WorldWideScience

Sample records for computers mirror life

  1. Modeling Reality - How Computers Mirror Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    The bookModeling Reality covers a wide range of fascinating subjects, accessible to anyone who wants to learn about the use of computer modeling to solve a diverse range of problems, but who does not possess a specialized training in mathematics or computer science. The material presented is pitched at the level of high-school graduates, even though it covers some advanced topics (cellular automata, Shannon's measure of information, deterministic chaos, fractals, game theory, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and Turing machines). These advanced topics are explained in terms of well known simple concepts: Cellular automata - Game of Life, Shannon's formula - Game of twenty questions, Game theory - Television quiz, etc. The book is unique in explaining in a straightforward, yet complete, fashion many important ideas, related to various models of reality and their applications. Twenty-five programs, written especially for this book, are provided on an accompanying CD. They greatly enhance its pedagogical value and make learning of even the more complex topics an enjoyable pleasure.

  2. Architecture – a mirror of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a research project that analyses trends in the last 100 years of housing architecture. The research project intends to show how changing norms have altered our views on housing, and how the development of new forms of everyday life and lifestyle has led to fundamental changes...... in housing architecture. In this paper the analysis focuses particularly on the kitchen. A 100 years ago the kitchen of the bourgeoisie and the middle class was used only by servants and other employees – the kitchen was not designed to be used by the residents. Today the kitchen has developed into a central...... room of the home, and it has great social qualities - and a lot of money is spent on the aesthetic appearance of the kitchen. Trends such as these are described in the paper in the light of societal and cultural trends - health, rationality, food culture, gender, sustainability, consumerism etc....

  3. Mirroring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    Most definitions of creativity emphasise originality. The creative product is recognised as distinct from other products and the creative person as someone who stands out from the crowd. What tend to be overlooked are acts of mirroring as a crucial element of the creative process. The human ability...

  4. Experimental and computer investigation of the diagnostic mirror behavior under sputtering and duct material deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandourko, V.V.; Gridneva, E.A.; Koborov, N.N.; Kurnaev, V.A.; Levchuk, D.V. E-mail: denis@plasma.mephi.ru; Levchuk, S.S.; Trifonov, N.N.; Zhuravlev, A.V

    2002-12-01

    Experiments on stainless steel duct material, W and Mo mirror surfaces as well as modeling of the experiment using a new computer code which takes into account scanning tunnelling microscope measured surface topography are described. Simulations of the sputtering yield as a function of the primary ion energy and the angle of incidence for ion irradiated targets demonstrated the difference in behavior for ideally smooth, non-irradiated and irradiated targets.

  5. View-Invariant Visuomotor Processing in Computational Mirror Neuron System for Humanoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Dawood

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are visuo-motor neurons found in primates and thought to be significant for imitation learning. The proposition that mirror neurons result from associative learning while the neonate observes his own actions has received noteworthy empirical support. Self-exploration is regarded as a procedure by which infants become perceptually observant to their own body and engage in a perceptual communication with themselves. We assume that crude sense of self is the prerequisite for social interaction. However, the contribution of mirror neurons in encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen have not been addressed in relation to humanoid robots. In this paper we present a computational model for development of mirror neuron system for humanoid based on the hypothesis that infants acquire MNS by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration capable of sustaining early imitation skills. The purpose of our proposed model is to take into account the view-dependency of neurons as a probable outcome of the associative connectivity between motor and visual information. In our experiment, a humanoid robot stands in front of a mirror (represented through self-image using camera in order to obtain the associative relationship between his own motor generated actions and his own visual body-image. In the learning process the network first forms mapping from each motor representation onto visual representation from the self-exploratory perspective. Afterwards, the representation of the motor commands is learned to be associated with all possible visual perspectives. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot.

  6. Procedure for computer-controlled milling of accurate surfaces of revolution for millimeter and far-infrared mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Louisa; De Zafra, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for milling accurate off-axis parabolic mirrors with a computer-controlled milling machine is discussed. For machines with a built-in circle-cutting routine, an exact paraboloid can be milled with few computer commands and without the use of the spherical or linear approximations. The proposed method can be adapted easily to cut off-axis sections of elliptical or spherical mirrors.

  7. Half-life and Branching ratio measurements of T = 1/2 Mirror Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidling, P. D.; Melconian, D.; Behling, S.; Fenker, B.; Hardy, J. C.; Horvat, V.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Mehlman, M.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.

    2014-09-01

    The β-decay transitions between T = 1/2 isospin doublets in mirror nuclei requires the measurement of decay rate and angular correlation to measure the comparative half-life. The motivation for improving the precision of the ft value is to determine the standard-model prediction for the correlation parameters with better precision. We have measured the half-life of 21Na and 37K, and the ground-state branching ratio of 37K to improve the precision of the ft value. For 37K, the ft value was limited by 0.6% uncertainty in the half-life and 0.14% uncertainty in the ground-state branching ratio. The precision of the present half-life measurement is nearly an order of magnitude improvement over the previously accepted world average. In case of 21Na, the ft value was limited by 0.13% uncertainty in the half-life. Another motivation for the half-life measurement comes from the fact that the half-life has only been measured thrice nearly 40 years ago. The measurements were carried out at the Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University. An overview of both experiments and results will be presented.

  8. Mathematical and computational modeling of a ferrofluid deformable mirror for high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Aaron J.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Groff, Tyler D.; Rousing, Andreas W.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    Deformable mirrors (DMs) are an enabling and mission-critical technology in any coronagraphic instrument designed to directly image exoplanets. A new ferro fluid deformable mirror technology for high-contrast imaging is currently under development at Princeton, featuring a flexible optical surface manipulated by the local electromagnetic and global hydraulic actuation of a reservoir of ferro fluid. The ferro fluid DM is designed to prioritize high optical surface quality, high-precision/low-stroke actuation, and excellent low-spatial-frequency performance - capabilities that meet the unique demands of high-contrast coronagraphy in a space-based platform. To this end, the ferro-fluid medium continuously supports the DM face sheet, a configuration that eliminates actuator print-through (or, quilting) by decoupling the nominal surface figure from the geometry of the actuator array. The global pressure control allows independent focus actuation. In this paper we describe an analytical model for the quasi-static deformation response of the DM face sheet to both magnetic and pressure actuation. These modeling efforts serve to identify the key design parameters and quantify their contributions to the DM response, model the relationship between actuation commands and DM surface-profile response, and predict performance metrics such as achievable spatial resolution and stroke precision for specific actuator configurations. Our theoretical approach addresses the complexity of the boundary conditions associated with mechanical mounting of the face sheet, and makes use of asymptotic approximations by leveraging the three distinct length scales in the problem - namely, the low-stroke ( nm) actuation, face sheet thickness ( mm), and mirror diameter (cm). In addition to describing the theoretical treatment, we report the progress of computational multi physics simulations which will be useful in improving the model fidelity and in drawing conclusions to improve the design.

  9. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  10. Computational thinking in life science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-11-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.

  11. Computer Mediated Communication (CMC e Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boniello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo sono riportate alcune esperienze e sperimentazioni didattiche che descrivono occasioni di comunicazione formativa (Computer Mediated Communication – CMC attraverso ambienti 3D quali Second Life (SL. Sono inoltre evidenziati e descritti i principali strumenti di comunicazione in SL e il loro utilizzo.

  12. Real-life applications with membrane computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Gexiang; Gheorghe, Marian

    2017-01-01

    This book thoroughly investigates the underlying theoretical basis of membrane computing models, and reveals their latest applications. In addition, to date there have been no illustrative case studies or complex real-life applications that capitalize on the full potential of the sophisticated membrane systems computational apparatus; gaps that this book remedies. By studying various complex applications – including engineering optimization, power systems fault diagnosis, mobile robot controller design, and complex biological systems involving data modeling and process interactions – the book also extends the capabilities of membrane systems models with features such as formal verification techniques, evolutionary approaches, and fuzzy reasoning methods. As such, the book offers a comprehensive and up-to-date guide for all researchers, PhDs and undergraduate students in the fields of computer science, engineering and the bio-sciences who are interested in the applications of natural computing models.

  13. Computers make rig life extension an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  14. Application of Computer Tomography for Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapin, A.; Nealson, K.

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most fundamentally difficult challenges facing those who would search for life is that of scale determination. Spatial scales of life on Earth range over more than 15 orders of magnitude in mass and volume, and more than 8 orders of magnitude in 2 dimensional space. If the distribution of life is sparse in comparison to the background on which it is found, then the choice of the right scale is critical to finding that life. But how does one identify the proper scale? To put this in other words, how does one recognize the "haystacks" in which the needles (biosignatures and evidence of life) might be most profitably searched for? The problem is further exacerbated when conditions get extreme because much of the life moves from the clement surface environment into the pores and more clement environments inside of rocks, minerals and soils. Once encased in their lithic homes, these microbes become nearly impossible to study by standard techniques because of the opacity of the rocks. It is this problem that we propose to address in the work proposed here. Computer Tomography (CT) has been a very valuable tool in medicine, where the best resolution available has typically been of the order of about 0.5 mm. However, to adapt the approach for life detection of microbial endoliths, the resolution needs to be moved to the micrometer and even submicrometer levels. Thus for the studies proposed here, we begin with a commercially available instrument that can yield resolution of approximately 10 micrometers. The rational for this is twofold: first, this is the "state of the art" in laboratory instruments; and second, that while the usual size of a microbial cell is about 1 micron, microorganisms tend to live in communities that usually exceed the 10 micrometer size range. The resolution also depends on the sample size itself, so having a small lab instrument into which small samples can be placed will be beneficial to the resolution. We have now used several

  15. The Electronic Mirror: Human-Computer Interaction and Change in Self-Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laere, Kevin H.; Lundgren, David C.; Howe, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    Compares humanlike versus machinelike interactional styles of computer interfaces, testing hypotheses that evaluative feedback conveyed through a humanlike interface will have greater impact on individuals' self-appraisals. Reflected appraisals were more influenced by computer feedback than were self-appraisals. Humanlike and machinelike interface…

  16. Death Mirrors the Spirit of Life | Rossouw | Indo-Pacific Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to further an understanding of how a soul comes to despair and how the spirit of life is wounded. This question is approached from the perspective of death – in the form of death defying acts and voluntary death – as the dialectic aspect of being and non-being. Death can be a reflection of the life lived ...

  17. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  18. Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

  19. Efficient testing of segmented aspherical mirrors by use of reference plate and computer-generated holograms. I. Theory and system optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feenix Y; Burge, Jim

    2004-10-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of large mirrors as a single piece, they can be made by use of numerous smaller segments. Because the segments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to fabrication and testing that are absent for monolithic optics. We have developed a new method for measuring large quantities of segments accurately, quickly, and economically using an interferometric test plate and computer-generated hologram (CGH). In this test, the aspheric mirror segments are interferometrically measured by use of a test plate with a best-fit spherical surface. The aspherical departure is accommodated with a small CGH that is imaged onto the test plates. The radius of curvature is tightly controlled by maintaining the gap between the test plate and the segment. We present a summary of the test and give the basic design tradeoffs for using a single system to measure all of the segments of a large aspheric mirror.

  20. Bronze rainbow hologram mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.

    2006-02-01

    This project draws on holographic embossing techniques, ancient artistic conventions of bronze mirror design and modelling and casting processes to accomplish portraiture of reflection. Laser scanning, 3D computer graphics and holographic imaging are employed to enable a permanent 3D static holographic image to appear integrated with the real-time moving reflection of a viewer's face in a polished bronze disc. The disc and the figure which holds it (caryatid) are cast in bronze from a lost wax model, a technique which has been used for millennia to make personal mirrors. The Caryatid form of bronze mirror which went through many permutations in ancient Egyptian, Greece and Rome shows a plethora of expressive figure poses ranging from sleek nudes to highly embellished multifigure arrangements. The prototype of this series was made for Australian choreographer Graeme Murphy, Artistic Director of the Sydney Dance Company. Each subsequent mirror will be unique in figure and holographic imagery as arranged between artist and subject. Conceptually this project references both the modern experience of viewing mirrors retrieved from ancient tombs, which due to deterioration of the surface no longer reflect, and the functioning of Chinese Magic mirrors, which have the ability to project a predetermined image. Inspired by the metaphorical potential of these mirrors, which do not reflect the immediate reality of the viewer, this bronze hologram mirror series enables each viewer to reflect upon himself or herself observing simultaneously the holographic image and their own partially obliterated reflection.

  1. Info-computational constructivism in modelling of life as cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the open question formulated as: Which levels of abstraction are appropriate in the synthetic modelling of life and cognition? within the framework of info-computational constructivism, treating natural phenomena as computational processes on informational structures. At present we lack the common understanding of the processes of life and cognition in living organisms with the details of co-construction of informational structures and computational processes in embodied,...

  2. "Life" and Education Policy: Intervention, Augmentation and Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the notion of multiple ways of thinking, knowing and transforming life, namely an increasing capacity to intervene in "life" as a "molecular biopolitics," and the changing ways in which "life" can be understood computationally. We identify and speculate on the ways different ideas…

  3. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  4. Sensor-embedded computers for better life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Zeid, Ibrahim

    2004-12-01

    This research investigates the advantages offered by embedded sensors for cost-effective and environmentally benign product life cycle management for desktop computers. During their use by customers as well as at the end of their lives, Sensor Embedded Computers (SECs) by virtue of sensors embedded in them generate data and information pertaining to the conditions and remaining lives of important components such as hard-drive, motherboard, and power supply unit. A computer monitoring framework is proposed to provide more customer comfort, reduce repair costs and increase the effectiveness of current disassembly practices. The framework consists of SECs, remote monitoring center (RMC), repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers. The RMC collects dynamic data/information generated by sensors during computer usage as well as static data/information from the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The RMC forwards this data/information to the repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers on need-basis. The knowledge about the condition and remaining life of computer components can be advantageously used for planning repair/service and disassembly operations as well as for building refurbished computers with known expected lives. Simulation model of the framework is built and is evaluated in terms of the following performance measures: average downtime of a computer, average repair/service cost of a computer, average disassembly cost of a computer, and average life cycle cost of a computer. Test results show that embedding sensors in computers provides a definite advantage over conventional computers in terms of the performance measures.

  5. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: surface profile and point spread function computation for Gaussian beams using physical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D

    2018-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are commonly used in different sectors of science, such as X-ray astronomy, medical imaging and synchrotron/free-electron laser beamlines. While deformations of the mirror profile may cause degradation of the focus sharpness, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators. The resulting profile can be characterized with suitable metrology tools and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code or, sometimes, predicted using geometric optics. In the latter case and for the special class of profile deformations with monotonically increasing derivative, i.e. concave upwards, the point spread function (PSF) can even be predicted analytically. Moreover, under these assumptions, the relation can also be reversed: from the desired PSF the required profile deformation can be computed analytically, avoiding the use of trial-and-error search codes. However, the computation has been so far limited to geometric optics, which entailed some limitations: for example, mirror diffraction effects and the size of the coherent X-ray source were not considered. In this paper, the beam-shaping formalism in the framework of physical optics is reviewed, in the limit of small light wavelengths and in the case of Gaussian intensity wavefronts. Some examples of shaped profiles are also shown, aiming at turning a Gaussian intensity distribution into a top-hat one, and checks of the shaping performances computing the at-wavelength PSF by means of the WISE code are made.

  6. Perception of symptoms and quality of life – comparison of patients’ and physicians’ views in the COPD MIRROR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celli B

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bartolome Celli,1,2 Francesco Blasi,3,4 Mina Gaga,5 Dave Singh,6 Claus Vogelmeier,7,8 Valeria Pegoraro,9 Nicoletta Caputo,10 Alvar Agusti11 1Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; 4Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; 57th Respiratory Medicine Department and Asthma Centre, Athens Chest Hospital, Athens, Greece; 6Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK; 7Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany, 8German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Giessen, Germany; 9Real World Insight, QuintilesIMS, Milan, Italy; 10Primary Market Research, QuintilesIMS, Milan, Italy; 11Respiratory Institute, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, CibeRes, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare potential differences between the perception that COPD patients have of their disease and the perception that physicians have of how the disease affects their patients.Methods: Surveys in COPD patients and physicians caring for COPD patients were conducted in Spain, Italy, and Germany. Online questionnaires mirrored to explore the same domains, were administered to patients and physicians. Physicians were asked to respond to the questionnaire taking a recently seen patient who represents the majority of COPD patients usually managed, as a reference. Patients with COPD completed a survey containing the same questions offered to the physicians (Medical Investigation of Respiratory COPD Perception [MIRROR] survey. Comparisons between the responses of patients and general

  7. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented.

  8. Petri Net Modeling of Computer Virus Life Cycle | Ikekonwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented. The intention of ...

  9. Scanning mirror for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. H.; Bernstein, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A high resolution, long life angle-encoded scanning mirror, built for application in an infrared attitude sensor, is described. The mirror uses a Moire' fringe type optical encoder and unique torsion bar suspension together with a magnetic drive to meet stringent operational and environmental requirements at a minimum weight and with minimum power consumption. Details of the specifications, design, and construction are presented with an analysis of the mirror suspension that allows accurate prediction of performance. The emphasis is on mechanical design considerations, and brief discussions are included on the encoder and magnetic drive to provide a complete view of the mirror system and its capabilities.

  10. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  11. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri ... used to derive anti-viral programs based on the Petri net framework. Keywords: Virus lifecycle, Petri nets, ... are often disguised as images, joke software or anti-virus software. We have ...

  12. Monte Carlo simulation by computer for life-cycle costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, F. H.; Larson, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Prediction of behavior and support requirements during the entire life cycle of a system enables accurate cost estimates by using the Monte Carlo simulation by computer. The system reduces the ultimate cost to the procuring agency because it takes into consideration the costs of initial procurement, operation, and maintenance.

  13. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  14. What do mirror neurons mirror?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uithol, S.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data

  15. Prospects of a computational origin of life endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Barak; Lancet, Doron

    2004-02-01

    While the last century brought an exquisite understanding of the molecular basis of life, very little is known about the detailed chemical mechanisms that afforded the emergence of life on early earth. There is a broad agreement that the problem lies in the realm of chemistry, and likely resides in the formation and mutual interactions of carbon-based molecules in aqueous medium. Yet, present-day experimental approaches can only capture the synthesis and behavior of a few molecule types at a time. On the other hand, experimental simulations of prebiotic syntheses, as well as chemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites, suggest that the early prebiotic hydrosphere contained many thousands of different compounds. The present paper explores the idea that given the limitations of test-tube approaches with regards to such a 'random chemistry' scenario, an alternative mode of analysis should be pursued. It is argued that as computational tools for the reconstruction of molecular interactions improve rapidly, it may soon become possible to perform adequate computer-based simulations of prebiotic evolution. We thus propose to launch a computational origin of life endeavor (http://ool.weizmann.ac.il/CORE), involving computer simulations of realistic complex prebiotic chemical networks. In the present paper we provide specific examples, based on a novel algorithmic approach, which constitutes a hybrid of molecular dynamics and stochastic chemistry. As one potential solution for the immense hardware requirements dictated by this approach, we have begun to implement an idle CPU harvesting scheme, under the title ool@home.

  16. Heliostat mirror survey and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, M.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Daniel, J.L.; Hartman, J.S.; Thomas, M.T.; Pederson, L.R.

    1979-09-01

    The mirrors used on concentrating solar systems must be able to withstand severe and sustained environmental stresses for long periods of time if they are to be economically acceptable. Little is known about how commercially produced wet process silvered second surface mirrors will withstand the test of time in solar applications. Field experience in existing systems has shown that the performance of the reflective surface varies greatly with time and is influenced to a large extent by the construction details of the mirror module. Degradation of the reflective layer has been seen that ranges from non-observable to severe. The exact mechanisms involved in the degradation process are not well understood from either the phenomenological or microanalytical points of view and are thus subject to much debate. The three chapters of this report summarize the work recently performed in three general areas that are key to understanding and ultimately controlling the degradation phenomena. These areas are: a survey of the present commercial mirroring industry, the microanalytical examination of numerous degraded and nondegraded mirrors, and an investigation of several novel techniques that might be used to extend the life of heliostat mirrors. Appendices include: (a) list of mirror manufacturers and (b) recommended specifications for second surface silvered mirrors for central receiver heliostat applications. (WHK)

  17. Precision measurement of the half-life and branching ratio of the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K. Nuclear mirror $\\beta$-decay is a competitive means to test the electroweak model by means of the high-precision measurement of V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM quark mixing matrix. One key ingredient to obtain V$_{ud}$ is the force of the transition, Ft, which has to be determined with a relative precision below 10$^{−3}$. This quantity is related to the half-life T$_{1/2}$ of the decaying nucleus, the branching ratio BR for this decay and the mass difference between the mother and daughter nucleus (Q value). Another important feature is the mixing ratio $\\rho$ between the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller character of the transition. In most cases, $\\rho$ is the major contributor to the uncertainty on Ft. Available data concerning T$_{1/2}$ and BR of $^{37}$K suffer from a lack of precision that will be easily reduced by a dedicated experiment.

  18. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to…

  19. Althusser's Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Strathausen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Lacan significantly influenced Althusser's accounts of ideology and the subject. Althusser's belief that science is a discourse without a subject parallels Lacan's belief that in the Symbolic Order the Subject and the Other are alienated. Althusser's account of interpellation, which explains how ideology recognizes individuals as subjects, takes for granted Lacan's notion of the mirror stage. Althusser repudiates the plenitude of the subject, whose interpellation conceals its lack; Lacan shows that the subject's failure to express itself in language makes the subject a void. However, Althusser, whose subject is too much like Lacan's ego, fails to distinguish between the "I" of the split subject and the "ego" of the subject's imaginary self-identity. What is more, Althusser rejects the self-consciousness implied by the subject's lack of plenitude and its suturing interpellation.

  20. Knowledge-Based Systems in Biomedicine and Computational Life Science

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a sample of research on knowledge-based systems in biomedicine and computational life science. The contributions include: ·         personalized stress diagnosis system ·         image analysis system for breast cancer diagnosis ·         analysis of neuronal cell images ·         structure prediction of protein ·         relationship between two mental disorders ·         detection of cardiac abnormalities ·         holistic medicine based treatment ·         analysis of life-science data  

  1. Comparison of measured and computed plasma loading resistance in the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U) central cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mett, R.R.

    1984-08-01

    The plasma loading resistance vs density plots computed with McVey's Code XANTENA1, agree well with experimental measurements in the TMX-U central cell. The agreement is much better for frequencies where ..omega../..omega../sub ci/ <1 than for ..omega../..omega../sub ci/ greater than or equal to 1.

  2. Double arch mirror study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  3. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  4. Improved computation method in residual life estimation of structural components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Stevan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the numerical computation methods and procedures for the fatigue crack growth predicting of cracked notched structural components. Computation method is based on fatigue life prediction using the strain energy density approach. Based on the strain energy density (SED theory, a fatigue crack growth model is developed to predict the lifetime of fatigue crack growth for single or mixed mode cracks. The model is based on an equation expressed in terms of low cycle fatigue parameters. Attention is focused on crack growth analysis of structural components under variable amplitude loads. Crack growth is largely influenced by the effect of the plastic zone at the front of the crack. To obtain efficient computation model plasticity-induced crack closure phenomenon is considered during fatigue crack growth. The use of the strain energy density method is efficient for fatigue crack growth prediction under cyclic loading in damaged structural components. Strain energy density method is easy for engineering applications since it does not require any additional determination of fatigue parameters (those would need to be separately determined for fatigue crack propagation phase, and low cyclic fatigue parameters are used instead. Accurate determination of fatigue crack closure has been a complex task for years. The influence of this phenomenon can be considered by means of experimental and numerical methods. Both of these models are considered. Finite element analysis (FEA has been shown to be a powerful and useful tool1,6 to analyze crack growth and crack closure effects. Computation results are compared with available experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 174001

  5. Musculoskeletal-see-through mirror: computational modeling and algorithm for whole-body muscle activity visualization in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Akihiko; Kurosaki, Kosuke; Yamane, Katsu; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we present a system that estimates and visualizes muscle tensions in real time using optical motion capture and electromyography (EMG). The system overlays rendered musculoskeletal human model on top of a live video image of the subject. The subject therefore has an impression that he/she sees the muscles with tension information through the cloth and skin. The main technical challenge lies in real-time estimation of muscle tension. Since existing algorithms using mathematical optimization to distribute joint torques to muscle tensions are too slow for our purpose, we develop a new algorithm that computes a reasonable approximation of muscle tensions based on the internal connections between muscles known as neuronal binding. The algorithm can estimate the tensions of 274 muscles in only 16 ms, and the whole visualization system runs at about 15 fps. The developed system is applied to assisting sport training, and the user case studies show its usefulness. Possible applications include interfaces for assisting rehabilitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mirror Neurons and Mirror-Touch Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti

    2016-05-30

    Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Durable solar mirror films

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.

    2017-02-14

    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  8. Computer Literacy for Life Sciences: Helping the Digital-Era Biology Undergraduates Face Today's Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Tomasz G.

    2010-01-01

    Computer literacy plays a critical role in today's life sciences research. Without the ability to use computers to efficiently manipulate and analyze large amounts of data resulting from biological experiments and simulations, many of the pressing questions in the life sciences could not be answered. Today's undergraduates, despite the ubiquity of…

  9. Introducing Molecular Life Science Students to Model Building Using Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Kettenis, Dik; Sessink, Olivier; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton; Janssen, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Computer simulations can facilitate the building of models of natural phenomena in research, such as in the molecular life sciences. In order to introduce molecular life science students to the use of computer simulations for model building, a digital case was developed in which students build a model of a pattern formation process in…

  10. The Underrepresentation of Women in Computing Fields: A Synthesis of Literature Using a Life Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Joyce B.; Schimpf, Corey

    2017-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, this literature review synthesizes research on women's underrepresentation in computing fields across four life stages: 1) pre-high school; 2) high school; 3) college major choice and persistence; and 4) post-baccalaureate employment. Issues associated with access to, and use of, computing resources at the pre-high…

  11. Size Optimization for Mirror Segments for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskach, Michael P.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Saha, Timo; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    The flight mirror assemblies (FMA) for X-ray telescopes similar to that of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) concept consist of several thousands of individual mirror segments. The size, shape, and location of these mirrors affect many characteristics of the telescope design. Mission requirements among other factors in turn restrict mirror segment parameters such as thickness, axial- length, azimuthal span, and mass density. This paper provides an overview of the critical relationships relating to mirror segment size and configuration throughout the design and analysis of an X-ray mirror assembly. A computational analysis is presented in the form of ray tracing pairs of thin X-ray mirror segments of varying sizes aligned in gravity and supported using kinematic constraints with corresponding self weight distortions calculated using finite element analysis (FEA). The work in this paper may be used as a starting point for determining mirror segment sizes for X-ray missions like that of IXO and beyond.

  12. A ROADMAP FOR A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF THE VALUE OF INFORMATION IN ORIGIN OF LIFE QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information plays a critical role in complex biological systems. Complex systems like immune systems and ant colonies co-ordinate heterogeneous components in a decentralized fashion. How do these distributed decentralized systems function? One key component is how these complex systems efficiently process information. These complex systems have an architecture for integrating and processing information coming in from various sources and points to the value of information in the functioning of different complex biological systems. This article proposes a role for information processing in questions around the origin of life and suggests how computational simulations may yield insights into questions related to the origin of life. Such a computational model of the origin of life would unify thermodynamics with information processing and we would gain an appreciation of why proteins and nucleotides evolved as the substrate of computation and information processing in living systems that we see on Earth. Answers to questions like these may give us insights into non-carbon based forms of life that we could search for outside Earth. We hypothesize that carbon-based life forms are only one amongst a continuum of life-like systems in the universe. Investigations into the role of computational substrates that allow information processing is important and could yield insights into: 1 novel non-carbon based computational substrates that may have “life-like” properties, and 2 how life may have actually originated from non-life on Earth. Life may exist as a continuum between non-life and life and we may have to revise our notion of life and how common it is in the universe. Looking at life or life-like phenomenon through the lens of information theory may yield a broader view of life.

  13. Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

    Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in

  14. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  15. Quality evaluation of spaceborne SiC mirrors (I): analytical examination of the effects on mirror accuracy by variation in the thermal expansion property of the mirror surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Masaki; Imai, Tadashi; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Yui, Yukari; Tange, Yoshio; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo

    2013-07-10

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has studied a large-scale lightweight mirror constructed of reaction-bonded silicon carbide-based material as a key technology in future astronomical and earth observation missions. The authors selected silicon carbide as the promising candidate due to excellent characteristics of specific stiffness and thermal stability. One of the most important technical issues for large-scale ceramic components is the uniformity of the material's property, depending on part and processing. It might influence mirror accuracy due to uneven thermal deformation. The authors conducted systematic case studies for the conditions of CTE by finite element analysis to know the typical influence of material property nonuniformity on mirror accuracy and consequently derived a comprehensive empirical equation for the series of CTE's main factors. In addition, the authors computationally reproduced the mirror accuracy profile of a small prototype mirror shown in cryogenic testing and hereby verified wide-range practical computational evaluation technology of mirror accuracy.

  16. Castable Amorphous Metal Mirrors and Mirror Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Davis, Gregory L.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    A revolutionary way to produce a mirror and mirror assembly is to cast the entire part at once from a metal alloy that combines all of the desired features into the final part: optical smoothness, curvature, flexures, tabs, isogrids, low CTE, and toughness. In this work, it has been demonstrated that castable mirrors are possible using bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, also called amorphous metals) and BMG matrix composites (BMGMCs). These novel alloys have all of the desired mechanical and thermal properties to fabricate an entire mirror assembly without machining, bonding, brazing, welding, or epoxy. BMGs are multi-component metal alloys that have been cooled in such a manner as to avoid crystallization leading to an amorphous (non-crystalline) microstructure. This lack of crystal structure and the fact that these alloys are glasses, leads to a wide assortment of mechanical and thermal properties that are unlike those observed in crystalline metals. Among these are high yield strength, carbide-like hardness, low melting temperatures (making them castable like aluminum), a thermoplastic processing region (for improving smoothness), low stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratios, relatively low CTE, density similar to titanium alloys, high elasticity and ultra-smooth cast parts (as low as 0.2-nm surface roughness has been demonstrated in cast BMGs). BMGMCs are composite alloys that consist of a BMG matrix with crystalline dendrites embedded throughout. BMGMCs are used to overcome the typically brittle failure observed in monolithic BMGs by adding a soft phase that arrests the formation of cracks in the BMG matrix. In some cases, BMGMCs offer superior castability, toughness, and fatigue resistance, if not as good a surface finish as BMGs. This work has demonstrated that BMGs and BMGMCs can be cast into prototype mirrors and mirror assemblies without difficulty.

  17. A ROADMAP FOR A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF THE VALUE OF INFORMATION IN ORIGIN OF LIFE QUESTIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soumya Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    .... This article proposes a role for information processing in questions around the origin of life and suggests how computational simulations may yield insights into questions related to the origin...

  18. Changing from computing grid to knowledge grid in life-science grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Veera; Konar, Amit; Datta, Ayan; Choudhury, Anamika Roy

    2009-09-01

    Grid computing has a great potential to become a standard cyber infrastructure for life sciences that often require high-performance computing and large data handling, which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Grid computer applies the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time. It is useful to scientific problems that require a great number of computer processing cycles or access to a large amount of data.As biologists,we are constantly discovering millions of genes and genome features, which are assembled in a library and distributed on computers around the world.This means that new, innovative methods must be developed that exploit the re-sources available for extensive calculations - for example grid computing.This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing a "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. By extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  19. Advanced Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project matures critical technologies required to enable ultra-stable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets.

  20. Language Learners & Computer Games: From "Space Invaders" to "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Graham; Mawer, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The term serious game is often used to refer to "games used for training, advertising, simulation, or education." In this article, the authors use the term computer game in its broadest sense, believing it to encompass the broad spectrum of what is usually referred to now as all digital gaming (video games, console games, online games, etc.). They…

  1. Petri Net Modeling of Computer Virus Life Cycle | Ikekonwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  2. COI NMSD Hybrid Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehle, Greg; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of the 1.6 meter hybrid mirror demonstrator for the NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) program. The COI design approach for the NGST program combines the optical performance of glass, with the high specific stiffness capabilities of composite materials The foundation technologies being exploited in the development of the hybrid mirror focus upon precision Composite Materials for cryogenic operation, and non-contact optical processing (ion figuring) of the lightweight mirror surface. The NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) has been designed and built by Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) with optical processing performed by SAGEM (REOSC). The sponsors of these efforts are the NASA Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers.

  3. The relationship between computer games and quality of life in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mostafavi, Firooze; Hassanzade, Akbar; Moradi, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Term of doing computer games among teenagers is growing rapidly. This popular phenomenon can cause physical and psychosocial issues in them. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between computer games and quality of life domains in adolescents aging 12-15 years. In a cross-sectional study using the 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 444 male and female students in Borkhar were selected. The data collection tool consisted of 1) World Health Organization Quality Of Life - BREF questionnaire and 2) personal information questionnaire. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, chi-square, independent t-tests and analysis of covariance. The total mean score of quality of life in students was 67.11±13.34. The results showed a significant relationship between the age of starting to play games and the overall quality of life score and its fourdomains (range r=-0.13 to -0.18). The mean of overall quality of life score in computer game users was 68.27±13.03 while it was 64.81±13.69 among those who did not play computer games and the difference was significant (P=0.01). There were significant differences in environmental and mental health domains between the two groups (Pgames. Playing computer games for a short time under parental supervision can have positive effects on quality of life in adolescents. However, spending long hours for playing computer games may have negative long-term effects.

  4. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  5. Sets, Probability and Statistics: The Mathematics of Life Insurance. [Computer Program.] Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James M.; And Others

    The materials described here represent the conversion of a highly popular student workbook "Sets, Probability and Statistics: The Mathematics of Life Insurance" into a computer program. The program is designed to familiarize students with the concepts of sets, probability, and statistics, and to provide practice using real life examples. It also…

  6. Toward a computational structure for life cycle sustainability analysis: unifying LCA and LCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, R.; Settanni, E.; Guinée, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A widely used theory of the computational structure of life cycle assessment (LCA) has been available for more than a decade. The case of environmental life cycle cost (LCC) is still less clear: even the recent Code of Practice does not specify any formula to use. Methods: This paper does

  7. Metamaterial saturable absorber mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Govind; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2013-02-01

    We propose a metamaterial saturable absorber mirror at midinfrared wavelengths that can show a saturation of absorption with intensity of incident light and switch to a reflecting state. The design consists of an array of circular metallic disks separated by a thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO(2)) from a continuous metallic film. The heating due to the absorption in the absorptive state causes the VO(2) to transit to a metallic phase from the low temperature insulating phase. The metamaterial switches from an absorptive state (R≃0.1%) to a reflective state (R>95%) for a specific threshold intensity of the incident radiation corresponding to the phase transition of VO(2), resulting in the saturation of absorption in the metamaterial. The computer simulations show over 99.9% peak absorbance, a resonant bandwidth of about 0.8 μm at 10.22 μm wavelengths, and saturation intensity of 140 mW cm(-2) for undoped VO(2) at room temperature. We also carried out numerical simulations to investigate the effects of localized heating and temperature distribution by solving the heat diffusion problem.

  8. Mirroring Mobile Phone in the Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Z. Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of Mirroring Mobile Phone in the Clouds (MMPC) to speed up data/computing intensive applications on a mobile phone by taking full advantage of the super computing power of the clouds. An application on the mobile phone is dynamically partitioned in such a way that the heavy-weighted part is always running on a mirrored server in the clouds while the light-weighted part remains on the mobile phone. A performance improvement (an energy consumption reduction of 70...

  9. Smart information systems computational intelligence for real-life applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hopfgartner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This must-read text/reference presents an overview of smart information systems for both the private and public sector, highlighting the research questions that can be studied by applying computational intelligence. The book demonstrates how to transform raw data into effective smart information services, covering the challenges and potential of this approach. Each chapter describes the algorithms, tools, measures and evaluations used to answer important questions. This is then further illustrated by a diverse selection of case studies reflecting genuine problems faced by SMEs, multinational

  10. Computer literacy for life sciences: helping the digital-era biology undergraduates face today's research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Tomasz G

    2010-01-01

    Computer literacy plays a critical role in today's life sciences research. Without the ability to use computers to efficiently manipulate and analyze large amounts of data resulting from biological experiments and simulations, many of the pressing questions in the life sciences could not be answered. Today's undergraduates, despite the ubiquity of computers in their lives, seem to be largely unfamiliar with how computers are being used to pursue and answer such questions. This article describes an innovative undergraduate-level course, titled Computer Literacy for Life Sciences, that aims to teach students the basics of a computerized scientific research pursuit. The purpose of the course is for students to develop a hands-on working experience in using standard computer software tools as well as computer techniques and methodologies used in life sciences research. This paper provides a detailed description of the didactical tools and assessment methods used in and outside of the classroom as well as a discussion of the lessons learned during the first installment of the course taught at Emory University in fall semester 2009.

  11. Life Prediction for a CMC Component Using the NASALIFE Computer Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2005-01-01

    The computer code, NASALIFE, was used to provide estimates for life of an SiC/SiC stator vane under varying thermomechanical loading conditions. The primary intention of this effort is to show how the computer code NASALIFE can be used to provide reasonable estimates of life for practical propulsion system components made of advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMC). Simple loading conditions provided readily observable and acceptable life predictions. Varying the loading conditions such that low cycle fatigue and creep were affected independently provided expected trends in the results for life due to varying loads and life due to creep. Analysis was based on idealized empirical data for the 9/99 Melt Infiltrated SiC fiber reinforced SiC.

  12. The obsidian mirror The obsidian mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Reis Amorin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The author James Norman is an American who has always lived in Mexico during the summer. He seems to love Mexican - Indian traditions and he is well acquainted with the pre-historic culture as it is shown in his book: "The Obsidian Mirror". "The Obsidian Mirror" is a mysterious story about an archeologist: Quigley that lives in a small village in Mexico-San Marcos. He is searching for antiques that belong to some tribes of pre-historic Indians in order to find out their mysteries. Quigley becomes so engaged in his work that his mind has reached a stage that is impossible to separate between Quigley the archeologist, and Quigley as an ancient Indian. The culture, the myth, the sensation of Omen - characteristics of the Indians are within himself. As a result, Quigley acts sometimes as a real Indian. The author James Norman is an American who has always lived in Mexico during the summer. He seems to love Mexican - Indian traditions and he is well acquainted with the pre-historic culture as it is shown in his book: "The Obsidian Mirror". "The Obsidian Mirror" is a mysterious story about an archeologist: Quigley that lives in a small village in Mexico-San Marcos. He is searching for antiques that belong to some tribes of pre-historic Indians in order to find out their mysteries. Quigley becomes so engaged in his work that his mind has reached a stage that is impossible to separate between Quigley the archeologist, and Quigley as an ancient Indian. The culture, the myth, the sensation of Omen - characteristics of the Indians are within himself. As a result, Quigley acts sometimes as a real Indian.

  13. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  14. The Athena Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Athena mission (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) requires lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution and large effective area. For achieving an effective area of 2 m^2 (at 1 keV) and an angular resolution of below 5 arcsec, the Silicon Pore Optics technology was developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the current design of the Athena mirror concentrating on the technology development status of the Silicon Pore Optics, ranging from the manufacturing of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules and their integration into the mirror structure.

  15. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  16. Massive Particle Reflection from Moving Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarti, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the reflection of massive particles from moving mirrors. The adoption of the formalism based on the energy-momentum allowed us to derive the most general set of formulas, valid for massive and, in the limit, also for massless particles. We show that the momentum change of the reflecting particle always lies along the normal to the mirror, independent of the mirror speed. The subject is interesting not only to physicists designing concentrators for fascicles of massive particles and electron microscopes but also to computer scientists working in raytracing operating in the photon sector. The paper, far from being only theoretical, has profound and novel practical applications in both domains of engineering design and computer science.

  17. Computing life: Add logos to biology and bios to physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin, Alexey; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations between physics and biology. Particularly, we analyse the approaches for reconstructing the emergent properties of physical or biological systems. We propose approaches to scale emergence according to the degree of state-dependency of the system's component properties. Since the component properties of biological systems are state-dependent to a high extent, biological emergence should be considered as very strong emergence - i.e. its reconstruction would require a lot of information about state-dependency of its component properties. However, due to its complexity and volume, this information cannot be handled in the naked human brain, or on the back of an envelope. To solve this problem, biological emergence can be reconstructed in silico based on experimentally determined rate laws and parameter values of the living cell. According to some rough calculations, the silicon human might comprise the mathematical descriptions of around 10(5) interactions. This is not a small number, but taking into account the exponentially increase of computational power, it should not prove to be our principal limitation. The bigger challenges will be located in different areas. For example they may be related to the observer effect - the limitation to measuring a system's component properties without affecting the system. Another obstacle may be hidden in the tradition of "shaving away" all "unnecessary" assumptions (the so-called Occam's razor) that, in fact, reflects the intention to model the system as simply as possible and thus to deem the emergence to be less strong than it possibly is. We argue here that that Occam's razor should be replaced with the law of completeness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Classroom Explorations: Pendulums, Mirrors, and Galileo's Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What do you see in a mirror when not looking at yourself? What goes on as a pendulum swings? Undergraduates in a science class supposed that these behaviors were obvious until their explorations exposed questions with no quick answers. While exploring materials, students researched Galileo, his trial, and its aftermath. Galileo came to life both…

  19. Optimized bimorph flexible mirrors for laser beam correction and shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, A. S.; Cherezova, T. Y.; Kudryashov, A. V.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper a new algorithm of bimorph deformable mirror the best-suited electrodes shape and position determination is suggested. This algorithm is based on solving an inverse problem of defining the best electrodes position from the required phase distribution formation. The first part of the algorithm is an approximate determination of mirror electrodes position, which is based on linear dependence of electrical field in piezoceramics from laplasian of corresponding mirror deformation. Exact locating of the electrodes is the second part of the algorithm and is performed during iterative procedure. During the procedure relative root mean square deviation of computed mirror profile from the demanded one is minimized. To calculate mirror deformation on every iteration step we use a specially developed finite element model of the bimorph mirror. By using the developed algorithm, we demonstrate possibility to increase quality of reproducing various phase profiles, for example those, corresponding to human eye aberrations and even to form vortex beam.

  20. SOFT COMPUTING SINGLE HIDDEN LAYER MODELS FOR SHELF LIFE PREDICTION OF BURFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Burfi is an extremely popular sweetmeat, which is prepared by desiccating the standardized water buffalo milk. Soft computing feedforward single layer models were developed for predicting the shelf life of burfi stored at 30g.C. The data of the product relating to moisture, titratable acidity, free fatty acids, tyrosine, and peroxide value were used as input variables, and the overall acceptability score as output variable. The results showed excellent agreement between the experimental and the predicted data, suggesting that the developed soft computing model can alternatively be used for predicting the shelf life of burfi.

  1. 26 CFR 1.818-4 - Election with respect to life insurance reserves computed on preliminary term basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to life insurance reserves... Election with respect to life insurance reserves computed on preliminary term basis. (a) In general. Section 818(c) permits a life insurance company issuing contracts with respect to which the life insurance...

  2. Dirac quantum time mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Phillipp; Gorini, Cosimo; Goussev, Arseni; Krueckl, Viktor; Fink, Mathias; Richter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Both metaphysical and practical considerations related to time inversion have intrigued scientists for generations. Physicists have strived to devise and implement time-inversion protocols, in particular different forms of "time mirrors" for classical waves. Here we propose an instantaneous time mirror for quantum systems, i.e., a controlled time discontinuity generating wave function echoes with high fidelities. This concept exploits coherent particle-hole oscillations in a Dirac spectrum in order to achieve population reversal, and can be implemented in systems such as (real or artificial) graphene.

  3. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  4. Unification with mirror fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new framework unifying interactions in nature by introducing mirror fermions, explaining the hierarchy between the weak scale and the coupling unification scale, which is found to lie close to Planck energies. A novel process leading to the emergence of symmetry is proposed, which not only reduces the arbitrariness of the scenario proposed but is also followed by significant cosmological implications. Phenomenology includes the probability of detection of mirror fermions via the corresponding composite bosonic states and the relevant quantum corrections at the LHC.

  5. Effectiveness of an online computer-tailored physical activity intervention in a real-life setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Spittaels (Heleen); I. Bourdeaudhuij, de (Ilse); J. Brug (Hans); C. Vandelanotte

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention delivered through the Internet in a real-life setting. Healthy adults (n = 526), recruited in six worksites, between 25 and 55 years of age were randomized to one of three

  6. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  7. Creating a computer adaptive test version of the late-life function and disability instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M; Haley, Stephen M; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Moed, Richard

    2008-11-01

    This study applied item response theory (IRT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) methodologies to develop a prototype function and disability assessment instrument for use in aging research. Herein, we report on the development of the CAT version of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Late-Life FDI) and evaluate its psychometric properties. We used confirmatory factor analysis, IRT methods, validation, and computer simulation analyses of data collected from 671 older adults residing in residential care facilities. We compared accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of scores from CAT versions of two Late-Life FDI scales with scores from the fixed-form instrument. Score estimates from the prototype CAT versus the original instrument were compared in a sample of 40 older adults. Distinct function and disability domains were identified within the Late-Life FDI item bank and used to construct two prototype CAT scales. Using retrospective data, scores from computer simulations of the prototype CAT scales were highly correlated with scores from the original instrument. The results of computer simulation, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated those of the fixed-form scales, especially for the 10- or 15-item CAT versions. In the prospective study, each CAT was administered in FDI were highly comparable to those obtained from the full-length instrument with a small loss in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change.

  8. Perceptions of Older Veterans with Visual Impairments Regarding Computer Access Training and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBosque, Richard Stanborough

    2013-01-01

    The widespread integration of the computer into the mainstream of daily life presents a challenge to various sectors of society, and the incorporation of this technology into the realm of the older individual with visual impairments is a relatively uncharted field of study. This study was undertaken to acquire the perceptions of the impact of the…

  9. Mirror symmetry for two parameter models, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Katz, S; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Philip Candelas; Anamaria Font; Sheldon Katz; David R Morrison

    1994-01-01

    We describe in detail the space of the two K\\"ahler parameters of the Calabi--Yau manifold \\P_4^{(1,1,1,6,9)}[18] by exploiting mirror symmetry. The large complex structure limit of the mirror, which corresponds to the classical large radius limit, is found by studying the monodromy of the periods about the discriminant locus, the boundary of the moduli space corresponding to singular Calabi--Yau manifolds. A symplectic basis of periods is found and the action of the Sp(6,\\Z) generators of the modular group is determined. From the mirror map we compute the instanton expansion of the Yukawa couplings and the generalized N=2 index, arriving at the numbers of instantons of genus zero and genus one of each degree. We also investigate an SL(2,\\Z) symmetry that acts on a boundary of the moduli space.

  10. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, William

    2011-01-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge. An alternate explanation is given.

  11. Global feedforward and glocal feedback control of large deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    With an increasing demand for high spatial resolution and fast temporal response of AO components for ELTs, the need for actively controlled, electronically damped deformable mirrors is evident. With typically more than 1000 actuators and collocated sensors, the evolving multi-input multi-output control task for shaping the deformable mirror requires sophisticated control concepts. Although global position control of the mirror would be the most promising solution, the computational complexity for high order spatial control of the deformable element typically exceeds available computing power. Due to this reason, existing deformable membrane mirrors for large telescopes incorporate local feedback instead of global feedback control and neglect some of the global dynamics of the deformable mirror. As a side effect, coupling of the separately controlled actuators through the deformable membrane can lead to instability of the individually stable loops and draws the need for carefully designing the control parameters of the local feedback loops. In this presentation, the computational demands for global position control of deformable mirrors are revisited and a less demanding model-based modal control concept for large deformable membrane mirrors with distributed force actuators and collocated position sensors is presented. Both global feedforward and glocal feedback control is employed in a two-degree-of-freedom control structure allowing for separately designing tracking performance and disturbance rejection. In order to implement state feedback control, non-measureable state information is reconstructed by using model-based distributed state observers. By taking into account the circular symmetry of the deformable mirror geometry, the computational complexity of the algorithms is discussed and model reduction techniques with quasi-static state approximation are presented. As an example, the geometric layout of required sensor / actuator wiring and computational

  12. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  13. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy: cognition, self-esteem and quality of life in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gemma; Barrios, Maite; Penadés, Rafael; Enríquez, Maria; Garolera, Maite; Aragay, Núria; Pajares, Marta; Vallès, Vicenç; Delgado, Luis; Alberni, Joan; Faixa, Carlota; Vendrell, Josep M

    2013-11-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits have an impact on functional outcomes. Cognitive remediation therapy is emerging as a psychological intervention that targets cognitive impairment, but the effect of computer-assisted cognitive remediation on neuropsychology and social functioning and wellbeing remains unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the neurocognitive outcomes of computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) therapy in a sample of schizophrenia patients, and to measure the quality of life and self-esteem as secondary outcomes. Sixty-seven people with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to computer-assisted cognitive remediation or an active control condition. The main outcomes were neuropsychological measures and secondary outcomes (self-esteem and quality of life). Measurements were recorded at baseline and post-treatment. The CACR therapy group improved in speed of processing, working memory and reasoning and problem-solving cognitive domains. QoL and self-esteem measures also showed significant improvements over time in this group. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy for people with schizophrenia achieved improvements in neuropsychological performance and in QoL and self-esteem measurements. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Creating a Computer Adaptive Test Version of the Late-Life Function & Disability Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Moed, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background This study applied Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) methodologies to develop a prototype function and disability assessment instrument for use in aging research. Herein, we report on the development of the CAT version of the Late-Life Function & Disability instrument (Late-Life FDI) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods We employed confirmatory factor analysis, IRT methods, validation, and computer simulation analyses of data collected from 671 older adults residing in residential care facilities. We compared accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of scores from CAT versions of two Late-Life FDI scales with scores from the fixed-form instrument. Score estimates from the prototype CAT versus the original instrument were compared in a sample of 40 older adults. Results Distinct function and disability domains were identified within the Late-Life FDI item bank and used to construct two prototype CAT scales. Using retrospective data, scores from computer simulations of the prototype CAT scales were highly correlated with scores from the original instrument. The results of computer simulation, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated those of the fixed-form scales, especially for the 10- or 15-item CAT versions. In the prospective study each CAT was administered in less than 3 minutes and CAT scores were highly correlated with scores generated from the original instrument. Conclusions CAT scores of the Late-Life FDI were highly comparable to those obtained from the full-length instrument with a small loss in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change. PMID:19038841

  15. Statistical inference on associated fertility life table parameters using jackknife technique: computational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A de H; Luiz, A J; Campanhola, C

    2000-04-01

    Knowledge of population growth potential is crucial for studying population dynamics and for establishing management tactics for pest control. Estimation of population growth can be achieved with fertility life tables because they synthesize data on reproduction and mortality of a population. The five main parameters associated with a fertility life table are as follows: (1) the net reproductive rate (Ro), (2) the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), 3) the mean generation time (T), (4) the doubling time (Dt), and (5) the finite rate of increase (lambda). Jackknife and bootstrap techniques are used to calculate the variance of the rm estimate, which can be extended to the other parameters of life tables. Those methods are computer-intensive, their application requires the development of efficient algorithms, and their implementation is based on a programming language that encompasses quickness and reliability. The objectives of this article are to discuss statistical and computational aspects related to estimation of life table parameters and to present a SAS program that uses jackknife to estimate parameters for fertility life tables. The SAS program presented here allows the calculation of confidence intervals for all estimated parameters, as well as provides one-sided and two-sided t-tests to perform pairwise or multiple comparison between groups, with their respective P values.

  16. Product or waste? Importation and end-of-life processing of computers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahhat, Ramzy; Williams, Eric

    2009-08-01

    This paper considers the importation of used personal computers (PCs) in Peru and domestic practices in their production, reuse, and end-of-life processing. The empirical pillars of this study are analysis of government data describing trade in used and new computers and surveys and interviews of computer sellers, refurbishers, and recyclers. The United States is the primary source of used PCs imported to Peru. Analysis of shipment value (as measured by trade statistics) shows that 87-88% of imported used computers had a price higher than the ideal recycle value of constituent materials. The official trade in end-of-life computers is thus driven by reuse as opposed to recycling. The domestic reverse supply chain of PCs is well developed with extensive collection, reuse, and recycling. Environmental problems identified include open burning of copper-bearing wires to remove insulation and landfilling of CRT glass. Distinct from informal recycling in China and India, printed circuit boards are usually not recycled domestically but exported to Europe for advanced recycling or to China for (presumably) informal recycling. It is notable that purely economic considerations lead to circuit boards being exported to Europe where environmental standards are stringent, presumably due to higher recovery of precious metals.

  17. Mirror image agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-10-01

    Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles reflected self-images. A new observation involving failure

  18. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: environmental testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-01-25

    We have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror features 44 actuators, has an aperture of 50 mm, and is designed to reproduce low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of μm. We assessed the space compliance by operating the mirror in thermal vacuum, and exposing it to random and sinusoidal vibrations, as well as to ionizing irradiation. Additionally, the operational life time and the laser power handling capability were tested. The mirror was successfully operated in thermal vacuum at 100 K. We report on the conducted tests and the methods used to evaluate the mirror's performance, and discuss the compliance with the demanded requirements.

  19. 'I Once Stared at Myself in the Mirror for Eleven Hours.' Exploring mirror gazing in participants with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Joanna; Farrants, Jacqui

    2015-05-06

    This study provides insight into the lived experience of mirror gazing using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Photo Elicitation. A total of 10 participants who identified themselves as suffering from body dysmorphic disorder took photographs that related to their body dysmorphic disorder experience. Photographs were discussed in interviews. It was found that mirror gazing in body dysmorphic disorder is an embodied phenomenon. Motivations for mirror gazing were confusing, complex and masochistic. Overall, participants described mirrors as being controlling, imprisoning and disempowering forces that had a crippling and paralysing effect on life. It is argued that health psychologists must ask clients about their embodied experiences when looking in the mirror. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. BN-350 "Mirror System".

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, A. L. (Angela L.); Halbig, J. K. (James K.)

    2004-01-01

    The BN-350 Unattended Monitoring System plays an important role for the Safeguards Department of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In 1998, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in conjunction with the IAEA and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, designed and installed an integrated multi-instrument safeguards system at the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan, to monitor spent-fuel and blanket assembly conditioning and canning activities. The purpose of the system was to provide effective safeguards at this facility while reducing the manpower load on the IAEA. The system is composed of many individual nondestructive analysis and surveillance components, each having a unique function and working together to provide fully unattended measurement of spent-fuel assemblies. The BN-350 ''Mirror System'' was built to provide a similar system with like components at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna to facilitate analysis and/or simulation of problems that might occur in the field and for training inspectors and other technical staff in preparation for their work in the field. In addition, the system is used to test new equipment and qualify new or modified software. This paper describes the main components of the Mirror System, how the components are integrated, and how the Mirror System has benefited the IAEA.

  1. Mirror perception in mice: Preference for and stress reduction by mirrors and stress reduction by mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    I measured the amount of time mice spent in a compartment with either a mirror or an opaque screen and found that mice stayed longer in the compartment with the mirror. This finding suggests that mice prefer mirrors. They also showed a preference for the mirror over unfamiliar live mice but did not show a differential preference for the mirror over a familiar live mouse (cage mate). Restraint stress caused hyperthermia (known as stress-induced hyperthermia) in the mice. When cage mates receiv...

  2. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  3. The Impact of an Interactive Computer Game on the Quality of Life of Children Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelniya, Zahra; Najafi, Mostafa; Moafi, Alireza; Talakoub, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer reduces right from the diagnosis of disease and the start of treatment. Computer games in medicine are utilized to interact with patients and to improve their health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an interactive computer game on the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 64 children with cancer aged between 8 and12 years were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental or control group. The experimental group played a computer game for 3 hours a week for 4 consecutive weeks and the control group only received routine care. The data collection tool was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Module Child self-report designed for children aged between 8 to 12 years. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. Results: Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean total QOL score (p = 0.87). However, immediately after the intervention (p = 0.02) and 1 month after the intervention (p < 0.001), the overall mean QOL score was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group. Conclusions: Based on the findings, computer games seem to be effective as a tool in influencing health-related behavior and improving the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, according to the findings of this study, computer games can be used to improve the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:29184580

  4. SXI prototype mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  5. SXI prototype mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  6. SXI Prototype mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed from June 1993 to January 1995. The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule.

  7. Mirror symmetry II

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian R

    1997-01-01

    Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.

  8. Comparative assessment of life cycle assessment methods used for personal computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Marissa A; Higgs, Tim G; Cullen, Michael J; Stewart, Scott; Brady, Todd A

    2010-10-01

    This article begins with a summary of findings from commonly cited life cycle assessments (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products. While differing conclusions regarding environmental impact are expected across product segments (mobile phones, personal computers, servers, etc.) significant variation and conflicting conclusions are observed even within product segments such as the desktop Personal Computer (PC). This lack of consistent conclusions and accurate data limits the effectiveness of LCA to influence policy and product design decisions. From 1997 to 2010, the majority of published studies focused on the PC concluded that the use phase contributes most to the life cycle energy demand of PC products with a handful of studies suggesting that manufacturing phase of the PC has the largest impact. The purpose of this article is to critically review these studies in order to analyze sources of uncertainty, including factors that extend beyond data quality to the models and assumptions used. These findings suggest existing methods to combine process-based LCA data with product price data and remaining value adjustments are not reliable in conducting life cycle assessments for PC products. Recommendations are provided to assist future LCA work.

  9. JWST Primary Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to achieve the Level 1 science goals. A never before demonstrated space telescope capability was required: 6 to 8 meter class pri mary mirror, diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operates at temperatures below 50K. Launch vehicle constraints placed significant architectural constraints: deployed/segmented primary mirror (4.5 meter fairing diameter) 20 kg/m2 areal density (PM 1000 kg mass) Such mirror technology had never been demonstrated - and did not exist

  10. Improved Mirror Source Method in Roomacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechel, F. P.

    2002-10-01

    Most authors in room acoustics qualify the mirror source method (MS-method) as the only exact method to evaluate sound fields in auditoria. But evidently nobody applies it. The reason for this discrepancy is the abundantly high numbers of needed mirror sources which are reported in the literature, although such estimations of needed numbers of mirror sources mostly are used for the justification of more or less heuristic modifications of the MS-method. The present, intentionally tutorial article accentuates the analytical foundations of the MS-method whereby the number of needed mirror sources is reduced already. Further, the task of field evaluation in three-dimensional spaces is reduced to a sequence of tasks in two-dimensional room edges. This not only allows the use of easier geometrical computations in two dimensions, but also the sound field in corner areas can be represented by a single (directional) source sitting on the corner line, so that only this "corner source" must be mirror-reflected in the further process. This procedure gives a drastic reduction of the number of needed equivalent sources. Finally, the traditional MS-method is not applicable in rooms with convex corners (the angle between the corner flanks, measured on the room side, exceeds 180°). In such cases, the MS-method is combined below with the second principle of superposition(PSP). It reduces the scattering task at convex corners to two sub-tasks between one flank and the median plane of the room wedge, i.e., always in concave corner areas where the MS-method can be applied.

  11. Electrotunable nanoplasmonic liquid mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Sikdar, Debabrata; Ma, Ye; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Velleman, Leonora; Kucernak, Anthony R.; Edel, Joshua B.; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, there has been a drive to design and develop fully tunable metamaterials for applications ranging from new classes of sensors to superlenses among others. Although advances have been made, tuning and modulating the optical properties in real time remains a challenge. We report on the first realization of a reversible electrotunable liquid mirror based on voltage-controlled self-assembly/disassembly of 16 nm plasmonic nanoparticles at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. We show that optical properties such as reflectivity and spectral position of the absorption band can be varied in situ within +/-0.5 V. This observed effect is in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations corresponding to the change in average interparticle spacing. This electrochemical fully tunable nanoplasmonic platform can be switched from a highly reflective `mirror' to a transmissive `window' and back again. This study opens a route towards realization of such platforms in future micro/nanoscale electrochemical cells, enabling the creation of tunable plasmonic metamaterials.

  12. Challenges in exome analysis by LifeScope and its alternative computational pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckevičiene, Erinija; Rančelis, Tautvydas; Pranculis, Aidas; Kučinskas, Vaidutis

    2015-09-07

    Every next generation sequencing (NGS) platform relies on proprietary and open source computational tools to analyze sequencing data. NGS tools for Illumina platforms are well documented which is not the case with AB SOLiD systems. We applied several computational and variant calling pipelines to analyse targeted exome sequencing data obtained using AB SOLiD 5500 system. Our investigated tools comprised proprietary LifeScope's pipeline in combination with open source color-space competent mapping programs and a variant caller. We present instrumental details of the pipelines that were used and quantitative comparative analysis of variant lists generated by LifeScope's pipeline versus open source tools. Sufficient coverage of targeted regions was achieved by all investigated pipelines. High variability was observed in identities of variants across the mapping programs. We observed less than 50% concordance of variant lists produced by approaches based on different mapping algorithms. We summarized different approaches with regards to coverage (DP) and quality (QUAL) properties of the variants provided by GATK and found that LifeScope's computational pipeline is superior. Fusion of information on mapping profiles (pileup) at genomic positions of variants in several different alignments proved to be a useful strategy to assess questionable singleton variants. We quantitatively supported a conclusion that Lifescope's pipeline is superior for processing sequencing data obtained by AB SOLiD 5500 system. Nevertheless the use of alternative pipelines is encouraged because aggregation of information from other mapping and variant calling approaches helps to resolve questionable calls and increases the confidence of the call. It was noted that a coverage threshold for variant to be considered for further analysis has to be chosen in data-driven way to prevent a loss of important information.

  13. Review Essay: Mirror Neurons in the Discourse of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pätzold

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, mirror neurons have been the subject of continuous discussions in neurosciences as well as in the social sciences. The interest of scientists outside the life sciences in mirror neurons is primarily based on the fact that mirror neurons not only have epistemological meaning, but also seem to play an important role in processes of social insights and emotions, like empathy. With her book, Nadia ZABOURA provides a new contribution from a social and cultural sciences point of view, which critically reflects the discussion on mirror neurons and its consequences on the social sciences and humanities. Starting off from philosophical approaches to the mind-matter-dualism and the question of intersubjectivity, she explores the meaning of mirror neurons for the debate on empathy and communication. By discussing concepts of philosophy and communication sciences as well as current knowledge on mirror neurons, she concludes that they do not provide a stable basis for any material reductionism, which would explain phenomena like intersubjectivity only by recordable neuronal processes. The book refers to a variety of related theories (ranging from DESCARTES through to MEAD and TOMASELLO; these references are inspiring, yet they stay cursory for the most part. All in all the book offers avenues for further inquiry on the issues in focus, and can rather be taken as "tour of suggestions" through the topical field of mirror neurons and the related research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003245

  14. TCV mirrors cleaned by plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors exposed in TCV tokamak were cleaned by plasma in laboratory. A gold (Au mirror was deposited with 185–285nm of amorphous carbon (aC:D film coming from the carbon tiles of TCV. Another molybdenum (Mo mirror had a thicker deposit due to a different location within the tokamak. The thickness measurements were carried out using ellipsometry and the reflectivity measurements performed by spectrophotometry revealed a decrease of the specular reflectivity in the entire range (250–2500nm for the Mo mirror and specifically in the visible spectrum for the Au. Comparison of the simulated reflectivity using a refractive index of 1.5 and a Cauchy model for the aC:D gives good confidence on the estimated film thickness. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency directly applied to a metallic plate where the mirrors were fixed demonstrated the ability to remove the carbon deposits. A mixture of 50% hydrogen and 50% helium was used with a −200V self-bias. Due to the low sputtering yield of He and the low chemical erosion of hydrogen leading to volatile molecules, 20h of cleaning were needed for Au mirror and more than 60h for Mo mirror. Recovery of the reflectivity was not complete for the Au mirror most likely due to damage of the surface during tokamak exposure (breakdown phenomena.

  15. Online discussions mirroring family life during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Kouri

    2006-03-01

    Conclusions Today, the relationship between clients and professionals is inevitably changing. More online services and advocacy are needed if families are to have access to online health services. The role of professionals is diversifying from being authorities to supporting and facilitating clients' individual self-care. Based on direct client feedback, the quality of maternity care can be improved.

  16. Orientifolds and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, I; Brunner, Ilka; Hori, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    We study parity symmetries and crosscap states in classes of N=2 supersymmetric quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions, including non-linear sigma models, gauged WZW models, Landau-Ginzburg models, and linear sigma models. The parity anomaly and its cancellation play important roles in many of them. The case of the N=2 minimal model are studied in complete detail, from all three realizations -- gauged WZW model, abstract RCFT, and LG models. We also identify mirror pairs of orientifolds, extending the correspondence between symplectic geometry and algebraic geometry by including unorientable worldsheets. Through the analysis in various models and comparison in the overlapping regimes, we obtain a global picture of orientifolds and D-branes.

  17. Introduction: Mirrors of Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge; Willerslev, Rane

    How is death, time, and materiality interconnected? How to approach an understanding of the world of the dead? In this introduction, we seek to understand how the experience of material decay, of the death of those around us, makes us aware of the passing of time. Through the literary lens of Neil...... Gaiman’s The Graveyard Book, we explore how the world of the dead and the world of the living can intersect; how time and materiality shifts and changes depending on who experiences it. These revelations, based on fiction, provide a mirror through which the reader can experience the varied chapters...... of the book, which each presents a different perspective on death, materiality, and time....

  18. IBM Watson: How Cognitive Computing Can Be Applied to Big Data Challenges in Life Sciences Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Elenee Argentinis, J D; Weber, Griff

    2016-04-01

    Life sciences researchers are under pressure to innovate faster than ever. Big data offer the promise of unlocking novel insights and accelerating breakthroughs. Ironically, although more data are available than ever, only a fraction is being integrated, understood, and analyzed. The challenge lies in harnessing volumes of data, integrating the data from hundreds of sources, and understanding their various formats. New technologies such as cognitive computing offer promise for addressing this challenge because cognitive solutions are specifically designed to integrate and analyze big datasets. Cognitive solutions can understand different types of data such as lab values in a structured database or the text of a scientific publication. Cognitive solutions are trained to understand technical, industry-specific content and use advanced reasoning, predictive modeling, and machine learning techniques to advance research faster. Watson, a cognitive computing technology, has been configured to support life sciences research. This version of Watson includes medical literature, patents, genomics, and chemical and pharmacological data that researchers would typically use in their work. Watson has also been developed with specific comprehension of scientific terminology so it can make novel connections in millions of pages of text. Watson has been applied to a few pilot studies in the areas of drug target identification and drug repurposing. The pilot results suggest that Watson can accelerate identification of novel drug candidates and novel drug targets by harnessing the potential of big data. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rough Mirror as a Quantum State Selector: Analysis and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report analysis of rough mirrors used as the gravitational state selectors in neutron beam and similar experiments. The key to mirror properties is its roughness correlation function (CF which is extracted from the precision optical scanning measurements of the surface profile. To identify CF in the presence of fluctuation-driven fat tails, we perform numerical experiments with computer-generated random surfaces with the known CF. These numerical experiments provide a reliable identification procedure which we apply to the actual rough mirror. The extracted CF allows us to make predictions for ongoing GRANIT experiments. We also propose a radically new design for rough mirrors based on Monte Carlo simulations for the 1D Ising model. The implementation of this design provides a controlled environment with predictable scattering properties.

  20. A computational approach for thermomechanical fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnasamy, Ram-Kumar; Seifert, Thomas; Siegele, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a computational approach for fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes is presented and applied to a dissimilar weld between tubes made of the nickel base alloy Alloy617 tube and the 12% chromium steel VM12. The approach comprises the calculation of the residual stresses in the welded tubes with a multi-pass dissimilar welding simulation, the relaxation of the residual stresses in a post weld heat treatment (PWHT) simulation and the fatigue life prediction using the remaining residual stresses as initial condition. A cyclic fiscoplasticity model is used to calculate the transient stresses and strains under thermocyclic service loadings. The fatigue life is predicted with a damage parameter which is based on fracture mechanics. The adjustable parameters of the model are determined based on LCF and TMF experiments. The simulations show, that the residual stresses that remain after PWHT further relax in the first loading cycles. The predicted fatigue lives depend on the residual stresses and, thus, on the choice of the loading cycle in which the damage parameter is evaluated. It the first loading cycle, where residual stresses are still present, is considered, lower fatigue lives are predicted compared to predictions considering loading cycles with relaxed residual stresses. (orig.)

  1. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  2. Survey of mirror machine reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condit, W.C.

    1978-08-11

    The Magnetic Mirror Fusion Program is one of the two main-line fusion efforts in the United States. Starting from the simple axisymmetric mirror concept in the 1950's, the program has successfully overcome gross flute-type instabilities (using minimum-B magnetic fields), and the most serious of the micro-instabilities which plagued it (the drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode). Dense plasmas approaching the temperature range of interest for fusion have been created (n/sub p/ = 10/sup 14//cc at 10 to 12 keV). At the same time, rather extensive conceptual design studies of possible mirror configurations have led to three principle designs of interest: the standard mirror fission-fusion hybrid, tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. The lectures will discuss these three concepts in turn. There will be no discussion of diagnostics for the mirror machine in these lectures, but typical plasma parameters will be given for each type of machine, and the diagnostic requirements will be apparent. In a working fusion reactor, diagnostics will be required for operational control, and remarks will be made on this subject.

  3. Cognitive computing and eScience in health and life science research: artificial intelligence and obesity intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffiany; Castelli, Darla; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2017-12-01

    To present research models based on artificial intelligence and discuss the concept of cognitive computing and eScience as disruptive factors in health and life science research methodologies. The paper identifies big data as a catalyst to innovation and the development of artificial intelligence, presents a framework for computer-supported human problem solving and describes a transformation of research support models. This framework includes traditional computer support; federated cognition using machine learning and cognitive agents to augment human intelligence; and a semi-autonomous/autonomous cognitive model, based on deep machine learning, which supports eScience. The paper provides a forward view of the impact of artificial intelligence on our human-computer support and research methods in health and life science research. By augmenting or amplifying human task performance with artificial intelligence, cognitive computing and eScience research models are discussed as novel and innovative systems for developing more effective adaptive obesity intervention programs.

  4. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  5. Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1979-08-21

    This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.

  6. Mirroring patients – or not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2015-01-01

    For mentalization theorists, implicit mentalization is a key component of all forms of therapy. However, it has been difficult to grasp and to describe precisely how implicit mentalization works. It is said to take place partly by mirroring others in posture, facial expression and vocal tone. Based...... and acoustic features of speech. GPs mirrored their patients more than psychiatrists in all modalities and were more flexible in their interactional behaviour. Psychiatrists seemed more static, regardless of the emotionality displayed by patients. Implicitly mirroring and attuning to patients could signify...

  7. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  8. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  9. Advanced Mirror Material System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peregrine will bring together recent laboratory developments and mature the technology so that complete mirror and telescope assemblies can be reliably and robustly...

  10. MirrorCrypt

    OpenAIRE

    García Martínez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto muestra la creación de una aplicación que permite trabajar con sistemas de almacenamiento en la nube de manera encriptada. Aquest projecte mostra la creació d'una aplicació que permet treballar amb sistemes d'emmagatzematge en el núvol de manera encriptada. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Computer security.

  11. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  12. Issues facing the U. S. mirror program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.V.

    1978-07-01

    Some of the current issues associated with the U.S. Magnetic Mirror Program are analyzed. They are presented as five separate papers entitled: (1) Relevant Issues Broughtup by the Mirror Reactor Design Studies. (2) An Assessment of the Design Study of the 1 MeV Neutral Beam Injector Required for a Tandem Mirror Reactor. (3) The Significance of the Radial Plasma Size Measured in Units of Ion Gyroradii in Tandem Mirrors and Field Reversed Mirrors. (4) Producing Field Reversed Mirror Plasmas by Methods used in Field Reversed Theta Pinch. (5) RF Stoppering of Mirror Confined Plasma.

  13. IGRINS Mirror Mount Design for Three Off-Axis Collimators and One Slit-Viewer Fold Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangkhana Rukdee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin are developing a near infrared wide-band high resolution spectrograph, immersion grating infrared spectrometer (IGRINS. The compact white-pupil design of the instrument optics uses seven cryogenic mirrors, including three aspherical off-axis collimators and four flat fold mirrors. In this study, we introduce the optomechanical mount designs of three off-axis collimating mirrors and one flat slit-viewer fold mirror. Two of the off-axis collimators are serving as H and K-band pupil transfer mirrors, and are designed as system alignment compensators in combination with the H2RG focal plane array detectors in each channel. For this reason, the mount designs include tip-tilt and parallel translation adjustment mechanisms to properly perform the precision alignment function. This means that the off-axis mirrors’ optomechanical mount designs are among the most sensitive tasks in all IGRINS system hardware. The other flat fold mirror is designed within its very limitedly allowed work space. This slit-viewer fold mirror is mounted with its own version of the six-point kinematic optics mount. The design work consists of a computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis (FEA technique to optimize the structural stability and the thermal behavior of the mount models. From the structural and thermal FEA studies, we conclude that the four IGRINS mirror mounts are well designed to meet all optical stability tolerances and system thermal requirements.

  14. EUV-mirror, optical system with EUV-mirror and associated operating method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinger, U.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Dier, O.

    2016-01-01

    An EUV mirror (1000) has a mirror element which forms a mirror surface of the mirror. The mirror element has a substrate (1020) and a multilayer arrangement (1030) applied on the substrate and having a reflective effect with respect to radiation from the extreme ultraviolet range (EUV). The

  15. Optimization of VCSELs incorporating monolithic subwavelength high-refractive-index contrast surface grating mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, Marcin; Marciniak, Magdalena; Dems, Maciej; Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Lott, James A.

    2017-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using novel, highreflectivity monolithic high refractive-index contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors and their more advanced version, partially covered by a thin metal layer - metallic MHCG (mMHCG) mirrors. The first experimental realization of this new class of mirrors is presented and discussed. We show that the metal layer does not deteriorate the high reflectivity of an mMHCG mirror, but in contrary, is a crucial element which allows high reflectivity and additionally opens a way for a more efficient electrical pumping of a VCSEL. Comparison of results of thermal-electrical-carrier-gain self-consistent simulations of both MHCG- and mMHCG-based VCSELs is presented and discussed. It is shown that using mHCG mirror as a top mirror of a VCSEL improves electrical characteristics and greatly decreases the differential resistance of the device.

  16. Smoke and Mirrors

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Interestingly, smokers were less likely to die from Parkinson's disease, although no explanation is offered. Partway through the study, in 1978, the alcohol consumption patterns of the doctors were monitored. In contrast with smoking, the study found that moderate consumption of alcohol actually increased life expectancy.

  17. The Essential Turing Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life Plus the Secrets of Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The ideas that gave birth to the computer age. Alan Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, was one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich. in philosophical and logical insight. An introduction

  18. Position sensors for segmented mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozière, Didier; Buous, Sébastien; Courteville, Alain

    2004-09-01

    There are currently several projects for giant telescopes with segmented mirrors under way. These future telescopes will have their primary mirror made of several thousand segments. The main advantage of segmentation is that it enables the active control of the whole mirror, so as to suppress the deformations of the support structure due to the wind, gravity, thermal inhomogeneities etc. ..., thus getting the best possible stigmatism. However, providing active control of segmented mirrors requires numerous accurate edges sensors. It is acknowledged that capacitance-based technology nowadays offers the best metrological performances-to-cost ratio. As the leader in capacitive technology, FOGALE nanotech offers an original concept which reduces the cost of instrumentation, sensors and electronics, while keeping a very high level of performances with a manufacturing process completely industrialised. We present here the sensors developed for the Segment Alignment Measurement System (SAMS) of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This patented solution represents an important improvement in terms of cost, to market the Position Sensors for Segmented Mirrors of ELTs, whilst maintaining a very high performance level. We present here the concept, the laboratory qualification, and the first trials on the 7 central segments of SALT. The laboratory results are good, and we are now working on the on-site implementation to improve the immunity of the sensors to environment.

  19. Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Esfandyarpour, Majid

    2014-06-22

    The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror († = €) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror († = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  20. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  1. The Construction of Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schimmrigk, R

    1992-01-01

    The construction of mirror symmetry in the heterotic string is reviewed in the context of Calabi-Yau and Landau-Ginzburg compactifications. This framework has the virtue of providing a large subspace of the configuration space of the heterotic string, probing its structure far beyond the present reaches of solvable models. The construction proceeds in two stages: First all singularities/catastrophes which lead to ground states of the heterotic string are found. It is then shown that not all ground states described in this way are independent but that certain classes of these LG/CY string vacua can be related to other, simpler, theories via a process involving fractional transformations of the order parameters as well as orbifolding. This construction has far reaching consequences. Firstly it allows for a systematic identification of mirror pairs that appear abundantly in this class of string vacua, thereby showing that the emerging mirror symmetry is not accidental. This is important because models with mirro...

  2. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  3. Dirichlet branes and mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two books that provide the scientific record of the school. The first book, Strings and Geometry, edited by Michael R. Douglas et al., was a proceedings volume and largely focused on the topics of manifolds holonomy and supergravity. The present volume, intended to be a monograph, covers mirror symmetry from the homological and torus fibration points of view. We hope that this volume is a natural sequel to Mirror Symmetry, written by Hoi, Katz, Klemm, Pandharipande, Thomas, Vafa, Vakil and Zaslow, which was a product of the first Clay School in the spring of 2000.

  4. The mirror-neuron system: a Bayesian perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilner, James; Friston, Karl; Frith, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Is it possible to understand the intentions of other peopleby simply observing their movements? Many neuroscientists believe that this ability depends on the brain’s mirror-neuron system, which provides a direct link between action and observation. Precisely how intentions can be inferred through...... movement-observation, however, has provoked much debate. One problem in inferring the cause of an observed action, is that the problem is ill-posed because identical movements can be made when performing different actions with different goals. Here we suggest that this problem is solved by the mirror-neuron...... identifies a precise role for the mirror-neuron system in our ability to infer intentions from observed movement and outlines possible computational mechanisms....

  5. Referred sensations elicited by video-mediated mirroring of hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hoermann

    Full Text Available Humans readily perceive ownership of a limb even when it is artificially induced as in the case of using a mirror reflection. However, mirror reflections are very constrained perceptions which do not allow transformations and varied contexts as often occurs in real life. The extent to which perceived limb ownership occurs with video-mediated manipulations is not known, particularly given the perception would no longer be a precise copy (reflection of a person's own limb. The present study directly compared referred sensations of the limbs with the use of a mirror reflection to those obtained with a new video-mediated setup to assess perceived ownership. Manipulations that could not be performed with a standard mirror reflection, such as reversal of the spatial positions of the limbs, were also investigated to examine how far the perceived ownership effects could be pushed. Across a series of experiments, data on the quality, intensity and location of referred sensations were collected and analyzed together with measures of hand ownership and participants' experience of the two setups. Results reveal that participants felt referred sensations in both the optical and the video-mediated setup, and that video-mediated manipulations of hand-position reversals produced equal to stronger effects of ownership compared with the mirror reflection. These findings open up new possibilities for scientific experimentation and therapy that are discussed in the paper.

  6. Composite single crystal silicon scan mirror substrates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal silicon is a desirable mirror substrate for scan mirrors in space telescopes. As diameters of mirrors become larger, existing manufacturing...

  7. Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardaín Pilar C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument. Methods Cross-sectional study of subjects aged over 18 attending Primary Care Centres for any reason. CAT-Health was administered along with the SF-12 Health Survey. Age, gender and a checklist of chronic conditions were also collected. CAT-Health was evaluated considering: 1 feasibility: completion time and test length; 2 content range coverage, Item Exposure Rate (IER and test precision; and 3 construct validity: differences in the CAT-Health scores according to clinical variables and correlations between both questionnaires. Results 396 subjects answered CAT-Health and SF-12, 67.2% females, mean age (SD 48.6 (17.7 years. 36.9% did not report any chronic condition. Median completion time for CAT-Health was 81 seconds (IQ range = 59-118 and it increased with age (p Conclusions Although domain-specific CATs exist for various areas of HRQoL, CAT-Health is one of the first IRT-based CATs designed to evaluate generic HRQoL and it has proven feasible, valid and efficient, when administered to a broad sample of individuals attending primary care settings.

  8. Novel features of computer-simulated clonal life of Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Tatsuya; Kakutani, Sae; Yoshida, Mika; Nakajima, Akino; Asao, Takeshi; Takagi, Yoshiomi

    2009-05-21

    The clone of the ciliated protozoan Paramecium caudatum has the immaturity period of about 60 fissions and the lifespan of about 600 fissions. These life cycle figures have been depicted through laboratory experiments that allow continuous cell divisions for hundreds, which never occur in nature. We here constructed the nature-mimicking model culture that alternated the log- and stationary phases to allow conjugation, and computer-simulated the age structure modifying parameters such as cell distributions to start the culture, fission rates, death rates, immaturity periods, probabilities of conjugation, proportions of transplantation and so on. The average and maximum ages in the culture after thousands of alternations were converged to 43+/-2 and 140+/-5 fissions, respectively, when parameters for the immaturity period and the maximum clonal lifespan were set at 60 and 600 fissions. This result explains why cells collected in nature are usually young and vigorous. The average and maximum ages proportionally prolonged as the immaturity period was prolonged, as reported true for species of the ciliate. These results indicate the validity of our simulation. The average and maximum ages remained unchanged when the initial condition for starting the culture was changed from two complementary mating-type cells to a population with a quadratic-function distribution, and when the fission rate at the log-phase and the death rate at the stationary phase were modified for older ages. The average and maximum ages changed slightly when either the conjugation rate or the proportion of transplantation was somewhat lowered. Although they changed considerably when such parameters as the immaturity period, conjugation rate and death rate were extremely modified, no clones with the age over 230 fissions appeared in any simulations. These results indicate the robustness of the model, which provides us with fresh insight into the structural system of the clonal lifespan of P. caudatum

  9. On four dimensional mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nekrasov, N.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-07-01

    A conjecture relating instanton calculus in four dimensional supersymmetric theories and the deformation theory of Lagrangian submanifolds in C{sup 2r} invariant under a (subgroup of) Sp(2r,Z) is formulated. This is a four dimensional counterpart of the mirror symmetry of topological strings (relating Gromov-Witten invariants and generalized variations of Hodge structure). (orig.)

  10. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  11. Secrets of the Chinese magic mirror replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    2001-03-01

    We examine the structure of five Chinese magic mirror replicas using a special imaging technique developed by the authors. All mirrors are found to have a two-layered structure. The reflecting surface that gives rise to a projected magic pattern on the screen is hidden under a polished half-reflecting top layer. An alternative method of making the magic mirror using ancient technology has been proposed. Finally, we suggest a simple method of reconstructing a mirror replica in the laboratory.

  12. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  13. AFOCAL SYSTEMS FORMED BY MIRROR OFF-AXIS PARABOLOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror systems make it possible to reduce device dimensions and its weight while preserving high input aperture and these systems are characterized by a number of other advantages. Their significant disadvantage is a central screening of an entrance pupil that leads to lower image quality. The paper contains description of the investigations on afocal systems formed by eccentrically cut-out mirror paraboloids (off-axis mirrors where aperture diaphragm is displaced in the meridian plane for a defined value and a central field point is located on the optical axis. The canonic Mersenne systems are accepted as base schemas (modules for these compositions. The paper considers two types of such systems: visible increases – Г > 0 and Г < 0. Algorithms for calculation of centered afocal systems with two and four reflections have been written in the paper and the systems are free from spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism when an input pupil is located in superimposed focal planes of all parabolic mirrors. An aberration in curvature image has been additionally corrected in three-mirror quart-parabolic scheme which is a combination of two classical telescopic Mersenne systems. The paper presents schemes and calculation results. Two-mirror schemes with non-screened input pupil have been studied in the paper and in this case all the system remains centered and an aperture diaphragm is decentered for the distance Cm which is commensurable with the diaphragm size. The paper contains description of the investigated afocal schemes with four reflections from off-axis mirror paraboloids, a prepared algorithm for calculation, the obtained formulas for making combination of canonic afocal systems formed by two mirrors. Computer simulation in software environment Opal and Zemax has been carried out in the paper. Basic description has been prepared while using two alternative methods for the class of decentered systems and aberration characteristics and

  14. Three dimensional mirror symmetry and partition function on S 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anindya; Distler, Jacques

    2013-10-01

    We provide non-trivial checks of = 4 , D = 3 mirror symmetry in a large class of quiver gauge theories whose Type IIB (Hanany-Witten) descriptions involve D3 branes ending on orbifold/orientifold 5-planes at the boundary. From the M-theory perspective, such theories can be understood in terms of coincident M2 branes sitting at the origin of a product of an A-type and a D-type ALE (Asymtotically Locally Euclidean) space with G-fluxes. Families of mirror dual pairs, which arise in this fashion, can be labeled as ( A m-1 , D n ), where m and n are integers. For a large subset of such infinite families of dual theories, corresponding to generic values of n ≥ 4, arbitrary ranks of the gauge groups and varying m, we test the conjectured duality by proving the precise equality of the S 3 partition functions for dual gauge theories in the IR as functions of masses and FI parameters. The mirror map for a given pair of mirror dual theories can be read off at the end of this computation and we explicitly present these for the aforementioned examples. The computation uses non-trivial identities of hyperbolic functions including certain generalizations of Cauchy determinant identity and Schur's Pfaffian identity, which are discussed in the paper.

  15. The mirror neuron system : New frontiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Fadiga, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, much effort has been invested into Studying their location and properties in the human brain. Here we review these original findings and introduce the Main topics of this special issue of Social Neuroscience. What does the mirror system code? How is the mirror

  16. Through the looking-glass: mirror reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-02-14

    At early stages of object identification we process correctly oriented and mirrored versions of an object similarly. However, in letter and word perception, such tolerance to mirror reversals is harmful for efficient reading. Do readers successfully develop blindness mechanisms for mirror-letters and words? We conducted two masked priming experiments while recording participants' electrophysiological brain responses to briefly presented primes including mirror-letters (Experiment 1) or to shortly presented mirror-words (Experiment 2). Results showed that the human visual word recognition system is not totally blind to mirror-letters and mirror-words, since the early stages of processing mirror-letters and mirror-words produced effects on target word recognition that were highly similar to the effects produced by identical primes (N250 component). In a posterior stage of processing (N400 epoch), the effect of mirror-letters and mirror-words was different from the effect of identical primes, even though reversed primes still elicited N400 priming effects different from unrelated primes. These results demonstrate that readers perceive mirror-letters and words as correct at initial stages of word recognition, and that the visual word recognition system's neural representation is grounded on basic principles that govern object perception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Light Weight Silicon Mirrors for Space Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, Vincent T.; Hill, Peter C.; Hagopian, John G.; Strojay, Carl R.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Each mirror is a monolithic structure from a single crystal of silicon. The mirrors are light weighted after the optical surface is ground and polished. Mirrors made during the initial phase of this work were typically 1/50 lambda or better (RMS at 633 n m)

  18. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.

    2016-01-01

    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  19. Lightweight C/SiC mirrors for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Chang-rui; Cao, Ying-bin; Zhou, Xin-gui

    2006-02-01

    Challenges in high resolution space telescopes have led to the desire to create large primary mirror apertures. Ceramic mirrors and complex structures are becoming more important for high precision lightweight optical applications in adverse environments. Carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) has shown great potential to be used as mirror substrate. This material has a high stiffness to weight ratio, dimensional stability from ambient to cryo temperatures, and thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion as well. These properties make C/SiC very attractive for a variety of applications in precision optical structures, especially when considering space-borne application. In this paper, lightweight C/SiC mirror prepared for a scan mirror of a high resolution camera is presented. The manufacturing of C/SiC mirror starts with a porous rigid felt made of short chopped carbon fibers. The fibers are molded with phenolic resin under pressure to form a carbon fiber reinforced plastic blank, followed by a pyrolization process by which the phenolic resin reacts to a carbon matrix. The C/C-felt can be machined by standard computer controlled milling techniques to any virtual shape. This is one of the most significant advantages of this material, as it drastically reduces the making costs and enables the manufacture of truly ultra-lightweight mirrors, reflectors and structures. Upon completion of milling, the C/C-felt preform is mounted in a high-temperature furnace together with silicon and heated under vacuum condition to 1500°C at which the silicon changes into liquid phase. Subsequently, the molten silicon is infiltrated into the porous preform under capillary forces to react with carbon matrix and the surfaces of the carbon fibers to form a density C/SiC substrate. The C/SiC material retains the preform shape to within a tight tolerance after sintering means the ceramization process is a nearly net shaping process. Reactive melt infiltrated C/SiC, followed by

  20. Harmonic Distortion in CMOS Current Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1998-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in CMOS current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the MOS transistors involved. In this paper we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop an analytical model for the mismatch induced harmonic...... distortion. This analytical model is verified through simulations and is used for a discussion of the impact of mismatch on harmonic distortion properties of CMOS current mirrors. It is found that distortion levels somewhat below 1% can be attained by carefully matching the mirror transistors but ultra low...

  1. Development of ATHENA mirror modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Landgraf, Boris; Günther, Ramses; Vervest, Mark; van der Hoeven, Roy; Dekker, Danielle; Chatbi, Abdel; Girou, David; Sforzini, Jessica; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Shortt, Brian; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Booysen, Karin; Wijnperle, Maurice; van Baren, Coen; Eigenraam, Alexander; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn E.; Della Monica Ferreira, Desirée.; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Oliver, Paul; Checquer, Ian; Ball, Kevin; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), developed at cosine with the European Space Agency (ESA) and several academic and industrial partners, provides lightweight, yet stiff, high-resolution x-ray optics. This technology enables ATHENA to reach an unprecedentedly large effective area in the 0.2 - 12 keV band with an angular resolution better than 5''. After developing the technology for 50 m and 20 m focal length, this year has witnessed the first 12 m focal length mirror modules being produced. The technology development is also gaining momentum with three different radii under study: mirror modules for the inner radii (Rmin = 250 mm), outer radii (Rmax = 1500 mm) and middle radii (Rmid = 737 mm) are being developed in parallel.

  2. Virtualization of Legacy Instrumentation Control Computers for Improved Reliability, Operational Life, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan E

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories tend to be amenable environments for long-term reliable operation of scientific measurement equipment. Indeed, it is not uncommon to find equipment 5, 10, or even 20+ years old still being routinely used in labs. Unfortunately, the Achilles heel for many of these devices is the control/data acquisition computer. Often these computers run older operating systems (e.g., Windows XP) and, while they might only use standard network, USB or serial ports, they require proprietary software to be installed. Even if the original installation disks can be found, it is a burdensome process to reinstall and is fraught with "gotchas" that can derail the process-lost license keys, incompatible hardware, forgotten configuration settings, etc. If you have running legacy instrumentation, the computer is the ticking time bomb waiting to put a halt to your operation.In this chapter, I describe how to virtualize your currently running control computer. This virtualized computer "image" is easy to maintain, easy to back up and easy to redeploy. I have used this multiple times in my own lab to greatly improve the robustness of my legacy devices.After completing the steps in this chapter, you will have your original control computer as well as a virtual instance of that computer with all the software installed ready to control your hardware should your original computer ever be decommissioned.

  3. Nine toes; Mirror Foot Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar M Vlahovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror foot is a very rare congenital anomaly, with only a few papers presenting definitive treatment for this entity. There are limited management recommendations. Most cases are treated before walking age. In our case, there were no associated developmental defects of the leg. The child underwent complex rays resection with medial foot reconstruction. After 7.5 years of followup, definitive surgical treatment was performed with satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome.

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  5. Active Mirror Predictive and Requirements Verification Software (AMP-ReVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    This software is designed to predict large active mirror performance at various stages in the fabrication lifecycle of the mirror. It was developed for 1-meter class powered mirrors for astronomical purposes, but is extensible to other geometries. The package accepts finite element model (FEM) inputs and laboratory measured data for large optical-quality mirrors with active figure control. It computes phenomenological contributions to the surface figure error using several built-in optimization techniques. These phenomena include stresses induced in the mirror by the manufacturing process and the support structure, the test procedure, high spatial frequency errors introduced by the polishing process, and other process-dependent deleterious effects due to light-weighting of the mirror. Then, depending on the maturity of the mirror, it either predicts the best surface figure error that the mirror will attain, or it verifies that the requirements for the error sources have been met once the best surface figure error has been measured. The unique feature of this software is that it ties together physical phenomenology with wavefront sensing and control techniques and various optimization methods including convex optimization, Kalman filtering, and quadratic programming to both generate predictive models and to do requirements verification. This software combines three distinct disciplines: wavefront control, predictive models based on FEM, and requirements verification using measured data in a robust, reusable code that is applicable to any large optics for ground and space telescopes. The software also includes state-of-the-art wavefront control algorithms that allow closed-loop performance to be computed. It allows for quantitative trade studies to be performed for optical systems engineering, including computing the best surface figure error under various testing and operating conditions. After the mirror manufacturing process and testing have been completed, the

  6. Ptolemy-Alhazen problem and spherical mirror reflection

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIMURA, Masayo; Hariri, Parisa; Mocanu, Marcelina; Vuorinen, Matti

    2017-01-01

    An ancient optics problem of Ptolemy, studied later by Alhazen, is discussed. This problem deals with reflection of light in spherical mirrors. Mathematically this reduces to the solution of a quartic equation, which we solve and analyze using a symbolic computation software. Similar problems have been recently studied in connection with ray-tracing, catadioptric optics, scattering of electromagnetic waves, and mathematical billiards, but we were led to this problem in our study of the so-cal...

  7. Mirror agnosia and the mirrored-self misidentification delusion: a hypnotic analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2012-05-01

    Mirrored-self misidentification is the delusional belief that one's reflection in the mirror is a stranger. Current theories suggest that one pathway to the delusion is mirror agnosia (a deficit in which patients are unable to use mirror knowledge when interacting with mirrors). This study examined whether a hypnotic suggestion for mirror agnosia can recreate features of the delusion. Ten high hypnotisable participants were given either a suggestion to not understand mirrors or to see the mirror as a window. Participants were asked to look into a mirror and describe what they saw. Participants were tested on their understanding of mirrors and received a series of challenges. Participants then received a detailed postexperimental inquiry. Three of five participants given the suggestion to not understand mirrors reported seeing a stranger and maintained this belief when challenged. These participants also showed signs of mirror agnosia. No participants given the suggestion to see a window reported seeing a stranger. Results indicate that a hypnotic suggestion for mirror agnosia can be used to recreate the mirrored-self misidentification delusion. Factors influencing the effectiveness of hypnotic analogues of psychopathology, such as participants' expectations and interpretations, are discussed.

  8. Mirrors in Russian Decadent and Symbolist Prose: Valery Briusov and Dmitry Merezhkovsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Lodge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Examining mirror imagery in the prose works “In the Mirror” by Valery Briusov and The Resurrected Gods: Leonardo da Vinci by Dmitry Merezhkovsky, both published in 1902, this article situates the Russian Decadent and Symbolist associations of the mirror in the pan-European literary and philosophical context. The mirror constitutes the threshold of manifold oppositions, including life and art, life and death, and reality and dream or imagination. It is a realm of alternative reality, magical and seductive, as in Briusov’s story, or potentially both demonic and divine, as in Merezhkovsky’s novel. In accordance with the Romantic tradition as well as Decadent and Symbolist iconography, mirror imagery in these two works is inseparable from questions of the nature of art and the power of artistic creation.

  9. Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Hong, Maoling; Byron, Glenn; McClelland, Ryan; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Thin, lightweight mirrors are needed for future x-ray space telescopes in order to increase x-ray collecting area while maintaining a reduced mass and volume capable of being launched on existing rockets. However, it is very difficult to determine the undistorted shape of such thin mirrors because the mounting of the mirror during measurement causes distortion. Traditional kinematic mounts have insufficient supports to control the distortion to measurable levels and prevent the mirror from vibrating during measurement. Over-constrained mounts (non-kinematic) result in an unknown force state causing mirror distortion that cannot be determined or analytically removed. In order to measure flexible mirrors, it is necessary to over-constrain the mirror. Over-constraint causes unknown distortions to be applied to the mirror. Even if a kinematic constraint system can be used, necessary imperfections in the kinematic assumption can lead to an unknown force state capable of distorting the mirror. Previously, thicker, stiffer, and heavier mirrors were used to achieve low optical figure distortion. These mirrors could be measured to an acceptable level of precision using traditional kinematic mounts. As lighter weight precision optics have developed, systems such as the whiffle tree or hydraulic supports have been used to provide additional mounting supports while maintaining the kinematic assumption. The purpose of this invention is to over-constrain a mirror for optical measurement without causing unacceptable or unknown distortions. The invention uses force gauges capable of measuring 1/10,000 of a Newton attached to nano-actuators to support a thin x-ray optic with known and controlled forces to allow for figure measurement and knowledge of the undeformed mirror figure. The mirror is hung from strings such that it is minimally distorted and in a known force state. However, the hanging mirror cannot be measured because it is both swinging and vibrating. In order to

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  13. Mirror Symmetry in Three Dimensions via Gauged Linear Quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anindya; Koroteev, Peter; Mekareeya, Noppadol

    2014-01-01

    Starting from mirror pairs consisting only of linear (framed A-type) quivers, we demonstrate that a wide class of three-dimensional quiver gauge theories with N=4 supersymmetry and their mirror duals can be obtained by suitably gauging flavor symmetries. Infinite families of mirror pairs including various quivers of D and E-type and their affine extensions, star-shaped quivers, and quivers with symplectic gauge groups may be generated in this fashion. We present two different computational strategies to perform the aforementioned gauging procedure - one of them involves N=2* classical parameter space description, while the other one uses partition functions of the N=4 theories on S^3. The partition function, in particular, turns out to be an extremely efficient tool for implementing this gauging procedure as it readily generalizes to arbitrary size of the quiver and arbitrary rank of the gauge group at each node. For most examples of mirror pairs obtained via this procedure, we perform additional checks of mi...

  14. Optical dipole mirror for cold atoms based on a metallic diffraction grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa; Panas, Roman

    We report on the realization of a plasmonic dipole mirror for cold atoms based on a metallic grating coupler. A cloud of atoms is reflected by the repulsive potential generated by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited on a reflection gold grating by a 780 nm laser beam. Experimentally...... and numerically determined mirror efficiencies are close to 100%. The intensity of SPPs above a real grating coupler and the atomic trajectories, as well as the momentum dispersion of the atom cloud being reflected, are computed. A suggestion is given as to how the plasmonic mirror might serve as an optical atom...

  15. Optical dipole mirror for cold atoms based on a metallic diffraction grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa; Panas, Roman

    2014-01-01

    We report on the realization of a plasmonic dipole mirror for cold atoms based on a metallic grating coupler. A cloud of atoms is reflected by the repulsive potential generated by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited on a reflection gold grating by a 780 nm laser beam. Experimentally...... and numerically determined mirror efficiencies are close to 100%. The intensity of SPPs above a real grating coupler and the atomic trajectories, as well as the momentum dispersion of the atom cloud being reflected, are computed. A suggestion is given as to how the plasmonic mirror might serve as an optical atom...

  16. Generalized Calabi-Yau manifolds and the mirror of a rigid manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Parkes, L

    1993-01-01

    We describe the mirror of the Z orbifold as a representation of a class of generalized Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be realized as manifolds of dimension five and seven. Despite their dimension these correspond to superconformal theories with $c=9$ and so are perfectly good for compactifying the heterotic string to the four dimensions of space-time. As a check of mirror symmetry we compute the structure of the space of complex structures of the mirror and check that this reproduces the known results for the Yukawa couplings and metric appropriate to the Kahler class parameters on the Z orbifold together with their instanton corrections.

  17. Contribution of CSB interactions in binding energy difference of mirror nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asghari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available   Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly in mirror nuclei due to the NN interactions with isospin mixing between T=0 and T=1 mesons of the same spin and parity are investigated. With the computation of coulomb energy along with the charge symmetry breaking (CSB effects provide a reasonably accurate description of binding energy differences between  39ca- 39k- , 41cs- 41ca mirror nuclei. 

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  19. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  20. Mirrors, mirrors on the wall…the ubiquitous multiple reflection error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Participants decided when somebody, Janine, could see their face in a horizontal row of adjacent mirrors mounted flat on the same wall. They saw real mirrors and a shop-dummy representing Janine. Such coplanar mirrors reflect different, non-overlapping areas of a scene. However, almost everybody made an unexpected error: they claimed that Janine would see her face reflected in multiple mirrors simultaneously. They therefore responded as if each mirror showed similar information and thus grossly overestimated how much each mirror revealed. Further studies established that this multiple reflection error also occurred for vertical rows of mirrors and for different areas of a single, large mirror. The error was even common if the participant themselves sat in front of a set of covered-up mirrors and indicated where they would be able to see their own reflection. In the latter case, people often made multiple reflection errors despite having seen all the mirrors uncovered immediately before they responded. People's gross overestimation of how much of a scene a mirror reflects and their inability to learn to correct this false belief explains why, despite a lifetime's experience of mirrors, they incorrectly think they will see themselves in all nearby mirrors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Light weight silicon mirrors for space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, Vincent T.; Hill, Peter C.; Hagopian, John G.; Strojny, Carl R.; Miller, Timothy M.

    2012-10-01

    Each mirror produced by this NASA developed process is a monolithic structure from a single crystal of silicon. Due to single crystal silicon's extraordinary homogeneity and lack of internal stress, we light weight after optical polishing. Mirrors produced by our original process were about 1/4th the mass of an equivalent quartz mirror and were typically 1/50th wave or better. We have recently revised our process, replacing the isogrid structures with ones optimized to minimize distortion due to mounting errors. We have also switched from ultrasonic machining to CNC grinding to enable the production of larger mirrors. We report results to date for mirrors produced by the revised process and cryogenic test results for an ultrasonically light weighted mirror.

  2. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  3. Computational Chemistry Laboratory: Calculating the Energy Content of Food Applied to a Real-Life Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiric, Dora; Tribe, Lorena; Soriano, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory, students calculated the nutritional value of common foods to assess the energy content needed to answer an everyday life application; for example, how many kilometers can an average person run with the energy provided by 100 g (3.5 oz) of beef? The optimized geometries and the formation enthalpies of the nutritional components…

  4. Implementation of computer-based quality-of-life monitoring in brain tumor outpatients in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erharter, Astrid; Giesinger, Johannes; Kemmler, Georg; Schauer-Maurer, Gabriele; Stockhammer, Guenter; Muigg, Armin; Hutterer, Markus; Rumpold, Gerhard; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Holzner, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Computerized assessment of quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain tumors can be an essential part of quality assurance with regard to evidence-based medicine in neuro-oncology. The aim of this project was the implementation of a computer-based QOL monitoring tool in a neurooncology outpatient unit. A further aim was to derive reference values for QOL scores from the collected data to improve interpretability. Since August 2005, patients with brain tumors treated at the neuro-oncology outpatient unit of the Innsbruck Medical University were consecutively included in the study. QOL assessment (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] Quality of Life Questionnaire [QLQ-C30] plus the EORTC QLQ-brain cancer module [BN20]) was computer-based, using a software tool called the Computer-based Health Evaluation System. A total of 110 patients with primary brain tumors (49% female; mean [standard deviation] age 47.9 [12.6] years; main diagnoses: 30.9% astrocytoma, 17.3% oligodendroglioma, 17.3% glioblastoma, 13.6% meningioma) was included in the study. On average, QOL was assessed 4.74 times per patient, 521 times in total. The user-friendly software was successfully implemented and tested. The routine QOL assessment was found to be feasible and was well accepted by both physicians and patients. The software-generated graphic QOL profiles were found to be an important tool for screening patients for clinically relevant problems. Thus, computer-based QOL monitoring can contribute to an optimization of treatment (e.g., symptom management, psychosocial interventions) and facilitate data collection for research purposes. Copyright 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MIRROR THERAPY: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Aishath Najiha; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Vandana J. Rathod; Poongundran Paranthaman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the existing evidences on mirror box therapy for the management of various musculoskeletal conditions. A systemic literature search was performed to identify studies concerning mirror therapy. The included journal articles were reviewed and assessed for its significance. Fifty one studies were identified and reviewed. Five different patient categories were studied: 24 studies focussed on mirror therapy after stroke, thirteen studies focusse...

  6. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    makorede

    This delay or staggering in e-waste disposal would reduce the amount of e-waste disposed yearly and thus afford the country the time to make plans to accommodate and manage the e-wastes generated more efficiently. KEYWORDS: e-waste, material flow model, computer equipment, sensitivity analysis, transfer coefficient.

  7. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Internet Residency: Implications for Both Personal Life and Teaching/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crearie, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the last decade have had a significant impact on the teaching and learning experiences students encounter today. We now take technologies such as Web 2.0, mobile devices, cloud computing, podcasts, social networking, super-fast broadband, and connectedness for granted. So what about the student use of these types of…

  8. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  9. Single Crystal Silicon Mirrors for Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a well understood process for manufacturing visible quality SCSi mirrors. Areas of research include stress relief, figure, finish, and light weighting...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  12. Neurodegeneration and Mirror Image Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal Percept with abnormal meaning (Agnosias) has been described from nineteenth century onwards. Later literature became abundant with information on the spectrum of Prosopagnosias. However, selective difficulty in identifying reflected self images with relatively better cognitive functions leads to problems in differentiating it from non-organic psychosis. Aim: In the present study, we investigated patients with dementia who showed difficulty in identifying reflected self images while they were being tested for problems in gnosis with reference to identification of reflected objects, animals, relatives, and themselves and correlate with neuropsychological and radiological parameters. Patients and Methods: Five such patients were identified and tested with a 45 cm × 45 cm mirror kept at 30-cm distance straight ahead of them. Results: Mirror image agnosia is seen in patients with moderate stage posterior dementias who showed neuropsychological and radiological evidence of right parietal dysfunction. Conclusion: Interpretation of reflected self images perception in real time probably involves distinct data-linking circuits in the right parietal lobe, which may get disrupted early in the course of the disease. PMID:25317393

  13. Barstow heliostat mirror glass characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, M.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.

    1980-09-01

    The technical analysis performed on the special run of low iron float glass procured from the Ford Glass Division for the ten megawatt solar thermal/electric pilot power plant to be constructed at Barstow, California is discussed. The topics that are addressed include the optical properties and the relative durability of the glass. Two optical parameters, solar transmittance and optical flatness, were measured as referenced in the specification and found to be better than the stated tolerances. The average solar transmittance exceeded 0.890 transmittance units. The glass also exhibited optical angular flatness deviations less than +-1.0 mrad as required. Both qualitative and quantitative accelerated weathering tests were performed on the glass in order to compare its durability to other soda lime float glass and alternate composition glasses of interest to the solar community. In both the quantitative leaching experiments and the more qualitative room temperature and elevated temperature water vapor exposure experiments the heliostat glass exhibited the same characteristics as the other soda-lime silicate float glasses. As a final test for mirroring compatability, selected samples of the production run of the glass were sent to four different commercial manufacturers for mirror coating. None of the manufacturers reported any difficulty silvering the glass. Based on the tests performed, the glass meets or exceeds all optical specifications for the Barstow heliostat field.

  14. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  15. Diamond Machining of an Off-Axis Biconic Aspherical Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Preuss, Werner; Sohn, Alex; MacKenty, John

    2009-01-01

    Two diamond-machining methods have been developed as part of an effort to design and fabricate an off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal, concave aluminum mirror for an infrared spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Beyond this initial application, the methods can be expected to enable satisfaction of requirements for future instrument mirrors having increasingly complex (including asymmetrical), precise shapes that, heretofore, could not readily be fabricated by diamond machining or, in some cases, could not be fabricated at all. In the initial application, the mirror is prescribed, in terms of Cartesian coordinates x and y, by aperture dimensions of 94 by 76 mm, placements of -2 mm off axis in x and 227 mm off axis in y, an x radius of curvature of 377 mm, a y radius of curvature of 407 mm, an x conic constant of 0.078, and a y conic constant of 0.127. The aspect ratio of the mirror blank is about 6. One common, "diamond machining" process uses single-point diamond turning (SPDT). However, it is impossible to generate the required off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal shape by conventional SPDT because (1) rotational symmetry is an essential element of conventional SPDT and (2) the present off-axis biconic mirror shape lacks rotational symmetry. Following conventional practice, it would be necessary to make this mirror from a glass blank by computer-controlled polishing, which costs more than diamond machining and yields a mirror that is more difficult to mount to a metal bench. One of the two present diamond machining methods involves the use of an SPDT machine equipped with a fast tool servo (FTS). The SPDT machine is programmed to follow the rotationally symmetric asphere that best fits the desired off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal surface. The FTS is actuated in synchronism with the rotation of the SPDT machine to generate the difference between the desired surface and the best-fit rotationally symmetric asphere. In order to minimize the required stroke of the FTS

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  3. TBA-like integral equations from quantized mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Kazumi [Department of Physics, Shinshu University,Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Zakany, Szabolcs [Département de Physique Théorique, Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Quantizing the mirror curve of certain toric Calabi-Yau (CY) three-folds leads to a family of trace class operators. The resolvent function of these operators is known to encode topological data of the CY. In this paper, we show that in certain cases, this resolvent function satisfies a system of non-linear integral equations whose structure is very similar to the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) systems. This can be used to compute spectral traces, both exactly and as a semiclassical expansion. As a main example, we consider the system related to the quantized mirror curve of local ℙ{sup 2}. According to a recent proposal, the traces of this operator are determined by the refined BPS indices of the underlying CY. We use our non-linear integral equations to test that proposal.

  4. Reflecting on Reflections : Cinema's Complex Mirror Shots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Beugnet, Martine; Cameron, Allan; Fetveit, Arild

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the effects mirrors in films can have on the composition of a filmic image, the staging of a scene and the viewing activities of the spectators. It discusses four such effects: (1) So-called ‘complex mirror shots’ can modify how spectators look onto the picture as a flat

  5. Technology for large tandem mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-09-04

    Construction of a large tandem mirror (MFTF-B) will soon begin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Designed to reach break-even plasma conditions, the facility will significantly advance the physics and technology of magnetic-mirror-based fusion reactors. This paper describes the objectives and the design of the facility.

  6. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  7. LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detector mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 m high, 10 m wide and nearly 2.5 m deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors.

  8. Mirror QCD and Cosmological Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An analog of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD sector known as mirror QCD (mQCD can affect the cosmological evolution due to a non-trivial contribution to the Cosmological Constant analogous to that induced by the ground state in non-perturbative QCD. In this work, we explore a plausible hypothesis for trace anomalies cancellation between the usual QCD and mQCD. Such an anomaly cancellation between the two gauge theories, if it exists in Nature, would lead to a suppression or even elimination of their contributions to the Cosmological Constant. The trace anomaly compensation condition and the form of the non-perturbative mQCD coupling constant in the infrared limit have been proposed by analysing a partial non-perturbative solution of the Einstein–Yang-Mills equations of motion.

  9. Composite structures for optical mirror applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Richard A.; Marks, John E.

    1990-10-01

    The employment of composites in RF structures such as antennas, feedhorns, and waveguides is outlined, and focus is placed on the parameters of a composite mirror operating in the 3-5- and 8-12-micron areas. A large beam-steering composite mirror fabricated from ultrahigh-modulus graphite/epoxy is described, including its three subassemblies: the core subassembly and two facesheet subassemblies. Attention is given to an alternative approach in which a gel coat resin is applied to the glass surface and the mirror substrate is pressed to the tool to cover the mirror with the resin. Another method is to seal the composite from the effects of moisture expansion by applying a eutectic coating; voids and crystal-grain growth are the main sources of surface perturbation on such mirror surfaces.

  10. DAMA annual modulation and mirror Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerulli, R.; Cappella, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); Bernabei, R.; Belli, P. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Addazi, A.; Berezhiani, Z. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Universita di L' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito, AQ (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    The DAMA experiment using ultra low background NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators has measured an annual modulation effect in the keV region which satisfies all the peculiarities of an effect induced by Dark Matter particles. In this paper we analyze this annual modulation effect in terms of mirror Dark Matter, an exact duplicate of ordinary matter from parallel hidden sector, which chemical composition is dominated by mirror helium while it can also contain significant fractions of heavier elements as Carbon and Oxygen. Dark mirror atoms are considered to interact with the target nuclei in the detector via Rutherford-like scattering induced by kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons, both being massless. In the present analysis we consider various possible scenarios for the mirror matter chemical composition. For all the scenarios, the relevant ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter have been obtained taking also into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities. (orig.)

  11. The rubber hand illusion in a mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco; Berselli, Nausicaa; Bode, Carole; Lawson, Rebecca; Wong, Li Ting

    2011-12-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI) one's hand is hidden, and a fake hand is visible. We explored the situation in which visual information was available indirectly in a mirror. In the mirror condition, compared to the standard condition (fake hand visible directly), we found no reduction of the RHI following synchronised stimulation, as measured by crossmanual pointing and by a questionnaire. We replicated the finding with a smaller mirror that prevented visibility of the face. The RHI was eliminated when a wooden block replaced the fake hand, or when the hand belonged to another person or mannequin. We conclude that awareness of the reflection is the critical variable, despite the distant visual localisation of the hand in a mirror and the third-person perspective. Stimuli seen in a mirror activate the same response as stimuli seen in peripersonal space, through knowledge that they are near one's body. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Replicated Electro-Formed Nickel Alloy Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. Dr. Joe Ritter examines a replicated electro-formed nickel-alloy mirror which exemplifies the improvements in mirror fabrication techniques, with benefits such as dramtic weight reduction that have been achieved at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC).

  13. Reflectivity-modulated grating-mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to vertical cavity lasers (VCL) incorporating a reflectivity-modulated grating mirror (1) for modulating the laser output. A cavity is formed by a bottom mirror (4), an active region (3), and an outcoupling top grating mirror (1) formed by a periodic refractive index grating...... region in a layer structure comprising a p- and a n-doped semiconductor layer with an electrooptic material layer (12) arranged there between. The grating region comprises a grating structure formed by periodic perforations to change the refractive index periodically in directions normal...... to the oscillation axis. A modulated voltage (91) is applied in reverse bias between the n- and p-doped layers to modulate the refractive index of the electrooptic material layer (12) and thereby the reflectivity spectrum of the grating mirror (1). The reflectivity of the grating mirror (1) can be modulated between...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  1. Interference testing methods of large astronomical mirrors base on lenses and CGH wavefront correctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Patrikeev, Vladimir E.; Semenov, Alexandr P.

    2010-07-01

    Since last years and at present days LZOS, JSC has been producing a range of primary mirrors of astronomical telescopes with diameter more than 1m under contracts with foreign companies. Simultaneous testing of an aspherical surface figure by means of a lens corrector and CGH (computer generated hologram) corrector, testing of the corrector using the CGH allow challenging the task of definite testing of the mirrors surfaces figure. The results of successful figuring of the mirrors with diameter up to 4m like VISTA Project (Southern European Observatory), TNT (Thai National telescope, Australia - Thailand), LCO telescopes (Las Cumbres Observatory, USA; Russian national projects and meeting these mirrors specifications' requirements are all considered as the sufficient evidence.

  2. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy.

  3. Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2014-03-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject's unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for "imaging of the unconscious". Future researches have been proposed.

  4. Archetypal-Imaging and Mirror-Gazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Caputo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject’s unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for “imaging of the unconscious”. Future researches have been proposed.

  5. Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat Hussain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today’s world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user’s activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends.

  6. Behavior life style analysis for mobile sensory data in cloud computing through MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-11-20

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends.

  7. Mirror adaptation in sensory-motor simultaneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When one watches a sports game, one may feel her/his own muscles moving in synchrony with the player's. Such parallels between observed actions of others and one's own has been well supported in the latest progress in neuroscience, and coined "mirror system." It is likely that due to such phenomena, we are able to learn motor skills just by observing an expert's performance. Yet it is unknown whether such indirect learning occurs only at higher cognitive levels, or also at basic sensorimotor levels where sensorimotor delay is compensated and the timing of sensory feedback is constantly calibrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that the subject's passive observation of an actor manipulating a computer mouse with delayed auditory feedback led to shifts in subjective simultaneity of self mouse manipulation and auditory stimulus in the observing subjects. Likewise, self adaptation to the delayed feedback modulated the simultaneity judgment of the other subjects manipulating a mouse and an auditory stimulus. Meanwhile, subjective simultaneity of a simple visual disc and the auditory stimulus (flash test was not affected by observation of an actor nor self-adaptation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of shift in the flash test for both conditions indicates that the recalibration transfer is specific to the action domain, and is not due to a general sensory adaptation. This points to the involvement of a system for the temporal monitoring of actions, one that processes both one's own actions and those of others.

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  9. Double arch mirror study. Part 3: Fabrication and test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    A method of mounting a cryogenically cooled, lightweight, double arch, glass mirror was developed for infrared, astronomical telescopes such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). A 50 cm, fused silica mirror which was previously fabricated was modified for use with a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed. The modification of the mirror, the fabrication of the mirror mount, and the room temperature testing of the mounted mirror are reported. A design for a SIRTF class primary mirror is suggested.

  10. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: III. Urinary tract and adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Augsburger, H; Bettschart, R; Ohlerth, S

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of the urinary tract and adrenal glands of five healthy male calves in the first 105 days of life were compared with corresponding cadaver slices. The structures seen on CT images were identified using the corresponding cadaver slices. CT produced exact images of the kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra and adrenal glands, but reliable images of the ureters were only obtained near the renal hilus. There was excellent agreement between the structures on the CT images and the tissue slices. The structure and vessels of the kidneys, the origin of the ureters, the location, size and content of the urinary bladder and the course of the urethra in the pelvis and penis were evident on images. The size and volume of the kidneys and the length and width of the adrenal glands increased significantly during the study, but the ureteral and urethral diameters changed little.

  11. An overview of computational life science databases & exchange formats of relevance to chemical biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalter Hall, Aaron; Shan, Yunfeng; Lushington, Gerald; Visvanathan, Mahesh

    2013-03-01

    Databases and exchange formats describing biological entities such as chemicals and proteins, along with their relationships, are a critical component of research in life sciences disciplines, including chemical biology wherein small information about small molecule properties converges with cellular and molecular biology. Databases for storing biological entities are growing not only in size, but also in type, with many similarities between them and often subtle differences. The data formats available to describe and exchange these entities are numerous as well. In general, each format is optimized for a particular purpose or database, and hence some understanding of these formats is required when choosing one for research purposes. This paper reviews a selection of different databases and data formats with the goal of summarizing their purposes, features, and limitations. Databases are reviewed under the categories of 1) protein interactions, 2) metabolic pathways, 3) chemical interactions, and 4) drug discovery. Representation formats will be discussed according to those describing chemical structures, and those describing genomic/proteomic entities.

  12. Fostering Social Engagement and Self-Efficacy in Later Life: Studies with Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Margaret E.; Lundell, Jay; Dishongh, Terry; Needham, Brad

    This chapter describes a multiyear project with a team of social scientists and engineers at Intel focused on emerging technologies and successful aging. Theories of behavioral change are linked to the capabilities of emerging technologies for capturing and reflecting variability in activity and health status. The technologies described in this chapter reflect an attempt to integrate psychological theory and ethnographic research with ubiquitous computing. Ethnographic research that we conducted at the outset of this project consistently underscored the value of social engagement for successful aging. It also pointed out the significant social barriers encountered by many older adults. These barriers - which include changes in lifestyle, mobility, and cognitive functioning - are compounded by a perceived inability to change isolating circumstances. To address these social needs and barriers, we developed a set of prototypes involving sensor networks and feedback displays. This chapter describes the social health technologies that we developed, reactions of the older adults and family caregivers who participated in in-home trials, and implications for future development. We also describe the need for tools to encourage self-awareness and self-efficacy for a broad range of health concerns.

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  14. Degradation of back surface acrylic mirrors for low concentration and mirror-augmented photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Myles P.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Gordon, Devin; Richardson, Samuel; Reinbolt, Greg; Schuetz, Mark; French, Roger H.

    2012-10-01

    Back-surface acrylic mirrors can be used in low concentration and mirror augmented photovoltaics (LCPV, MAPV) to increase the irradiance on a module. Back-surface mirrors can spectrally filter incoming solar radiation reducing the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) load on the module, while useful radiation is coupled into a module or photovoltaic cell. Degradation of these mirrors can occur from UV induced photodegradative processes and metallization corrosion. Environmental stresses such as humidity, thermal cycling and exposure to corrosive substances can cause an increase in scattering, reducing mirror performance. In order to increase the lifetime and durability of back-surface acrylic mirrors a better understanding of the degradation modes is necessary. In a study of acrylic back-surface mirrors for LCPV and MAPV applications, optical properties and bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDF) were investigated and correlated to simulated exposure protocols. Formulations of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with differing concentration of UV absorbers were used for the aluminum backsurface acrylic mirrors. The formulations of aluminum back-surface acrylic mirrors were exposed in a QUV accelerated weathering tester (QLabs) to ASTM G154 Cycle 4. Total and diffuse reflectance spectra were measured for each mirror under exposure using a diffuse reflectance accessory (DRA) from 180-1800 nm on a Varian Cary 6000i at defined dose intervals. The total reflectance losses in the 250-400 nm region were greater and diffuse-only reflectance increased for formulations of acrylic mirrors that contained the least amount of UV stabilizer after each dose of QUV exposure. Acrylic back-surface mirrors were exposed to salt fog corrosion and QUV and were analyzed using BSDF. There was an increase in scattering from roughening of the mirror surface after exposure to the corrosive environment.

  15. The First Active Segmented Mirror at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Frank, Christoph; Araujo, Constanza; Brast, Roland; Frahm, Robert; Karban, Robert; Andolfato, Luigi; Esteves, Regina; Nylund, Matty; Sedghi, Babak; Fischer, Gerhard; Noethe, Lothar; Derie, Frédéric

    2007-06-01

    The Active Phasing Experiment (APE) is part of the Extremely Large Telescope Design Study which is supported by the European Framework Programme 6. This experiment, which is conducted in collaboration with several partners is a demonstrator to test and qualify newly-developed phasing sensors for the alignment of segmented mirrors and test the phasing software within a telescope control system to be developed for a future European Extremely Large Telescope. The segmentation of a primary mirror is simulated by a scaled-down Active Segmented Mirror of 61 segments which has been developed in-house.

  16. The quantitative methods boot camp: teaching quantitative thinking and computing skills to graduate students in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Melanie I; Gutlerner, Johanna L; Born, Richard T; Springer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.

  17. Crosstalk Analysis of a Deformable-Mirror Infrared Scene Projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kenneth J.

    The design of an infrared scene projector that incorporates a deformable mirror device (DMD) as an infrared spatial light modulator (SLM) is presented. A numerical model is developed to determine crosstalk effects in the projected image. Partial-coherence effects due to the physical layout of the projection system are included in the development. It is shown both analytically and numerically that under quasimonochromatic illumination the system behaves coherently and can be modeled as such. Polychromatic image formation is approximated as a summation of quasimonochromatic images over the wavelength band. Crosstalk is determined by defining a contrast ratio in the projected image. Contrast -ratio calculations are carried out for monochromatic and blackbody projection sources over the 3- to 5- μm wavelength band. The results predict contrast ratios of 265:1, 1217:1, and 2437:1 for deformable -mirror pixels of 50 mum, 100 mum, and 150 mum. The derivation of the contrast-ratio model leads to the determination of an upper limit on the system aperture-stop diameter for optimum contrast performance. Diffraction effects are the fundamental cause of crosstalk, and it is shown that crosstalk performance improves with shorter wavelengths and for larger deformable-mirror pixels. The effects of angular misalignment of the illumination source are also investigated. The results show that the reduced contrast ratio resulting from a small angular misalignment Deltatheta along the DMD-pixel-tilt direction can be approximated by computing the contrast ratio for a reduced-diameter aperture stop. The results of a proof-of-principle demonstration that verifies the feasibility of a deformable-mirror-based infrared scene projection system are also included.

  18. USING SECOND LIFE VIRTUAL COMPUTER WORLD AS A TRAINING TOOL FOR THE SUBJECTIVE GLOBAL ASSESSMENT (sga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clark Connery

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The SGA is a clinical tool used to assess protein energy wasting. Although well validated, it is still not widely incorporated into clinical practice. A barrier to use may be the physical assessment section. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to develop a free and effective tool to train clinicians on performing the SGA. Second Life (SL is a free virtual reality program accessed through the internet using human-like “avatars.” A museum environment was created with panels presenting SGA background information through text, images, and videos of SGA being performed. Users are able to navigate the information by logging onto a provided avatar. After the initial panels, this avatar is able to interact with avatar bots and perform animations which mimic each body assessment within the SGA. Two trial periods were conducted to assess the efficacy of this training tool. The alpha trial consisted of 3 hospital dietitians and 3 nutrition students. These subjects came to the investigators’ facility to test the program. Subjective responses were collected and used to improve the training tool. Feedback was positive regarding the information, delivery, and direction of the project; however, they did complain of difficulty with controlling the avatar. The beta trial consists of users accessing the module remotely. These users include academic and clinical dietitians. Responses are being collected via 5 surveys covering each portion of the module. While 16 dietitians responded to the beta trial, only 4 have completed the training. Current survey responses state: the use of SL is easy and enjoyable; all SGA information was clear and in a desirable format; tactile comparison objects were beneficial for understanding; the in depth description of each assessment is beneficial; the animations that the avatars perform on the bots needs improvement; a patient avatar on which users could perform the full SGA is desirable; the use of SL in the learning

  19. Supersymmetric defect models and mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-11-01

    We study supersymmetric field theories in three space-time dimensions doped by various configurations of electric charges or magnetic fluxes. These are supersymmetric avatars of impurity models. In the presence of additional sources such configurations are shown to preserve half of the supersymmetries. Mirror symmetry relates the two sets of configurations. We discuss the implications for impurity models in 3d NN = 4 QED with a single charged hypermultiplet (and its mirror, the theory of a free hypermultiplet) as well as 3d NN = 2 QED with one flavor and its dual, a supersymmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Mirror symmetry allows us to find backreacted solutions for arbitrary arrays of defects in the IR limit of NN = 4 QED. Our analysis, complemented with appropriate string theory brane constructions, sheds light on various aspects of mirror symmetry, the map between particles and vortices and the emergence of ground state entropy in QED at finite density.

  20. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Structured Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMCC is proposing herewith a hybrid structured mirror that combines the advantages of SiC membrane and magnesium graphite composite. The significance of magnesium...

  1. Space Optic Manufacturing - X-ray Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. This image shows a lightweight replicated x-ray mirror with gold coatings applied.

  2. Polishing X-ray Mirror Mandrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC) has grinding and polishing equipment ranging from conventional spindles to custom-designed polishers. These capabilities allow us to grind precisely and polish a variety of optical devices, including x-ray mirror mandrels. This image shows Charlie Griffith polishing the half-meter mandrel at SOMTC.

  3. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this one year research project, we propose to do the following four tasks; (1) Design the silicon wafer X-ray mirror demo unit and develop a ray-tracing code to...

  4. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program leverages on our extensive expertise in developing high-performance driver ASICs for deformable mirror systems and seeks to expand the capacities of the...

  5. Development of a FSMP mirror assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Young-Soo; Song, Je Heon; Cho, Myung; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Ho-Sang; Lee, Kyoung-Don; Park, Won Hyun; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2015-09-01

    A Prototype of Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSMP) for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been developed by the consortium consisting of institutes in Korea and the US. In 2014 the FSMP development was finalized by combining the two major sub-systems, the mirror fabricated and the mirror cell with the tip-tilt control parts. We have developed an assembly procedure in which potential difficulties, such as handling without contacting mirror surface, and optimizing bonding process, have been resolved. Supporting jigs were produced, and optimized bonding techniques have been developed. The assembled FSMP system was installed in a test tower, and stability of the system were checked. Performance of the FSMP system will be evaluated in static and dynamic environments for the validation of the FSMP system operation as the future works.

  6. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  7. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  8. Multilayer active shell mirrors for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, John; Jackson, Kathryn; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Bradford, Samuel Case; Barbee, Troy

    2016-07-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible routing layer. Mirrors of this design are thin ( 100 μm PV) down to sub-micron precision. The system has been validated against several traditional techniques including photogrammetry and interferometry. The mirror performance has been characterized using this system, as well as closed-loop figure correction experiments on 150 mm dia. prototypes. The mirrors have demonstrated post-correction figure accuracies of 200 nm RMS (two dead actuators limiting performance).

  9. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this one year research project, we propose to do the following four tasks;(1) Design the silicon wafer X-ray mirror demo unit and develop a ray-tracing code to...

  10. Lightweight composite mirrors for telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, steady and stiff mirrors are necessary to decrease cost of telescopes such as IXO and GenX used in special NASA missions. Low-density materials are...

  11. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, David

    2014-02-27

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  12. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  13. Shape characterization of the primary mirror of a mirror based solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespidi, Franco; Malvisi, Emanuele; Parmesani, Rolando

    2017-09-01

    A diagnostic technique developed to detect possible local deformations in the primary mirrors used in solar concentrators is presented. A grazing illumination technique is used to evaluate the effect of changes in the shape of the mirror surface from the ideal one. The technique provides a qualitative evaluation of the uniformity of the mirror surface and highlights possible imperfections in the surface due to manufacturing process. The optical setup and some experimental results are described together with a simple analysis procedure.

  14. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror...

  15. Mirror Therapy for Phantom Limb Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Young; Kim, Yun Young

    2012-01-01

    Phantom limb pain is a painful sensation that is perceived in a body part that no longer exists. To control this pain, many methods have been used such as medication, physical treatment, nerve block, neuromodulation, surgical treatment and mirror therapy. However, until now, there effects have been uncertain. We report the successful reduction of phantom limb pain using mirror therapy when other treatments initially failed to control the pain.

  16. Action observation: Inferring intentions without mirror neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Kilner, James M

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand.......A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand....

  17. Anomalous Mirror Symmetry Generated by Optical Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokichi Sugihara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of mirror symmetry, called “anomalous mirror symmetry”, which is physically impossible but can be perceived by human vision systems because of optical illusion. This symmetry is characterized geometrically and a method for creating cylindrical surfaces that create this symmetry is constructed. Examples of solid objects constructed by a 3D printer are also shown.

  18. Testing the first neutron mirror flipper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshanov, N.K., E-mail: pnk@pnpi.spb.ru [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Syromyatnikov, V.G. [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Physical Department, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya, 1, Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-21

    The first neutron mirror flipper built as a magnetic Co{sub 70}Fe{sub 30} (71.1 nm) layer on a non-magnetic periodic multilayer {NiMo(6.96 nm)/Ti(6.17 nm)}×20 was tested. Its efficiency at the Bragg peak was found to exceed 0.966. Thus, the possibility of producing neutron mirror spin turners, including π/2- and π-turners (flippers), was experimentally demonstrated.

  19. On Horizonless Temperature with an Accelerating Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R; Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    A new solution of a unitary moving mirror is found to produce finite energy and emit thermal radiation despite the absence of an acceleration horizon. In the limit that the mirror approaches the speed of light, the model corresponds to a black hole formed from the collapse of a null shell. For speeds less than light, the black hole correspondence, if it exists, is that of a remnant.

  20. The uncanny mirror: a re-framing of mirror self-experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Philippe; Zahavi, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Mirror self-experience is re-casted away from the cognitivist interpretation that has dominated discussions on the issue since the establishment of the mirror mark test. Ideas formulated by Merleau-Ponty on mirror self-experience point to the profoundly unsettling encounter with one's specular double. These ideas, together with developmental evidence are re-visited to provide a new, psychologically and phenomenologically more valid account of mirror self-experience: an experience associated with deep wariness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in patients with mirror dextrocardia: case reports and brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiahui; Sun, Yanming; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ying; Zhong, Jiaoyue; Lin, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Mirror-image dextrocardia is a rare congenital abnormality with a life expectancy and risk of myocardial infarction similar to the normal population. Although there have been few case reports of emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in mirror-image dextrocardia, physicians, especially general and interventional cardiologists encounter problems in the diagnosis and treatment of AMI in these patients. In this paper, we report our experience with two cases of emergent transradial PCI for AMI in patients with the mirror-image dextrocardia. Subsequently, we summarize clinical features, electrocardiograph characteristic, approach to emergent PCI based on a review of the literature. PMID:27280091

  2. Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain in an adolescent cancer survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Spreafico, Filippo; Cavallotti, Gaia; Consoli, Annalisa; Veneroni, Laura; Sala, Alessio; Massimino, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Several pediatric tumors require mutilating procedures in order to be treated effectively. Although the pain caused by the surgery is usually of a transient nature, the perception of pain in the amputated limb may persist. This prolonged pain, which is often refractory to pain-killing medication, may severely affect the patient's quality of life. The phenomenon of phantom limb pain (or phantom limb syndrome) has been investigated using neurological, neurophysiological and psychopathological approaches. Here we discuss the advantages of an unconventional rehabilitation technique, the recently reported mirror therapy, whose positive effects might be due, according to some researchers, to neuronal plasticity mechanisms. We describe the use of mirror therapy to treat phantom limb syndrome in a 39-year-old patient whose right leg had been amputated at the age of 17 because of an osteosarcoma. The patient suffered from frequent episodes of pain, with severely negative effects on his quality of life. We obtained positive subjective feedback from the patient, who reported having benefited significantly from using the mirror. The beneficial effect was still present six months after the start of mirror therapy. The reported case highlights the value of an integrated multidisciplinary approach including neurological/physiatric assessment, clinical psychological support, physiotherapy and other, unconventional treatment modalities. This report should guide future studies towards the application of mirror therapy in order to elucidate its effects and efficacy.

  3. Description and application of the EAP computer program for calculating life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of household consumption items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, R.M.J.; Wilting, H.C.; Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, a life-cycle-based analysis tool has been developed. The energy analysis program (EAP) is a computer program for determining energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption items, using a hybrid calculation

  4. The Perceptions of CEIT Postgraduate Students Regarding Reality Concepts: Augmented, Virtual, Mixed and Mirror Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taçgin, Zeynep; Arslan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine perception of postgraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) students regarding the concepts of Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Virtuality (AV) and Mirror Reality; and to offer a table that includes differences and similarities between…

  5. Unravelling the optical responses of nanoplasmonic mirror-on-mirror metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikdar, D.; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Urbakh, M.; Edel, J.B.; Kornyshev, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Mirror-on-mirror platforms based on arrays of metallic nanoparticles, arranged top-down or self-assembled on a thin metallic film, have interesting optical properties. Interaction of localized surface-plasmons in nanoparticles with propagating surface-plasmons in the film underpins the exotic

  6. Improved methods for dewarping images in convex mirrors in fine art: applications to van Eyck and Parmigianino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Yumi; Stork, David G.; Fujiki, Jun; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2011-03-01

    We derive and demonstrate new methods for dewarping images depicted in convex mirrors in artwork and for estimating the three-dimensional shapes of the mirrors themselves. Previous methods were based on the assumption that mirrors were spherical or paraboloidal, an assumption unlikely to hold for hand-blown glass spheres used in early Renaissance art, such as Johannes van Eyck's Portrait of Giovanni (?) Arnolfini and his wife (1434) and Robert Campin's Portrait of St. John the Baptist and Heinrich von Werl (1438). Our methods are more general than such previous methods in that we assume merely that the mirror is radially symmetric and that there are straight lines (or colinear points) in the actual source scene. We express the mirror's shape as a mathematical series and pose the image dewarping task as that of estimating the coefficients in the series expansion. Central to our method is the plumbline principle: that the optimal coefficients are those that dewarp the mirror image so as to straighten lines that correspond to straight lines in the source scene. We solve for these coefficients algebraically through principal component analysis, PCA. Our method relies on a global figure of merit to balance warping errors throughout the image and it thereby reduces a reliance on the somewhat subjective criterion used in earlier methods. Our estimation can be applied to separate image annuli, which is appropriate if the mirror shape is irregular. Once we have found the optimal image dewarping, we compute the mirror shape by solving a differential equation based on the estimated dewarping function. We demonstrate our methods on the Arnolfini mirror and reveal a dewarped image superior to those found in prior work|an image noticeably more rectilinear throughout and having a more coherent geometrical perspective and vanishing points. Moreover, we find the mirror deviated from spherical and paraboloidal shape; this implies that it would have been useless as a concave

  7. Mirror World at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, L J; Barbieri, Riccardo; Gregoire, Thomas; Hall, Lawrence J

    2005-01-01

    A mirror world can modify in a striking way the LHC signals of the Higgs sector. An exact or approximate Z_2 symmetry between the mirror world and our world allows large mixing between the Higgs bosons of these worlds, leading to production rates and branching ratios for these states that are markedly different from the standard model and are characteristic of a mirror world. The constraints on these Higgs boson masses from precision electroweak data differ from the standard model bound, so that the new physics that cancels the quadratic divergence induced by the top quark may appear at a larger scale, possibly beyond the reach of the LHC. However, the scale of new physics needed to cancel the quadratic divergence induced by the Higgs boson is not significantly changed. With small breakings of the Z_2 parity, the lightest mirror quarks (and possibly charged mirror leptons) could be the dark matter in the universe, forming galactic halos that are stable to cooling. A possible signal from the relic radiation de...

  8. Advances in Tandem Mirror fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, L.J.; Logan, B.G.

    1986-05-20

    The Tandem Mirror exhibits several distinctive features which make the reactor embodiment of the principle very attractive: Simple low-technology linear central cell; steady-state operation; high-..beta.. operation; no driven current or disruptions; divertorless operation; direction conversion of end-loss power; low-surface heat loads; and advanced fusion fuel capability. In this paper, we examine these features in connection with two tandem mirror reactor designs, MARS and MINIMARS, and several advanced reactor concepts including the wall-stabilized reactor and the field-reversed mirror. With a novel compact end plug scheme employing octopole stabilization, MINIMARS is expressly designed for short construction times, factory-built modules, and a small (600 MWe) but economic reactor size. We have also configured the design for low radioactive afterheat and inherent/passive safety under LOCA/LOFA conditions, thereby obviating the need for expensive engineered safety systems. In contrast to the complex and expensive double-quadrupole end-cell of the MARS reactor, the compact octopole end-cell of MINIMARS enables ignition to be achieved with much shorter central cell lengths and considerably improves the economy of scale for small (approx.250 to 600 MWe) tandem mirror reactors. Finally, we examine the prospects for realizing the ultimate potential of the tandem mirror with regard to both innovative configurations and novel neutron energy conversion schemes, and stress that advanced fuel applications could exploit its unique reactor features.

  9. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Katie L; Graham, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one's personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their "transportation choices" at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants' choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99), those

  10. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Hodgin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPrevious research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. Few studies, however, have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly-valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally-healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body-size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred and sixty-seven students (51% male enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their transportation choices at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants’ choice of floor climbing method (stairs or elevator was recorded and they were administered an internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.96, males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13 – 0.85, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71

  11. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Katie L.; Graham, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair–elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their “transportation choices” at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants’ choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14–0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13–0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0

  12. A study of ps-laser-induced-damage-threshold in hybrid metal-dielectric mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoda, Václav; Vanda, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced-damage-threshold of two types of metal-dielectric mirrors was tested using a laser apparatus working at 800 nm wavelength with 1 ps pulse length at 1 kHz repetition rate and in 106-on-1 test mode. Four sets of mirror samples with different layer system designs using a multilayer Ta2O5/SiO2 coating on silver or gold metal layer were manufactured. Both BK7 and fused silica substrate materials were used for manufacturing of samples. The measured damage thresholds at 45 deg incidence and P-polarization were compared with computed properties of layer system and used materials.

  13. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  14. Conference on Complex Geometry and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vinet, Luc; Yau, Shing-Tung; Mirror Symmetry III

    1999-01-01

    This book presents surveys from a workshop held during the theme year in geometry and topology at the Centre de recherches mathématiques (CRM, University of Montréal). The volume is in some sense a sequel to Mirror Symmetry I (1998) and Mirror Symmetry II (1996), copublished by the AMS and International Press. Included are recent developments in the theory of mirror manifolds and the related areas of complex and symplectic geometry. The long introductory articles explain the key physical ideas and motivation, namely conformal field theory, supersymmetry, and string theory. Open problems are emphasized. Thus the book provides an efficient way for a very broad audience of mathematicians and physicists to reach the frontier of research in this fast expanding area. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/amsip-10#sthash.DbxEFJDx.dpuf

  15. An advanced KB mirror pair for microfocusing

    CERN Document Server

    Ferme, J J

    2001-01-01

    A new range of micro-focusing mirrors based on KB pairs has been developed by SESO for Beamline Nanospectroscopy at the Elettra Storage Ring in Trieste, Italy. Both the focusing and the aspheric shape are adjustable with stepper motors. The goal of the beamline is to have a high photon density spot with a variable size in the experimental chamber over the whole soft X-ray range. The estimated dimension of the final spot should be smaller than 4 mu m sup 2 FWHM, with a photon density of the order of 10 sup 1 sup 3 photons/s mu m sup 2; this may be achieved only by accepting an angular divergence on these mirrors of between 5 and 10 mrad. This condition can be fulfilled only with elliptical (or plane elliptical) mirrors with very limited residual slope errors (below 1 mu rad RMS) that are able to correct even small focal distance errors.

  16. Collimated Magnetron Sputter Deposition for Mirror Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, A.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2008-01-01

    At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence that a collimat......At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence...

  17. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Le

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  18. Mirror writing and a dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam-mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  19. Speed enhancement in VCSELs employing grating mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, various approaches to improve the speed of directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been reported and demonstrated good improvement. In this paper, we propose and numerically investigate a new possibility of using high-index-contrast grating (HCG......) as mirror for VCSELs. By changing the grating design, one can control the reflection delay of the grating mirror, enabling the control of cavity photon lifetime. On the other hand, short energy penetration depth of the HCG results in smaller modal volume, compared to DBR VCSELs. An example structure shows...... that the HCG VCSEL has a 30-% higher 3-dB bandwidth than the DBR VCSEL....

  20. Lightweight Deployable Mirrors with Tensegrity Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Glenn W.; Bradford, Larry J.; Cleve, Richard C.

    2004-01-01

    The upper part of Figure 1 shows a small-scale prototype of a developmental class of lightweight, deployable structures that would support panels in precise alignments. In this case, the panel is hexagonal and supports disks that represent segments of a primary mirror of a large telescope. The lower part of Figure 1 shows a complete conceptual structure containing multiple hexagonal panels that hold mirror segments. The structures of this class are of the tensegrity type, which was invented five decades ago by artist Kenneth Snelson. A tensegrity structure consists of momentfree compression members (struts) and tension members (cables). The structures of this particular developmental class are intended primarily as means to erect large segmented primary mirrors of astronomical telescopes or large radio antennas in outer space. Other classes of tensegrity structures could also be designed for terrestrial use as towers, masts, and supports for general structural panels. An important product of the present development effort is the engineering practice of building a lightweight, deployable structure as an assembly of tensegrity modules like the one shown in Figure 2. This module comprises two octahedral tensegrity subunits that are mirror images of each other joined at their plane of mirror symmetry. In this case, the plane of mirror symmetry is both the upper plane of the lower subunit and the lower plane of the upper subunit, and is delineated by the midheight triangle in Figure 2. In the configuration assumed by the module to balance static forces under mild loading, the upper and lower planes of each sub-unit are rotated about 30 , relative to each other, about the long (vertical) axis of the structure. Larger structures can be assembled by joining multiple modules like this one at their sides or ends. When the module is compressed axially (vertically), the first-order effect is an increase in the rotation angle, but by virtue of the mirror arrangement, the net

  1. Preparing for Life in a Digital Age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Schulz, Wolfram; Friedman, Tim; Gebhardt, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    ... this regard? The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) responded to this question by studying the extent to which young people have developed computer and information literacy (CIL...

  2. Conifold transitions and mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau complete intersections in Grassmannians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batyrev, V.V. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Mathematisches Inst.; Ciocan-Fontanine, I. [Department of Mathematics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Kim, B. [Institut Mittag-Leffler, Auravaegen 17, S-182 62 Djursholm (Sweden); Van Straten, D. [FB 17, Mathematik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    1998-03-23

    In this paper we show that conifold transitions between Calabi-Yau 3-folds can be used for the construction of mirror manifolds and for the computation of the instanton numbers of rational curves on complete intersection Calabi-Yau 3-folds in Grassmannians. Using a natural degeneration of Grassmannians G(k,n) to some Gorenstein toric Fano varieties P(k,n) with conifold singularities which was recently described by Sturmfels, we suggest an explicit mirror construction for Calabi-Yau complete intersections X is contained in G(k,n) of arbitrary dimension. Our mirror construction is consistent with the formula for the Lax operator conjectured by Eguchi, Hori and Xiong for gravitational quantum cohomology of Grassmannians. (orig.). 35 refs.

  3. Mirror and (absence of) counter-mirror responses to action sounds measured with TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To what extent is the mirror neuron mechanism malleable to experience? The answer to this question can help characterising its ontogeny and its role in social cognition. Some suggest that it develops through sensorimotor associations congruent with our own actions. Others argue for its extreme volatility that will encode any sensorimotor association in the environment. Here, we added to this debate by exploring the effects of short goal-directed ‘mirror’ and ‘counter-mirror’ trainings (a ‘mirror’ training is defined as the first type of training encountered by the participants) on human auditory mirror motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). We recorded MEPs in response to two tones void of previous motor meaning, before and after mirror and counter-mirror trainings in which participants generated two tones of different pitch by performing free-choice button presses. The results showed that mirror MEPs, once established, were protected against an equivalent counter-mirror experience: they became manifest very rapidly and the same number of training trials that lead to the initial association did not suffice to reverse the MEP pattern. This steadiness of the association argues that, by serving direct-matching purposes, the mirror mechanism is a good solution for social cognition. PMID:29036454

  4. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B; Moss, Timothy A

    2013-11-12

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoretical image.

  5. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  6. [Mirror, mirror of the wall: mirror therapy in the treatment of phantom limbs and phantom limb pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Roberto; Furnari, Anna; Lamberti, Raul Coelho; Kouloulas, Efthimios; Hagenberg, Annegret; Mallik, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Phantom limb and phantom limb pain control are pivotal points in the sequence of intervention to bring the amputee to functional autonomy. The alterations of perception and sensation, the pain of the residual limb and the phantom limb are therefore aspects of amputation that should be taken into account in the "prise en charge" of these patients. Within the more advanced physical therapies to control phantom and phantom limb pain there is the use of mirrors (mirror therapy). This article willfocus on its use and on the possible side effects induced by the lack of patient selection and a conflict of body schema restoration through mirror therapy with concurrent prosthetic training and trauma acceptance. Advice on the need to select patients before treatment decisions, with regard to their psychological as well as clinical profile (including time since amputation and clinical setting), and the need to be aware of the possible adverse effects matching different and somehow conflicting therapeutic approaches, are put forward. Thus a coordinated sequence of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures carried out by an interdisciplinary rehabilitation team that works globally on all patients' problems is fundamental in the management of amputees and phantom limb pain. Further studies and the development of a multidisciplinary network to study this and other applications of mirror therapy are needed.

  7. Optimization of lightweight structure and supporting bipod flexure for a space mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Bo-Kai; You, Zhen-Ting; Chan, Chia-Yen; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2016-12-20

    This article presents an optimization process for integrated optomechanical design. The proposed optimization process for integrated optomechanical design comprises computer-aided drafting, finite element analysis (FEA), optomechanical transfer codes, and an optimization solver. The FEA was conducted to determine mirror surface deformation; then, deformed surface nodal data were transferred into Zernike polynomials through MATLAB optomechanical transfer codes to calculate the resulting optical path difference (OPD) and optical aberrations. To achieve an optimum design, the optimization iterations of the FEA, optomechanical transfer codes, and optimization solver were automatically connected through a self-developed Tcl script. Two examples of optimization design were illustrated in this research, namely, an optimum lightweight design of a Zerodur primary mirror with an outer diameter of 566 mm that is used in a spaceborne telescope and an optimum bipod flexure design that supports the optimum lightweight primary mirror. Finally, optimum designs were successfully accomplished in both examples, achieving a minimum peak-to-valley (PV) value for the OPD of the deformed optical surface. The simulated optimization results showed that (1) the lightweight ratio of the primary mirror increased from 56% to 66%; and (2) the PV value of the mirror supported by optimum bipod flexures in the horizontal position effectively decreased from 228 to 61 nm.

  8. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping

    2011-07-08

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors have been previously verified with computer simulations and laboratory experiments but not with exploration-scale seismic data. We now demonstrate the high-resolution and the super-stacking properties in locating seismic sources with field seismic data that include multiple scattering. Tests on both synthetic data and field data show that a time reversal mirror has the potential to exceed the Rayleigh resolution limit by factors of 4 or more. Results also show that a time reversal mirror has a significant resilience to strong Gaussian noise and that accurate imaging of source locations from passive seismic data can be accomplished with traces having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.001. Synthetic tests also demonstrate that time reversal mirrors can sometimes enhance the signal by a factor proportional to the square root of the product of the number of traces, denoted as N and the number of events in the traces. This enhancement property is denoted as super-stacking and greatly exceeds the classical signal-to-noise enhancement factor of. High-resolution and super-stacking are properties also enjoyed by seismic interferometry and reverse-time migration with the exact velocity model. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. High brightness MEMS mirror based head-up display (HUD) modules with wireless data streaming capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Hachtel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    A high brightness Head-Up Display (HUD) module was demonstrated with a fast, dual-axis MEMS mirror that displays vector images and text, utilizing its ~8kHz bandwidth on both axes. Two methodologies were evaluated: in one, the mirror steers a laser at wide angles of shelf lenses and a MEMS mirror in combination with a MEMS controller to enable precise movement of the mirror's X- and Y-axis. The MEMS controller offers both USB and wireless streaming capability and we utilize a library of functions on a host computer for creating content and controlling the mirror. Integration with smart phone applications is demonstrated, utilizing the mobile device both for content generation based on various messages or data, and for content streaming to the MEMS controller via Bluetooth interface. The display unit is highly resistant to vibrations and shock, and requires only ~1.5W to operate, even with content readable in sunlit outdoor conditions. The low power requirement is in part due to a vector graphics approach, allowing the efficient use of laser power, and also due to the use of a single, relatively high efficiency laser and simple optics.

  10. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex III: Neutron Devices and Computational and Sample Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakasai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

  11. Static and dynamic flow analysis of PBDEs in plastics from used and end-of-life TVs and computer monitors by life cycle in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Shin, Sun-Kyoung

    2015-02-15

    This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plastics from obsolete TVs and computer monitors that often contain large amounts of the flame retardants. According to the results of the static SFA study, 1.87 tons and 0.28 tons of PBDEs from newly manufactured TVs and computer monitors were introduced into households in 2011 in Korea, respectively. There were approximately 924 tons and 90.3 tons of PBDEs present in TVs and computer monitors in households during product use, respectively. The results of the dynamic SFA study indicated that in 2017 the amount of PBDEs from TVs and computer monitors in the recycling stage is expected to be 2.63 tons and 0.1 tons, respectively. Large fractions of PBDEs from used TVs are present in recycled plastics, while PBDE-containing computer monitors are exported to Southeast Asian countries. This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the most from recycled plastic pellet processes upon recycling. Further study may be warranted to focus the flow of PBDEs in recycled plastic products in order to determine the final destination and disposal of these chemicals in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. I'll Be Your Mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Nick; Rawlinson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    I'll be Your Mirror was a group exhibition curated by Daniel McGrath which dealt with the double or doppelgänger in contemporary art. It was presented at the Sheldon Galleries in St Louis in 2011 and subsequently toured to Monte Vista Projects in Los Angeles. We showed the work Two East German Drinking Glasses, 2009.

  13. Electromagnetic deformable mirror development at TNO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; Doelman, N.J.; Nieuwkoop, E.; Overtoom, A.J.; Russchenberg, T.; Riel, M.C.J.M. van; Wildschut, J.A.; Baeten, M.J.J.; Human, J.D.; Spruit, W.E.T.; Brinkers, S.; Maniscalco, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade TNO has developed a deformable mirror concept using electromagnetic actuators with the main advantages of having very low non-linearity and hysteresis, low power consumption, and high inherent reliability of the actuators. TNO recently started a program to redesign the

  14. About recognition of mirror-like objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyurkchan, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the problem of the visual recognition of mirror-like objects, i.e., bodies with an ideally smooth (analytic) surface. The visual perception of such objects is essentially dependent on their environment, in contrast to bodies with an irregular (rough) surface, whose visual images are independent of the environment.

  15. The Mirror DBMS at TREC-8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The database group at University of Twente participates in TREC8 using the Mirror DBMS, a prototype database system especially designed for multimedia and web retrieval. From a database perspective, the purpose has been to check whether we can get sufficient performance, and to prepare for the very

  16. Development of a liquid based deformable mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuelban, E.M.; Bhattacharya, N.; Braat, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new type of liquid based deformable mirror has been proposed and demonstrated. The device consists of an array of vertically oriented open capillary channels immersed in a pool of two immiscible liquids and a freefloating reflective membrane, which serves as the reflecting surface.

  17. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  18. The "Curriculum Vitae": An Imperfect Mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Curriculum vitae for college faculty can be ambiguous and even misleading: they can obscure an individual's primary teaching and instructional achievements, tell less than they appear to, and convey an unintended message. Faculty should evaluate the clarity and force with which their vitae express their accomplishments and mirror their abilities.…

  19. Shape parameters measurement of ultralight mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Palatka, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 20 (2010), s. 1881-1884 ISSN 0030-4026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : Hartmann test * roughness * scattering * BRDF * mirror shape Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2010

  20. Analysis of Online Composite Mirror Descent Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunwen; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-03-01

    We study the convergence of the online composite mirror descent algorithm, which involves a mirror map to reflect the geometry of the data and a convex objective function consisting of a loss and a regularizer possibly inducing sparsity. Our error analysis provides convergence rates in terms of properties of the strongly convex differentiable mirror map and the objective function. For a class of objective functions with Hölder continuous gradients, the convergence rates of the excess (regularized) risk under polynomially decaying step sizes have the order [Formula: see text] after [Formula: see text] iterates. Our results improve the existing error analysis for the online composite mirror descent algorithm by avoiding averaging and removing boundedness assumptions, and they sharpen the existing convergence rates of the last iterate for online gradient descent without any boundedness assumptions. Our methodology mainly depends on a novel error decomposition in terms of an excess Bregman distance, refined analysis of self-bounding properties of the objective function, and the resulting one-step progress bounds.

  1. Brane brick models in the mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Sebastián [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY,160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10016 (United States); Lee, Sangmin [Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the 2dN=(0,2) gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how 2d(0,2) triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is n−1 for a Calabi-Yau n-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in 0d. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of 2d(0,2) theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  2. Plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Reichle, R.; Leipold, F.; Vorpahl, C.; Le Guern, F.; Walach, U.; Alberti, S.; Furno, I.; Yan, R.; Peng, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Meyer, E.

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear fusion is an extremely attractive option for future generations to compete with the strong increase in energy consumption. Proper control of the fusion plasma is mandatory to reach the ambitious objectives set while preserving the machine’s integrity, which requests a large number of plasma diagnostic systems. Due to the large neutron flux expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), regular windows or fibre optics are unusable and were replaced by so-called metallic first mirrors (FMs) embedded in the neutron shielding, forming an optical labyrinth. Materials eroded from the first wall reactor through physical or chemical sputtering will migrate and will be deposited onto mirrors. Mirrors subject to net deposition will suffer from reflectivity losses due to the deposition of impurities. Cleaning systems of metallic FMs are required in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems in ITER. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency (RF) generated plasmas is currently being considered the most promising in situ cleaning technique. An update of recent results obtained with this technique will be presented. These include the demonstration of cleaning of several deposit types (beryllium, tungsten and beryllium proxy, i.e. aluminium) at 13.56 or 60 MHz as well as large scale cleaning (mirror size: 200 × 300 mm2). Tests under a strong magnetic field up to 3.5 T in laboratory and first experiments of RF plasma cleaning in EAST tokamak will also be discussed. A specific focus will be given on repetitive cleaning experiments performed on several FM material candidates.

  3. The "Rear-View Mirror" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, James

    1987-01-01

    The "rear-view mirror" approach referred to by McLuhan refers to new media being used with the methods of older, different media. A Sens-it (SENtence- SENtence- SITuation) cell model is suggested as an effective use of interactive videodisk systems in contrast to the communicative competence approach. (Author/LMO)

  4. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity configurat......We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity...... configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...... in the HCG minimizes this reduction of the quantum confinement factor, not as significant as in the air-coupled cavity DBR VCSEL....

  5. Mirrors and Merry-Go-Rounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 8. Mirrors and Merry-Go-Rounds. Joseph Samuel. General Article Volume 15 Issue 8 August 2010 pp 711-722. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/08/0711-0722. Keywords.

  6. Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The mirror system provided a natural platform for the subsequent evolution of language. In nonhuman primates, the system provides for the understanding of biological action, and possibly for imitation, both prerequisites for language. I argue that language evolved from manual gestures, initially as a system of pantomime, but with gestures…

  7. Mirror symmetry, toric branes and topological string amplitudes as polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alim, Murad

    2009-07-13

    The central theme of this thesis is the extension and application of mirror symmetry of topological string theory. The contribution of this work on the mathematical side is given by interpreting the calculated partition functions as generating functions for mathematical invariants which are extracted in various examples. Furthermore the extension of the variation of the vacuum bundle to include D-branes on compact geometries is studied. Based on previous work for non-compact geometries a system of differential equations is derived which allows to extend the mirror map to the deformation spaces of the D-Branes. Furthermore, these equations allow the computation of the full quantum corrected superpotentials which are induced by the D-branes. Based on the holomorphic anomaly equation, which describes the background dependence of topological string theory relating recursively loop amplitudes, this work generalizes a polynomial construction of the loop amplitudes, which was found for manifolds with a one dimensional space of deformations, to arbitrary target manifolds with arbitrary dimension of the deformation space. The polynomial generators are determined and it is proven that the higher loop amplitudes are polynomials of a certain degree in the generators. Furthermore, the polynomial construction is generalized to solve the extension of the holomorphic anomaly equation to D-branes without deformation space. This method is applied to calculate higher loop amplitudes in numerous examples and the mathematical invariants are extracted. (orig.)

  8. Some Historical Resources for Teaching about Curved Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2002-01-01

    Presents resources from Alhazens' investigations on curved mirrors that investigate diffuse reflection from the moon's surface, composite mirrors, and the problem of possible points of reflection. (Author/YDS)

  9. Constraints on mirror models of dark matter from observable neutron-mirror neutron oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Nussinov, Shmuel

    2018-01-01

    The process of neutron-mirror neutron oscillation, motivated by symmetric mirror dark matter models, is governed by two parameters: n -n‧ mixing parameter δ and n -n‧ mass splitting Δ. For neutron mirror neutron oscillation to be observable, the splitting between their masses Δ must be small and current experiments lead to δ ≤ 2 ×10-27 GeV and Δ ≤10-24 GeV. We show that in mirror universe models where this process is observable, this small mass splitting constrains the way that one must implement asymmetric inflation to satisfy the limits of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis on the number of effective light degrees of freedom. In particular we find that if asymmetric inflation is implemented by inflaton decay to color or electroweak charged particles, the oscillation is unobservable. Also if one uses SM singlet fields for this purpose, they must be weakly coupled to the SM fields.

  10. Next-Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Fitzgerald, Mathew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models possible

  11. Next Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Fitzgerald, Mathew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models easier.

  12. Translation, Validation, and Reliability of the Dutch Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument Computer Adaptive Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensman, Remco M; Pisters, Martijn F; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Jette, Alan M; de Bie, Rob A

    2016-09-01

    Adequate and user-friendly instruments for assessing physical function and disability in older adults are vital for estimating and predicting health care needs in clinical practice. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument Computer Adaptive Test (LLFDI-CAT) is a promising instrument for assessing physical function and disability in gerontology research and clinical practice. The aims of this study were: (1) to translate the LLFDI-CAT to the Dutch language and (2) to investigate its validity and reliability in a sample of older adults who spoke Dutch and dwelled in the community. For the assessment of validity of the LLFDI-CAT, a cross-sectional design was used. To assess reliability, measurement of the LLFDI-CAT was repeated in the same sample. The item bank of the LLFDI-CAT was translated with a forward-backward procedure. A sample of 54 older adults completed the LLFDI-CAT, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, RAND 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning scale (10 items), and 10-Meter Walk Test. The LLFDI-CAT was repeated in 2 to 8 days (mean=4.5 days). Pearson's r and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2,1) were calculated to assess validity, group-level reliability, and participant-level reliability. A correlation of .74 for the LLFDI-CAT function scale and the RAND 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning scale (10 items) was found. The correlations of the LLFDI-CAT disability scale with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 and the 10-Meter Walk Test were -.57 and -.53, respectively. The ICC (2,1) of the LLFDI-CAT function scale was .84, with a group-level reliability score of .85. The ICC (2,1) of the LLFDI-CAT disability scale was .76, with a group-level reliability score of .81. The high percentage of women in the study and the exclusion of older adults with recent joint replacement or hospitalization limit the generalizability of the results. The Dutch LLFDI

  13. Application of Novel Focusing Mirrors in Gyrotron Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, I.; Miyake, Y.; IDEHARA, T; SABCHEVSKI, S

    2002-01-01

    A novel focusing mirror based on the shifting of the beam phase according to the Gaussian beam optics enabled us to realize a focusing elements with different focal lengths in different directions and to convert the gyrotron output into a Gaussian-like beam. In this paper, we compare the quality of beams produced by the new system (which includes novel mirrors) and a conventional system consisting of a quasi-optical antenna, an ellipsoidal mirror and two parabolic cylinder mirrors.

  14. Multi-scale investigation into the mechanisms of fault mirror formation in seismically active carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Markus; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Niemeijer, Andre; King, Helen; Drury, Martyn; Plümper, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Mirror surfaces along principal slip zones in carbonate rocks have recently received considerable attention as they are thought to form during fault slip at seismic velocities and thus may be a marker for paleo-seismicity (Siman-Tov et al., 2013). Therefore, these structures represent an opportunity to improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics in carbonate faults. Recent investigations reported the formation of fault mirrors in natural rocks as well as in laboratory experiments and connected their occurrence to the development of nano-sized granular material (Spagnuolo et al., 2015). However, the underlying formation and deformation mechanisms of these fault mirrors are still poorly constrained and warrant further research. In order to understand the influence and significance of these fault products on the overall fault behavior, we analysed the micro-, and nanostructural inventory of natural fault samples containing mirror slip surfaces. Here we present first results on the possible formation mechanisms of fault mirrors and associated deformation mechanisms operating in the carbonate fault gouge from two seismically active fault zones in central Greece. Our study specifically focuses on mirror slip surfaces obtained from the Arkitsa fault in the Gulf of Evia and the Schinos fault in the Gulf of Corinth. The Schinos fault was reactivated by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake in 1981 while the Arkitsa fault is thought to have been reactivated by a magnitude 6.9 earthquake in 1894. Our investigations encompass a combination of state-of-the-art analytical techniques including X-ray computed tomography, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Using this multiscale analytical approach, we report decarbonation-reaction structures, considerable calcite twinning and grain welding immediately below the mirror slip surface. Grains or areas indicating decarbonation reactions show a foam

  15. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure.

  16. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM)

  17. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  18. Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...

  19. When Life and Learning Do Not Fit: Challenges of Workload and Communication in Introductory Computer Science Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Klara; Bruckman, Amy; Guzdial, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an interview study investigating student experiences in two online introductory computer science courses. Our theoretical approach is situated at the intersection of two research traditions: "distance and adult education research," which tends to be sociologically oriented, and "computer science education…

  20. Generalized Mirror Symmetry and Quantum Black Hole Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    We find general relations between the on-shell gravitational trace anomaly A_N, and the logarithmic correction Delta S_N to the entropy of "large" BPS extremal black holes in N>1 supergravity theories in D=4 space-time dimensions (recently computed by Sen [arXiv:1108.3842]). For (generalized) self-mirror theories (all having A_N = 0), we obtain the result DeltaS_N = - Delta S_(8-N) = 2 - N/2, whereas for generic theories the trace anomaly tildeA_N of the fully dualized theory turns out to coincide with 2Delta S_N, up to a model-independent shift: tildeA_N = 2Delta S_N - 1. We also speculate on N=1 theories displaying "large" extremal black hole solutions.

  1. Synaesthesia in phantom limbs induced with mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Rogers-Ramachandran, D

    1996-04-22

    Although there is a vast clinical literature on phantom limbs, there have been no experimental studies on the effects of visual input on phantom sensations. We introduce an inexpensive new device--a 'virtual reality box'--to resurrect the phantom visually to study inter-sensory effects. A mirror is placed vertically on the table so that the mirror reflection of the patient's intact had is 'superimposed' on the felt position of the phantom. We used this procedure on ten patients and found the following results. 1. In six patients, when the normal hand was moved, so that the phantom was perceived to move in the mirror, it was also felt to move; i.e. kinesthetic sensations emerged in the phantom. In D.S. this effect occurred even though he had never experienced any movements in the phantom for ten years before we tested him. He found the return of sensations very enjoyable. 2. Repeated practice led to a permanent 'disappearance' of the phantom arm in patient D.S. and the hand became telescoped into the stump near the shoulder. 3. Using an optical trick, impossible postures--e.g. extreme hyperextension of the fingers--could be induced visually in the phantom. In one case this was felt as a transient 'painful tug' in the phantom. 4. Five patients experienced involuntary painful 'clenching spasms' in the phantom hand and in four of them the spasms were relieved when the mirror was used to facilitate 'opening' of the phantom hand; opening was not possible without the mirror. 5. In three patients, touching the normal hand evoked precisely localized touch sensations in the phantom. Interestingly, the referral was especially pronounced when the patients actually 'saw' their phantom being touched in the mirror. Indeed, in a fourth patient (R.L.) the referral occurred only if he saw his phantom being touched: a curious form of synaesthesia. These experiments lend themselves readily to imaging studies using PET and fMRI. Taken collectively, they suggest that there is a

  2. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  3. Mirror symmetry in the presence of branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Adrian

    2011-10-11

    This work deals with mirror symmetry for N=1 compactifications on compact Calabi-Yau threefolds with branes. The mayor tool is a combined deformation space for the Calabi-Yau and a hypersurface within it. Periods of this deformation space contain information about B-type branes within the hypersurface in addition to the usual closed string data. To study these periods we generalize techniques used in closed string mirror symmetry. We derive the Picard-Fuchs system and encode the information in extended toric polytopes. Solutions of the Picard-Fuchs equations give superpotentials for certain brane configurations. This is an efficient way to calculate superpotentials. The deformations we consider are massive for all branes with non trivial superpotential. Depending on a choice of a family of hypersurfaces, the superpotential of the effective low energy theory depends on different massive fields. A priori there is no reason for these fields to be lighter then other fields that are not included. We find however examples where the superpotential is nearly at. In these examples we use the Gauss-Manin connection on the combined deformation space to define an open string mirror map. We find instanton generated superpotentials of A-type branes. This gives predictions for Ooguri-Vafa invariants counting holomorphic disks that end on a Lagrangian brane on the Quintic. A second class of examples does not have preferred nearly massless deformations and different families of hypersurfaces can be used to calculate the same on-shell superpotential. We calculate examples of superpotentials for branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds with several moduli. The on-shell superpotentials are mapped to the mirror A-model to study the instanton expansion and to obtain predictions for disk invariants. The combined deformation spaces are equivalent to the quantum corrected Kaehler deformation spaces of certain non compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds. These fourfolds are fibrations of Calabi-Yau threefolds

  4. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance.

  5. Octave spanning wedge dispersive mirrors with low dispersion oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Florian; Shirvanyan, Vage; Trubetskov, Michael; Burger, Christian; Sommer, Annkatrin; Kling, Matthias F; Schultze, Martin; Pervak, Vladimir

    2016-05-02

    A novel concept for octave spanning dispersive mirrors with low spectral dispersion oscillations is presented. The key element of the so-called wedge dispersive mirror is a slightly wedged layer which is coated on a specially optimized dispersive multilayer stack by a common sputter coating process. The group delay dispersion (GDD) of a pulse reflected on a wedge dispersive mirror is nearly free of oscillations. Fabricated mirrors with negative GDD demonstrate the compression of a pulse down to 3.8 fs as good as double angled mirrors optimized for the same bandwidth.

  6. Light-weight spherical mirrors for Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Cusanno, F; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Iodice, M; Iommi, R; Lagamba, L; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Nappi, E; Pierangeli, L; Santavenere, F; Urciuoli, G M; Vernin, P

    2003-01-01

    Light-weight spherical mirrors have been appositely designed and built for the gas threshold Cherenkov detectors of the two Hall A spectrometers. The mirrors are made of a 1 mm thick aluminized plexiglass sheet, reinforced by a rigid backing consisting of a phenolic honeycomb sandwiched between two carbon fiber mats epoxy glued. The produced mirrors have a thickness equivalent to 0.55% of radiation length, and an optical slope error of about 5.5 mrad. These characteristics make these mirrors suitable for the implementation in Cherenkov threshold detectors. Ways to improve the mirror features are also discussed in view of their possible employment in RICH detectors.

  7. JWST NIRCam pick-off mirror grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demroff, Howard; Mammini, Paul V.; Jacoby, Mike S.; Jones, Brian; Hu, Sidney; Dammann, Ron; Mathieson, James

    2013-09-01

    The optics train of the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes a pick-off mirror (POM) mounted in the focus and alignment mechanism (FAM). Over the course of the mission, the POM will have a narrow view of the L2 space environment. Charged particles will impinge and collect on the mirror surface increasing the possibility of arcing to the adjacent baffle. A technique to ground the POM and remove accumulated charge has been qualified and implemented on the flight instrument. This paper will provide an overview of the qualification process including cryogenic resistance measurements, vibration testing and optical surface error measurements. To measure the efficiency of this grounding technique, a POM engineering model was exposed to representative mission electron fluence and results with the POM grounded and ungrounded will be presented.

  8. Increased sensitivity to mirror symmetry in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Perreault

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Can autistic people see the forest for the trees? Ongoing uncertainty about the integrity and role of global processing in autism gives special importance to the question of how autistic individuals group local stimulus attributes into meaningful spatial patterns. We investigated visual grouping in autism by measuring sensitivity to mirror symmetry, a highly-salient perceptual image attribute preceding object recognition. Autistic and non-autistic individuals were asked to detect mirror symmetry oriented along vertical, oblique, and horizontal axes. Both groups performed best when the axis was vertical, but across all randomly-presented axis orientations, autistics were significantly more sensitive to symmetry than non-autistics. We suggest that under some circumstances, autistic individuals can take advantage of parallel access to local and global information. In other words, autistics may sometimes see the forest and the trees, and may therefore extract from noisy environments genuine regularities which elude non-autistic observers.

  9. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  10. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Jaime A

    2008-10-01

    ?" In this review, we argue from an anatomical, physiological, modeling, and functional perspectives that a critical component of the human mirror neuron system is sensorimotor cortex. Not only are sensorimotor transformations necessary for computing the patterns of muscle activation and kinematics during action observation but they provide potential answers to the development, correspondence and control problems.

  11. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime A

    2008-10-18

    from an anatomical, physiological, modeling, and functional perspectives that a critical component of the human mirror neuron system is sensorimotor cortex. Not only are sensorimotor transformations necessary for computing the patterns of muscle activation and kinematics during action observation but they provide potential answers to the development, correspondence and control problems.

  12. Superradiance by mini black holes with mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Phil

    2011-01-01

    The superradiant scattering of massive scalar particles by a rotating mini black hole is investigated. Imposing the mirror boundary condition, the system becomes the so called black-hole bomb where the rotation energy of the black hole is transferred to the scattered particle exponentially with time. Bulk emissions as well as brane emissions are considered altogether. It is found that the largest effects are expected for the brane emission of lower angular modes with lighter mass and larger a...

  13. Local coal consumption mirrors depressed economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The article gives the views of Allen Sealey, chairman of Randcoal, speaking in his annual statement. He maintains that until real political progress is made, opening the way for new investment, the depressed state of the economy will continue and will be mirrored by low coal consumption by the South African industrial market and Eskom. He discussed the detrimental effects of inflation and unemployment on the coal industry.

  14. A note on ODEs from mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, A D; Roan, S S; Yau, S T

    1994-01-01

    We give close formulas for the counting functions of rational curves on complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds in terms of special solutions of generalized hypergeometric differential systems. For the one modulus cases we derive a differential equation for the Mirror map, which can be viewed as a generalization of the Schwarzian equation. We also derive a nonlinear seventh order differential equation which directly governs the instanton corrected Yukawa coupling.

  15. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  16. Multilayer Active Shell Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Steeves, John; Jackson, Kathryn; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Bradford, Samuel Case; Barbee, Troy

    2016-01-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible ro...

  17. Graded Mirror Self-Recognition by Clark’s Nutcrackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional ‘mark test’ has shown some large-brained species are capable of mirror self-recognition. During this test a mark is inconspicuously placed on an animal’s body where it can only be seen with the aid of a mirror. If the animal increases the number of actions directed to the mark region when presented with a mirror, the animal is presumed to have recognized the mirror image as its reflection. However, the pass/fail nature of the mark test presupposes self-recognition exists in entirety or not at all. We developed a novel mirror-recognition task, to supplement the mark test, which revealed gradation in the self-recognition of Clark’s nutcrackers, a large-brained corvid. To do so, nutcrackers cached food alone, observed by another nutcracker, or with a regular or blurry mirror. The nutcrackers suppressed caching with a regular mirror, a behavioural response to prevent cache theft by conspecifics, but did not suppress caching with a blurry mirror. Likewise, during the mark test, most nutcrackers made more self-directed actions to the mark with a blurry mirror than a regular mirror. Both results suggest self-recognition was more readily achieved with the blurry mirror and that self-recognition may be more broadly present among animals than currently thought. PMID:27811974

  18. Development of a Computed Tomography Simulator: SimCT, Application to Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this activity is to develop a quantitative NDE simulation tool for computed tomography suitable for desktop work using realistic geometry...

  19. Cavity-mirror degradation in the deep-UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the degradation of dielectric multilayer mirrors used in short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) is caused by the carbon contamination on the mirror surface and the defects inside the dielectrics. We reported last year that the degraded dielectric multilayer mirrors can be repaired with both surface treatment by RF-induced oxygen plasma and thermal annealing. However, such a mirror degradation is still one of the most critical issues in the deep ultraviolet (UV) FELs, because the fundamental undulator radiation resonating in the laser cavity, the intensity of which is much higher than that of higher harmonics, can be sufficiently energetic to cause the mirror degradation through photochemical reactions. We are investigating the mirror degradation mainly in the deep UV region down to 240 nm. The experimental results will be shown. The mirror degradation mechanism will be discussed.

  20. "Mirror agnosia" in a patient with right occipitotemporal infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Bijoy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical profile and investigation of K, a patient suffering from agnosia for the concept of "mirrors". Normal people rarely confuse a mirror image for the real image. Our patient ′K′ has intact attention, memory and language with a left visual neglect with left hemianopia. When shown an object on his left with a mirror kept sagitally on his right, K grabs for the reflection and even gropes behind the mirror for it. Yet, when shown the mirror alone, he is able to tell that it is a mirror. Thus the concept of a ′mirror′ is lost in the experimental paradigm. An explanation for mirror ′agnosia′ is provided and recent controversies in the analysis of visuospatial functions in humans is highlighted.

  1. The Chilled-Mirror Humidity Sensor: Improved Radiosonde Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    Chilled-mirror humidity sensor technology recently was adapted for use with the VIZ radiosonde. The principle of the chilled-mirror operation is to lower its temperature until dew forms on the mirror, at that point the dew point temperature is noted and the mirror is then heated to evaporate the moisture. The cycle is repeated. Research conducted from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility has provided comparisons between the chilled-mirror sensor and the carbon hygristor of VIZ, and the capacitive sensors of AIR Inc. and Vaisala Co. We believe the chilled-mirror sensor is accurate and would serve as a reference standard for evaluating operational radiosonde relative humidity sensors. Thus, differences seen in the comparisons are beginning to furnish insight into developing better humidity sensors. We discuss these comparison results as well as reproducibility results from a dual chilled-mirror measurement.

  2. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Ferrero, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gayde, J.Ch. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Maggiora, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Martin, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menon, G. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Panzieri, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogrammetry-based method has been implemented to measure the alignment of individual mirrors which can be characterized by the center of curvature. The mirror wall reflects a regular grid of retroreflective strips placed inside the detector vessel. Then, the position of each mirror is determined from the image of the grid reflection. The images are collected by four cameras. Any small mirror misalignment results in changes of the grid lines’ positions in the image. The accuracy limits of the CLAM method were checked by laser interferometry and are below 0.1 mrad.

  3. Clinical features, psychiatric comorbidity, and health-related quality of life in persons reporting compulsive computer use behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W; Belsare, G; Schlosser, S

    1999-12-01

    We sought to examine the demographic and clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity in persons reporting compulsive computer use. Sixteen men and 5 women were recruited by advertisement and word-of-mouth. All reported excessive computer use that interfered with social or occupational functioning or caused personal distress. The subjects completed structured and semistructured assessments, including a computer version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R), and a brief version of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The typical subject was a 32-year-old single white man with a mean yearly income of $27,000; problem computer use began at age 29 and consumed 27 hours each week. Eleven subjects (52%) reported school or academic problems resulting from their computer use, and 12 (57%) reported that family members had confronted them about it. Thirteen subjects (62%) had tried to cut back on their computer usage. Nine subjects (43%) reported missing work or school owing to their computer use. According to DIS results, 7 subjects (33%) had a lifetime mood disorder, 8 subjects (38%) had a substance use disorder, and 4 subjects (19%) had a lifetime anxiety disorder. According to the PDQ-R results, 11 subjects (52%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder, the most frequent being the borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic types. Impulse-control disorders were also common, particularly compulsive buying. On the SF-36, subjects showed impaired mental health functioning compared with a normative sample. The results show that persons reporting compulsive computer use suffer substantial psychiatric comorbidity and show evidence of emotional distress. While the disorder appears to be increasing in prevalence, more work is needed to determine its relationship with other disorders and to determine its risk factors, family history, psychosocial

  4. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes in Some Major Cities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing use of Information and Communication Technology has created a new environmental problem, electronic-waste (e-waste.Addressing this concern requires proper management plans and strategy, which in turn requires reliable estimates of e-waste generation in the present as well as future. In this study, a material flow model for the analysis of e-waste generation from computer equipment in Kaduna and Abuja in Nigeria has been developed and compared with that of Lagos which has been studied earlier. Data used to develop the models are the sales data from major distributors of electronics in the study areas, usage time of computer equipment and transfer coefficients of the electronics from one stage to another. The analysis of individual flows of computer from the material flow model showed that the fate of obsolete computer equipment were storage (27-41%, reuse (35-61% and direct disposal (12-24%. It was also found that after four years of the last inflow considered, averagely 935,686, 399,769 and 101,142 computer equipment would be in storage in Lagos, Kaduna and Abuja respectively; 998,861, 458,202 and 152, 305 computers respectively would be under reuse and 674,492,247,858 and 76,419 computers respectively would be disposed. A sensitivity analysis for an error of 0.1 in each of the transfer coefficients (TC used in the model showed a variation of ±10% in e-waste generation. The results also indicated that computer equipment would continue to remain in either storage, re-use or gradually disposed off for 10, 8 and 11 years respectively after its inflow into the consumption phase. This delay or staggering in e-waste disposal would reduce the amount of e-waste disposed yearly and thus afford the country the time to make plans to accommodate and manage the e-wastes generated more efficiently.

  5. Optimisation and characterisation of parabolic membrane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, T.; Khrennikov, K.; Kronast, W.; Huster, R.; Mescheder, U.

    2008-04-01

    MOEMS-based thin silicon membrane mirrors with a useable diameter of 5mm and fast (up to 1kHz) tunable focal length (80 mm to 1m) have been realized. A ring shaped counter electrode is used to achieve a parabolic membrane deformation by electrostatic forces. A circular kerf at the outer perimeter of the membrane provides a soft suspension to the rim and thus reduces the needed driving voltage. FEM has been used for optimisation of the design, especially of the soft suspension, which is realized by a controlled thinning of the outer rim of the Si-membrane. A critical issue for demanding applications is the membrane distortion induced by material stress and the fabrication process. Membrane residual stress reduction has been obtained by using SOI-technology (c-silicon) and by optimisation of the Al deposition process (Al-coated Si-membrane). For dynamic tests of the optical mirror properties a stroboscopic interferometer has been realized. A pulsed laser diode with a pulse duration of 10μs is used as a light source which is synchronized with the modulated electrical field driving the membrane mirror. The interference pattern is recorded with a CCD and evaluated with conventional phaseshift techniques. The geometry is similar to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The reference path length can be varied with a piezoceramic to induce the phase shift.

  6. Topology-optimization-based design method of flexures for mounting the primary mirror of a large-aperture space telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao

    2017-05-20

    For the development of a large-aperture space telescope, one of the key techniques is the method for designing the flexures for mounting the primary mirror, as the flexures are the key components. In this paper, a topology-optimization-based method for designing flexures is presented. The structural performances of the mirror system under multiple load conditions, including static gravity and thermal loads, as well as the dynamic vibration, are considered. The mirror surface shape error caused by gravity and the thermal effect is treated as the objective function, and the first-order natural frequency of the mirror structural system is taken as the constraint. The pattern repetition constraint is added, which can ensure symmetrical material distribution. The topology optimization model for flexure design is established. The substructuring method is also used to condense the degrees of freedom (DOF) of all the nodes of the mirror system, except for the nodes that are linked to the mounting flexures, to reduce the computation effort during the optimization iteration process. A potential optimized configuration is achieved by solving the optimization model and post-processing. A detailed shape optimization is subsequently conducted to optimize its dimension parameters. Our optimization method deduces new mounting structures that significantly enhance the optical performance of the mirror system compared to the traditional methods, which only focus on the parameters of existing structures. Design results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  7. Mirror, Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sarah Quebec

    2015-01-01

    NCTM's "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (2014), outlines eight teaching practices for effective teaching and learning mathematics. One of them, facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse, states, "Effective teaching of mathematics facilitates discourse among students to build shared understanding of…

  8. Mirror, mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyid, S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The article examines the relationship between political forms and cultural identity. It sets out to explore the way in which notions of `democracy? and despotism are associated with distinct cultural formations. The identity of a political regime is less a matter of its political practices and procedures and more a function of the extent to which it can be considered `western? or...

  9. Computer-assisted predictive formulas expressing survival probability and life expectancy in US adults, men and women, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung J

    2007-06-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reported the United States life tables, 2001 for US total, male and female populations on the basis of 2001 mortality statistics, the 2000 decennial census and the data from the Medicare program [E. Arias, United State life tables, 2001, Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 52 (2004) 1-40]. The life tables show life expectancy, survival and death rate at each year between birth and 100 years of age. In this study formulas expressing survival probability and life expectancy in US adults, men and women are constructed from the data of the NCHS. A model of the 'probacent'-probability equation previously published by the author is employed in the study. Analysis of the formula-predicted values and the NCHS-reported data indicates that the formulas are accurate and reliable with a close agreement. The formula representing a generalized lognormal distribution might be useful for biomedical investigation, and epidemiological and demographic studies in US adults, men and women.

  10. DREAMS and IMAGE: A Model and Computer Implementation for Concurrent, Life-Cycle Design of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Mark A.; Craig, James I.; Mistree, Farrokh; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    Computing architectures are being assembled that extend concurrent engineering practices by providing more efficient execution and collaboration on distributed, heterogeneous computing networks. Built on the successes of initial architectures, requirements for a next-generation design computing infrastructure can be developed. These requirements concentrate on those needed by a designer in decision-making processes from product conception to recycling and can be categorized in two areas: design process and design information management. A designer both designs and executes design processes throughout design time to achieve better product and process capabilities while expanding fewer resources. In order to accomplish this, information, or more appropriately design knowledge, needs to be adequately managed during product and process decomposition as well as recomposition. A foundation has been laid that captures these requirements in a design architecture called DREAMS (Developing Robust Engineering Analysis Models and Specifications). In addition, a computing infrastructure, called IMAGE (Intelligent Multidisciplinary Aircraft Generation Environment), is being developed that satisfies design requirements defined in DREAMS and incorporates enabling computational technologies.

  11. 1 March 2012 - British University of Oxford Head of the Mathematical, Physical & Life Sciences Division A. N. Halliday FRS signing the guest book with Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    1 March 2012 - British University of Oxford Head of the Mathematical, Physical & Life Sciences Division A. N. Halliday FRS signing the guest book with Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci.

  12. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  13. Distributed microscopic actuation analysis of deformable plate membrane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen

    2018-02-01

    To further reduce the areal density of optical mirrors used in space telescopes and other space-borne optical structures, the concept of flexible membrane deformable mirror has been proposed. Because of their high flexibility, poor stiffness and low damping properties, environmental excitations such as orbital maneuver, path changing, and non-uniform heating may induce unexpected vibrations and thus reduce working performance. Therefore, active vibration control is essential for these membrane mirrors. In this paper, two different mirror models, i.e., the plate membrane model and pure membrane model, are studied respectively. In order to investigate the modal vibration characteristics of the mirror, a piezoelectric layer is fully laminated on its non-reflective side to serve as actuators. Dynamic equations of the mirror laminated with piezoelectric actuators are presented first. Then, the actuator induced modal control force is defined. When the actuator area shrinks to infinitesimal, the expressions of microscopic local modal control force and its two components are obtained to predict the spatial microscopic actuation behavior of the mirror. Different membrane pretension forces are also applied to reveal the tension effects on the actuation of the mirror. Analyses indicate that the spatial distribution of modal micro-control forces is exactly the same with the sensing signals distribution of the mirror, which provides crucial guidelines for optimal actuator placement of membrane deformable mirrors.

  14. Using computer modelled life expectancy to evaluate the impact of Australian Primary Care Incentive programs for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Michael; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of enhanced primary care and practice incentive programs on the care of patients with type 2 diabetes in the Australian primary care setting using routinely collected data and computer modelling software. Primary care patient data were electronically extracted from practices and inputted into the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes model. A retrospective cohort study design was employed with predicted life expectancies compared between patients who had a recorded diabetes cycle of care (DCoC) and those who did not. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were also analysed using a mixed-effects regression model. Potential life expectancy gains were estimated by inputting theoretical risk factors data consistent with current guidelines. Twelve primary care practices were recruited and suitable data were available for 559 people with type 2 diabetes. Two hundred and twenty five patients (40%) were identified as having completed at least one DCoC and as a group had a predicted additional life expectancy of 0.65 years (95% CI, -0.22 to 1.5). However, once this was adjusted for comorbidities the difference reduced to 0.03 years. There was no significant difference in HbA1c levels attributable to the intervention. An estimated 0.5 year of additional life expectancy was predicted should all patients have complied with current risk factor guideline recommendations. Computer modelling using routinely collected primary care data can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of primary care programs. However, there are some data availability and linkage limitations in the Australian setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... revision 2 of RG 1.168, ``Verification, Validation, Reviews, and Audits for Digital Computer Software used... NRC-2012- 0195. You may submit comments by any of the following methods: Federal Rulemaking Web Site... possesses and are publicly available, by any of the following methods: Federal Rulemaking Web Site: Go to...

  16. Mirror neurons, language, and embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I; Ilin, Roman

    2013-05-01

    Basic mechanisms of the mind, cognition, language, its semantic and emotional mechanisms are modeled using dynamic logic (DL). This cognitively and mathematically motivated model leads to a dual-model hypothesis of language and cognition. The paper emphasizes that abstract cognition cannot evolve without language. The developed model is consistent with a joint emergence of language and cognition from a mirror neuron system. The dual language-cognition model leads to the dual mental hierarchy. The nature of cognition embodiment in the hierarchy is analyzed. Future theoretical and experimental research is discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Characterizing solar mirror materials using portable reflectometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    Currently available portable instrumentation for hemispherical and specular reflectance measurements of solar mirror materials is discussed. Particular attention is given to the wavelength dependence of the measurement spectrum, which in most cases does not approximate a solar spectral distribution, and to other limitations of each instrument. Because a portable instrument is not available that can determine the solar averaged specular reflectance from a single measurement, two procedures are recommended for obtaining a reasonable estimate for this quantity using the existing portable equipment. Finally, future developments in this area are briefly discussed.

  18. COMPASS mirror wall of RICH 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment uses ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters to identify particles produced in high-energy muon collisions, to better understand the spin structure of the nucleon. Charged particles moving faster than the speed of light in the medium through which they are travelling emit a cone of Cherenkov radiation in the direction of their motion. The light in this cone is reflected from these mirrors onto a photo detector so that the size of the cone can be measured, which gives the energy of the particle.

  19. 100 years of mirror blanks from SCHOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Morian, Hans F.

    2004-07-01

    A hundred years ago SCHOTT delivered the first mirror blank for astronomy, a 720 mm crown glass disk for the Waltz telescope of the Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Germany. Since then significant progress has been made. Larger blanks out of optical glass have been followed by borosilicate disks. In the beginning of the 1970s SCHOTT introduced the zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR. It has been applied for outstanding astronomy projects both ground based and space-borne. The paper gives an overview over the highlights of the last hundred years with some prospects to present and future developments.

  20. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  1. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  2. Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irick, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP.

  3. Directional radiative cooling thermal compensation for gravitational wave interferometer mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Kamp, Carl [Department of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: carl.kamp@chalmers.se; Kawamura, Hinata [Yokoyama Junior High School, Sanda, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0832 (Japan); Passaquieti, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Universita' di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-08-21

    The concept of utilizing directional radiative cooling to correct the problem of thermal lensing in the mirrors of the LIGO/VIRGO gravitational wave detectors has been shown and has prospects for future use. Two different designs utilizing this concept, referred to as the baffled and parabolic mirror solutions, have been proposed with different means of controlling the cooling power. The technique takes advantage of the power naturally radiated by the mirror surfaces at room temperature to prevent their heating by the powerful stored laser beams. The baffled solution has been simulated via COMSOL Multiphysics as a design tool. Finally, the parabolic mirror concept was experimentally validated with the results falling in close agreement with theoretical cooling calculations. The technique of directional radiative thermal correction can be reversed to image heat rings on the mirrors periphery to remotely and dynamically correct their radius of curvature without subjecting the mirror to relevant perturbations.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  5. The Rubber-Hand Illusion in a Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In the rubber-hand illusion (RHI) one's hand is hidden, and a fake hand is visible. We explored the situation in which visual information was available indirectly in a mirror. Unlike most species, humans are capable of mirror self-recognition. In the mirror condition, compared to the standard condition (fake hand visible directly), we found no reduction of the RHI following synchronised stimulation, as measured by crossmanual pointing and a questionnaire. We replicated the finding with a smaller mirror that prevented visibility of the face. The RHI was eliminated when a wooden block replaced the fake hand, or when the hand belonged to another person. We conclude that awareness of the reflection is the critical variable, despite the distant visual localisation of the hand in a mirror and the third-person perspective. Stimuli seen in a mirror activate the same response as stimuli seen in peripersonal space, through knowledge that they are near one's body.

  6. Disassembling and reintegration of large telescope primary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-rui; Fan, Bin; Zhang, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The success of the large telescope is largely linked to the excellent performance and reliability of the primary mirror. In order to maintain the quality of its reflective surface at the high expectations of astronomers, the primary mirror after almost two or three years of astronomical observations, needs to be removed and reinstalled for its cleaning and re-coating operation. There are a series of procedures such as the primary mirror cell dissembling from telescope, mirror handling, transportation, reintegration, alignment and so on. This paper will describe the experiences of disassembling and reintegration of large telescope primary mirror, taking a two meter grade primary mirror for example. As with all advanced and complex opto-mechanical systems, there has been the usual problems and trouble shooting.

  7. Mirror position determination for the alignment of Cherenkov Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Ahnen, M.L. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Baack, D. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Balbo, M. [University of Geneva, ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics Chemin Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Bergmann, M. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Blank, M. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Bretz, T. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bruegge, K.A.; Buss, J. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Dmytriiev, A. [University of Geneva, ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics Chemin Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Domke, M. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Dorner, D. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); FAU Erlangen (Germany); Einecke, S. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hempfling, C. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); and others

    2017-07-11

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in extensive air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs using mass produced and light weight mirror facets. However, as the overall image is the sum of the individual mirror facet images, alignment is important. Here we present a method to determine the mirror facet positions on a segmented reflector in a very direct way. Our method reconstructs the mirror facet positions from photographs and a laser distance meter measurement which goes from the center of the image sensor plane to the center of each mirror facet. We use our method to both align the mirror facet positions and to feed the measured positions into our IACT simulation. We demonstrate our implementation on the 4 m First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT).

  8. Measurement and analysis of active synchrotron mirrors under operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2013-05-01

    At the Diamond Light Source, in situ slope error measurements using the pencil-beam method have enabled X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined in their beamline environment. A surface corrugation common to several bimorph mirrors and the removal of that corrugation by repolishing were both confirmed using this method. In the same way, mirrors curved in a controlled way with bending actuators and sag compensators could also be optimized. Fits to the elastic bending of ideal beams using the Euler-Bernoulli model have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish bender curvatures from gravitational distortion and to calculate the compensating force that most reduces the latter effect. A successful improvement of the sag compensation mechanism of a vertically focusing mirror was also achieved, aided by a previously tested method for optimizing the settings of a mirror's actuators using pencil-beam scans.

  9. Self-Determination Theory and Computer-Mediated Support: Modeling Effects on Breast Cancer Patient's Quality-of-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Shawnika J; Abril, Eulàlia P; Shah, Dhavan V; Choi, Mina; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Kim, Sojung Claire; Namkoong, Kang; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H

    2016-10-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis typically results in dramatic and negative effects on an individual's quality of life. Web-based interactive support systems such as the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) offer one avenue for mitigating these negative effects. While evidence supports the efficacy of such systems, evaluations typically fail to provide a true test of the theorized model of effects, treating self-determination theory's constructs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy as outcomes rather than mediators. Using path analysis, this study tests the nature of the proposed mediated relationship between system engagement and quality-of-life indicators utilizing data collected from women (N = 90) who participated in the treatment condition of a CHESS randomized controlled trial. Findings support a latent model, indicating that system effects are mediated through an intertwined measure of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

  10. Transport and equilibrium in field-reversed mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    Two plasma models relevant to compact torus research have been developed to study transport and equilibrium in field reversed mirrors. In the first model for small Larmor radius and large collision frequency, the plasma is described as an adiabatic hydromagnetic fluid. In the second model for large Larmor radius and small collision frequency, a kinetic theory description has been developed. Various aspects of the two models have been studied in five computer codes ADB, AV, NEO, OHK, RES. The ADB code computes two dimensional equilibrium and one dimensional transport in a flux coordinate. The AV code calculates orbit average integrals in a harmonic oscillator potential. The NEO code follows particle trajectories in a Hill's vortex magnetic field to study stochasticity, invariants of the motion, and orbit average formulas. The OHK code displays analytic psi(r), B/sub Z/(r), phi(r), E/sub r/(r) formulas developed for the kinetic theory description. The RES code calculates resonance curves to consider overlap regions relevant to stochastic orbit behavior.

  11. Mirror symmetry for two-parameter models, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Font, A; Katz, S; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Candelas, Philip; Ossa, Xenia de la; Font, Anamaria; Katz, Sheldon; Morrison, David R.

    1994-01-01

    We study, by means of mirror symmetry, the quantum geometry of the K\\"ahler-class parameters of a number of Calabi-Yau manifolds that have $b_{11}=2$. Our main interest lies in the structure of the moduli space and in the loci corresponding to singular models. This structure is considerably richer when there are two parameters than in the various one-parameter models that have been studied hitherto. We describe the intrinsic structure of the point in the (compactification of the) moduli space that corresponds to the large complex structure or classical limit. The instanton expansions are of interest owing to the fact that some of the instantons belong to families with continuous parameters. We compute the Yukawa couplings and their expansions in terms of instantons of genus zero. By making use of recent results of Bershadsky et al. we compute also the instanton numbers for instantons of genus one. For particular values of the parameters the models become birational to certain models with one parameter. The co...

  12. Mirror Movements Identified in Patients with Moebius Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Bryn D.; Frempong, Tamiesha; Naidich, Thomas P.; Gaspar, Harald; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Rucker, Janet C

    2014-01-01

    Background Moebius syndrome is a rare disorder with minimum clinical criteria of congenital facial weakness in association with impairment in abduction of one or both eyes. Mirror movements are not known to be associated with Moebius syndrome. Case Report We present three patients who meet minimum criteria for a diagnosis of Moebius syndrome and who also display mirror movements. Discussion This case series suggests that Moebius syndrome may be associated with mirror movements. Further invest...

  13. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  14. Winter School on Mirror Symmetry, Vector Bundles and Lagrangian Submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, S-T

    2002-01-01

    The collection of articles in this volume are based on lectures presented during the Winter School on Mirror Symmetry held at Harvard University. There are many new directions suggested by mirror symmetry which could potentially have very rich connections in physics and mathematics. This book brings together the latest research in a major area of mathematical physics, including the recent progress in mirror manifolds and Lagrangian submanifolds. In particular, several articles describing homological approach and related topics are included.

  15. Constraints on mirror models of dark matter from observable neutron-mirror neutron oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra N. Mohapatra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neutron-mirror neutron oscillation, motivated by symmetric mirror dark matter models, is governed by two parameters: n−n′ mixing parameter δ and n−n′ mass splitting Δ. For neutron mirror neutron oscillation to be observable, the splitting between their masses Δ must be small and current experiments lead to δ≤2×10−27 GeV and Δ≤10−24 GeV. We show that in mirror universe models where this process is observable, this small mass splitting constrains the way that one must implement asymmetric inflation to satisfy the limits of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis on the number of effective light degrees of freedom. In particular we find that if asymmetric inflation is implemented by inflaton decay to color or electroweak charged particles, the oscillation is unobservable. Also if one uses SM singlet fields for this purpose, they must be weakly coupled to the SM fields.

  16. Computational Deception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Acosta, P.S.; Cravo, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the future our daily life interactions with other people, with computers, robots and smart environments will be recorded and interpreted by computers or embedded intelligence in environments, furniture, robots, displays, and wearables. These sensors record our activities, our behaviour, and our

  17. A Research on the Primary Mirror Manipulator of Large Segmented-mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, H.

    2012-09-01

    Since Galileo firstly used the telescope to observe the sky 400 years ago, the aperture of the telescope has become larger and larger to observe the deeper universe, and the segmented-mirror telescope is becoming more and more popular with increasing aperture. In the early 21st century, a series of segmented-mirror telescopes have been constructed including the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) of China. LAMOST is a meridian reflecting Schmidt telescope, and the dimension of the primary mirror is about 6.7 m× 6 m, which is composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors. However, a problem about the mirror installation appears with the increasing aperture. If there are hundreds of sub-mirrors in the telescope, it is a challenging job to mount and dismount them to the truss. This problem is discussed in this paper and a manipulator for the primary mirror of LAMOST is designed to perform the mount and dismount work. In chapter 1, all the segmented-mirror telescopes in the world are introduced and how the sub-mirrors of these telescopes are installed has been investigated. After comparing with the serial and the parallel robot, a serial robot manipulator proposal, which has several redundant degrees of freedom (DOFs), has been chosen from a series of design proposals. In chapter 2, the theoretical analysis has been carried out on the basis of the design proposal, which includes the forward kinematics and the inverse kinematics. Firstly the D-H coordinate is built according to the structure of the manipulator, so it is possible to obtain the end-effector position and orientation from the individual joint motion thanks to the forward kinematics. Because of the redundant DOFs of the manipulator, the inverse kinematics solution can be a very trick task, and the result may not be only, therefore a kind of simulation is carried out to get the numerical solution using ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). In the dynamics analysis the

  18. The role of handedness-dependent sensorimotor experience in the development of mirroring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Shinji; Aihara, Tsuyoshi; Uehara, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we often try to learn motor actions by imitating others' actions. Motor imitation requires us to simultaneously map an observed action onto a motor program used to perform that action. This sensorimotor associative experience can plastically modulate the mirror property of the human mirror system, which has a role in matching observed actions directly with the observer's motor programs, to enhance the association between observed and performed actions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of handedness on the mirror property. Healthy left- and right-handed individuals performed a motor imitation task. They were required to imitate hand actions with their dominant hand as quickly and accurately as possible in response to pictures of a left and right hand. Reaction times (RTs) for imitating the hand actions were evaluated. Under the condition where the hand pictures were presented as if facing the participant, we found that, in left-handed participants, RTs for imitating right-handed actions were significantly shorter than those for imitating left-handed actions. Under the same conditions in right-handers, similar differences in RTs when presented left- and right-handed actions were not observed. These findings demonstrate that the imitative responses for left- and right-handed actions are differently facilitated depending on the handedness of the observer, indicating an effect of handedness on the development of mirror systems. The mirror property in left- and right-handers is likely modulated in a different manner by different sensorimotor associative experiences throughout their daily lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mirror movements identified in patients with moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bryn D; Frempong, Tamiesha; Naidich, Thomas P; Gaspar, Harald; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Rucker, Janet C

    2014-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare disorder with minimum clinical criteria of congenital facial weakness in association with impairment in abduction of one or both eyes. Mirror movements are not known to be associated with Moebius syndrome. We present three patients who meet minimum criteria for a diagnosis of Moebius syndrome and who also display mirror movements. This case series suggests that Moebius syndrome may be associated with mirror movements. Further investigation to delineate the genetic etiologies of Moebius syndrome is ongoing. Patients with Moebius syndrome and mirror movements may represent a specific subclass of this disorder.

  20. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) final report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Perkins, L.J.; Werner, R.W.; Gordon, J.D.; Parmer, J.F.; Bilton, J.R.; Glancy, J.E.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1983-12-08

    The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in an overview of a first-generation tandem mirror reactor. The central cell fusion plasma is self-sustained by alpha heating (ignition), while electron-cyclotron resonance heating and negative ion beams maintain the electrostatic confining potentials in the end plugs. Plug injection power is reduced by the use of high-field choke coils and thermal barriers, concepts to be tested in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) and Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Advanced Actuator Concepts for High Precision Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop a variety of single crystal actuators for adaptive optics deformable mirrors. Single crystal piezoelectric actuators are...

  2. Magnetic-mirror principle as applied to fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1983-08-11

    A tutorial account is given of the key physics issues in the confinement of high temperature plasma in magnetic mirror systems. The role of adiabatic invariants and particle drifts and their relationship to equilibrium and stability are discussed, in the context of the various forms of mirror field geometry. Collisional effects and the development and the control of ambipolar potentials are reviewed. The topic of microinstabilities is discussed together with the means for their control. The properties and advantages for fusion power purposes of various special embodiments of the mirror idea, including tandem mirrors, are discussed.

  3. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  4. Dynamic range of low-voltage cascode current mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Shah, Peter Jivan

    1995-01-01

    Low-voltage cascode current mirrors are reviewed with respect to the design limitations imposed if all transistors in the mirror are required to operate in the saturation region. It is found that both a lower limit and an upper limit exist for the cascode transistor bias voltage. Further, the use....... The proposed configuration has the advantage of simplicity combined with a complete elimination of the need for fixed bias voltages or bias currents in the current mirror. A disadvantage is that it requires a higher input voltage to the current mirror...

  5. Assessment of MODIS Scan Mirror Reflectance Changes On-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, A.; Angal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since launch, the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS have operated successfully for more than 8 and 6 years, respectively. MODIS collects data using a two-sided scan mirror over a large scan angular range. The scan mirror is made of a polished, nickel-plated beryllium base coated with high purity silver, which is then over-coated with the Denton proprietary silicon monoxide and silicon dioxide mixture. The scan mirror's reflectance was characterized pre-launch using its witness samples, and the response versus scan angle was measured at the sensor system level. In this study, we present an assessment of MODIS scan mirror on-orbit degradation by examining changes of spectral band response over each sensor's mission lifetime. Results show that the scan mirror's optical properties for both Terra and Aqua MODIS have experienced significant degradation since launch in the VIS spectral region, which is mirror side dependent as well as scan angle dependent. In general, the mirror degradation is more severe for Terra MODIS than Aqua MODIS, especially during recent years. For Terra MODIS, the degradation rate is noticeably different between the mirror sides. On the other hand, there has been little mirror side dependent difference for Aqua MODIS.

  6. Development of light-weight spherical mirrors for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metlica, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Glass-coated beryllium and carbon-fiber light-weight spherical mirrors, with radii of curvature of $\\sim$ 2700mm, have been successfully developed and tested as part of the LHCb RICH experimental programme. The low mass mirror is necessary to minimize the amount of material within the LHCb spectrometer acceptance, with a requirement of less than 2% of a radiation length. Both technologies are suitable for light-weight mirror applications. The R&D and characterization of the mirrors are reported.

  7. Low Cost, Light Weight Materials for Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed STTR is the combination of a small business with unique materials experience, and Northwestern Unviersity, with expertise in Mirror applications,...

  8. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing for Fractal Wand Prototypes;...

  9. Soiling and degradation analysis of solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, Christine; Blaise, Anthony; Fernandez-García, Aránzazu; Martínez-Arcos, Lucía; Sutter, Florian; Reche-Navarro, Tomás Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The degradation and the soiling of the mirrors are dependent of the solar field and the mirrors technologies, the local climate, the meteorological events, the O&M tasks and the human activities around the site. In the frame of the European project SFERA II, the SODAM project has been the opportunity to compare the soiling and the degradation mechanisms on a Fresnel solar field installed in the South of France and on a parabolic-through solar field installed in the South of Spain. The analysis of the soiling has shown equivalent maximum weekly reflectance loss due to soiling in both sites but a double mean weekly reflectance loss in Spain respect to France, as well as typical meteorological events to be taken into account to adapt the cleaning strategies. Among the meteorological parameters mainly influencing the soiling, the study has revealed the effect of the rain and of the DNI. In parallel, the analysis of the degradation mechanisms has highlighted a common chalking of the protective back paint layers due to the irradiation. This chalking being associated to a leaching of the paint layers in the site of Cadarache due to the high presence of liquid water. A difference in the speed of corrosion of the silver layer has been also noticed, leading to a difference in the mechanisms of delamination of the paints layers.

  10. Development of a miniaturized deformable mirror controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Lynch, Dana; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Belikov, Ruslan; Klamm, Benjamin; Hyde, Elizabeth; Mumm, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    High-Performance Adaptive Optics systems are rapidly spreading as useful applications in the fields of astronomy, ophthalmology, and telecommunications. This technology is critical to enable coronagraphic direct imaging of exoplanets utilized in ground-based telescopes and future space missions such as WFIRST, EXO-C, HabEx, and LUVOIR. We have developed a miniaturized Deformable Mirror controller to enable active optics on small space imaging mission. The system is based on the Boston Micromachines Corporation Kilo-DM, which is one of the most widespread DMs on the market. The system has three main components: The Deformable Mirror, the Driving Electronics, and the Mechanical and Heat management. The system is designed to be extremely compact and have lowpower consumption to enable its use not only on exoplanet missions, but also in a wide-range of applications that require precision optical systems, such as direct line-of-sight laser communications, and guidance systems. The controller is capable of handling 1,024 actuators with 220V maximum dynamic range, 16bit resolution, and 14bit accuracy, and operating at up to 1kHz frequency. The system fits in a 10x10x5cm volume, weighs less than 0.5kg, and consumes less than 8W. We have developed a turnkey solution reducing the risk for currently planned as well as future missions, lowering their cost by significantly reducing volume, weight and power consumption of the wavefront control hardware.

  11. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  12. Development of a model to compute the extension of life supporting zones for Earth-like exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, David; Vrtala, Aron; Leitner, Johannes J; Firneis, Maria G; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2011-12-01

    A radiative convective model to calculate the width and the location of the life supporting zone (LSZ) for different, alternative solvents (i.e. other than water) is presented. This model can be applied to the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in the solar system as well as (hypothetical, Earth-like) terrestrial exoplanets. Cloud droplet formation and growth are investigated using a cloud parcel model. Clouds can be incorporated into the radiative transfer calculations. Test runs for Earth, Mars and Titan show a good agreement of model results with observations.

  13. Use of a virtual world computer environment for international distance education: lessons from a pilot project using Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheim, Marloes; Heyden, Robin; Wiecha, John M

    2014-02-21

    Virtual worlds (VWs), in which participants navigate as avatars through three-dimensional, computer-generated, realistic-looking environments, are emerging as important new technologies for distance health education. However, there is relatively little documented experience using VWs for international healthcare training. The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) conducted a VW training for healthcare professionals enrolled in a GFMER training course. This paper describes the development, delivery, and results of a pilot project undertaken to explore the potential of VWs as an environment for distance healthcare education for an international audience that has generally limited access to conventionally delivered education.

  14. Owning the body in the mirror: The effect of visual perspective and mirror view on the full-body illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Kuper-Smith, Benjamin J; Ehrsson, Henrik H

    2015-12-17

    Mirrors allow us to view our own body from a third-person (observer) perspective. However, how viewing ourselves through a mirror affects central body representations compared with true third-person perspective is not fully understood. Across a series of experiments, multisensory full-body illusions were used to modulate feelings of ownership over a mannequin body that was viewed from a third-person perspective through a mirror, from a third-person perspective without a mirror, and from a first-person perspective. In contrast to non-mirror third-person perspective, synchronously touching the participant's actual body and the mannequin body viewed in the mirror elicited strong feelings of ownership over the mannequin and increased physiological responses to the mannequin being threatened compared to the equivalent asynchronous (non-ownership) control condition. Subjective reports of ownership viewing the mannequin through a mirror were also statistically equivalent to those following the first-person perspective illusion. These findings suggest that mirrors have a special role for viewing the self. The results also support the importance of egocentric reference frames for body ownership and suggest that mirror reflections of one's own body are related to peripersonal space, which enables updating of central body representations.

  15. Owning the body in the mirror: The effect of visual perspective and mirror view on the full-body illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Kuper-Smith, Benjamin J.; Henrik Ehrsson, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mirrors allow us to view our own body from a third-person (observer) perspective. However, how viewing ourselves through a mirror affects central body representations compared with true third-person perspective is not fully understood. Across a series of experiments, multisensory full-body illusions were used to modulate feelings of ownership over a mannequin body that was viewed from a third-person perspective through a mirror, from a third-person perspective without a mirror, and from a first-person perspective. In contrast to non-mirror third-person perspective, synchronously touching the participant’s actual body and the mannequin body viewed in the mirror elicited strong feelings of ownership over the mannequin and increased physiological responses to the mannequin being threatened compared to the equivalent asynchronous (non-ownership) control condition. Subjective reports of ownership viewing the mannequin through a mirror were also statistically equivalent to those following the first-person perspective illusion. These findings suggest that mirrors have a special role for viewing the self. The results also support the importance of egocentric reference frames for body ownership and suggest that mirror reflections of one’s own body are related to peripersonal space, which enables updating of central body representations. PMID:26678091

  16. Economics of End-of-Life Materials Recovery: A Study of Small Appliances and Computer Devices in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patrick; Santos, Eduardo; Ferrão, Paulo; Margarido, Fernanda; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Olivetti, Elsa

    2016-05-03

    The challenges brought on by the increasing complexity of electronic products, and the criticality of the materials these devices contain, present an opportunity for maximizing the economic and societal benefits derived from recovery and recycling. Small appliances and computer devices (SACD), including mobile phones, contain significant amounts of precious metals including gold and platinum, the present value of which should serve as a key economic driver for many recycling decisions. However, a detailed analysis is required to estimate the economic value that is unrealized by incomplete recovery of these and other materials, and to ascertain how such value could be reinvested to improve recovery processes. We present a dynamic product flow analysis for SACD throughout Portugal, a European Union member, including annual data detailing product sales and industrial-scale preprocessing data for recovery of specific materials from devices. We employ preprocessing facility and metals pricing data to identify losses, and develop an economic framework around the value of recycling including uncertainty. We show that significant economic losses occur during preprocessing (over $70 M USD unrecovered in computers and mobile phones, 2006-2014) due to operations that fail to target high value materials, and characterize preprocessing operations according to material recovery and total costs.

  17. Mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, Marine Jequier; Schneider, Patrick; Newman, Christopher John

    2011-05-01

    Mirror therapy, which provides the visual illusion of a functional paretic limb by using the mirror reflection of the non-paretic arm, is used in the rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke in adults. We tested the effectiveness and feasibility of mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia by performing a pilot crossover study in ten participants (aged 6-14 y; five males, five females; Manual Ability Classification System levels: one at level I, two at level II, four at level III, three at level IV) randomly assigned to 15 minutes of daily bimanual training with and without a mirror for 3 weeks. Assessments of maximal grasp and pinch strengths, and upper limb function measured by the Shriner's Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 3, 6 (intervention), and 9 (wash-out). Testing of grasp strength behind the mirror improved performance by 15% (p=0.004). Training with the mirror significantly improved grasp strength (with mirror +20.4%, p=0.033; without +5.9%, p>0.1) and upper limb dynamic position (with mirror +4.6%, p=0.044; without +1.2%, p>0.1), while training without a mirror significantly improved pinch strength (with mirror +6.9%, p>0.1; without +21.9%, p=0.026). This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia and that it may improve strength and dynamic function of the paretic arm. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Design and construction of a cost-efficient Arduino-based mirror galvanometer system for scanning optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Dhingra, Shonali; D'Urso, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Mirror galvanometer systems (galvos) are commonly employed in research and commercial applications in areas involving laser imaging, laser machining, laser-light shows, and others. Here, we present a robust, moderate-speed, and cost-efficient home-built galvo system. The mechanical part of this design consists of one mirror, which is tilted around two axes with multiple surface transducers. We demonstrate the ability of this galvo by scanning the mirror using a computer, via a custom driver circuit. The performance of the galvo, including scan range, noise, linearity, and scan speed, is characterized. As an application, we show that this galvo system can be used in a confocal scanning microscopy system.

  19. Special Geometry and Mirror Symmetry for Open String Backgrounds with N=1 Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lerche, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    We review an approach for computing non-perturbative, exact superpotentials for Type II strings compactified on Calabi-Yau manifolds, with extra fluxes and D-branes on top. The method is based on an open string generalization of mirror symmetry, and takes care of the relevant sphere and disk instanton contributions. We formulate a framework based on relative (co)homology that uniformly treats the flux and brane sectors on a similar footing. However, one important difference is that the brane induced potentials are of much larger functional diversity than the flux induced ones, which have a hidden N=2 structure and depend only on the bulk geometry. This lecture is meant for an audience unfamiliar with mirror symmetry

  20. Dwell time algorithm for multi-mode optimization in manufacturing large optical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu

    2014-08-01

    CCOS (Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing) is one of the most important method to manufacture optical surface. By controlling the dwell time of a polishing tool on the mirror we can get the desired material removal. As the optical surface becoming larger, traditional CCOS method can't meet the demand that manufacturing the mirror in higher efficiency and precision. This paper presents a new method using multi-mode optimization. By calculate the dwell time map of different tool in one optimization cycle, the larger tool and the small one have complementary advantages and obtain a global optimization for multi tool and multi-processing cycles. To calculate the dwell time of different tool at the same time we use multi-mode dwell time algorithm that based on matrix calculation. With this algorithm we did simulation experiment, the result shows using multi-mode optimization algorithm can improve the efficiency maintaining good precision.

  1. Study on distortion control technology of the active stressed lap polishing deeper aspherical mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Daxing

    2005-12-01

    A special computer controlled polishing machine and a 450mm diameter active stressed lap have been developed in NIAOT, and the lap has been successfully applied on polishing a f/2, Φ910mm paraboloidal mirror. This paper briefly introduces the control structure of the polishing system. The deformation technology is an important part of the stressed lap. This paper puts emphases upon discussing the deformation technology. On the base of experiments on f/2 mirror, deformation experiments on f/1.5, f/1.2 have been done also. As the asphericity becomes faster, the dynamic response of the lap's deformation becomes slower and the error of shape becomes bigger. In order to solve this problem and improve deformation precision, we analyse the reason for the error of the lap and discuss the dedormation emendating problem. In the end according to the result of deforming experiments, several considerations for optimization of mechanic-electric design of the stressed lap are given.

  2. TS-SRP/PACK - COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO CHARACTERIZE ALLOYS AND PREDICT CYCLIC LIFE USING THE TOTAL STRAIN VERSION OF STRAINRANGE PARTITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltsman, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    TS-SRP/PACK is a set of computer programs for characterizing and predicting fatigue and creep-fatigue resistance of metallic materials in the high-temperature, long-life regime for isothermal and nonisothermal fatigue. The programs use the total strain version of the Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP). The user should be thoroughly familiar with the TS-SRP method before attempting to use any of these programs. The document for this program includes a theory manual as well as a detailed user's manual with a tutorial to guide the user in the proper use of TS-SRP. An extensive database has also been developed in a parallel effort. This database is an excellent source of high-temperature, creep-fatigue test data and can be used with other life-prediction methods as well. Five programs are included in TS-SRP/PACK along with the alloy database. The TABLE program is used to print the datasets, which are in NAMELIST format, in a reader friendly format. INDATA is used to create new datasets or add to existing ones. The FAIL program is used to characterize the failure behavior of an alloy as given by the constants in the strainrange-life relations used by the total strain version of SRP (TS-SRP) and the inelastic strainrange-based version of SRP. The program FLOW is used to characterize the flow behavior (the constitutive response) of an alloy as given by the constants in the flow equations used by TS-SRP. Finally, LIFE is used to predict the life of a specified cycle, using the constants characterizing failure and flow behavior determined by FAIL and FLOW. LIFE is written in interpretive BASIC to avoid compiling and linking every time the equation constants are changed. Four out of five programs in this package are written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS and are designed to read data using the NAMELIST format statement. The fifth is written in BASIC version 3.0 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS version 3.10. The

  3. An achromatic four-mirror compensator for spectral ellipsometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. I.; Rukovishnikov, A. I.; Kovalev, S. V.; Kovalev, V. V.; Rossukanyi, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    Measurement and calculation results are presented that confirm that design four-mirror compensators can be designed for the spectral range of 200-2000 nm that is widely used in modern spectral ellipsometers. Measurements and calculations according to standard ellipsometric programs have been carried out on a broadband LED spectral ellipsometer with switching of orthogonal polarization states. Mirrors with the structure of glass substrate/Al2O3 layer (20-30 nm thick)/Al layer (150 nm thick)/upper Al2O3 layer (with specified thickness d) have been prepared by vacuum-evaporation method. It is shown that the phase-shift spectra of a four-mirror compensator, two mirrors of which have a native oxide 5.5 nm thick and the two others of which have an oxide layer 36 nm thick, measured on the ellipsometer, are flattened in comparison with similar spectra of a compensator, all four mirrors of which have a native oxide, especially in the short-wavelength spectral region. The results of calculating the phase-shift spectra of the four-mirror compensator with six variable parameters (angles of incidence of radiation on the mirrors and thicknesses of oxide layers on four mirrors) are presented. High-quality achromatization in a wide spectral range can be achieved for certain sets of parameters.

  4. Street mirrors, surveillance, and urban communities in early modern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylimaunu, T.; Symonds, J.; Mullins, P.R.; Salmi, A.-K.; Nurmi, R.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Tranberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses street mirrors or ‘gossip mirrors’, in terms of urban social relations and surveillance. Street mirrors were introduced to coastal towns in Sweden and Finland in the 18th and early 19th centuries and may still be found in well-preserved towns with historic wooden centres. The

  5. Entangling movable mirrors in a double cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinard, Michel; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a double-cavity set-up capable of generating a stationary entangled state of two movable mirrors at cryogenic temperatures. The scheme is based on the optimal transfer of squeezing of input optical fields to mechanical vibrational modes of the mirrors, realized by the radiation pressure...

  6. Recent results on solving the first mirror problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S.; Bondarenko, V.N.; Konovalov, V.G.; Naidenkova, D.I.; Ryzhkov, V.I.; Shapoval, A.N.; Shtan, A.F.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Vukolov, K.Y.; Bardamid, A.F. [T.Shevchenko National Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); Belyaeva, A.I.; Galuza, A.A. [National Technical Univ., Kharkov (Ukraine); Donne, A.J.H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physicsn Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Gil, Ch.; Lipa, M.; Schunke, B. [Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Gorshkov, A. [RNC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Litnovski, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. Garching (Germany); Malaquais, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Sagara, A.; Wienhold, W. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews the results of exposition of Mo, Cu and film mirrors in various places inside 5 fusion devices: LHD (large helical device), T-10, Tore-Supra, Textor and Jet. We can draw the following conclusions. First only plasma facing mirrors close to the hot plasma can remain free from deposition of contaminating film due to the possibility that the CXA sputtering rate predominates over the rate of film deposition (LHD, Tore-Supra). For such mirrors the guarantee of their long-term performance is to fabricate them from single crystalline material. However, more data are necessary from these and other fusion devices since in T-10 all plasma facing mirror samples became coated with C films. Secondly, mirrors that do not face plasma are likely to be protected from the growing of the deposit (T-10, Textor) but this statement must be checked in experiments on other large scale fusion devices. Thirdly, some progress has been achieved in understanding how to make the Mo and Rh film mirrors with good adhesion. Fourthly, the mirrors from amorphous metals can maintain their initial optical properties while being subjected to long-term sputtering. And fifthly, laser-induced damage threshold has been measured for Cu poly-crystal and single crystal Mo and W mirrors up to 150 thousand laser shots. (A.C.)

  7. Development of a Piezoelectric Adaptive Mirror for Laser Beam Control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available piezoelectric disc, providing a small, low-cost deformable mirror for this application. The mirror is required to be able to deform in the shape of each of the lower order Zernike polynomials, which describe aberrations in optical systems. Numerical modelling...

  8. Effect of hydrogen-switchable mirrors on the Casimir force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, D.; Lisanti, M.; Capasso, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present systematic measurements of the Casimir force between a gold-coated plate and a sphere coated with a hydrogen-switchable mirror. Hydrogen-switchable mirrors are shiny metals that can become transparent upon hydrogenation. Despite such a dramatic change of the optical properties of the

  9. Polarization-Independent Wideband High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Island-type two-dimensional high-index-contrast grating mirror based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer have been experimentally demonstrated. The measured spectra shows a bandwidth of ∼192 nm with a reflectivity over 99% as well as polarization independence. Numerical simulations show...... that the designed mirror has large tolerance to fabrication errors....

  10. Contraction of Perceived Size and Perceived Depth in Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Atsuki; Shimono, Koichi; Zaitsu, Wataru

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how size and depth are perceived in a plane or convex mirror. In Experiment 1, using a plane or convex mirror, 20 observers viewed a separation between two objects that were presented at a constant distance and reproduced it by a separation between other two objects in a natural viewing situation. The mean matches generally…

  11. Generalisation of action sequences in RNNPB networks with mirror properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, R.H.; Stuijt, F.H.A.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (MNS) is supposed to be involved in recognition of observed action sequences. However, it remains unclear how such a system could learn to recognise a large variety of action sequences. Here we investigated a neural network with mirror properties, the Recurrent Neural

  12. Validation of a new adaptive deformable mirror concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Ellenbroek, R.; Rosielle, N.; Steinbuch, M.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new prototype adaptive deformable mirror for future AO-systems is presented that consists of a thin continuous membrane on which push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. Each actuator has ±10μm stroke, nanometer resolution and only mW's heat dissipation. The mirror's modular design

  13. Dichroic mirror for diode pumped YAG:Nd-laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinca, Andreea; Skettrup, Torben; Lupei, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the design and realization of a dichroic mirror for a diode pumped YAG:Nd laser. The mirror is deposed on an optical glass substrate and works in optical contact with the laser crystal. The design was performed by admittance matching of the basic stack with the adjacent media...

  14. Modelling mirror aberrations in FEL oscillators using OPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Karssenberg, J.G.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Several high power free-electron lasers (FELs) are currently under design, operational or being upgraded. One central issue is the beam outcoupling and mirror deformation due to absorbed power. Here we present an extension to the OPC code that allows it to model mirror distorions. We use this code

  15. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus

    1996-08-01

    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  16. Action observation: mirroring across our spontaneous movement tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzino, Laura; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Perasso, Luisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2015-01-01

    During action observation (AO), the activity of the “mirror system” is influenced by the viewer’s expertise in the observed action. A question that remains open is whether the temporal aspects of the subjective motor repertoire can influence the “mirror system” activation. PMID:25989029

  17. Why our brains cherish humanity: Mirror neurons and colamus humanitatem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Skoyles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, as it were, its perceived “refl ection,” when that same thing happens or is done by another individual. Thus, mirror neurons are both activated when an individual does a particular action, and when that individual perceives that same action done by another. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests we need to radically revise our notions of human nature since they offer a means by which we may not be so separated as we think. Humans unlike other apes are adapted to mirror interact nonverbally when together. Notably, our faces have been evolved to display agile and nimble movements. While this is usually explained as enabling nonverbal communication, a better description would be nonverbal commune based upon mirror neurons. I argue we cherish humanity, colamus humanitatem, because mirror neurons and our adapted mirror interpersonal interface blur the physical boundaries that separate us.

  18. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Ferguson, Ryan; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

  19. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  20. Video quality assessment for web content mirroring

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Fei, Kevin; Fernandez, Gustavo A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Due to the increasing user expectation on watching experience, moving web high quality video streaming content from the small screen in mobile devices to the larger TV screen has become popular. It is crucial to develop video quality metrics to measure the quality change for various devices or network conditions. In this paper, we propose an automated scoring system to quantify user satisfaction. We compare the quality of local videos with the videos transmitted to a TV. Four video quality metrics, namely Image Quality, Rendering Quality, Freeze Time Ratio and Rate of Freeze Events are used to measure video quality change during web content mirroring. To measure image quality and rendering quality, we compare the matched frames between the source video and the destination video using barcode tools. Freeze time ratio and rate of freeze events are measured after extracting video timestamps. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the impact of each objective video quality metric on the subjective user watching experience.

  1. Electrostatic instabilities in a mirror trap revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, Igor A.; Chernoshtanov, Ivan S.; Prikhodko, Vadim V.

    2017-12-01

    The conditions for the stabilization of the Drift-Cyclotron Loss-Cone (DCLC) and Double-Humped (DH) microinstabilities in a mirror trap are critically revisited assuming the plasma is confined in the kinetic regime, which is characterized by an empty loss cone. The temperature of warm ions, necessary for stabilization of the DH instability, is calculated. The fraction of warm ions necessary to stabilize the DCLC instability at a given radial density gradient is calculated. Assuming the wavelength is much shorter than the Larmor radius, a simple criterion for the stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone oscillations is derived whose accuracy is verified by comparison with the solution of the exact dispersion equation and with known experimental data obtained in the past decades in PR-6, 2XII, 2XIIB, TMX, and TMX-U devices for plasma confinement.

  2. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  3. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari Eskandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard McKay Rorty (1932-2007 is the American neo-pragmatist. Criticizing the prevalent issues of traditional philosophy such as truth, knowledge, objectivity, logic and philosophy, he considers epistemology a modern subject which emerged via forging the mind by Rene Descartes. In his view, separation of mind–body is an unprecedented matter created in Descartes philosophy. He thinks that, in creating such a matter, Descartes was aided by the big and strong image of human mind as a large mirror which reflects the world. Rorty states that this image is not trustable. This study investigates the view of Rorty about mind and body. The main hypothesis of this study is that Rorty does not seek solution for selecting monism or dualism or other view, and thus he prefers the annulling approach to solving approach.

  4. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari Eskandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard McKay Rorty (1932-2007 is the American neo-pragmatist. Criticizing the prevalent issues of traditional philosophy such as truth, knowledge, objectivity, logic and philosophy, he considers epistemology a modern subject which emerged via forging the mind by Rene Descartes. In his view, separation of mind–body is an unprecedented matter created in Descartes philosophy. He thinks that, in creating such a matter, Descartes was aided by the big and strong image of human mind as a large mirror which reflects the world. Rorty states that this image is not trustable. This study investigates the view of Rorty about mind and body. The main hypothesis of this study is that Rorty does not seek solution for selecting monism or dualism or other view, and thus he prefers the annulling approach to solving approach.

  5. White-Light Phase-Conjugate Mirrors as Distortion Correctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald; Smith, W. Scott; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Banerjee, Partha

    2010-01-01

    White-light phase-conjugate mirrors would be incorporated into some optical systems, according to a proposal, as means of correcting for wavefront distortions caused by imperfections in large optical components. The proposal was given impetus by a recent demonstration that white, incoherent light can be made to undergo phase conjugation, whereas previously, only coherent light was known to undergo phase conjugation. This proposal, which is potentially applicable to almost any optical system, was motivated by a need to correct optical aberrations of the primary mirror of the Hubble Space telescope. It is difficult to fabricate large optical components like the Hubble primary mirror and to ensure the high precision typically required of such components. In most cases, despite best efforts, the components as fabricated have small imperfections that introduce optical aberrations that adversely affect imaging quality. Correcting for such aberrations is difficult and costly. The proposed use of white-light phase conjugate mirrors offers a relatively simple and inexpensive solution of the aberration-correction problem. Indeed, it should be possible to simplify the entire approach to making large optical components because there would be no need to fabricate those components with extremely high precision in the first place: A white-light phase-conjugate mirror could correct for all the distortions and aberrations in an optical system. The use of white-light phase-conjugate mirrors would be essential for ensuring high performance in optical systems containing lightweight membrane mirrors, which are highly deformable. As used here, "phase-conjugate mirror" signifies, more specifically, an optical component in which incident light undergoes time-reversal phase conjugation. In practice, a phase-conjugate mirror would typically be implemented by use of a suitably positioned and oriented photorefractive crystal. In the case of a telescope comprising a primary and secondary

  6. Amplifying mirrors with saturated gain without and with a resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of amplifying mirrors with a view to their use in resonator structures has been performed. Both non-saturated and saturated amplifying mirrors are demonstrated. It was found that relatively high values of gain (typical 5-10 times) can be obtained even when saturation is taken...... into account. Several resonator structures containing from two up to four mirrors, some including beamsplitters, are investigated. It was found that the gain to a first approximation depends only on the ratio between the pumping power and the input power on the amplifying mirror. It was also found...... that the configuration with four mirrors is well suited as an amplifier device working as an optical transistor since high values of gain up to 40 times could be obtained....

  7. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  8. Using parabolic mirrors for complete imaging of apple surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Daniel; Lefcourt, Alan M; Kim, Moon S; Martin Lo, Y

    2009-10-01

    Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits consumed by the public. One problem that has hindered adoption of automated technologies has been the inability to image the complete surface of an individual fruit. A particular problem is that both the stem and calyx are concave structures. The goal of this project was to examine tradeoffs for using multiple mirrors to image the surface of apples. For testing, individual apples were suspended using two thin wires, mirrors were placed around an apple, and movies were captured at 90 images per sec. Apples were rotated in all dimensions to examine the efficacy of different mirror configurations. It was determined that specific configurations of two, four, or six parabolic concave mirrors could image an entire surface. A configuration using two mirrors and multiple images acquired as apples roll by was also found to be viable.

  9. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  10. Research study to determine critical optical/mechanical properties of materials considered for selection as substrates for the primary mirror on a large telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomba, A. F.; Goggin, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the stability of a specific low expansion glass-ceramic material relative to its use as a large, lightweight mirror substrate for diffraction-limited spaceborne optical applications. These evaluations were made on a segment (0.44 meter diameter by 0.31 meter thick) of a 2 to 3 meter diameter mirror blank. The dimensional stability of this mirror was measured interferometrically before and after lightweighting, as a function of rough machining, etching, thermal environment, and support configuration. A special computer analysis program was used to plot the coefficients corresponding to aberrations with sixfold symmetry (caused by the mirror's self-weight deflection on a three point support). The objective was to enhance the test sensitivity. Results indicate that any such effects due to self-weight deflection are of the order of 0.015 lambda rms. The rms and peak-to-peak figure changes associated with each processing operation are summarized.

  11. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  12. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Ohlerth, S; Hatz, L; Augsburger, H

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) images of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of five healthy Holstein-Friesian bull calves were compared with anatomical transverse cadaver sections of the same calves. The calves were scanned in the transverse plane from the 5th thoracic vertebra to the sacrum six times three weeks apart from birth to 105 days of age. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to create images in sagittal and dorsal planes. After subjective assessment of various anatomical structures, the rumen, omasum and abomasum as well as the ruminal strata (gas cap, fibre mat and fluid phase) were measured. After the last CT scan, all calves were euthanised, and four were kept at -18 °C in sternal position for 14 days. Transverse sections 1.0 to 1.5 cm thick were made from two calves and dorsal and sagittal sections were made from one calf each using a band saw. The CT images and anatomical slices were compared and the structures on the CT images identified. Very clear CT images were obtained from the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum and there was excellent agreement between images and anatomical slices.

  13. Cephalic index in the first three years of life: study of children with normal brain development based on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likus, Wirginia; Bajor, Grzegorz; Gruszczyńska, Katrzyna; Baron, Jan; Markowski, Jarosław; Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Magdalena; Milka, Daniela; Lepich, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Cephalic index is a highly useful method for planning surgical procedures, as well as assessing their effectiveness in correcting cranial deformations in children. There are relatively very few studies measuring cephalic index in healthy Caucasian young children. The aim of our study was to develop a classification of current cephalic index for healthy Caucasian children up to 3 years of age with normal brain development, using axial slice computer tomography performed with very thin slices (0.5 mm) resulting in more accurate measurements. 180 healthy infants (83 females and 97 males) were divided into 5 age categories: 0-3, 4-6, 7-12, 13-24, and 25-36 months. The average value of cephalic index in children up to 3 years of age amounted to 81.45 ± 7.06. The index value in case of children under 3 months was 80.19, 4 to 6 months was 81.45, 7 to 12 months was 83.15, in children under 2 years was 81.05, and in children under 3 years was 79.76. Mesocephaly is the dominating skull shape in children. In this study, we formulated a classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development. Our date appears to be of utmost importance in anthropology, anatomy forensic medicine, and genetics.

  14. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  15. MOCCA: Mirrored Convex/Concave Optimization for Nonconvex Composite Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rina Foygel; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many optimization problems arising in high-dimensional statistics decompose naturally into a sum of several terms, where the individual terms are relatively simple but the composite objective function can only be optimized with iterative algorithms. In this paper, we are interested in optimization problems of the form F(Kx) + G(x), where K is a fixed linear transformation, while F and G are functions that may be nonconvex and/or nondifferentiable. In particular, if either of the terms are nonconvex, existing alternating minimization techniques may fail to converge; other types of existing approaches may instead be unable to handle nondifferentiability. We propose the MOCCA (mirrored convex/concave) algorithm, a primal/dual optimization approach that takes a local convex approximation to each term at every iteration. Inspired by optimization problems arising in computed tomography (CT) imaging, this algorithm can handle a range of nonconvex composite optimization problems, and offers theoretical guarantees for convergence when the overall problem is approximately convex (that is, any concavity in one term is balanced out by convexity in the other term). Empirical results show fast convergence for several structured signal recovery problems.

  16. Grading of proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis by Doppler/duplex ultrasound (DUS) and computed tomographic angiography (CTA): correlation and interrater reliability in real-life practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Oliver; Nikoubashman, Omid; Rajkumar, Parajuli; Keuler, Andreas; Wiesmann, Martin; Schulz, Jörg B; Reich, Arno

    2017-03-01

    Doppler/duplex ultrasound (DUS) and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) are frequently applied methods to assess the degree of proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenoses in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study evaluated the agreement and interrater reliability (IR) of both methods using a revised DUS grading system as well as different criteria (ECST/NASCET) under real-life conditions. CTA and DUS data of 281 proximal ICA stenoses [143 patients; 65.7 % male; age (mean (years) ± SD, range) 72.2 ± 11.1, 40-99] were retrospectively analyzed. For both methods, two independent raters estimated the degree of stenosis according to NASCET and ECST criteria. DUS raters applied revised German DUS criteria. For agreement and IR assessment, the linear weighted Kappa statistic was used. Correlation between DUS and CTA was substantial irrespective of the applied classification [weighted Kappa: 0.77 (NASCET)/0.79 (ECST)]. IR for DUS was almost perfect (weighted Kappa: 0.94) and better than for CTA [weighted Kappa: 0.78 (NASCET)/0.78 (ECST)]. In a real-life setting, CTA and DUS assessments of the degree of proximal ICA stenoses agreed substantially irrespective of the criteria applied (ECST/NASCET). For DUS, IR was better than for CTA.

  17. Mirror Technology Development for The International X-Ray Observatory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Will

    2010-01-01

    Presentation slides include: International X-ray Observatory (IXO), Lightweight and High Resolution X-ray Optics is Needed; Modular Design of Mirror Assembly, IXO Mirror Technology Development Objectives, Focus of Technology Development, Slumping - Status, Mirror Fabrication Progress, Temporary Bonding - Status, Alignment - Status, Permanent Bonding - Status, Mirror Housing Simulator (MHS) - TRL-4, Mini-Module (TRL-5), Flight-Like Module (TRL-6), Mirror Technology Development Team, Outlook, and Small Technology Firms that Have Made Direct Contributions to IXO Mirror Technology Development.

  18. Mirror Symmetry Breaking in Helical Polysilanes: Preference between Left and Right of Chemical and Physical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Fujiki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available From elemental particles to human beings, matter is dissymmetric with respect to mirror symmetry. In 1860, Pasteur conjectured that biomolecular handedness— homochirality—may originate from certain inherent dissymmetric forces existing in the universe. Kipping, a pioneer of organosilicon chemistry, was interested in the handedness of sodium chlorate during his early research life. Since Kipping first synthesized several Si-Si bonded oligomers bearing phenyl groups, Si-Si bonded high polymers carrying various organic groups—polysilanes—can be prepared by sodium-mediated condensation of the corresponding organodichlorosilanes. Among these polysilanes, optically active helical polysilanes with enantiomeric pairs of organic side groups may be used for testing the mirror symmetry-breaking hypothesis by weak neutral current (WNC origin in the realm of chemistry and material science. Several theoretical studies have predicted that WNC-existing chiral molecules with stereogenic centers and/or stereogenic bonds allow for distinguishing between image and mirror image molecules. Based on several amplification mechanisms, theorists claimed that minute differences, though still very subtle, may be detectable by precise spectroscopic and physicochemical measurements if proper chiral molecular pairs were employed. The present paper reports comprehensively an inequality between six pairs of helical polysilane high polymers, presumably, detectable by (chiroptical and achiral 29Si-/13C- NMR spectra, and viscometric measurements.

  19. Micro-assembly of three-dimensional rotary MEMS mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidai; Mills, James K.; Cleghorn, William L.

    2009-02-01

    We present a novel approach to construct three-dimensional rotary micro-mirrors, which are fundamental components to build 1×N or N×M optical switching systems. A rotary micro-mirror consists of two microparts: a rotary micro-motor and a micro-mirror. Both of the two microparts are fabricated with PolyMUMPs, a surface micromachining process. A sequential robotic microassembly process is developed to join the two microparts together to construct a threedimensional device. In order to achieve high positioning accuracy and a strong mechanical connection, the micro-mirror is joined to the micro-motor using an adhesive mechanical fastener. The mechanical fastener has self-alignment ability and provides a temporary joint between the two microparts. The adhesive bonding can create a strong permanent connection, which does not require extra supporting plates for the micro-mirror. A hybrid manipulation strategy, which includes pick-and-place and pushing-based manipulations, is utilized to manipulation the micro-mirror. The pick-andplace manipulation has the ability to globally position the micro-mirror in six degrees of freedom. The pushing-based manipulation can achieve high positioning accuracy. This microassembly approach has great flexibility and high accuracy; furthermore, it does not require extra supporting plates, which greatly simplifies the assembly process.

  20. The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Frans B. M.; Dindo, Marietta; Freeman, Cassiopeia A.; Hall, Marisa J.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely assumed that monkeys see a stranger in the mirror, whereas apes and humans recognize themselves. In this study, we question the former assumption by using a detailed comparison of how monkeys respond to mirrors versus live individuals. Eight adult female and six adult male brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were exposed twice to three conditions: (i) a familiar same-sex partner, (ii) an unfamiliar same-sex partner, and (iii) a mirror. Females showed more eye contact and friendly behavior and fewer signs of anxiety in front of a mirror than they did when exposed to an unfamiliar partner. Males showed greater ambiguity, but they too reacted differently to mirrors and strangers. Discrimination between conditions was immediate, and blind coders were able to tell the difference between monkeys under the three conditions. Capuchins thus seem to recognize their reflection in the mirror as special, and they may not confuse it with an actual conspecific. Possibly, they reach a level of self–other distinction intermediate between seeing their mirror image as other and recognizing it as self. PMID:16055557

  1. Prototyping iridium coated mirrors for x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Emmerich, Florian; Stehlíková, Veronika; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-05-01

    X-ray astronomy uses space-based telescopes to overcome the disturbing absorption of the Earth's atmosphere. The telescope mirrors are operating at grazing incidence angles and are coated with thin metal films of high-Z materials to get sufficient reflectivity for the high-energy radiation to be observed. In addition the optical payload needs to be light-weighted for launcher mass constrains. Within the project JEUMICO, an acronym for "Joint European Mirror Competence", the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague started a collaboration to develop mirrors for X-ray telescopes. The X-ray telescopes currently developed within this Bavarian- Czech project are of Lobster eye type optical design. Corresponding mirror segments use substrates of flat silicon wafers which are coated with thin iridium films, as this material is promising high reflectivity in the X-ray range of interest. The deposition of the iridium films is based on a magnetron sputtering process. Sputtering with different parameters, especially by variation of the argon gas pressure, leads to iridium films with different properties. In addition to investigations of the uncoated mirror substrates the achieved surface roughness has been studied. Occasional delamination of the iridium films due to high stress levels is prevented by chromium sublayers. Thereby the sputtering parameters are optimized in the context of the expected reflectivity of the coated X-ray mirrors. In near future measurements of the assembled mirror modules optical performances are planned at an X-ray test facility.

  2. Modeling the Extremely Lightweight Zerodur Mirror (ELZM) Thermal Soak Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas E.; Eng, Ron; Hull, Tony; Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Exoplanet science requires extreme wavefront stability (10 pm change/10 minutes), so every source of wavefront error (WFE) must be characterized in detail. This work illustrates the testing and characterization process that will be used to determine how much surface figure error (SFE) is produced by mirror substrate materials' CTE distributions. Schott's extremely lightweight Zerodur mirror (ELZM) was polished to a sphere, mounted, and tested at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the X-Ray and Cryogenic Test Facility (XRCF). The test transitioned the mirror's temperature from an isothermal state at 292K to isothermal states at 275K, 250K and 230K to isolate the effects of the mirror's CTE distribution. The SFE was measured interferometrically at each temperature state and finite element analysis (FEA) has been completed to assess the predictability of the change in the mirror's surface due to a change in the mirror's temperature. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) distribution in the ELZM is unknown, so the analysis has been correlated to the test data. The correlation process requires finding the sensitivity of SFE to a given CTE distribution in the mirror. A novel hand calculation is proposed to use these sensitivities to estimate thermally induced SFE. The correlation process was successful and is documented in this paper. The CTE map that produces the measured SFE is in line with the measured data of typical boules of Schott's Zerodur glass.

  3. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K; Morrison, Gregory Y; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-12-20

    A low-budget surface slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory. The instrument is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator and a movable pentaprism. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology has been verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high-performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high-quality test optics. In the present work, a further improvement of the DLTP is achieved by replacing the existing bulk pentaprism with a specially designed mirror based pentaprism. A mirror based pentaprism offers the possibility to eliminate systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of a bulk pentaprism. We provide the details of the mirror based pentaprism design and describe an original experimental procedure for precision mutual alignment of the mirrors. The algorithm of the alignment procedure and its efficiency are verified with rigorous ray tracing simulations. Results of measurements of a spherically curved test mirror and a flat test mirror using the original bulk pentaprism are compared with measurements using the new mirror based pentaprism, demonstrating the improved performance.

  4. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-07-21

    A low-budget surface slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 212-223 (2010)]. The instrument is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator and a movable pentaprism. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology has been verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high-performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high-quality test optics. In the present work, a further improvement of the DLTP is achieved by replacing the existing bulk pentaprism with a specially designed mirror based pentaprism. A mirror based pentaprism offers the possibility to eliminate systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of a bulk pentaprism. We provide the details of the mirror based pentaprism design and describe an original experimental procedure for precision mutual alignment of the mirrors. The algorithm of the alignment procedure and its efficiency are verified with rigorous ray tracing simulations. Results of measurements of a spherically curved test mirror and a flat test mirror using the original bulk pentaprism are compared with measurements using the new mirror based pentaprism, demonstrating the improved performance.

  5. Distributed sensing signal analysis of deformable plate/membrane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen

    2017-11-01

    Deformable optical mirrors usually play key roles in aerospace and optical structural systems applied to space telescopes, radars, solar collectors, communication antennas, etc. Limited by the payload capacity of current launch vehicles, the deformable mirrors should be lightweight and are generally made of ultra-thin plates or even membranes. These plate/membrane mirrors are susceptible to external excitations and this may lead to surface inaccuracy and jeopardize relevant working performance. In order to investigate the modal vibration characteristics of the mirror, a piezoelectric layer is fully laminated on its non-reflective side to serve as sensors. The piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements so that microscopic distributed sensing signals can be explored. In this paper, the deformable mirror is modeled as a pre-tensioned plate and membrane respectively and sensing signal distributions of the two models are compared. Different pre-tensioning forces are also applied to reveal the tension effects on the mode shape and sensing signals of the mirror. Analytical results in this study could be used as guideline of optimal sensor/actuator placement for deformable space mirrors.

  6. ELID grinding of SiC ultra lightweight mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Hiroaki; Dai, Yutang; Ebizuka, Noboru; Saito, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Toru; Lin, Weimin; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Takami, Hideki

    2017-11-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is the most advantageous as the material of various telescope mirrors, because SiC has high stiffness, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density and so on [1] [2]. However, since SiC is very hard, it is difficult to obtain the surfaces efficiently by using ordinary grinding method. Therefore, we developed the ultra lightweight mirror by ELID (ELectrolytic In-process Dressing) grinding method and ultra-precision grinding machine. ELID grinding method is the new grinding technology which one of authors invented, produces the quality of the high surface efficiently, and is effective in processing of a very hard material, such as crystalline silicon and sapphire, ceramics, glasses, hard metals and so on. SiC mirror for space telescope is designed as regular polygon rib structures in the rear face for reducing weight, and both the optical face and the backside ribs are so thin that deformation of the mirror cannot disregard. Therefore, in order to feed back deformation of the mirror to the orbit of grinding wheel, it is necessary to analyze deformation. In this research, we present the results which fabricated mirrors of sintered SiC by the ELID grinding method, the numerical calculation results of the profile deformations analyzed by FEM, and new jig for Φ360mm a mirror.

  7. Challenging Cognitive Control by Mirrored Stimuli in Working Memory Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wirth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive conflict has often been investigated by placing automatic processing originating from learned associations in competition with instructed task demands. Here we explore whether mirror generalization as a congenital mechanism can be employed to create cognitive conflict. Past research suggests that the visual system automatically generates an invariant representation of visual objects and their mirrored counterparts (i.e., mirror generalization, and especially so for lateral reversals (e.g., a cup seen from the left side vs. right side. Prior work suggests that mirror generalization can be reduced or even overcome by learning (i.e., for those visual objects for which it is not appropriate, such as letters d and b. We, therefore, minimized prior practice on resolving conflicts involving mirror generalization by using kanji stimuli as non-verbal and unfamiliar material. In a 1-back task, participants had to check a stream of kanji stimuli for identical repetitions and avoid miss-categorizing mirror reversed stimuli as exact repetitions. Consistent with previous work, lateral reversals led to profound slowing of reaction times and lower accuracy in Experiment 1. Yet, different from previous reports suggesting that lateral reversals lead to stronger conflict, similar slowing for vertical and horizontal mirror transformations was observed in Experiment 2. Taken together, the results suggest that transformations of visual stimuli can be employed to challenge cognitive control in the 1-back task.

  8. Adaptive optics ophthalmologic systems using dual deformable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S; Olivier, S; Chen, D; Sadda, S; Joeres, S; Zawadzki, R; Werner, J S; Miller, D

    2007-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) have been increasingly combined with a variety of ophthalmic instruments over the last decade to provide cellular-level, in-vivo images of the eye. The use of MEMS deformable mirrors in these instruments has recently been demonstrated to reduce system size and cost while improving performance. However, currently available MEMS mirrors lack the required range of motion for correcting large ocular aberrations, such as defocus and astigmatism. In order to address this problem, we have developed an AO system architecture that uses two deformable mirrors, in a woofer/tweeter arrangement, with a bimorph mirror as the woofer and a MEMS mirror as the tweeter. This setup provides several advantages, including extended aberration correction range, due to the large stroke of the bimorph mirror, high order aberration correction using the MEMS mirror, and additionally, the ability to ''focus'' through the retina. This AO system architecture is currently being used in four instruments, including an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and a retinal flood-illuminated imaging system at the UC Davis Medical Center, a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) at the Doheny Eye Institute, and an OCT system at Indiana University. The design, operation and evaluation of this type of AO system architecture will be presented.

  9. Design and optimization of the CFRP mirror components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2017-09-01

    As carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) material has been developed and demonstrated as an effective material in lightweight telescope reflector manufacturing recently, the authors of this article have extended to apply this material on the lightweight space camera mirror design and fabrication. By CFRP composite laminate design and optimization using finite element method (FEM) analysis, a spherical mirror with φ316 mm diameter whose core cell reinforcement is an isogrid configuration is fabricated. Compared with traditional ways of applying ultra-low-expansion glass (ULE) on the CFRP mirror surface, the method of nickel electroplating on the surface effectively reduces the processing cost and difficulty of the CFRP mirror. Through the FEM analysis, the first order resonance frequency of the CFRP mirror components reaches up to 652.3 Hz. Under gravity affection coupling with +5°C temperature rising, the mirror surface shape root-mean-square values (RMS) at the optical axis horizontal state is 5.74 nm, which meets mechanical and optical requirements of the mirror components on space camera.

  10. Optimization design about gimbal structure of high-precision autonomous celestial navigation tracking mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Mei-lin; Yue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High precision tracking platform of celestial navigation with control mirror servo structure form, to solve the disadvantages of big volume and rotational inertia, slow response speed, and so on. It improved the stability and tracking accuracy of platform. Due to optical sensor and mirror are installed on the middle-gimbal, stiffness and resonant frequency requirement for high. Based on the application of finite element modality analysis theory, doing Research on dynamic characteristics of the middle-gimbal, and ANSYS was used for the finite element dynamic emulator analysis. According to the result of the computer to find out the weak links of the structure, and Put forward improvement suggestions and reanalysis. The lowest resonant frequency of optimization middle-gimbal avoid the bandwidth of the platform servo mechanism, and much higher than the disturbance frequency of carrier aircraft, and reduces mechanical resonance of the framework. Reaching provides a theoretical basis for the whole machine structure optimization design of high-precision of autonomous Celestial navigation tracking mirror system.

  11. Control of the deformation for the millimeter wave range radiotelescope mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor; Artemenko, Yury; Timofeev, Aleksandr

    2008-10-01

    The mirror construction of the radiotelescope for millimetre wave range requires to measure the line deformation of mirror's surface. Now the control system is based on the trilateration method and it uses three laser distance-meters. This type of the measuring system can't be used for new radio-telescope RT-70 (Suffa). Following issues dealing with this problem are described in this article: 1) the possibility of the design of deformation measurement system based on triangular method 2) the new scheme of optic-electronic measurement system. The great attention during the research was paid to the experimental approval of the theoretical results. The model of the described system had the following characteristics: infrared emission diode AL107B by power 15 mWt as sources of radiation; the objective by the focal length 405 mm as aperture of receiver video-camera, the CMOS matrix receiver by type OV05610 Color CMOS QSXGA with 2592*1944 pixels and one pixel size (2.8*2.8) μm2 produced OmniVision as image analyzer . The computer simulation error and the experimental error measurement was 0.05 mm at the range 30 mm on a working distance 25 m, that allows to measure the deformation of radiotelescope construction with the mirror diameter 70 m.

  12. Test production of a mirror segment for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oota, Tetsuji; Shinonaga, Hirohiko; Akutsu, Kotaro; Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Itaru; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2012-09-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a next-generation optical/infrared telescope to be constructed on Mauna Kea, Hawaii toward the end of this decade, as an international project. Its 30 m primary mirror consists of 492 off-axis aspheric segmented mirrors. This paper describes the progress of the test fabrication of an outermost mirror segment for the TMT as a joint R&D program between National Astronomical Observatory and Canon. A zero-expansion glass CLEARCERAM™ blank was polished by a computer-controlled small-tool polishing machine (CSSP, Canon) and its surface shape was measured by a touch-probe measuring machine(A-Ruler, Canon). Residuals of lower Zernike terms of the surface shape were 11 nmRMS, clearing the original specifications based on the structure function. There remains, however, a need to fulfill latest revised specifications. Possible solutions to improve and achieve the new specifications and a plan for revising the process for mass production are also described.

  13. Ion figuring of large prototype mirror segments for the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Mattaini, E.; Pareschi, G.; Sironi, G.

    2014-07-01

    At INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Brera a study is under way to explore the problems related to the ion beam figuring of full scale Zerodur hexagonal mirrors of M1 for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), having size of 1.4 m corner to corner. During this study it is initially foreseen the figuring of a scaled down version mirror of the same material having size of 1 m corner to corner to assess the relevant figuring problems and issues. This specific mirror has a radius of curvature of 3 m, which allows for easy interferometric measurement. A mechanical support was designed to minimize its deformations due to the gravity. The Ion Beam Figuring Facility used for this study has been recently completed in the Brera Observatory and has a figuring area of 140 cm x 170 cm. It employs a Kaufman ion source having 50 mm grids mounted on three axis. This system has been designed and developed to be autonomous and self-monitoring during the figuring process. The software and the mathematical tools used to compute the dwell time solution have been developed at INAF-OAB as well. Aim of this study is the estimation and optimization of the time requested to correct the surface adopting strategies to mitigate the well-known thermal problems related to the Zerodur material. In this paper, the results obtained figuring the 1 m corner-to-corner test segment are reported.

  14. Analysis on the misalignment errors between Hartmann-Shack sensor and 45-element deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Jianjun; Cao, Fen; Long, Yin; Tian, Pingchuan; Chen, Shangwu

    2017-02-01

    Aiming at 45-element adaptive optics system, the model of 45-element deformable mirror is truly built by COMSOL Multiphysics, and every actuator's influence function is acquired by finite element method. The process of this system correcting optical aberration is simulated by making use of procedure, and aiming for Strehl ratio of corrected diffraction facula, in the condition of existing different translation and rotation error between Hartmann-Shack sensor and deformable mirror, the system's correction ability for 3-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration is analyzed. The computed result shows: the system's correction ability for 3-9 Zernike polynomial wave aberration is higher than that of 10-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration. The correction ability for 3-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration does not change with misalignment error changing. With rotation error between Hartmann-Shack sensor and deformable mirror increasing, the correction ability for 3-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration gradually goes down, and with translation error increasing, the correction ability for 3-9 Zernike polynomial wave aberration gradually goes down, but the correction ability for 10-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration behave up-and-down depression.

  15. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  16. Actuators of 3-element unimorph deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyang; Ning, Yu; Du, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Kinds of wavefront aberrations exist among optical systems because of atmosphere disturbance, device displacement and a variety of thermal effects, which disturb the information of transmitting beam and restrain its energy. Deformable mirror(DM) is designed to adjust these wavefront aberrations. Bimorph DM becomes more popular and more applicable among adaptive optical(AO) systems with advantages in simple structure, low cost and flexible design compared to traditional discrete driving DM. The defocus aberration accounted for a large proportion of all wavefront aberrations, with a simpler surface and larger amplitude than others, so it is very useful to correct the defocus aberration effectively for beam controlling and aberration adjusting of AO system. In this study, we desired on correcting the 3rd and 10th Zernike modes, analyze the characteristic of the 3rd and 10th defocus aberration surface distribution, design 3-element actuators unimorph DM model study on its structure and deformation principle theoretically, design finite element models of different electrode configuration with different ring diameters, analyze and compare effects of different electrode configuration and different fixing mode to DM deformation capacity through COMSOL finite element software, compare fitting efficiency of DM models to the 3rd and 10th Zernike modes. We choose the inhomogeneous electrode distribution model with better result, get the influence function of every electrode and the voltage-PV relationship of the model. This unimorph DM is suitable for the AO system with a mainly defocus aberration.

  17. Reflectivity improvements for neutron mirrors and supermirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bernard; Jiang, Z.; Samuel, Francois J.

    1992-11-01

    In order to study multilayers for neutrons optics, Ni/Ti multilayers were first realized by magnetron sputtering technique on super-polished Si wafer and Borkron glasses. Including carbon in the nickel target in order to improve neutron reflectivity, nickel carbide/titanium multilayers were deposited under the same conditions. The neutron optical quality of NiC/Ti multilayers are better than Ni/Ti stacks. The grazing angle neutron reflectivity results were subsequently confirmed by other techniques. X-ray diffraction measurements show a nickel layer crystalline (111) whereas the NiC layers are quasi-amorphous. In consequence, the a- NiC/Ti interfaces are sharper than the Ni/Ti ones. Reactive hydrogenation of titanium layers during the deposition process allows us to decrease the neutron refractive index. In this case, the contrast between the high and low refractive index increase and the Ni/Ti-H multilayers have a better reflectivity than those obtained with pure Ni/Ti materials. Moreover, strong affinity of the titanium for hydrogen reduce the Getter effect corresponding to a stabilization of the titanium layers. Accordingly, better contrast and better interfaces are obtained for NiC/TiH multilayers. Some results of super-mirrors with less than 50 layers using these types of materials are given. In these cases, we obtained more than two times the critical angle of pure nickel with a value close to one for the reflectance coefficient.

  18. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamori, Akiteru [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ando, Masaki [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Bertolini, Alessandro [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cella, Giancarlo [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, Riccardo [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fukushima, Mitsuhiro [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Iida, Yukiyoshi [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Jacquier, Florian [INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Kawamura, Seiji [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Marka, Szabolcs [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nishi, Yuhiko [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Numata, Kenji [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Sannibale, Virginio [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Somiya, Kentaro [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryutaro [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Tsubono, Kimio [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Ugas, Jose [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Viboud, Nicolas [INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Yamamoto, Hiroaki [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Yoda, Tatsuo [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Wang Chenyang [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2002-04-07

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results.

  19. Ring relations and mirror map from branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assel, Benjamin [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-03-29

    We study the space of vacua of three-dimensional N=4 theories from a novel approach building on the type IIB brane realization of the theory and in which the insertion of local chiral operators in the path integral is obtained from integrating out light modes in appropriate brane setups. Most of our analysis focuses on abelian quiver theories which can be realized as the low-energy theory of D3-D5-NS5 brane arrays. Their space of vacua contains a Higgs branch, parametrized by the vevs of half-BPS meson operators, and a Coulomb branch, parametrized by the vevs of half-BPS monopole operators. We show that the Higgs operators are inserted by adding F1 strings and D3 branes, while Coulomb operators are inserted by adding D1 strings and D3 branes, with specific orientations, to the initial brane setup of the theory. This approach has two main advantages. First the ring relations describing the Higgs and Coulomb branches can be derived by looking at specific brane setups with multiple interpretations in terms of operator insertions. This provides a new derivation of the Coulomb branch quantum relations. Secondly the map between the Higgs and Coulomb operators of mirror dual theories can be derived in a trivial way from IIB S-duality.

  20. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  1. MAMMUT: mirror vibration metrology for VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Giessler, Frank; Geiss, Reinhard; Minardi, Stefano; Pertsch, Thomas; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Delplancke, Françoise; Richichi, Andrea; Ménardi, Serge; Schmid, Christian

    2010-07-01

    MAMMUT (Mirror vibrAtion Metrolology systeM for the Unit Telescope) is an ESO funded feasibility project for the development of a fiber interferometer prototype designed for optical path laser-metrology along the optical train of the Unit Telescopes (UT) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Fast mechanical vibrations originating in the VLTI cause fast variations of the optical path difference between two arms of the stellar interferometer, thus reducing the contrast of measured interference fringes. MAMMUT aims at monitoring in real time the optical path variations inside the Coudé train of the UT, for active control purposes. MAMMUT features a 250-meter-long optical fiber which can be used to deliver and inject a laser beam at 1353 nm into the UT. The injected beam can be dropped from the telescope in the Coudé room and interfered with a phase reference, provided by the second 250-meter-long arm of the fiber interferometer. The optical path variations are measured by means of an active homodyne scheme. Coherence between the beam at the injection point and the phase reference is provided by active fiber stabilization, made possible by the implementation of an internal metrology channel in MAMMUT. Here we present the initial laboratory performance results of the MAMMUT prototype, which will be able to sense optical path variations of +/- 5 μm with sub-10 nm precision within a bandwidth of at least 100 Hz.

  2. Deformable Mirror Light Modulators For Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysel, R. Mark; Florence, James M.; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1990-02-01

    The operational characteristics of deformable mirror device (DMD) spatial light modulators for image processing applications are presented. The two DMD pixel structures of primary interest are the torsion hinged pixel for amplitude modulation and the flexure hinged or piston element pixel for phase modulation. The optical response characteristics of these structures are described. Experimental results detailing the performance of the pixel structures and addressing architectures are presented and are compared with the analytical results. Special emphasis is placed on the specification, from the experimental data, of the basic device performance parameters of the different modulator types. These parameters include modulation range (contrast ratio and phase modulation depth), individual pixel response time, and full array address time. The performance characteristics are listed for comparison with those of other light modulators (LCLV, LCTV, and MOSLM) for applications in the input plane and Fourier plane of a conventional coherent optical image processing system. The strengths and weaknesses of the existing DMD modulators are assessed and the potential for performance improvements is outlined.

  3. Black Mirror: The National Anthem. Art, Media and the Disintegration of Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Black Mirror is a British television anthology series, created by Charlie Brooker, which shows the dark side of life and technology. Although each episode has a different cast, a different setting, and a different reality, they are all about the ineffable power of technology and social media in our own lives.The paper focuses on the first episode of the anthology series (The National Anthem), which was first aired on 2011. The episode is a political thriller in which UK Prime Minister faces a...

  4. Observation of sub-GeV electrons mirrored by ultrathin crystalline Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabayashi, Y., E-mail: takabayashi@saga-ls.jp [SAGA Light Source, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan); Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-17

    Detailed experimental studies are performed on the mirroring effect for 255-MeV electrons channeled through a 0.74-μm-thick Si crystal at the injector linac of the SAGA-LS facility. For the planar channeling alignment, deflection of the beam by 0.45 mrad is observed with 29% efficiency. The effect is explained by computer simulations as a sequence of trajectories of planar-channeled relativistic electrons in an attractive one-dimensional periodic potential of crystallographic planes. Possible applications as a beam splitter are proposed.

  5. Integrated Channel Selector for Directing Fluid Flow Using Thermoreversible Gelation Controlled by a Digital Mirror Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Shirasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated channel selector system employing thermoreversible gelation of a polymer was developed. Here, we show a system with 3×3 arrayed microchannels having nine crossing points. Infrared laser irradiation was used to form gel areas at several crossing points in arranging a flow path from the inlet to one of the nine outlets passing through certain junctions and channels. The multipoint irradiation by the infrared laser was realized using a personal-computer-controlled digital mirror device. The system was demonstrated to be able to direct flow to all nine outlets. Finally, we achieved to produce flexible paths for flowing particles including side trips.

  6. EyeMirror: Mobile Calibration-Free Gaze Approximation using Corneal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Christian; Gehring, Sven; Löchtefeld, Markus

    2017-01-01

    regularly. We present EyeMirror, a mobile device for calibration-free gaze approximation on surfaces (e.g. displays). It consists of a head-mounted camera, connected to a wearable mini-computer, capturing the environment reflected on the human cornea. The corneal images are analyzed using natural feature......Gaze is a powerful measure of people’s attracted attention and reveals where we are looking at within our current field of view. Hence, gaze-based interfaces are gaining in importance. However, gaze estimation usually requires extensive hardware and depends on a calibration that has to be renewed...

  7. Cheiloscopy ‑ A diagnostic and deterministic mirror for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheiloscopy ‑ A diagnostic and deterministic mirror for establishment of person identification and gender discrimination: A study participated by Indian Medical students to aid legal proceedings and criminal investigations.

  8. Enhancement effects of flat-mirror reflection on plasma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-zhong; Bai, Jin-ning; Song, Guang-ju; Sun, Jiang; Deng, Ze-chao; Wang, Ying-long

    2013-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy quality can be improved by using a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse to excite soil samples. To investigate how flat-mirror reflection affects the radiation characteristics of laser-induced plasma, emission spectra of sample elements were recorded using a grating spectrometer and photoelectric detection system. Placing a planar mirror vertically on the sample surface (10 mm mirror to plasma-center axis distance) for flat-mirror reflection increased spectral line intensities of Mg, Al, Fe, and Ba by 93.06%, 159.63%, 93.43%, and 94.61%, respectively. Signal-to-noise ratio increased by 17.56%, 40.21%, 31.29%, and 30%. The radiation enhancement mechanism was clarified using measured plasma parameters.

  9. Mirrors fabricated with slightly oxidized C/C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiaoteng; Xie, Yongjie; Ma, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    Up to now, traditional materials, such as glass, metal and SiC ceramic, gradually begin to be unsatisfied development of the future mirrors. Designable carbon fiber reinforced composites became optimized material for large aperture lightweight mirrors. Carbon/carbon composites exhibit low thermal expansion and no moisture-absorption expansion problem, therefore, they get particular attention in the space reflector field. Ni was always employed as optical layer in the mirror, however, the coating behaved poor bond with substrate and often peeled off during optical processing. In order to solve this problem, slight oxidation was carried on the C/C composites before Ni plated. The Ni coating exhibited stronger coherence and better finish performance. Finally, a 100mm diameter plane mirror was successful fabricated.

  10. Progress on high-performance rapid prototype aluminum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Myrick, Bruce H.

    2017-05-01

    Near net shape parts can be produced using some very old processes (investment casting) and the relatively new direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. These processes have significant advantages for complex blank lightweighting and costs but are not inherently suited for producing high performance mirrors. The DMLS process can provide extremely complex lightweight structures but the high residual stresses left in the material results in unstable mirror figure retention. Although not to the extreme intricacy of DMLS, investment casting can also provide complex lightweight structures at considerably lower costs than DMLS and even conventional wrought mirror blanks but the less than 100% density for casting (and also DMLS) limits finishing quality. This paper will cover the progress that has been made to make both the DMLS and investment casting processes into viable near net shape blank options for high performance aluminum mirrors. Finish and figure results will be presented to show performance commensurate with existing conventional processes.

  11. Inspection of the Replicated X-ray Mirror Mandrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies to the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. Photograph shows J.R. Griffith inspecting a replicated x-ray mirror mandrel.

  12. An Image Stabilization Optical System Using Deformable Freeform Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat’s principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs. Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors.

  13. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B. L.

    1985-04-16

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  14. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  15. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  16. Advanced Optical Metrology for XRAY Replication Mandrels and Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced x-ray observatories such as IXO and GenX will require thousands of thin shell mirror segments produced by replication using convex mandrels. Quality and...

  17. Mirror Lake contaminanats - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  18. A Low Cost High Specific Stiffness Mirror Substrate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  19. Single Crystal Bimorph Array (SCBA) Driven Deformable Mirror (DM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will research a novel deformable mirror design for NASA adaptive optics telescope applications. The...

  20. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  1. Extreme-Precision MEMS Segmented Deformable Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I research, Iris AO developed enhanced electromechanical models and calibration techniques for MEMS-based segmented deformable mirrors (DMs) applicable to a...

  2. Compact Low-Power Driver for Deformable Mirror Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boston Micromachines Corporation (BMC), a leading developer of unique, high-resolution micromachined deformable mirrors (DMs), will develop a compact, low-power,...

  3. High Speed Magnetostrictive MEMS Actuated Mirror Deflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this proposal is to develop high speed magnetostrictive and MEMS actuators for rapidly deflecting or deforming mirrors. High speed, light-weight,...

  4. Studies of plasma confinement in linear and RACETRACK mirror configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuthi, A.; Wong, A.Y.

    1986-06-30

    This report discusses research on the following magnetic mirror configurations: Racetrack; ECRH generated plasmas; RF generated plasmas; potential structures; surface multipole fields, and lamex; hot electron physics; axial loss processes; and RF induced effects.

  5. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors (4+...

  6. NPS New Home for Giant Segmented-Mirror Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2010-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School is the proud new home for the Segmented Mirror Space Telescope (SMT), designed and developed for the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) as a technical demonstrator and experimental testbed for cutting-edge space imaging technologies.

  7. Low Cost Very Large Diamond Turned Metal Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrolytic plating of high phosphorus nickel phosphorus alloy will encapsulate a machined mirror substrate master made of fine cell plastic foam such as...

  8. Metals in Metal Salts: A Copper Mirror Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple lecture demonstration is described to show the latent presence of metal atoms in a metal salt. Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate is heated in a round-bottom flask forming a high-quality copper mirror.

  9. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD): Year Five Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort initiated in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, to mature the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of critical technologies required to enable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics, ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets, and National Interest missions. Key accomplishments of 2016/17 include the completion of the Harris Corp approximately 150 Hz 1.5-meter Ultra-Low Expansion (ULE Registered trademark) mirror substrate using stacked core method to demonstrate lateral stability of the stacked core technology, as well as the characterization and validation by test of the mechanical and thermal performance of the 1.2-meter Zerodur (Registered trademark) mirror using the STOP model prediction and verification of CTE homogeneity.

  10. Benefits and limitations of imaging multiples: Mirror migration

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-07-01

    The benefits and limitations of imaging multiples are reviewed for mirror migration. Synthetic and field data examples are used to characterize the effectiveness of migrating multiples relative to primary imaging.

  11. Strongly-interacting mirror fermions at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mirror fermions corresponding to an interchange of leftwith right-handed fermion quantum numbers of the Standard Model can lead to a model according to which the BEH mechanism is just an effective manifestation of a more fundamental theory while the recently-discovered Higgs-like particle is composite. This is achieved by a non-abelian gauge symmetry encompassing three mirror-fermion families strongly coupled at energies near 1 TeV. The corresponding non-perturbative dynamics lead to dynamical mirror-fermion masses between 0.14 - 1.2 TeV. Furthermore, one expects the formation of composite states, i.e. “mirror mesons”, with masses between 0.1 and 3 TeV. The number and properties of the resulting new degrees of freedom lead to a rich and interesting phenomenology, part of which is analyzed in the present work.

  12. High Speed Magnetostrictive MEMS Actuated Mirror Deflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop high speed magnetostrictive and MEMS actuators for rapidly deflecting or deforming mirrors. High speed, light-weight, low voltage beam...

  13. Ultraflat Tip-Tilt-Piston MEMS Deformable Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a process for producing arrays of hexagonal mirror segments with deviation from flatness smaller than 1nm RMS over a 600?m segment span,...

  14. Single Crystal Bimorph Array Driven Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will research a novel deformable mirror design for NASA adaptive optics telescope applications . The...

  15. Mirror lightweight for a spaceborne remote sensing instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at obtaining the optimum lightweight configuration for a primary mirror (M1 with honeycomb patterns for a space satellite. The finite element analysis and Zernike polynomial fitting based on the Taguchi Method are applied to the whole optimization process. Geometrical control factors and levels were selected to minimize the ratio of various mass reduction ratios (MRRs to the product of the corresponding maximum mirror structural deflection and optical surface peak-to-valley wavefront aberrations under launch accelerations. The optimum lightweight M1 with a MRR of 0.5 and a mass of 9.72 kg is attained and a mirror blank based on this design was manufactured. The performance of the optimum lightweight mirror is simulated and the simulation results satisfy the requirements of space specifications.

  16. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing of Fractal Wand...

  17. Scotch-Tape Mirror for Hard X-rays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to build a grazing incidence mirror for hard X-rays (E>20 keV) using a “scotch-tape” design, in which a thin plastic tape with a...

  18. The Mirror in Art: Vanitas, Veritas, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Goscilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Humankind’s venerable obsession with the mirror, traceable to the ancient myths of Medusa and Narcissus, is copiously attested in Western art, which historically relied on the mirror as both practical tool and polysemous trope. While the mirror’s reflective capacities encouraged its identification with the vaunted mimetic function of literature and film, its refractive quality enabled artists to explore and comment on perspective, in the process challenging the concept of art’s faithful representation of phenomena. My radically compressed and selective overview of the mirror’s significance in Western iconography focuses primarily on visibility, gaze, and gender, dwelling on key moments and genres that most vividly illustrate the paradoxes of the mirror as both symbol and utilitarian object. Comparing Russian art with its Western counterpart, I argue that Russia’s distinctive iconographic traditions account for Russian divergences from major aspects of the inherited and evolving mirror rhetoric that prevailed in Western Europe.

  19. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in Visible and Hidden-Mirror Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ciarcelluti

    2014-01-01

    dark matter. The production of ordinary nuclides shows differences from the standard model for a ratio of the temperatures between mirror and ordinary sectors x=T′/T≳0.3, and they present an interesting decrease of the abundance of Li7. For the mirror nuclides, instead, one observes an enhanced production of He4, which becomes the dominant element for x≲0.5, and much larger abundances of heavier elements.

  20. Waves for Alpha-Channeling in Mirror Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J. Fisch

    2009-07-08

    Alpha-channeling can, in principle, be implemented in mirror machines via exciting weaklydamped modes in the ion cyclotron frequency range with perpendicular wavelengths smaller than the alpha particle gyroradius. Assuming quasi-longitudinal or quasi-transverse wave propagation, we search systematically for suitable modes in mirror plasmas. Considering two device designs, a proof-of-principle facility and a fusion rector prototype, we in fact identify candidate modes suitable for alpha-channeling.