in the review. Of these, five definitions described affordability in terms of the value of a product; seven considered affordability within the context of healthcare system budgets; and 15 addressed whether products are affordable in a given country based on economic factors. However, there was little in the literature to indicate that the price of medicines is considered alongside both their value to individual patients and their budget impact at a population level. Current methods of assessing affordability in healthcare may be limited by their focus on budget impact. A more effective approach may involve a broader perspective than is currently described in the literature, to consider the long-term benefits of a therapy and cost savings elsewhere in the healthcare system, as well as cooperation between healthcare payers and the pharmaceutical industry to develop financing models that support sustainability as well as innovation.

  13. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users

  14. Encapsulating the delivery of affordable housing: An overview of Malaysian practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Nor Baizura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population increases much faster than other geographical areas and this brings huge challenges to Malaysian government especially those responsible for the provision of housing. Moreover, the rise of living cost and pressure towards the current economic situation had inevitably led to huge demands for affordable housing. Thus, affordability and inaccessibility of people in owning a house has become one of the major issues in Malaysia. These issues are not only faced by the low-income group but mostly experienced by urban dwellers including the middle-income group whom are not eligible to apply for low-cost housing delivered by the government, yet cannot afford to buy a house. Hence, the Malaysian government had therefore established the Perumahan Rakyat 1 Malaysia (PR1MA as the catalyst in providing adequate, quality and affordable houses. Furthermore, the Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB and the state governments also play their big role in providing affordable house at the state level. In trying to ensure smooth delivery of affordable housing, a systematic approach is required. This paper intends to examine the delivery of affordable housing in Malaysia. The objective was to assess the parties involved, and the various stages of the process. The methodology adopted for this study includes in-depth interviews with affordable housing agencies. Investigation showed that the major problem relates to a mismatch in the delivery of affordable housing. Moreover, the political and economic aspects, as well as the organization situation had also influenced the inefficiency of affordable housing delivery system. Additionally, the significant of this paper is expected to formulate an improved strategy and guidance in delivery system, thus ensuring that the method of practice is applicable throughout the country.

  15. Studying Language Learning Opportunities Afforded by a Collaborative CALL Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This research study explores the learning potential of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) activity. Research suggests that the dual emphasis on content development and language accuracy, as well as the complexity of L2 production in natural settings, can potentially create cognitive overload. This study poses the question whether, and…

  16. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  17. Hub and spoke model: making rural healthcare in India affordable, available and accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Srichand

    2016-01-01

    Quality health care should be within everyone's reach, especially in a developing country. While India has the largest private health sector in the world, only one-fifth of healthcare expenditure is publically financed; it is mostly an out-of-pocket expense. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas making about $3 per day, and a major portion of that goes towards food and shelter and, thus, not towards health care. Transportation facilities in rural India are poor, making access to medical facilities difficult, and infrastructure facilities are minimal, making the available medical care insufficient. The challenge presented to India was to provide health care that was accessible, available and affordable to people in rural areas and the low-income bracket. The intent of this article is to determine whether the hub and spoke model (HSM), when implemented in the healthcare industry, can expand the market reach and increase profits while reducing costs of operations for organizations and, thereby, cost to customers. This article also discusses the importance of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the HSM approach, which the handful of published articles in this topic have failed to discuss. This article opts for an exploratory study, including review of published literature, web articles, viewpoints of industry experts, published journals, and in-depth interviews. This article will discuss how and why the HSM works in India's healthcare industry while isolating its strengths and weaknesses, and analyzing the impact of India's success. India's HSM implementation has become a paramount example of an acceptable model that, while exceeding the needs and expectations of its patients, is cost-effective and has obtained operational and health-driven results. Despite being an emerging nation, India takes the top spot in terms of affordability of ICT as well as for having the highest number of computer-literate graduates and healthcare workers in the world

  18. Contentious precarious generation in anti-austerity movements in Spain and Italy (La protesta de la generación precaria en los movimientos antiausteridad en España e Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Andretta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the precarious generation protesting in Spain and Italy in times of crisis and austerity (2010-2012. Their many similarities notwithstanding, the two countries have experienced different types of mobilization against austerity measures. In Spain, a relatively autonomous mobilization –characterized by new collective actors and new forms of action– has made possible the building of a political actor, Podemos, able to seriously challenge the established political parties. In Italy, instead, the mobilization was dominated by established political actors, especially trade unions, did not produce innovative forms of action and has not been able to overcome (so far the fragmentation of the social movement sector. In both countries, however, the anti-austerity protests have been characterized by a strong presence of what we call hear the “precarious generation”, particularly exposed to the economic crisis and the austerity measures. By relying on data from several surveys conducted in demonstrations on social, economic and labor issues in the two countries from 2010 to 2011, in this article we single out differences and the similarities in terms of presence, social composition, grievances and emotion, collective identity and network embeddedness of the precarious generation. Our findings show that the precarious generation was almost equally present in the selected demonstrations in the two countries, share similar socio-graphic features and similar types of grievance and emotions. Nonetheless, in Spain it seems to have built a more cohesive and radical collective identity based upon a more informal and internet based network integration while in Italy it seems embedded in a more traditional and formal network, which prevented the formation of a strong collective identity. Moreover, while in Spain the differences between the older and the precarious generation reveal that, both have a strong identity based on different

  19. Computer applications in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, P.R.; Moores, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Computer applications in general and diagnostic radiology in particular are becoming more widespread. Their application to the field of radiation protection in medical imaging, including quality control initiatives, is similarly becoming more widespread. Advances in computer technology have enabled departments of diagnostic radiology to have access to powerful yet affordable personal computers. The application of databases, expert systems and computer-based learning is under way. The executive information systems for the management of dose and QA data that are under way at IRS are discussed. An important consideration in developing these pragmatic software tools has been the range of computer literacy within the end user group. Using interfaces have been specifically designed to reflect the requirements of many end users who will have little or no computer knowledge. (Author)

  20. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature–Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature–culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective–objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature–culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature–culture dichotomy. PMID:29375426

  1. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature-Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature-culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective-objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature-culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature-culture dichotomy.

  2. Surgeon Reimbursements in Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery: Effect of the Affordable Care Act in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Khansa, Lara; Pearson, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    Surgical treatment of maxillofacial injuries has historically been associated with low reimbursements, mainly because of the high proportion of uninsured patients. The Affordable Care Act, implemented in January of 2014, aimed to reduce the number of uninsured. If the Affordable Care Act achieves this goal, surgeons may benefit from improved reimbursement rates. The authors' purpose was to evaluate the effects of the Affordable Care Act on payor distribution and surgeon reimbursements for maxillofacial trauma surgery at their institution. A review of all patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial trauma between January of 2012 and December of 2014 was conducted. Insurance status, and amounts billed and collected by the surgeon, were recorded. Patients treated before implementation of the Affordable Care Act were compared to those treated after. Five hundred twenty-three patients were analyzed. Three hundred thirty-four underwent surgery before implementation of the Affordable Care Act, and 189 patients underwent surgery after. After implementation of the Affordable Care Act, the proportion of uninsured decreased (27.2 percent to 11.1 percent; p reimbursement rate increased from 14.3 percent to 19.8 percent (p reimbursement rate increased. These trends should be followed over a longer term to determine the full effect of the Affordable Care Act.

  3. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  4. Network affordances through online learning: Increasing use and complexity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hajhashemi, Karim; Anderson, Neil; Jackson, Cliff; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2013-01-01

    Computers, mobile devices and the Internet have enabled a learning environment described as online learning or a variety of other terms such as e-learning. Researchers believe that online learning has become more complex due to learners' sharing and acquiring knowledge at a variety of remote locations, in a variety of modalities. However, advances in technology and the integration of ICT with teaching and learning settings have quickened the growth of online learning and importantly have chan...

  5. Ethics in computer software design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan J. Thomson; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, computer software has become integral and commonplace for operational and management tasks throughout agricultural and natural resource disciplines. During this software infusion, however, little thought has been afforded human impacts, both good and bad. This paper examines current ethical issues of software system design and development in...

  6. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  7. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  8. Closing the Communal Gap: The Importance of Communal Affordances in Science Career Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B

    2015-12-01

    To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.

  9. A study of social information control affordances and gender difference in Facebook self-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Feng-Yang; Tseng, Chih-Yi; Tseng, Fan-Chuan; Lin, Cathy S

    2013-09-01

    Affordances refer to how interface features of an IT artifact, perceived by its users in terms of their potentials for action, may predict the intensity of usage. This study investigates three social information affordances for expressive information control, privacy information control, and image information control in Facebook. The results show that the three affordances can significantly explain how Facebook's interface designs facilitate users' self-presentation activities. In addition, the findings reveal that males are more engaged in expressing information than females, while females are more involved in privacy control than males. A practical application of our study is to compare and contrast the level of affordances offered by various social network sites (SNS) like Facebook and Twitter, as well as differences in online self-presentations across cultures. Our approach can therefore be useful to investigate how SNS design features can be tailored to specific gender and culture needs.

  10. Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing (the Company) is located in Arnold, Missouri. The Complaint involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  11. Affordable housing as a niche product: The case of the Danish “SocialHousing Plus”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    Establishing affordable housing is a growing demand in many larger cities there is however a number of challenges related to establishing affordable housing, as well as many different approaches. This paper presents a case-study of an affordable housing concept in the Danish social housing sector......, the “SocialHousing Plus” (“AlmenBolig+”) which is based on lowering production costs as well as operation costs including residential self-management, large-scale production of pre-fab housing units, low-energy solutions and other innovative approaches. The concept was developed in 2007, and has so far...... resulted in the production of more than 1.500 dwellings. The paper will discuss the results of the concept, and the various challenges related to it. Based on the theory of Technological Transition (Geels, 2002) it will discuss the options and limitations of providing affordable housing through developing...

  12. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  13. Leveraging the Affordances of the Emerging 3d Internet for Entrepreneurial ”Next Practices”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Flåten, Bjørn-Tore

    ” for entrepreneurial practices? Our second research question focuses on understanding how entrepreneurs utilize their social networks. Our approach to entrepreneurship is social-- concerned with the dynamics of social interactions and networked information ecology. Methods We are currently conducting 10 case studies...... for entrepreneurship. Unfortunately, the literature offers sparse knowledge at the industry level. There is a lack of overview regarding 3D Internet entrepreneurship practices and the real challenges faced by entrepreneurs. In this study, we explore the potential as well as the hindrances to new venture creation...... related to the 3D Internet. Our theoretical basis is affordances, or the material and social properties of any technology in relation to affording actions by humans. Our first research question focuses on the perception of affordances by entrepreneurs: what does the 3D Internet offer or afford as a “space...

  14. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, Ed; Butler, Simon; Hoier, Tom; Magens, Ole; Pistre, Nicolas; Pratt, Lee; Ward, Betsy-Ann; Wibberley, Sam; Wilson, D. Ian

    2016-12-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development and validation of an inexpensive, lightweight and robust ‘open source’ extensional rheometer, Seymour II. Validation was carried out experimentally and computationally. Measurements on a Newtonian fluid (492 mPa s Brookfield silicone oil) yielded results of 510  ±  51 mPa s; these are comfortably within the range of  ±10% which other authors have quoted for extensional techniques using laboratory rheometers. Comparison of the observed filament thinning dynamics to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gave good qualitative agreement. Use of Seymour II at the University of Cambridge Botanic Gardens revealed that the mucilage of the ‘crane flower’, Strelitzia reginae, was a viscoelastic fluid whose extensional response could be described by a two-mode Giesekus equation. Engineering drawings and image analysis code for Seymour II are available for download at the project website, www.seymourII.org/.

  15. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, Ed; Butler, Simon; Hoier, Tom; Magens, Ole; Pratt, Lee; Ward, Betsy-Ann; Wibberley, Sam; Wilson, D Ian; Pistre, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development and validation of an inexpensive, lightweight and robust ‘open source’ extensional rheometer, Seymour II. Validation was carried out experimentally and computationally. Measurements on a Newtonian fluid (492 mPa s Brookfield silicone oil) yielded results of 510  ±  51 mPa s; these are comfortably within the range of  ±10% which other authors have quoted for extensional techniques using laboratory rheometers. Comparison of the observed filament thinning dynamics to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gave good qualitative agreement. Use of Seymour II at the University of Cambridge Botanic Gardens revealed that the mucilage of the ‘crane flower’, Strelitzia reginae , was a viscoelastic fluid whose extensional response could be described by a two-mode Giesekus equation. Engineering drawings and image analysis code for Seymour II are available for download at the project website, www.seymourII.org/. (paper)

  16. Tablets for Learning in Higher Education:The Top 10 Affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However...

  17. Availability and Affordability of Insurance Under Climate Change. A Growing Challenge for the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Roth, R.J. Jr; Lecomte, E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the insurability of risks from climate change, and ways in which insurance affordability and availability could be adversely impacted in the U.S. i n the coming years. It includes examples where affordability and availability of insurance are already at risk from rising weather-related losses and how future financial exposure for insurers, governments, businesses and consumers could worsen if current climate and business trends continue

  18. Health-care reform or labor market reform? A quantitative analysis of the affordable care act

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Makoto; Tuzemen, Didem

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires all individuals to have health insurance, and introduces penalties to large firms that do not offer affordable coverage to their employees. While the possible effects of the ACA on the insurance decision of individuals have been studied, what is less studied is how the ACA can affect labor demand. In particular, since the ACA does not require small firms to offer health insurance, and does not require firms to offer health insuranc...

  19. Effects of the Affordable Care Act on part-time employment: Early evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dillender, Marcus; Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Houseman, Susan N.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers with at least 50 full-time-equivalent employees to offer "affordable" health insurance to employees working 30 or more hours per week. If employers do not comply with the mandate, they may face substantial financial penalties. Employers can potentially circumvent the mandate by reducing weekly hours below the 30-hour threshold or by using other nonstandard employment arrangements (direct-hire temporaries, agency temporaries, small contractors, ...

  20. flexZhouse: New business model for affordable housing in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zairul bin Mohd Noor

    2017-01-01

    Central to this PhD research was the problem of the lack of affordable housing for young starters in Malaysia. The solutions for affordable housing that are available in the market do not truly solve the problem from the customer’s point of view. Hence, it was important to analyse the contributing factors associated with the term ‘affordability’. The term touches upon interconnected elements that cover many issues ranging from demand (housing needs, demographics, household income, quality hou...

  1. A Challenge Facing the Malaysian Pharmaceutical Sector: Quality and Affordability of the National Medications

    OpenAIRE

    Abubaker Abdellah; Noordin MI; Shade AM Khalifa; Rafdzah Zaki; Ahmad S Sulaiman; Ali Abdellah; Hesham R El-Seedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhancing public satisfaction of the quality and affordability of medicines is an important task in health services. Objective: This study was intended to assess the trust and acceptance of public concerning quality and affordability of locally manufactured medicines in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross sectional study was performed, and a validated Likert scale questionnaire was used in this study. The results were analyzed using the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) so...

  2. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  3. Understanding social engagement in autism: Being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eHellendoorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behaviour. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others' affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviours. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account.

  4. Relative Affordability of Health Insurance Premiums under CHIP Expansion Programs and the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Laugesen, Miriam J; Yesus, Ambeshie; Escarce, José J

    2011-10-01

    Affordability is integral to the success of health care reforms aimed at ensuring universal access to health insurance coverage, and affordability determinations have major policy and practical consequences. This article describes factors that influenced the determination of affordability benchmarks and premium-contribution requirements for Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expansions in three states that sought to universalize access to coverage for youth. It also compares subsidy levels developed in these states to the premium subsidy schedule under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for health insurance plans purchased through an exchange. We find sizeable variability in premium-contribution requirements for children's coverage as a percentage of family income across the three states and in the progressivity and regressivity of the premium-contribution schedules developed. These findings underscore the ambiguity and subjectivity of affordability standards. Further, our analyses suggest that while the ACA increases the affordability of family coverage for families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty level, the evolution of CHIP over the next five to ten years will continue to have significant implications for low-income families.

  5. Describing and Enhancing Collaboration at the Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Beatty

    2002-01-01

    Computer-based learning materials differ from classroom practice in that they seldom explicitly offer opportunities for collaboration. Despite this, students do collaborate, helping one another through the content and affordances of computer materials. But, in doing so, students meet with challenges. Paradoxically, these challenges can either inspire or discourage learning and second-language acquisition. This paper, based on research with twenty Hong Kong university students in a controlled ...

  6. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  7. An affordable cuff-less blood pressure estimation solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Monika; Kumar, Niranjan; Deb, Sujay

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a cuff-less hypertension pre-screening device that non-invasively monitors the Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate (HR) continuously. The proposed device simultaneously records two clinically significant and highly correlated biomedical signals, viz., Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG). The device provides a common data acquisition platform that can interface with PC/laptop, Smart phone/tablet and Raspberry-pi etc. The hardware stores and processes the recorded ECG and PPG in order to extract the real-time BP and HR using kernel regression approach. The BP and HR estimation error is measured in terms of normalized mean square error, Error Standard Deviation (ESD) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), with respect to a clinically proven digital BP monitor (OMRON HBP1300). The computed error falls under the maximum standard allowable error mentioned by Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation; MAE cost home and clinic bases solution for continuous health monitoring.

  8. Cloud Computing Benefits for E-learning Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2010-01-01

    E-learning systems usually require many hardware and software resources. There are many educational institutions that cannot afford such investments, and cloud computing is the best solution. This paper presents the impact on using cloud computing for e-learning solutions.

  9. Qualidade de vida no trabalho num cenário de precarização: a panaceia delirante Quality of work life in a setting of precariousness: a delusional panacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Padilha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa os fatores de precarização do trabalho em relação com a qualidade de vida do trabalhador. Desenvolve uma linha de raciocínio crítico que começa entendendo os contornos do trabalho precário na ordem do capital, passa pela compreensão do que é Qualidade de Vida no Trabalho (QVT para chegar à análise dos desafios encontrados hoje pelos trabalhadores em relação às possibilidades de viver tanto o trabalho quanto a vida cheios de sentido, em direção a um projeto de emancipação humana. A ideia principal defendida é a de que políticas de QVT adotadas em empresas podem aliviar momentaneamente alguns sintomas, mas não ferem as causas estruturais dos problemas. A humanização da gestão da força de trabalho pode ser uma encenação necessária no interior das organizações, mas não deve ser vista como solução para os males do trabalho.This paper analyzes the factors of the precariousness of work in relation to the quality of life of the worker. It develops a critical line of reasoning that begins by understanding the contours of precarious work in capital order, and then the understanding of what Quality of Work Life (QWL is and finally, an analysis of the challenges faced by workers today in relation to the possibilities of finding meaning in both life and work, which leads towards a project of human emancipation. The main idea put forward is that the QWL policies adopted by companies can temporarily relieve some symptoms, but do not reach the structural causes of the problems. The humanization of the management of the workforce may be a necessary scene within organizations, but should not be seen as a solution for work troubles.

  10. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  11. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruineberg, Jelle; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism's tendency toward an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston's work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the system "brain-body-landscape of affordances." Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism's selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  12. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM for construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari J. Uma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost among others. The existing design theories and practice are primarily based on functional requirements. Function-based design deals with design of artifact alone, which may yield favourable or unfavourable consequences with the design artifact. However, incorporating other interactions such as interactions between user & designer is necessary for optimised end-result. Hence, the objective of this research work is to devise a systematic design methodology considering all the three interactions among users, designers and artefacts for improved design efficiency. In this study, it has been attempted to apply the theory of affordances in a case project that involves the design of an offshore facility. A step-by-step methodology for developing Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM, which integrates House of Quality (HOQ and Design Structure Matrix (DSM, is proposed that can effectively capture the user requirements. HOQ is a popular quality management tool for capturing client requirements and DSM is a matrix-based tool that can capture the interdependency among the design entities. The proposed methodology utilises the strengths of both the tools, as DSM compliments HOQ in the process. In this methodology, different affordances such as AUA (Artifact-User-Affordance, AAA (Artifact-Artifact-Affordance and DDA (Designer-Designer-Affordance are captured systematically. Affordance is considered to be user-driven in this context that is in contrast to prevailing design

  13. Understanding and using technological affordances: a response to Boyle and Cook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Our use of affordance draws on Salomon (Salomon, 1993 who takes the definition back to Gibson and Norman (Gibson, 1977; Norman, 1988. Perhaps a key difference between the use of the term affordance in design is the emphasis on intended use, whereas our approach reflects Salomon's focus on ‘possible' use. Like Gibson the approach taken in our paper is focused on the relationship between the infrastructure of information and communication technologies and people's use of those technologies. We are interested in asking questions about what uses ICT invites and facilitates, what it lends itself to and what it can do well. A potential difficulty with using a term so popular in the field of design is that ‘use' tends to be focused on how something ‘should' be used, what it is designed for. Discussion about affordance can be limited to the intended, prescribed or designed function of technology. We are also interested in exploring the creative and innovative way people respond to technologies and perhaps adapt them for use in unforeseen circumstances. An affordance of the technology does not simply refer to the intended use but also to the unintended consequences. Google's use of hyper text links to drive the indexing of web searches might be an example of an affordance that is a consequence of creative engagement with technology, the adaptation rather than a feature of the original design related to hypertext. Another example of this adaptive use of hypertext might include its use by teachers to provide a digital framework for formative assessment and support for student learning. Class room teachers were quick to adapt presentation software and hyper text to present more interactive activity lessons. Software affording transmission modes of delivery was thereby adapted to users needs and a more interactive affordance created.

  14. Trend in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Driezen, Pete; Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hussain, A K M Ghulam

    2018-04-19

    The price of tobacco products in relation to the income of tobacco users-affordability-is recognised as a key determinant of tobacco use behaviour. The effectiveness of a price increase as a deterrent to tobacco use depends on how much price increases in relation to the income of the potential users. The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of and trends in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh. Using four waves of International Tobacco Control Survey data on Bangladesh, this study measures affordability of tobacco products at the individual level as the ratio of self-reported price and self-reported income. The trends in affordability by brand categories of cigarettes and of bidi and smokeless tobacco are estimated using multivariate linear regression analysis. Despite significant increase in price, the affordability of cigarettes increased between 2009 and 2014-2015 due to income growth outpacing price increase. The increase was disproportionately larger for more expensive brands. The affordability of bidis increased over this period as well. The affordability of smokeless tobacco products remained unchanged between 2011-2012 and 2014-2015. The tax increases that were implemented during 2009-2015 were not enough to increase tobacco product prices sufficiently to outweigh the effect of income growth, and to reduce tobacco consumption. The findings from this research inform policymakers that in countries experiencing rapid economic growth, significant tax increases are needed to counteract the effect of income growth, in order for the tax increases to be effective in reducing tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A Black Swan in a Sea of White Noise: Using Technology-Enhanced Learning to Afford Educational Inclusivity for Learners with Asperger’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James McDowell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of increasingly vocation-focussed course provision within higher education, of widening participation initiatives intended to promote greater inclusion for learners affected by learning difficulties, and of moves towards greater use of social and collaborative forms of learning, this paper discusses the case of an undergraduate Computing student affected by Asperger’s Syndrome (AS.While there is recognition in the literature of problems associated with face-to-face dialogue for persons affected by AS, there is a paucity of research both into the experience of students in higher education, and around the issue of participation in group-work activities increasingly found in creative aspects of computing. This paper highlights a tension between moves towards collaborative learning and UK disabilities legislation in relation to learners with AS. Employing a qualitative case-study methodology, the investigation revealed how a technology-enhanced learning intervention afforded an AS-diagnosed learner greater opportunities to participate in group-work in a higher education context. The findings suggest that not only can computer-mediated communications afford AS-diagnosed learners opportunities to participate meaningfully in group-work, but also that the learner demonstrated higher levels of collective-inclusive versus individual-exclusive phraseology than neurotypical peers, thereby challenging assumptions around participation in collaborative learning activities and assimilation of peer-feedback.

  16. Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankhauser, S.; Sladjana Tepic

    2007-01-01

    Low-income households spend a substantial share of their income on utility services such as electricity, heating and water. The difficulty of these socially vulnerable consumers to absorb further price increases is often used as an argument against tariff reform. However, detailed quantitative information on the affordability of tariff adjustments for low-income consumers is actually quite scarce. Much of the available information is based on households. This paper takes a more detailed look at the affordability of electricity, district heating and water for low-income consumers in transition countries. While the available data are incomplete, the paper finds that affordability is a problem for low-income consumers in most countries, in particular in the water sector and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The affordability consequences of tariff reform ultimately depend on the speed of tariff adjustments relative to the growth in household income, the level of tariffs needed for cost recovery, the level of effective tariffs at the outset (tariffs adjusted for non-payment) and the demand response to the tariff increase. The paper finds that delaying tariff reform by a few years makes little difference to affordability constraints, and may therefore not be an effective way to mitigate the social impact of utility reform. (author)

  17. Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Tepic, Sladjana

    2007-01-01

    Low-income households spend a substantial share of their income on utility services such as electricity, heating and water. The difficulty of these socially vulnerable consumers to absorb further price increases is often used as an argument against tariff reform. However, detailed quantitative information on the affordability of tariff adjustments for low-income consumers is actually quite scarce. Much of the available information is based on households. This paper takes a more detailed look at the affordability of electricity, district heating and water for low-income consumers in transition countries. While the available data are incomplete, the paper finds that affordability is a problem for low-income consumers in most countries, in particular in the water sector and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The affordability consequences of tariff reform ultimately depend on the speed of tariff adjustments relative to the growth in household income, the level of tariffs needed for cost recovery, the level of effective tariffs at the outset (tariffs adjusted for non-payment) and the demand response to the tariff increase. The paper finds that delaying tariff reform by a few years makes little difference to affordability constraints, and may therefore not be an effective way to mitigate the social impact of utility reform

  18. Close interpersonal proximity modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Szpak, Ancret; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate. All object images were in participants' reachable space but appeared relatively closer to the participant or the confederate. Results revealed when participants were alone, objects in both locations produced an affordance congruency effect but when the confederate was present, only objects nearer the participant elicited the effect. Findings suggest space is divided between strangers to preserve independent near-body space boundaries, and in turn this process influences motor coding for stimuli within that social space. To demonstrate that this visuomotor modulation represents a social phenomenon, rather than a general, attentional effect, two subsequent experiments employed nonhuman joint conditions. Neither a small, Japanese, waving cat statue (Experiment 2) nor a metronome (Experiment 3) modulated the affordance effect as in Experiment 1. These findings suggest a truly social explanation of the key interaction from Experiment 1. This study represents an important step toward understanding object affordance processing in real-world, social contexts and has implications broadly across fields of social action and cognition, and body space representation.

  19. System engineering of complex optical systems for mission assurance and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees

    2017-08-01

    Affordability and reliability are equally important as the performance and development time for many optical systems for military, space and commercial applications. These characteristics are even more important for the systems meant for space and military applications where total lifecycle costs must be affordable. Most customers are looking for high performance optical systems that are not only affordable but are designed with "no doubt" mission assurance, reliability and maintainability in mind. Both US military and commercial customers are now demanding an optimum balance between performance, reliability and affordability. Therefore, it is important to employ a disciplined systems design approach for meeting the performance, cost and schedule targets while keeping affordability and reliability in mind. The US Missile Defense Agency (MDA) now requires all of their systems to be engineered, tested and produced according to the Mission Assurance Provisions (MAP). These provisions or requirements are meant to ensure complex and expensive military systems are designed, integrated, tested and produced with the reliability and total lifecycle costs in mind. This paper describes a system design approach based on the MAP document for developing sophisticated optical systems that are not only cost-effective but also deliver superior and reliable performance during their intended missions.

  20. PlantSize Offers an Affordable, Non-destructive Method to Measure Plant Size and Color in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Faragó

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant size, shape and color are important parameters of plants, which have traditionally been measured by destructive and time-consuming methods. Non-destructive image analysis is an increasingly popular technology to characterize plant development in time. High throughput automatic phenotyping platforms can simultaneously analyze multiple morphological and physiological parameters of hundreds or thousands of plants. Such platforms are, however, expensive and are not affordable for many laboratories. Moreover, determination of basic parameters is sufficient for most studies. Here we describe a non-invasive method, which simultaneously measures basic morphological and physiological parameters of in vitro cultured plants. Changes of plant size, shape and color is monitored by repeated photography with a commercial digital camera using neutral white background. Images are analyzed with the MatLab-based computer application PlantSize, which simultaneously calculates several parameters including rosette size, convex area, convex ratio, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents of all plants identified on the image. Numerical data are exported in MS Excel-compatible format. Subsequent data processing provides information on growth rates, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents. Proof-of-concept validation of the imaging technology was demonstrated by revealing small but significant differences between wild type and transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the HSFA4A transcription factor or the hsfa4a knockout mutant, subjected to different stress conditions. While HSFA4A overexpression was associated with better growth, higher chlorophyll and lower anthocyanin content in saline conditions, the knockout hsfa4a mutant showed hypersensitivity to various stresses. Morphological differences were revealed by comparing rosette size, shape and color of wild type plants with phytochrome B (phyB-9 mutant. While the technology was developed with Arabidopsis plants

  1. Engaging students in blended and online collaborative courses at university level through Second Life: comparative perspectives and instructional affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos; kazanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Students' opinions about the degree of impact, status, and socio-cognitive viability with the utilization of the emerging three-dimensional (3D) computer-generated technologies may vary. Indisputably, 3D technology-enhanced environments have provided considerable benefits and affordances to the contemporary e-Education. In these circumstances, virtual worlds (VWs) like second life (SL) have generally intensified with an extensive perpetuation and penetration of innovative performances that encapsulated or enacted from the vast majority of higher education fields. At the same time, there is growing widespread recognition of reasons affecting the high or low degree of students' engagement in online and blended course delivery methods held in 3D VWs. Notwithstanding that most notable studies have disclosed SL functional capabilities from a plethora of pilot case studies, however, it is still lacking an experiential-based research approach to determine the degree of students' engagement in blended and online courses at university level through SL. The present comparative study explores students' engagement overall as a multidimensional construct consisting of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors. One hundred and thirty-five undergraduate and postgraduate students in almost identical blended and online instructional conditions held in SL took part in this project. Preliminary results have decoded students' satisfaction for both methods, despite the fact that the voluntary sample composed of different educational disciplines. The quantitative analysis showed that postgraduate students of the online course had more positive results and the degree of engagement significantly increased compared to those who enrolled with the blended course delivery method. The instructional affordances from the utilization of SL were the collaborative climate between users (instructor and students) who eliminated various intractable boundaries which were predominantly observed by

  2. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Promoting Competition in the Individual Marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, David; Lucia, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    A main goal of the Affordable Care Act is to provide Americans with access to affordable coverage in the individual market, achieved in part by pro­moting competition among insurers on premium price and value. One primary mechanism for meeting that goal is the establishment of new individual health insurance marketplaces where consumers can shop for, compare, and purchase plans, with subsidies if they are eligible. In this issue brief, we explore how the Affordable Care Act is influencing competition in the individual marketplaces in four states--Kansas, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Washington. Strategies include: educating consumers and providing coverage information in one place to ease decision-making; promoting competition among insurers; and ensuring a level playing field for premium rate development through the rate review process.

  3. An affordable and easy-to-use diagnostic method for keratoconus detection using a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Behnam; Tabei, Fatemehsadat; Askarian, Amin; Chong, Jo Woon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, smartphones are used for disease diagnosis and healthcare. In this paper, we propose a novel affordable diagnostic method of detecting keratoconus using a smartphone. Keratoconus is usually detected in clinics with ophthalmic devices, which are large, expensive and not portable, and need to be operated by trained technicians. However, our proposed smartphone-based eye disease detection method is small, affordable, portable, and it can be operated by patients in a convenient way. The results show that the proposed keratoconus detection method detects severe, advanced, and moderate keratoconus with accuracies of 93%, 86%, 67%, respectively. Due to its convenience with these accuracies, the proposed keratoconus detection method is expected to be applied in detecting keratoconus at an earlier stage in an affordable way.

  4. The role of business agreements in defining textbook affordability and digital materials: A document analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Raible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting digital materials such as eTextbooks and e-coursepacks is a potential strategy to address textbook affordability in the United States. However, university business relationships with bookstore vendors implicitly structure which instructional resources are available and in what manner. In this study, a document analysis was conducted on the bookstore contracts for the universities included in the State University System of Florida. Namely, issues of textbook affordability, digital material terminology and seller exclusivity were investigated. It was found that textbook affordability was generally conceived in terms of print rental textbooks and buyback programs, and that eTextbooks were priced higher than print textbooks (25% to 30% markup. Implications and recommendations for change are shared. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i4.284

  5. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eBruineberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism’s tendency towards an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston’s work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the brain-body-environment system. Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism’s selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  6. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a " bodily turn " in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we

  7. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job.

  8. Implementing Computer Algebra Enabled Questions for the Assessment and Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.; Naismith, Laura

    2008-01-01

    We present principles for the design of an online system to support computer algebra enabled questions for use within the teaching and learning of mathematics in higher education. The introduction of a computer algebra system (CAS) into a computer aided assessment (CAA) system affords sophisticated response processing of student provided answers.…

  9. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  10. Students' affordance of teleologic explanations and antrhropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romiro Gordo Bautista

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study ascertains the students’ affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics as influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students’ affordance of teleologic-anthropomorphic reasoning to select concepts in Physics: Kinematics, Dynamics, Statics and Introduction to Thermodynamics.  It was found out that the respondents had intermittently committed teleologic-anthropomorphic languages across age and nature of their secondary education. Furthermore, teleologic-anthropomorphic languages were found correctible by classroom interventions as indicated by the test results on age and curricular exposure.

  11. Understanding Structures and Affordances of Extended Teams in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little known about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may exist in ETM and what affordances...... in the studied team help deal with different GSD challenges, these structures appear to have certain challenges inherent in them and the affordances they provide. We make a few recommendations for improving the current structures to deal with the observed challenges. Our findings are expected to provide insights...

  12. A Prototype using Territories and an Affordance Tree for Social Simulation Gameplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishauser, Tilman; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Nelson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Smart objects are a representation strategy for games and virtual worlds, in which information about object interac- tions is distributed into the ob jects themselves: an ob ject knows how it can be used, what kinds of effects it has, etc. In this work, we describe a prototype that aims to explore...... so- cial simulation using smart objects. We extend the concept of smart objects to include a model of human behavior with regard to territoriality. To manage complexity in worlds with many such objects we employ a tree structure, which we call an Affordance Tree. The Affordance Tree allows...

  13. Refusal to enrol in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: is affordability the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusi, Anthony; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S; Asante, Felix A

    2015-01-17

    Access to health insurance is expected to have positive effect in improving access to healthcare and offer financial risk protection to households. Ghana began the implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 as a way to ensure equitable access to basic healthcare for all residents. After a decade of its implementation, national coverage is just about 34% of the national population. Affordability of the NHIS contribution is often cited by households as a major barrier to enrolment in the NHIS without any rigorous analysis of this claim. In light of the global interest in achieving universal health insurance coverage, this study seeks to examine the extent to which affordability of the NHIS contribution is a barrier to full insurance for households and a burden on their resources. The study uses data from a cross-sectional household survey involving 2,430 households from three districts in Ghana conducted between January-April, 2011. Affordability of the NHIS contribution is analysed using the household budget-based approach based on the normative definition of affordability. The burden of the NHIS contributions to households is assessed by relating the expected annual NHIS contribution to household non-food expenditure and total consumption expenditure. Households which cannot afford full insurance were identified. Results show that 66% of uninsured households and 70% of partially insured households could afford full insurance for their members. Enroling all household members in the NHIS would account for 5.9% of household non-food expenditure or 2.0% of total expenditure but higher for households in the first (11.4%) and second (7.0%) socio-economic quintiles. All the households (29%) identified as unable to afford full insurance were in the two lower socio-economic quintiles and had large household sizes. Non-financial factors relating to attributes of the insurer and health system problems also affect enrolment in the NHIS. Affordability

  14. The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm): are remote areas benefiting from the intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yazoume; Arnold, Fred; Noor, Abdisalan; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Amuasi, John; Blay, Samuel; Mberu, Blessing; Ren, Ruilin; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wekesah, Frederick; Gatakaa, Hellen; Toda, Mitsuru; Njogu, Julius; Evance, Illah; O'Connell, Kathryn; Shewchuk, Tanya; Thougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea; Willey, Barbara; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2015-10-09

    To assess the availability, price and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) in remote areas (RAs) compared with non-remote areas (nRAs) in Kenya and Ghana at end-line of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) intervention. Areas were classified by remoteness using a composite index computed from estimated travel times to three levels of service centres. The index was used to five categories of remoteness, which were then grouped into two categories of remote and non-remote areas. The number of public or private outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarial medicines, screened in nRAs and RAs, respectively, was 501 and 194 in Ghana and 9980 and 2353 in Kenya. The analysis compares RAs with nRAs in terms of availability, price and market share of QAACT in each country. QAACT were similarly available in RAs as nRAs in Ghana and Kenya. In both countries, there was no statistical difference in availability of QAACT with AMFm logo between RAs and nRAs in public health facilities (PHFs), while private-for-profit (PFP) outlets had lower availability in RA than in nRAs (Ghana: 66.0 vs 82.2 %, p price of QAACT with AMFm logo for PFP outlets in RAs (USD1.25 in Ghana and USD0.69 in Kenya) was above the recommended retail price in Ghana (US$0.95) and Kenya (US$0.46), and much higher than in nRAs for both countries. QAACT with AMFm logo represented the majority of QAACT in RAs and nRAs in Kenya and Ghana. In the PFP sector in Ghana, the market share for QAACT with AMFm logo was significantly higher in RAs than in nRAs (75.6 vs 51.4 %, p penetration of the AMFm programme into RAs is needed to inform actions to improve the healthcare delivery system, particularly in RAs.

  15. Reconfigurable computing the theory and practice of FPGA-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hauck, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable Computing marks a revolutionary and hot topic that bridges the gap between the separate worlds of hardware and software design- the key feature of reconfigurable computing is its groundbreaking ability to perform computations in hardware to increase performance while retaining the flexibility of a software solution. Reconfigurable computers serve as affordable, fast, and accurate tools for developing designs ranging from single chip architectures to multi-chip and embedded systems. Scott Hauck and Andre DeHon have assembled a group of the key experts in the fields of both hardwa

  16. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  17. Robust High Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Gas Turbine Components using Affordable Processing Approach, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to demonstrate the use of advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional thermal / environmental...

  18. The Affordances of Mobile-App Supported Teacher Observations for Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sercan; Baran, Evrim; Sert, Olcay

    2018-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer new affordances for teacher observation in teacher education programs, albeit under-examined in contrast to video technologies. The purpose of this article is to investigate the integration of mobile technologies into teacher observation. Using a case study method, the authors compare the traditional narrative paper-pen,…

  19. Awareness, Perceptions, and Communication Needs about the Affordable Care Act across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Caroline D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Sisson, Diana C.; Tanner, Andrea; Kornegay, Vance L.; Owens, Otis L.; Weis, Megan A.; Patterson, Lee L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By March 2014, all U.S. citizens were required to have health insurance according to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Purpose: Study objectives were to explore individuals' opinions, perceptions, and communication sources and needs about the ACA and to assess differences by age group. Methods: In November 2013, 10 1-hour focus groups (5…

  20. Learners with Dyslexia: Exploring Their Experiences with Different Online Reading Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Keong, Melissa Wei Yin; Teh, Chee Siong; Chuah, Kee Man

    2015-01-01

    To date, empirically derived guidelines for designing accessible online learning environments for learners with dyslexia are still scarce. This study aims to explore the learning experience of learners with dyslexia when reading passages using different online reading affordances to derive some guidelines for dyslexia-friendly online text. The…

  1. Pathways in Learning to Teach Elementary Science: Navigating Contexts, Roles, Affordances and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah C.; Jang, Shinho

    2011-01-01

    This case study of a fifth-year elementary intern's pathway in learning to teach science focused on her science methods course, placement science teaching, and reflections as a first-year teacher. We studied the sociocultural contexts within which the intern learned, their affordances and constraints, and participants' perspectives on their roles…

  2. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  3. Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High-Temperature Distributed Engine Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    long lasting, high temperature modules is to use high temperature electronics on ceramic modules. The electronic components are “ brazed ” onto the...Copyright © 2012 by ISA Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High - Temperature Distributed Engine Controls Alireza Behbahani 1...with regards to high temperature capability. The Government and Industry Distributed Engine Controls Working Group (DECWG) [5] has been established

  4. Mobile Service Affordability for the Needy, Addiction, and ICT Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviours which raise additional

  5. SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrichs, Anna; Busch, Julia; van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase the monitoring capabilities of inland and coastal waters, there is a need for new, affordable, sensitive and mobile instruments that could be operated semi-automatically in the field. This paper presents a prototype device to measure chlorophyll a fluorescence: the SmartFluo.

  6. Use of Welcome to Medicare Visits Among Older Adults Following the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Arpit; Lloyd, Jennifer T; Strawbridge, Larisa M; Wensky, Suzanne G

    2018-01-01

    To encourage greater utilization of preventive services among Medicare beneficiaries, the 2010 Affordable Care Act waived coinsurance for the Welcome to Medicare visit, making this benefit free starting in 2011. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the Affordable Care Act on Welcome to Medicare visit utilization. A 5% sample of newly enrolled fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries for 2005-2016 was used to estimate changes in Welcome to Medicare visit use over time. An interrupted time series model examined whether Welcome to Medicare visits increased significantly after 2011, controlling for pre-intervention trends and other autocorrelation. Annual Welcome to Medicare visit rates began at 1.4% in 2005 and increased to 12.3% by 2016. The quarterly Welcome to Medicare visit rate, which was almost 1% at baseline, was increasing by 0.06% before the 2011 Affordable Care Act provision (pAct provision, the rate increased by about 1% in the first quarter of 2011 (intercept, pAct trends of lower utilization persisted over time for non-whites and improved less quickly for men, regions other than Northeast, and beneficiaries without any supplemental insurance. The Affordable Care Act, and perhaps the removal of cost sharing, was associated with increased use of the Welcome to Medicare visit; however, even with the increased use, there is room for improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. 77 FR 4564 - Request for Information Regarding the Reinsurance Program Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...? 12. What COIs could arise for such potential subcontractors? Data Collection 13. Describe current... comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available... reinsurance program. Section 1321(c)(1) of the Affordable Care Act directs the Secretary to take such actions...

  8. 78 FR 7348 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...) of title 22, United States Code (relating to Peace Corps volunteers); or the Nonappropriated Fund... indicate that, consistent with existing language in Sec. 155.200(b), granting certificates of exemption is... affordability programs. We note that we expect to modify the proposed language in Sec. 155.227 (78 FR 4711) to...

  9. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ian eMcGregor; Joseph eHayes; Mike ePrentice; Mike ePrentice

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxi...

  10. 77 FR 20615 - DAU Industry Day: “Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... the Industrial Base'' AGENCY: Defense Acquisition University (DAU), DoD. ACTION: Event notice. SUMMARY... to discuss affordability, efficiency, and the industrial base. After a variety of presenters, the... this time of fiscal austerity, while maintaining a healthy industrial base. Following the plenary...

  11. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in the Shaanxi Province in China: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minghuan; Zhou, Zhongliang; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Lv, Bing; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines System (NEMS) to improve access to high-quality low-cost essential medicines. To measure the prices, availability and affordability of medicines in China following the implementation of the NEMS. 120 public hospitals and 120 private pharmacies in ten cities in Shaanxi Province, Western China. The standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to collect data on prices and availability of 49 medicines. Median price ratio; availability as a percentage; cost of course of treatment in days' wages of the lowest-paid government workers. In the public hospitals, originator brands (OBs) were procured at 8.89 times the international reference price, more than seven times higher than the lowest-priced generics (LPGs). Patients paid 11.83 and 1.69 times the international reference prices for OBs and generics respectively. A similar result was observed in the private pharmacies. The mean availabilities of OBs and LPGs were 7.1 and 20.0 % in the public hospitals, and 12.6 and 29.2 % in the private pharmacies. Treatment with OBs is therefore largely unaffordable, but the affordability of the LPGs is generally good. High prices and low availability of survey medicines were observed. The affordability of generics, but not OBs, is reasonable. Effective measures should be taken to reduce medicine prices and improve availability and affordability in Shaanxi Province.

  12. 78 FR 64930 - Open Forum on College Value and Affordability and College Ratings System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-437-0833), or email us at: [email protected] . Or write to: U.S. Department of Education... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Open Forum on College Value and Affordability and College Ratings System AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In August 2013...

  13. Mirror Worlds: Examining the Affordances of a Next Generation Immersive Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Aakash; Williams, Daron; Terry, Krista; Robinson, Kelly; Newbill, Phyllis

    2018-01-01

    As technologies continue to develop and evolve, it is imperative that instructional technologists, learning scientists, and educators involved with examining learning affordances of emerging technologies investigate the potential of innovative environments to promote and facilitate learning. This paper, as such, will describe a newly developed…

  14. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of

  15. Redefining Technological Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of Social Affordances in Workplace Email

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Tina Marie

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the social affordances of workplace email use. Through group and individual interviews of six knowledge workers in a distributed real estate firm, it explores the extent workplace writers recognize and rely on extra-textual devices (i.e., copy, blind-copy, and forward devices) and email applications (i.e., email…

  16. 78 FR 32991 - Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 433 [CMS-2327-CN] RIN 0938-AR38 Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS...

  17. 77 FR 17143 - Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Medicare and Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435 and 457 Medicaid Program; Eligibility Changes Under... for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435, and 457 [CMS-2349-F] RIN 0938-AQ62 Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  18. Improving Defense Acquisition Management and Policy Through a Life-Cycle Affordability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    14  Are the PBL Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life Cycle...or role (engineering, SCM, finance ). Two Select managers for baseline study. Select managers whose self-description and supervisor feedback...networks into value . Are the PBL Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of

  19. Virtual team learning: The role of collaboration process and technology affordance in team decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Cordes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines two dimensions that impact virtual team decision making. One is the influence of collaboration process structure: the sequences, patterns, and routines participants use to interact and solve problems. The other is technology affordance: the strengths and weaknesses of technologies in terms of the usefulness they offer to teams when performing tasks. Some teams used a structured collaboration process with monitoring, coordination, and backup functions during a decision-making discussion. Other teams had no discussion process instructions. In addition, some teams possessed stronger technology affordance including both chat and an editable document. Other teams used chat technology alone, which offered fewer collaboration possibilities. The collaboration process and technology affordance factors were tested in an experiment in which four-person online teams worked as a personnel hiring committee. Information about four job candidates was distributed to create a hidden profile in which some information was shared across all team members, while other information was visible only to specific members. Two hundred and eight students, comprising fifty-two teams completed the study. Teams using the structured collaboration process made more accurate and higher-quality decisions. In addition, scores were higher when technology affordance included both chat and editable document tools, but this influence was not significant.

  20. Affording and Constraining Local Moral Orders in Teacher-Led Ability-Based Mathematics Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Shuker, Mary Jane; Higgins, Joanna; Loveridge, Judith

    2015-01-01

    How teachers position themselves and their students can influence the development of afforded or constrained local moral orders in ability-based teacher-led mathematics lessons. Local moral orders are the negotiated discursive practices and interactions of participants in the group. In this article, the developing local moral orders of 12 teachers…