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Sample records for computerized problem-oriented medical

  1. Evaluation of a Computerized Problem-Oriented Medical Record in a Hospital Department: Does it Support Daily Clinical Practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    led to more time spent documenting clinical work, fragmentation of patient situation into separate problems, and lack of overview.Conclusion: The problem-oriented method for structuring a computerized medical record may provide a description of how physicians think or ought to think, but does...... Purpose: Evaluation of a computerized problem-oriented medical record (CPOMR) for hospital work.Methods: A qualitative study of daily use of a CPOMR at an internal medicine hospital ward over a period of three months during which 66 patients were treated based on clinical information recorded...... in the CPOMR. The study is base on participant observation and interviews. Before and during the test period the author attended project planning meetings, a training workshop in the use of the CPOMR for nurses and physicians and local coordination meetings. After the test, 1 focus-group discussion...

  2. Prevention of blindness from glaucoma using the King's College Hospital computerized problem orientated medical record.

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    Crick, R P

    1975-04-01

    (1) Chronic glaucoma accounts for a high proportion of blindness which is preventable and calls for energetic action because existing knowledge is not applied as it should be because of the indifference of the Department of Health and Social Security to the glaucoma problem. (2) The condition is frequently insidious and advanced before being identified, and requires life-long supervision. (3) When diagnosed, the management of glaucoma is frequently inadequate and intermittent for a variety of reasons. (4) AtKing's College Hospital, a Glaucoma Centre has been initiated to supervise accurately and regularly a large number of glaucoma patients, assisted by numerical recording and computer analysis. While we are fortunate in having a computer in the hospital, it is important to emphasize that the system can be operated without this facility, either by employing manual methods, or by batch processing. It would be both possible and desirable to organize recording a nd analysis on a regional basis in collaboration with hospitals wishing to participiate. (5) Attempts are being made to improve the early diagnosis ofglaucoma by better communication between the hospital ophthalmologists, and other members of the medical, optical, and ancillary professions by lectures, demonstrations, and publications. (6) Research is always hampered by the absence of factual knowledge. It is planned to use fully the opportunity for research into glaucoma made possible by this basic organization. At present however, we consider it more important to carry out investigations into the problems of organizing the investigation, treatment, and follow-up of glaucoma patients than t o embark on a few individual projects of research. We are serously hampered in our work by shortage of funds for staff and facilities, but we look forward confidently to the time when, with the essential support of the Department of Health, these methods will give us access to the facts of glaucoma, which besides enabling

  3. A Demonstration of PROMIS. The Problem-Oriented Medical Information System at the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont.

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    Stratmann, William C.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the Problem-Oriented Medical Information System (PROMIS), which is based on an automated problem-oriented medical record, by comparing the records for two generally comparable medical wards, one using the computerized PROMIS record and the other using its manual prototype. This report provides a…

  4. Task-based learning versus problem-oriented lecture in neurology continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Jafri, Wasim; Ahmad, Amina; Sonawalla, Aziz; Sheerani, Mughis

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether general practitioners learned better with task-based learning or problem-oriented lecture in a Continuing Medical Education (CME) set-up. Quasi-experimental study. The Aga Khan University, Karachi campus, from April to June 2012. Fifty-nine physicians were given a choice to opt for either Task-based Learning (TBL) or Problem Oriented Lecture (PBL) in a continuing medical education set-up about headaches. The TBL group had 30 participants divided into 10 small groups, and were assigned case-based tasks. The lecture group had 29 participants. Both groups were given a pre and a post-test. Pre/post assessment was done using one-best MCQs. The reliability coefficient of scores for both the groups was estimated through Cronbach's alpha. An item analysis for difficulty and discriminatory indices was calculated for both the groups. Paired t-test was used to determine the difference between pre- and post-test scores of both groups. Independent t-test was used to compare the impact of the two teaching methods in terms of learning through scores produced by MCQ test. Cronbach's alpha was 0.672 for the lecture group and 0.881 for TBL group. Item analysis for difficulty (p) and discriminatory indexes (d) was obtained for both groups. The results for the lecture group showed pre-test (p) = 42% vs. post-test (p) = 43%; pre- test (d) = 0.60 vs. post-test (d) = 0.40. The TBL group showed pre -test (p) = 48% vs. post-test (p) = 70%; pre-test (d) = 0.69 vs. post-test (d) = 0.73. Lecture group pre-/post-test mean scores were (8.52 ± 2.95 vs. 12.41 ± 2.65; p learning through TBL delivery and calls for further exploration of longitudinal studies in the context of CME.

  5. Determinants of a successful problem list to support the implementation of the problem-oriented medical record according to recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.M.; Cillessen, F.H.J.M.; Hazelzet, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A problem-oriented approach is one of the possibilities to organize a medical record. The problem-oriented medical record (POMR) - a structured organization of patient information per presented medical problem- was introduced at the end of the sixties by Dr. Lawrence Weed to aid dealing

  6. Bringing science to medicine: an interview with Larry Weed, inventor of the problem-oriented medical record.

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    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F; McGowan, Julie; Ash, Joan S; Weed, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    Larry Weed, MD is widely known as the father of the problem-oriented medical record and inventor of the now-ubiquitous SOAP (subjective/objective/assessment/plan) note, for developing an electronic health record system (Problem-Oriented Medical Information System, PROMIS), and for founding a company (since acquired), which developed problem-knowledge couplers. However, Dr Weed's vision for medicine goes far beyond software--over the course of his storied career, he has relentlessly sought to bring the scientific method to medical practice and, where necessary, to point out shortcomings in the system and advocate for change. In this oral history, Dr Weed describes, in his own words, the arcs of his long career and the work that remains to be done. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Problem Oriented Medical Record: Characterizing the Use of the Problem List at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires.

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    Franco, Mariano; Giussi Bordoni, Maria Victoria; Otero, Carlos; Landoni, Mariana Clara; Benitez, Sonia; Borbolla, Damian; Luna, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Problem oriented medical record (POMR) was born in late sixties. Expecting an ordered, complete and updated medical record were some of the goals of its founder. Several healthcare institutions have included problem list into their clinical records but some concerns have been reported. These concerns are in reference to their voluminosity, incompleteness and outdatedness. This study attempts to understand how healthcare professionals are using the problem list at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA). We believe it is essential to understand the local reality applied to our own applications and cultural instances of documentation. This report is the basis from which several improvements could be made in order to meet the goals of Weed's proposal.

  8. Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.

    2013-05-01

    The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

  9. An algorithm to improve diagnostic accuracy in diabetes in computerised problem orientated medical records (POMR compared with an established algorithm developed in episode orientated records (EOMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm that detects errors in diagnosis, classification or coding of diabetes in primary care computerised medial record (CMR systems is currently available.  However, this was developed on CMR systems that are “Episode orientated” medical records (EOMR; and don’t force the user to always code a problem or link data to an existing one.  More strictly problem orientated medical record (POMR systems mandate recording a problem and linking consultation data to them.  

  10. Nursing medication administration and workflow using computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen, Dana; Talsma, Akkeneel; Reinemeyer, Nicholas; Belt, Christine; Schoville, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    The benefits of computerized physician order entry systems have been described widely; however, the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow and its potential for error are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a computerized physician order entry system on nursing workflow. Using an exploratory design, nurses employed on an adult ICU (n = 36) and a general pediatric unit (n = 50) involved in computerized physician order entry-based medication delivery were observed. Nurses were also asked questions regarding the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow. Observations revealed total time required for administering medications averaged 8.45 minutes in the ICU and 9.93 minutes in the pediatric unit. Several additional steps were required in the process for pediatric patients, including preparing the medications and communicating with patients and family, which resulted in greater time associated with the delivery of medications. Frequent barriers to workflow were noted by nurses across settings, including system issues (ie, inefficient medication reconciliation processes, long order sets requiring more time to determine medication dosage), less frequent interaction between the healthcare team, and greater use of informal communication modes. Areas for nursing workflow improvement include (1) medication reconciliation/order duplication, (2) strategies to improve communication, and (3) evaluation of the impact of computerized physician order entry on practice standards.

  11. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging: interim hypothetical economic evaluation

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    Warburton, Rebecca N.; Fisher, Paul D.; Nosil, Josip

    1990-08-01

    The 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have since 1983 been piloting the implementation of comprehensive computerized medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date habeen used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully-computerized department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labelled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration which raised the cost of conventional imaging equipment by 0.3 million* and lowered the cost of computerized imaging equipment by 0.8 million. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, computerized imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly 0.7 million, or 11.6%; this is more favourable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of 1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for computerized imaging than for conventional imaging. Computerized imaging offers lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial.

  12. Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System

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    Romano, Carol

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

  13. Problem-Oriented Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch; Pedersen, Nils Kaare

    This book is meant to support problem-oriented learning activities. Problem-orientation concerns the reasoning about lack of knowledge, while project work includes the ethnomethods that are practiced when collectives produce scientific knowledge. This book reflects particular methods related...

  14. Information integrity and privacy for computerized medical patient records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, J.; Hamilton, V.; Gaylor, T.; McCurley, K.; Meeks, T.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Oceania, Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in November 1993 to provide ``Information Integrity and Privacy for Computerized Medical Patient Records`` (CRADA No. SC93/01183). The main objective of the project was to develop information protection methods that are appropriate for databases of patient records in health information systems. This document describes the findings and alternative solutions that resulted from this CRADA.

  15. An epidemiologic approach to computerized medical diagnosis--AEDMI program.

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    Ferrer Salvans, P; Alonso Vallès, L

    1990-01-01

    A program called "An Epidemiological Approach to Computerized Medical Diagnosis" (AEDMI) is presented. Using an interactive questionnaire, physician-patient interviews are conducted and a summary of the relevant clinical data is provided. Standard items, obtained on a multi-centre basis, form a large-scale data base. Simultaneously, the reasoning of clinical experts in each real case is analyzed to obtain a knowledge-rules data base. The methodology of the program combines Bayesian systems, expert systems, and other new lines of research such as neural networks or case-based reasoning. The general concepts of clinical decision making aid systems are reviewed. This publication is aimed at obtaining international cooperation.

  16. Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records

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    Collmann, Jeff R.

    1995-05-01

    This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing

  17. Problem-oriented project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2010-01-01

    This contribution focuses on 'problem based learning' (however we prefer the notion of ‘problem-oriented project studies’) and the role of the teacher in such a context. The classic traditional role as an expert deciding the curriculum, providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments and mark......This contribution focuses on 'problem based learning' (however we prefer the notion of ‘problem-oriented project studies’) and the role of the teacher in such a context. The classic traditional role as an expert deciding the curriculum, providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments...... and marking papers / essays is complemented and in some way overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem, they themselves have picked. However different dimensions of this new teacher role can be seen – from expert in an academic field (result...

  18. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. Objective: We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. Design: We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. Results: The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of ‘real-time’ medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055, respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, p<0.0001, respectively. The PCIP allows the hospital staff to identify and order medications with a critically low supply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. Conclusions: An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  19. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Michelle R; Rudis, Maria I; Wilson, John W

    2015-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. Objective We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP) would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. Design We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. Results The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of 'real-time' medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055), respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, psupply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. Conclusions An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  20. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Michelle R; Rudis, Maria I; Wilson, John W

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP) would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of 'real-time' medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055), respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, psupply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  1. Problem-Oriented Researches in Literary Studies

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    Dr. A. Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Being familiar with research methodology causes an increase in the effectivity and efficiency in research. One of the most valuable subjects in research methodology is to discuss about principles and skill of "Problem-oriented" researches that seems to be less known in literary studies.Propagation of problem-oriented researches in the field of Persian language and literature needs serious considerations to its principles and regulations, changing the viewpoint of literary researches, reconsideration in the curriculum of higher education centers, and finally revision in methods and procedure of doing a research plan in this field.Emphasing the necessity of the further consideration of problem-oriented in literary studies, in this article the characteristics and features of this type of research is discussed. Also the methods and skills of problem-finding in the field of literature are described and types of literary problem are introduced. Moreover the different steps that must be followed by a researcher in order to solve the literary problems are stated.

  2. [Computerized medical register of venous thromboembolic disease at the Grenoble University Hospital Center: description and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, E; Bosson, J L; Pichot, O; Vidal, F; Rossignol, S; Schwartzmann, J; Carpentier, P H

    1994-01-01

    The number of vascular exams for venous thromboembolic disease increases dramatically in the vascular medicine unit at the Grenoble University Hospital (France). In order to improve the efficiency and the homogeneity of all the medical staff involved, a computerized register has been created. It automatically provides a letter for the prescriber of the consultation. This database, working on a computer network, has three main functions: office automation (medical folder, report), education, and clinical research. The office automation evaluation is performed after a 6 month experience, comparing 100 medical reports about venous thrombosis assisted by the computer to 100 medical reports written before the installation of the system. The introduction of digitized register is real, still this evaluation has induced some modification in the system in order to be more efficient.

  3. Prevention of pediatric medication errors by hospital pharmacists and the potential benefit of computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jerome K; Herzog, Nicole S; Kaushal, Rainu; Park, Christine; Mochizuki, Carol; Weingarten, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize medication errors and adverse drug events intercepted by a system of pediatric clinical pharmacists and to determine whether the addition of a computerized physician order entry system would improve medication safety. The study included 16,938 medication orders for 678 admissions to the pediatric units of a large academic community hospital. Pediatric clinical pharmacists reviewed medication orders and monitored subsequent medication use. Medication errors and adverse drug events were identified by daily review of documentation, voluntary reporting, and solicitation. Each potentially harmful medication error was judged whether or not it was intercepted and, if not, whether it would have been captured by a computerized physician order entry system. Overall, 865 medication errors occurred, corresponding with a rate of 5.2 per 100 medication orders. A near-miss rate of 0.96% and a preventable adverse drug event rate of 0.09% were observed. Overall, 78% of potentially harmful prescribing errors were intercepted; however, none of the potentially harmful errors occurring at administration was intercepted and accounted for 50% of preventable adverse drug events. A computerized physician order entry system could capture additional potentially harmful prescribing and transcription errors (54%-73%) but not administration errors (0% vs 6%). A system of pediatric clinical pharmacists effectively intercepted inpatient prescribing errors but did not capture potentially harmful medication administration errors. The addition of a computerized physician order entry system to pharmacists is unlikely to prevent administration errors, which pose the highest risk of patient injury.

  4. The effect of a well-designed computerized physician order entry on medication error reduction

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    Hamid Moghaddasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper-based prescription orders, commonly having numerous medication errors, can increase adverse drug events (ADEs and threaten the patient’s safety. Computerized physician order entry (CPOE, as an appropriate alternative, can significantly reduce medication errors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of well-designed CPOE in reducing medication errors and ADEs. Method: Electronic databases including EBSCO Host, Web of Science, PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Iranmedex, Irandoc were used to conduct the literature review. We reviewed all the papers published about CPOE and its impacts on medication errors from 1998 until 2015. Thus 56 articles were found. Considering the relevance of their title and abstract with the objectives of the study, and deleting repetitive cases, 32 articles were selected, among which 10 articles were directly related to the objectives of the study. Results:A number of studies indicate that CPOE can reduce the incidence of serious medication errors and ADEs. Nonetheless, there is evidence indicating that CPOE could negatively affect the patient’s health if the system is not well-designed. Conclusion: The replacement of conventional, paper-based prescription orders with well-designed CPOEs in hospitals could play a key role in minimizing medication errors and improving the patients’ safety. To this end, the CPOEs have to be designed according to recent standards and needs.

  5. End-user perceptions of a computerized medication system: is there resistance to change?

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    Malato, Larry Allen; Kim, Soonhee

    2004-01-01

    Public mandate to control cost, while improving quality of service, leads health care administrators to look to information technology for innovative solutions. This case study of acute care registered nurses in a public hospital focuses on experiences of the end-users of a computerized medication system. Data was obtained by in-depth interviews and observation performed in the clinical setting. Findings fell into five challenging issues to the end-user and health care administration: end-user perceptions of inadequate training, negative experiences of implementation, perceived deficiencies in quality of technology, perceptions of lack of participatory design and a ensuing circumvention of the new system. Emphasis is on the relationship of the findings to the quality of public health care administration.

  6. A New Approach for Enhancing the Quality of Medical Computerized Tomography Images

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    Mutaz Al-Frejat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Computerized tomography (CT images contribute immensely to medical research and diagnosis. However, due to degradative factors such as noise, low contrast, and blurring, CT images tend to be a degraded representation of the actual body or part under investigation. To reduce the risk of imprecise diagnosis associated with poor-quality CT images, this paper presents a new technique designed to enhance the quality of medical CT images. The main objective is to improve the appearance of CT images in order to obtain better visual interpretation and analysis, which is expected to ease the diagnosis process. The proposed technique involves applying a median filter to remove noise from the CT images and then using a Laplacian filter to enhance the edges and the contrast in the images. Also, as CT images suffer from low contrast, a Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization transform is also applied to solve this problem. The main strength of this transform is its modest computational requirements, ease of application, and excellent results for most images. According to a subjective assessment by a group of radiologists, the proposed technique resulted in excellent enhancement, including that of the contrast and the edges of medical CT images. From a medical perspective, the proposed technique was able to clarify the arteries, tissues, and lung nodules in the CT images. In addition, blurred nodules in chest CT images were enhanced effectively. Therefore the proposed technique can help radiologists to better detect lung nodules and can also assist in diagnosing the presence of tumours and in the detection of abnormal growths.

  7. The Role of a Computerized System of Medical Order Registration on the Reduction of Medical Errors

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    Shahverdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Medication errors are the most common medical errors, and are one of the major challenges threatening the healthcare system, which is inherently susceptible to error. Objectives In this study, we aimed to compare the occurrence of errors between two methods of entering orders: manual and digital. Patients and Methods In this perspective study, 350 files in the Baqiyatallah hospital in Tehran, Iran, were evaluated in 2014. The files were divided into two groups, including manual and digital methods, with 175 members each. In both groups, the presence of errors in the administration, registration, and execution of orders was compared. Results Overall, 350 cases underwent analysis; 175 files were evaluated manually and 175 were evaluated digitally. Of the 69 errors (19.7% that occurred, 65 errors (18.6% were in the manual files versus 4 (1.1% in the digital files (P < 0.001. The mean age of the nurses making errors was 32.42 ± 7.13 years old, and for the others it was 35.15 ± 7.76 years old (P = 0.008. Additionally, the mean age of the physicians with errors was 37.52 ± 7.97 years old versus 34.48 ± 6.82 years old in the others. Moreover, significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of age (P = 0.002. Of the 69 errors, 80% were because of bad handwriting (P < 0.001, 50 errors (14.3% were pharmaceutical, 2 errors (0.6% were related to the procedure, and 17 (4.9% were related to the tests. Conclusions It can be concluded that electronic health records lead to a reduction in medication errors and increase patient safety.

  8. The Computerized Medical Record as a Tool for Clinical Governance in Australian Primary Care

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    Phillips, Christine; Hall, Sally; Travaglia, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized medical records (CMR) are used in most Australian general practices. Although CMRs have the capacity to amalgamate and provide data to the clinician about their standard of care, there is little research on the way in which they may be used to support clinical governance: the process of ensuring quality and accountability that incorporates the obligation that patients are treated according to best evidence. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the capability, capacity, and acceptability of CMRs to support clinical governance. Methods We conducted a realist review of the role of seven CMR systems in implementing clinical governance, developing a four-level maturity model for the CMR. We took Australian primary care as the context, CMR to be the mechanism, and looked at outcomes for individual patients, localities, and for the population in terms of known evidence-based surrogates or true outcome measures. Results The lack of standardization of CMRs makes national and international benchmarking challenging. The use of the CMR was largely at level two of our maturity model, indicating a relatively simple system in which most of the process takes place outside of the CMR, and which has little capacity to support benchmarking, practice comparisons, and population-level activities. Although national standards for coding and projects for record access are proposed, they are not operationalized. Conclusions The current CMR systems can support clinical governance activities; however, unless the standardization and data quality issues are addressed, it will not be possible for current systems to work at higher levels. PMID:23939340

  9. Computerized Physician Order Entry - effectiveness and efficiency of electronic medication ordering with decision support systems

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    Traurig, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Computerized physician order entry (CPOE systems are software to electronically enter medication orders. They can be equipped with tools for decision support (CDS. In Germany, various vendors offer such systems for hospitals and physicians’ offices. These systems have mostly been developed during the last five to ten years. Scientific background: CPOE-systems exist since the 1970’s. Usually, clinical decision support is integrated into the CPOE to avoid errors. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CPOE-/CDS-systems and their ethical, social and legal aspects. Methods: The systematic literature search (27 international data bases yielded 791 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process, twelve publications were included in the assessment. Results: All reviews and studies included in the present report show that the use of CPOE-/CDS-systems can lead to a reduction of medication errors. Minor errors can be eliminated almost completely. The effect of CPOE-/CDS-systems on the rate of adverse drug events (ADE is evaluated in only two primary studies with conflicting results. It is difficult to compare the results of economical studies because they evaluate different settings, interventions and time frames. In addition, the documentation often is not fully transparent. All four studies included measure costs and effects from the perspective of a hospital or hospital affiliation. Concerning social aspects, the literature points at changes regard competing interests of technology and humans that result from the implementation of CPOE-systems. The experience of institutions in which the implementation of CPOE-systems leads to problems showed that the importance of considering the socio-organisational context had partly been underestimated. Discussion: CPOE-/CDS-systems are able to reduce the rate of medication errors when ordering medications. The adherence to

  10. What is a problem?: On problem-oriented interdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-06-01

    Among others, the term "problem" plays a major role in the various attempts to characterize interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity, as used synonymously in this paper. Interdisciplinarity (ID) is regarded as "problem solving among science, technology and society" and as "problem orientation beyond disciplinary constraints" (cf. Frodeman et al.: The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010). The point of departure of this paper is that the discourse and practice of ID have problems with the "problem". The objective here is to shed some light on the vague notion of "problem" in order to advocate a specific type of interdisciplinarity: problem-oriented interdisciplinarity. The outline is as follows: Taking an ex negativo approach, I will show what problem-oriented ID does not mean. Using references to well-established distinctions in philosophy of science, I will show three other types of ID that should not be placed under the umbrella term "problem-oriented ID": object-oriented ID ("ontology"), theory-oriented ID (epistemology), and method-oriented ID (methodology). Different philosophical thought traditions can be related to these distinguishable meanings. I will then clarify the notion of "problem" by looking at three systematic elements: an undesired (initial) state, a desired (goal) state, and the barriers in getting from the one to the other. These three elements include three related kinds of knowledge: systems, target, and transformation knowledge. This paper elaborates further methodological and epistemological elements of problem-oriented ID. It concludes by stressing that problem-oriented ID is the most needed as well as the most challenging type of ID.

  11. PROBLEM-ORIENTED TRAINING OF EXPERTS IN RADIATING HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Baltrukova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In article one of modern methods of preparation of experts in radiating hygiene - problem-oriented training is considered. This method gives knowledge in shorter terms and develops creative abilities trained to the independent decision of problems of professional character.

  12. A classification of diabetic foot infections using ICD-9-CM codes: application to a large computerized medical database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Donald R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot infections are common, serious, and varied. Diagnostic and treatment strategies are correspondingly diverse. It is unclear how patients are managed in actual practice and how outcomes might be improved. Clarification will require study of large numbers of patients, such as are available in medical databases. We have developed and evaluated a system for identifying and classifying diabetic foot infections that can be used for this purpose. Methods We used the (VA Diabetes Epidemiology Cohorts (DEpiC database to conduct a retrospective observational study of patients with diabetic foot infections. DEpiC contains computerized VA and Medicare patient-level data for patients with diabetes since 1998. We determined which ICD-9-CM codes served to identify patients with different types of diabetic foot infections and ranked them in declining order of severity: Gangrene, Osteomyelitis, Ulcer, Foot cellulitis/abscess, Toe cellulitis/abscess, Paronychia. We evaluated our classification by examining its relationship to patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments given, and medical outcomes. Results There were 61,007 patients with foot infections, of which 42,063 were classifiable into one of our predefined groups. The different types of infection were related to expected patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments, and outcomes. Our severity ranking showed a monotonic relationship to hospital length of stay, amputation rate, transition to long-term care, and mortality. Conclusions We have developed a classification system for patients with diabetic foot infections that is expressly designed for use with large, computerized, ICD-9-CM coded administrative medical databases. It provides a framework that can be used to conduct observational studies of large numbers of patients in order to examine treatment variation and patient outcomes, including the effect of new management strategies

  13. Correlations between the scores of computerized adaptive testing, paper and pencil tests, and the Korean Medical Licensing Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Young Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the usefulness of computerized adaptive testing (CAT in medical school, the General Examination for senior medical students was administered as a paper and pencil test (P&P and using CAT. The General Examination is a graduate examination, which is also a preliminary examination for the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. The correlations between the results of the CAT and P&P and KMLE were analyzed. The correlation between the CAT and P&P was 0.8013 (p=0.000; that between the CAT and P&P was 0.7861 (p=0.000; and that between the CAT and KMLE was 0.6436 (p=0.000. Six out of 12 students with an ability estimate below 0.52 failed the KMLE. The results showed that CAT could replace P&P in medical school. The ability of CAT to predict whether students would pass the KMLE was 0.5 when the criterion of the theta value was set at -0.52 that was chosen arbitrarily for the prediction of pass or failure.

  14. Coupling Clinical Decision Support System with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry and their Dynamic Plugging in the Medical Workflow System

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzguenda, Lotfi

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with coupling Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry (CPOE) and their dynamic plugging in the medical Workflow Management System (WfMS). First, in this paper we argue some existing CDSS representative of the state of the art in order to emphasize their inability to deal with coupling with CPOE and medical WfMS. The multi-agent technology is at the basis of our proposition since (i) it provides natural abstractions to deal with distribution, heterogeneity and autonomy which are inherent to the previous systems (CDSS, CPOE and medical WfMS), and (ii) it introduces powerful concepts such as organizations, goals and roles useful to describe in details the coordination of the different components involved in these systems. In this paper, we also propose a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to support the coupling CDSS with CPOE. Finally, we show how we integrate the proposed MAS in the medical workflow management system which is also based on collaborating agents

  15. Impact of a computerized provider radiography order entry system without clinical decision support on emergency department medical imaging requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Pierre-Géraud; Bobbia, Xavier; Macri, Francesco; Stowell, Andrew; Motté, Antony; Landais, Paul; Beregi, Jean-Paul; de La Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of computerized physician order entry is an important cornerstone of using health information technology (HIT) in health care. The transition from paper to computer forms presents a change in physicians' practices. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of implementing a computer-based order entry (CPOE) system without clinical decision support on the number of radiographs ordered for patients admitted in the emergency department. This single-center pre-/post-intervention study was conducted in January, 2013 (before CPOE period) and January, 2014 (after CPOE period) at the emergency department at Nîmes University Hospital. All patients admitted in the emergency department who had undergone medical imaging were included in the study. Emergency department admissions have increased since the implementation of CPOE (5388 in the period before CPOE implementation vs. 5808 patients after CPOE implementation, p=.008). In the period before CPOE implementation, 2345 patients (44%) had undergone medical imaging; in the period after CPOE implementation, 2306 patients (40%) had undergone medical imaging (p=.008). In the period before CPOE, 2916 medical imaging procedures were ordered; in the period after CPOE, 2876 medical imaging procedures were ordered (p=.006). In the period before CPOE, 1885 radiographs were ordered; in the period after CPOE, 1776 radiographs were ordered (pmedical imaging did not vary between the two periods. Our results show a decrease in the number of radiograph requests after a CPOE system without clinical decision support was implemented in our emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computerized Decision Support Improves Medication Review Effectiveness : An Experiment Evaluating the STRIP Assistant's Usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, Michiel C; Spruit, Marco R; Drenth-van Maanen, A Clara; Numans, Mattijs E; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Jansen, Paul A F; Knol, Wilma

    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy poses threats to patients' health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  17. Computerized decision support improves medication review effectiveness: an experiment evaluating the STRIP Assistant’s usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, M.; Spruit, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297391879; Drenth-van Maanen, C.; Numans, M.; Brinkkemper, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07500707X; Jansen, P.; Knol, W

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy poses threats to patients’ health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  18. Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliaroli Véronique

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors.... Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist. Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3. Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The

  19. The computerized medical record in gastroenterology: part 4. Health curriculum vitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanty, C

    1978-12-01

    The health curriculum vitae consists mainly of a chronological sequence of diagnoses, which are the mainstays of the medical record. Each diagnosis is connected vertically in the health curriculum vitae with its aetiological factors and its medical or surgical treatments in a casual concatenation; and horizontally throughout the other three parts of the record with its relevant functional, morphological (descriptive) and numerical laboratory data in a diagnostic association. The health curriculum vitae uses the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), the International Nomenclature of the Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract (CIOMS) and the International Standard Classification of Occupations of the Internationl Labour Office.

  20. How to manage secure direct access of European patients to their computerized medical record and personal medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, Catherine; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Riandey, Benoît; Avillach, Paul; Cohen, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The multiplication of the requests of the patients for a direct access to their Medical Record (MR), the development of Personal Medical Record (PMR) supervised by the patients themselves, the increasing development of the patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) and the world wide internet utilization will lead to envisage an access by using technical automatic and scientific way. It will require the addition of different conditions: a unique patient identifier which could base on a familial component in order to get access to the right record anywhere in Europe, very strict identity checks using cryptographic techniques such as those for the electronic signature, which will ensure the authentication of the requests sender and the integrity of the file but also the protection of the confidentiality and the access follow up. The electronic medical record must also be electronically signed by the practitioner in order to get evidence that he has given his agreement and taken the liability for that. This electronic signature also avoids any kind of post-transmission falsification. This will become extremely important, especially in France where patients will have the possibility to mask information that, they do not want to appear in their personal medical record. Currently, the idea of every citizen having electronic signatures available appears positively Utopian. But this is yet the case in eGovernment, eHealth and eShopping, world-wide. The same was thought about smart cards before they became generally available and useful when banks issued them.

  1. Identifying and quantifying medication errors: evaluation of rapidly discontinued medication orders submitted to a computerized physician order entry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Ross; Leonard, Charles E; Localio, A Russell; Cohen, Abigail; Auten, Ruthann; Strom, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    All methods of identifying medication prescribing errors are fraught with inaccuracies and systematic bias. A systematic, efficient, and inexpensive way of measuring and quantifying prescribing errors would be a useful step for reducing them. We ask if rapid discontinuations of prescription-orders--where physicians stop their orders within 2 hours--would be an expedient proxy for prescribing errors? To study this we analyzed CPOE-system medication orders entered and then discontinued within 2 hours. We investigated these phenomena in real time via interviews with corresponding ordering physicians. Each order was also independently reviewed by a clinical pharmacist or physicians. We found that of 114 rapidly discontinued orders by 75 physicians, two-thirds (35 of 53, PPV = 66; 95% CI = 53-77) of medication orders discontinued within 45 minutes were deemed inappropriate (overdose, underdose, etc.). Overall, 55% (63 of 114; 95% CI = 46-64%) of medication orders discontinued within 2 hours were deemed inappropriate. This measure offers a rapid, constant, inexpensive, and objective method to identify medication orders with a high probability of error. It may also serve as a screening and teaching mechanism for physicians-in-training.

  2. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stauffacher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  3. [Opportunities for medication errors and pharmacist's interventions in the context of computerized prescription order entry: a review of data published by French hospital pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Bedouch, P; Conort, O; Rose, F X; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Allenet, B

    2012-03-01

    Computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) is accelerating in France. CPOE has been shown to reduce the occurrence of some medication errors, but evidence of a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes remains limited. In some cases, new error types have arisen with its use. The aim of this study was to investigate the French data on the nature and frequency of medication errors opportunities generated by the computer use, which led pharmacists to alert prescribers. We performed a search on PubMed and CAT-INIST databases completed by a manual one. Ten publications, 11 abstracts and three personal communications were analysed. As part of the analysis of computerized prescriptions, the rate of pharmaceutical interventions due to CPOE ranges from 5.9 to 35% depending on the study. Duplicate orders, unit errors, the use of free text, parameterization flaws and poor usability of software are probably the root of many prescribing errors. Errors generated by the tool can have serious potential consequences. Pharmacist's interventions due to CPOE are common. It is not known whether variability of the percentage of pharmacist's interventions is due to software used or to conditions by witch studies were carried out. With implementation of CPOE in hospital, pharmacists must acquire new knowledge and new skills in order to prevent prescription errors generated by these tools and its misuse. Studies are urgently needed in order to identify the safest tools and to discard the most dangerous. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [A new, problem oriented medicine curriculum in Utrecht: less basic science knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Custers, Eugène J F M; ten Cate, Olle Th J

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether the transition from a conventional, discipline-based curriculum to a problem-orientated, integrated curriculum at the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, has resulted in students having less knowledge of the basic medical sciences. Comparative. The difference in the amount of basic science between the curricula was quantitatively assessed. 37 final-year students in each curriculum volunteered to complete a test specifically designed to measure knowledge of the basic sciences, a few weeks before their graduation. The transition from the old to the new curriculum resulted in a decline of almost half in the amount of time dedicated to the basic sciences, from 84 to 48 'fulltime week equivalents'. Students in the old curriculum performed significantly better on the test than students in the new curriculum, with 43.2% (SD: 9.56) correct answers versus 35.8% (SD: 8.19) correct answers respectively, which amounted to an effect size of 0.828 (Cohen-d). Yet, on the pathophysiology/pathology subscale, students in each curriculum showed similar performance: 36.1% (SD: 11.55) correct answers for students in the old curriculum, versus 37.2% (SD: 11.66) correct answers for students in the new curriculum. Students in the old curriculum had overall significantly more knowledge of the basic sciences than students in the new curriculum, except for pathophysiology/pathology, though the time devoted to this discipline in the new curriculum had also decreased considerably.

  5. Electronic health record training in undergraduate medical education: bridging theory to practice with curricula for empowering patient- and relationship-centered care in the computerized setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2014-03-01

    While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills.

  6. Problem-oriented clinical microbiology and infection. 2nd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Humphreys; William, L. Irving [Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    This medical textbook is problem-based, in line with current medical teaching, and covers 70 clinical cases. This second edition has been updated to include new material on AIDS/HIV, emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new viral pathogens such as SARS. Sections are headed; Skin and mucous membranes; Respiratory tract; Gastrointestinal system which includes a case study entitled: Bob, a 55-year-old retired coal miner with abdominal pain; Genito-urinary system; Central nervous system; Systemic infections; Pregnancy and the neonate; and Miscellaneous. 29 ills., 125 photos.

  7. ConceptModeller: a Problem-Oriented Visual SDK for Globally Distributed Enterprise Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zykov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes problem-oriented approach to software development. The approach is a part of the original integrated methodology of enterprise Internet-based software design and implementation. All aspects of software development, from theory to implementation, are covered.

  8. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application and comp......It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application...... and compliance with CPGs in most areas of clinical practice are deficient. Computerization of CPGs has been brought forward as a method to disseminate and to support application of CPGs. Until now, CPG-computerization has focused on development of formal expressions of CPGs. The developed systems have, however......, not gained any extensive application in clinical practice. The basic assumption in this thesis is that the scanty penetration is due to an inappropriate design process when designing computerized CPGs for clinical work practice. This thesis examines the application of guidance within areas where CPG...

  9. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, de Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  10. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tu

  11. The Problem-Oriented Project Work (PPL) Alternative in Self-Diected Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig; Heilesen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces an approach to higher education developed and practiced over four decades at Roskilde University in Denmark. Known as the Roskilde Model, the approach is characterized by (1) a special type of self-directed learning (SDL), named “problem-oriented project learning” (PPL); (...

  12. The difference between problem-oriented education and problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2013-01-01

    Roskilde University offers a distinctive profile and contribution within Denmark. It is well known for its interdisciplinary research and education, including project work and problem-oriented method that is much valued by its students and graduates (International Evaluation Report on Roskilde...

  13. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  14. Occurrence of medication errors and comparison of manual and computerized prescription systems in public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Riaz

    Full Text Available The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%-60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21-30 years (21%-24%. A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber's signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%-19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both

  15. [A new computerized system for electroencephalography at the Kochi Medical School Hospital: the present status and problems of electroencephalogram data filing systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, T; Kataoka, H; Nishida, M; Sasaki, M

    1990-06-01

    The usual electroencephalography (EEG) recording consumes great amounts of paper, considerable storage space for records and much time and energy for their search and retrieval. In addition, we can not perform digitized analyses of the records with the present method. To solve these problems, our laboratory developed a new computerized system for EEG, in which data are retained in optic disks, and which has been in service for routine examination since December, 1988. The functions of the system and EEG filing system, include the collection, retention, retrieval, transmission and analyses of data with the reproduction of the original EEG and editing function of summary reports to be filed in the medical records. The summary report consists of summary, characteristic wave patterns picked up and edited from EEG, and spectral array and topographical mapping by digitized analyses of EEG. The condition for the collection of EEG data was 200 Hz/8 bit, and the reproduced wave patterns were accepted by all clinicians. The merits of the system include; (i) saving of paper, space and time needed for EEG, (ii) enabling the comparison of the wave patterns in the form of summary reports and (iii) the capability of digitized analyses of EEG by retaining the EEG data in the data base. The problems remaining to be improved for the system are the longer time required for examination (5-10 min) and the higher running cost (yen 460/order). Regarding the latter problem, a revised method which dispenses with recording paper is under consideration. That is, in the case of screening examinations, summary reports for medical records alone would be delivered to clinicians. This idea has been accepted by some clinicians. To realize the revised system, we presently are planning to establish a method to display EEG on CRT.

  16. Physicians’ use of computerized clinical decision supports to improve medication management in the elderly – the Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technology intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Wilson, Patricia; Sadowski, Cheryl A; Rolfson, Darryl; Ballermann, Mark; Ausford, Allen; Vermeer, Karla; Mohindra, Kunal; Romney, Jacques; Hayward, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Background Elderly people (aged 65 years or more) are at increased risk of polypharmacy (five or more medications), inappropriate medication use, and associated increased health care costs. The use of clinical decision support (CDS) within an electronic medical record (EMR) could improve medication safety. Methods Participatory action research methods were applied to preproduction design and development and postproduction optimization of an EMR-embedded CDS implementation of the Beers’ Criteria for medication management and the Cockcroft–Gault formula for estimating glomerular filtration rates (GFR). The “Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technologies” (SMART) intervention was used in primary care and geriatrics specialty clinics. Passive (chart messages) and active (order-entry alerts) prompts exposed potentially inappropriate medications, decreased GFR, and the possible need for medication adjustments. Physician reactions were assessed using surveys, EMR simulations, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews. EMR audit data were used to identify eligible patient encounters, the frequency of CDS events, how alerts were managed, and when evidence links were followed. Results Analysis of subjective data revealed that most clinicians agreed that CDS appeared at appropriate times during patient care. Although managing alerts incurred a modest time burden, most also agreed that workflow was not disrupted. Prevalent concerns related to clinician accountability and potential liability. Approximately 36% of eligible encounters triggered at least one SMART alert, with GFR alert, and most frequent medication warnings were with hypnotics and anticholinergics. Approximately 25% of alerts were overridden and ~15% elicited an evidence check. Conclusion While most SMART alerts validated clinician choices, they were received as valuable reminders for evidence-informed care and education. Data from this study may aid other attempts to implement Beers’ Criteria in

  17. Physicians’ use of computerized clinical decision supports to improve medication management in the elderly – the Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technology intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagiakrishnan K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan,1 Patricia Wilson,2 Cheryl A Sadowski,3 Darryl Rolfson,1 Mark Ballermann,4,5 Allen Ausford,6,7 Karla Vermeer,7 Kunal Mohindra,8 Jacques Romney,9 Robert S Hayward10 1Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 4Chief Medical Information Office, Alberta Health Services, 5Division of Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, 6Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, 7Lynwood Family Physician, 8eClinician EMR, Alberta Health Services-Information Systems, 9Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 10Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Elderly people (aged 65 years or more are at increased risk of polypharmacy (five or more medications, inappropriate medication use, and associated increased health care costs. The use of clinical decision support (CDS within an electronic medical record (EMR could improve medication safety.Methods: Participatory action research methods were applied to preproduction design and development and postproduction optimization of an EMR-embedded CDS implementation of the Beers’ Criteria for medication management and the Cockcroft–Gault formula for estimating glomerular filtration rates (GFR. The “Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technologies” (SMART intervention was used in primary care and geriatrics specialty clinics. Passive (chart messages and active (order-entry alerts prompts exposed potentially inappropriate medications, decreased GFR, and the possible need for medication adjustments. Physician reactions were assessed using surveys, EMR simulations, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews. EMR audit data were used to identify eligible patient encounters, the frequency of CDS events, how alerts were managed, and when evidence links were followed.Results: Analysis of

  18. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  19. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  20. The Problem-Oriented Project Work (PPL) Alternative in Self-Diected Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig; Heilesen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces an approach to higher education developed and practiced over four decades at Roskilde University in Denmark. Known as the Roskilde Model, the approach is characterized by (1) a special type of self-directed learning (SDL), named “problem-oriented project learning” (PPL); (2......) a way of organizing undergraduate education into broad interdisciplinary programs; and (3) an interdisciplinary profile where double-major graduate programs allow students to design their own academic and professional profiles. The chapter first explains similarities and differences between PPL and some...

  1. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  2. Problem-Oriented Simulation Packages and Computational Infrastructure for Numerical Studies of Powerful Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful gyrotrons are necessary as sources of strong microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in various reactors (most notably ITER) for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Adequate physical models and efficient problem-oriented software packages are essential tools for numerical studies, analysis, optimization and computer-aided design (CAD) of such high-performance gyrotrons operating in a CW mode and delivering output power of the order of 1-2 MW. In this report we present the current status of our simulation tools (physical models, numerical codes, pre- and post-processing programs, etc.) as well as the computational infrastructure on which they are being developed, maintained and executed.

  3. Assessing ecosystem services for informing land-use decisions: a problem-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Förster

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services (ES, that aim at informing decisions on land management, are increasing in number around the globe. Despite selected success stories, evidence for ES information being used in decision making is weak, partly because ES assessments are found to fall short in targeting information needs by decision makers. To improve their applicability in practice, we compared existing concepts of ES assessments with focus on informing land use decisions and identified opportunities for enhancing the relevance of ES assessments for decision making. In a process of codesign, building on experience of four projects in Brazil, China, Madagascar, and Vietnam, we developed a step-wise approach for better targeting ES assessments toward information needs in land use decisions. Our problem-oriented approach aims at (1 structuring ES information according to land use problems identified by stakeholders, (2 targeting context-specific ES information needs by decision makers, and (3 assessing relevant management options. We demonstrate how our approach contributes to making ES assessments more policy relevant and enhances the application of ES assessments as a tool for decision support.

  4. Psychology of development of moral reasoning: Problem-oriented overview of the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available First and foremost, this paper provides a short historical reminder of the emergence of the field of psychology of development of moral reasoning. In the second part of the paper, the author offers a problem-oriented overview of the field, that is, one possible classification of particular groups of problems for empirical research. This overview does not only point out to the problems that were more and that were less studied (e.g.. evaluative moral judgment and reasoning, distinguishing between moral and extra-moral rules and norms and to those that were relatively neglected (i.e. understanding moral situations, but also to the problems that psychologists did not even recognize as research problems. Such are the problems of development of moral concepts, meaning of moral words etc. Finally, the author also points out to the fact that this classification could be taken as one way to define the field, that is, the way to determine the boundaries of its subject of studying.

  5. A problem-oriented approach for DEM data management and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fengru; Fang, Yu; Chen, Bin

    2009-10-01

    For the last decades, GIS software technologies have made tremendous development and applied to many special fields when their targets are relevant to geographical locations. But the basis of cartographic mapping of GIS is a restriction for more development in GIS data modelling, storage and manipulation. Recently, much attention is being paid on ORDBMS(Object Relational Database Management System) to represent and manage GIS Data. New approaches have earned acceptance in many research communities and several proposals have emerged in commercial software for solving the management and manipulation on GIS vector data. Though the storage and management of field-based model data(e.g. raster, DEM, TIN) have got less achievement and people still use files and procedural ways to manipulation field-based GIS data in common applications. In this paper a new structure model using ORDBMS technology for field-based data's storage and management was proposed on the basis of full discussion on several GIS data management technologies, then a problem-oriented approach for DEM data management and manipulation was designed and implemented through open source software systems PostgreSQL and Python language. Experimental examples of different DEM data souces were stored, managed and used by using the extended spatial database system. The experiments illustrated that this solution would be a useful supplement to spatial database and it provided an effective way to DEM data management and analysis, and support the interoperability between vector data and field data.

  6. Development and Design of Computerized Physician Order Entry on High-alert Medications%高危药品计算机辅助医嘱系统的设计和开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠芳; 陈志雄; 光奇; 武新安

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索高危药品的信息化管理模式,以保证患者的用药安全.方法 参考美国医疗安全协会公布的高危药品目录,依据说明书等确定高危药品的单次最大剂量和给药途径.基于医院信息系统,采用Oracle数据库管理剂量和给药途径信息,嵌入医师工作站.结果与结论 开发了高危药品单次最大剂量和给药途径的计算机辅助医嘱系统,可减少用药差错的发生.%OBJECTIVE To explore information technology management mode of high-alert medications so as to ensure drug safety of patients. METHODS By referring ISMP's list of high-alert medications, we determined separate single maximum dose and administration route according to package insert etc. Based on hospital information system, we managed drug dose and route information by oracle database and embedded them into doctor workstation. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS We developed computerized physician order entry of single maximum dose and route on high-alert medications, and reduced the incidence of medication errors.

  7. Promoting Scientific Literacy Using a Sociocritical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching: Concept, Examples, Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the discussion about the objectives of scientific literacy-oriented chemistry teaching, its connection to the German concept of "Allgemeinbildung", and the debate of "science through education" vs. "education through science". About 10 years ago the sociocritical and problem-oriented approach to…

  8. Computerizing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

  9. Computerized Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the introduction of a computerized peer assessment system as part of an undergraduate module in computer studies in the United Kingdom. Analyzes student responses to modification of the tutor-student relationship to a student-student relationship for assessment purposes, discusses plagiarism and the Web, and investigates effects on…

  10. Computerized Drug Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  11. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  12. Mechatronic Control Engineering: A Problem Oriented And Project Based Learning Curriculum In Mechatronic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    Mechatronics is a field of multidisciplinary engineering that not only requires knowledge about different technical areas, but also insight into how to combine technologies optimally, to design efficient products and systems.This paper addresses the group project based and problem-oriented learning...... approach in relation to a mechatronic education, which makes it possible for the student to get in-depth skills in the area of mechatronics very fast. The trends and applications of mechatronic engineering and research are illustrated. Control engineering plays a central role in this context, where...... the well established methods from control engineering form very powerful techniques in both analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems. The necessary skills for mechatronic engineers are outlined followed up by a discussion on how problem oriented project based learning is implemented. A complete...

  13. Mechatronic Control Engineering: A Problem Oriented And Project Based Learning Curriculum In Mechatronic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    Mechatronics is a field of multidisciplinary engineering that not only requires knowledge about different technical areas, but also insight into how to combine technologies optimally, to design efficient products and systems.This paper addresses the group project based and problem-oriented learning...... approach in relation to a mechatronic education, which makes it possible for the student to get in-depth skills in the area of mechatronics very fast. The trends and applications of mechatronic engineering and research are illustrated. Control engineering plays a central role in this context, where...... the well established methods from control engineering form very powerful techniques in both analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems. The necessary skills for mechatronic engineers are outlined followed up by a discussion on how problem oriented project based learning is implemented. A complete...

  14. Changing to computerized documentation--plus!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J

    1993-07-01

    A recent change to a computerized documentation system has had a positive influence on productivity, reliability of documentation, quality assurance, nurse satisfaction and professional practice. This software system combines the care plan and nurses' notes and is standard-based. Each patient's care plan is compiled from Units of Care, which provide a menu covering nursing diagnosis, medical diagnosis, chief complaints and special procedures and events.

  15. A computerized TLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, C.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    A computerized thermoluminescent (TL) readout technique is presented which considerably improves the precision of dose readout and facilitates the dose information management and storage. The technique is relatively simple and it involves an interface between a commercially available thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) analyzer and a minicomputer. Curve fitting, subtraction of unwanted thermogram peaks, background subtraction, studies of TL decay kinetics, and storage of large number of measured TL data are easily performed with the technique.

  16. Errors associated with outpatient computerized prescribing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4 weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors. PMID:21715428

  17. Computerized procedures system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  18. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  19. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided or dynamic (navigated systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias, in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.

  20. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armato, Samuel G; Drukker, Karen; Li, Feng; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Tourassi, Georgia D; Engelmann, Roger M; Giger, Maryellen L; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin S; Clarke, Laurence P

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the LUNGx Challenge for the computerized classification of lung nodules on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans as benign or malignant and report the performance of participants' computerized methods along with that of six radiologists who participated in an observer study performing the same Challenge task on the same dataset. The Challenge provided sets of calibration and testing scans, established a performance assessment process, and created an infrastructure for case dissemination and result submission. Ten groups applied their own methods to 73 lung nodules (37 benign and 36 malignant) that were selected to achieve approximate size matching between the two cohorts. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for these methods ranged from 0.50 to 0.68; only three methods performed statistically better than random guessing. The radiologists' AUC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.85; three radiologists performed statistically better than the best-performing computer method. The LUNGx Challenge compared the performance of computerized methods in the task of differentiating benign from malignant lung nodules on CT scans, placed in the context of the performance of radiologists on the same task. The continued public availability of the Challenge cases will provide a valuable resource for the medical imaging research community.

  1. Computerized voiding diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H

    1993-01-01

    An electronic, computerized voiding diary, "Compu-Void" (patent pending) was developed in order to simplify, augment, and automate patients' recording of bladder symptomatology. A voiding diary as a tool has the potential to provide essential information for a more complete diagnostic and therefore therapeutic picture for each patient. Two major problems with the standard written voiding diary have been a lack of patient compliance and the limited amount of information it garners. Twenty-five women with various types of voiding dysfunctions were compared to twenty-five age and parity-matched control women in order to determine patient preferences of the Compu-Void when compared to the standard written voiding diary, compliance with each method, and amount and quality of information obtained with each method. Over 90% of subjects and over 70% of control group patients preferred the Compu-Void over the written diary (P Compu-Void exceeded that obtained with the written method.

  2. Computerizing natural history collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-09-01

    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs.

  3. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    . The analysis focuses on the emergence of general clinical work practice demands on guidance • An analysis of guidance demands from clinical work practice and business strategy, focusing on implications for the design of computerised CPGs. In my research, I have applied observation studies, interviews...... is comprised by fieldwork in three oncology departments and a case study of advanced life support. Although close to all patients within oncology are treated according to a CPG, I found limited application of physical CPGs and web-based CPG portals. However, I found comprehensive application of activity...... feasible • Designed in a way that provides room for local adaptations of guidance • Designed with focus on specific business strategic aims Further, based on my findings, I will suggest that design of computerized CPGs should be based on: 1) scrutinization of the clinical work practice, 2) articulation...

  4. Enablers, Barriers, and the Influence of Organizational Environmental Factors on Computerized Clinical Documentation Training Developed and Delivered by Nursing Informaticists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhanek, Brenda J.

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, the introduction of computerized medical records into the business and practice of health care has created a need for effective training. The implementation of computerized medical records into a health care organization has been often associated with increased costs and decreased productivity. Although existing human…

  5. A Medical Revolution That Could...: The Work of the PROMIS Laboratory and Lawrence L. Weed, M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gordon

    The problem-oriented medical record, developed by Lawrence L. Weed, M.D., involves an interactive computer system and has been operational on two wards at the University Hospital in Burlington, Vermont, a teaching hospital. The Problem-Oriented Medical Information System (PROMIS) consists of terminals that feed into the central memory units; the…

  6. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  7. Development of problem-oriented software packages for numerical studies and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of coherent CW (continuous wave) radiation in the frequency range situated between the long-wavelength edge of the infrared light (far-infrared region) and the microwaves, i.e., in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is usually called the THz-gap (or T-gap), since the output power of other devices (e.g., solid-state oscillators) operating in this interval is by several orders of magnitude lower. In the recent years, the unique capabilities of the sub-THz and THz gyrotrons have opened the road to many novel and future prospective applications in various physical studies and advanced high-power terahertz technologies. In this paper, we present the current status and functionality of the problem-oriented software packages (most notably GYROSIM and GYREOSS) used for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons for diverse applications. They consist of a hierarchy of codes specialized to modelling and simulation of different subsystems of the gyrotrons (EOS, resonant cavity, etc.) and are based on adequate physical models, efficient numerical methods and algorithms.

  8. Screening for "substance abuse" among school-based youth in Mexico using the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument (POSIT) for Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W; O'Brien, Megan S; McDouall, Jorge; Toussova, Olga; Floyd, Leah J; Vazquez, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Indices of classification accuracy of the Substance Use/Abuse scale of a Spanish-language version of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were evaluated among school-based youth in Mexico. Participants were 1203 youth attending one middle school (N = 619) and one high school (N = 584) in the third largest city of Coahuila, a northern border state in Mexico in May 1998. More than 94% of youth enrolled in the participating middle school and 89% of youth enrolled in the participating high school completed the International Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Indices of classification accuracy of the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale were evaluated against a "drug abuse" problem severity criterion that combined youth meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence disorders with youth having used other illicit drugs five or more times in their lifetime. The present study findings suggest that using a cut score of one or two on the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale generally yields optimal classification accuracy indices that vary somewhat by gender and school subgroups. Further, classification accuracy indices of the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale are slightly better when used among high school males due, in part, to the higher base rate of serious involvement among this group compared to others.

  9. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  10. Teaching the Societal Dimension of Chemistry Using a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Lesson Plan Based on Bioethanol Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, Timo; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan based on the use of ethanol as an alternative and renewable energy source. The lessons were developed by participatory action research and follow a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This approach specifically focuses on the handling of scientific and technological…

  11. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  12. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  13. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  14. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices.

  15. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  16. Computerized Systems: Centralized or Decentralized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Linda Ludington

    1985-01-01

    Computerized management information systems have long been used in business, and data integration and sophisticated programing now enable many businesses to decentralize their information operations. This approach has advantages and disadvantages that colleges and universities must weigh and plan for carefully. (MSE)

  17. Effect of Means of Problem-Oriented Physical Rehabilitation on Pain and Tactile Sensitivity and Pain Syndrome Intensity in Women with Post-Mastectomy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Є. Одинець

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to determine the effectiveness of problem-oriented physical rehabilitation of women with post-mastectomy syndrome in terms of normalization of their sensitivity and lessening of the pain syndrome. Materials and methods. The paper provides a review of the related literary sources and empirical data analyzed and summarized, offers definitions of pain by the Visual Analogue Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Verbal Rating Scale, evaluates tactile and pain sensitivity, and uses the methods of mathematical statistics. The participants in the study were 50 women with diagnosed with the post-mastectomy syndrome and at the stage of residential treatment. Results: The developed problem-oriented physical rehabilitation experimentally proved effective by showing improvements in tactile and pain sensitivity, and pain lessening by the sensory, affective and rating scales in women with post-mastectomy syndrome at the stage of residential treatment.

  18. Evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (Micromedex).

    OpenAIRE

    Lundsgaarde, H. P.; Moreshead, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes data collected as part of a project designed to identify and assess the technical and organizational problems associated with the implementation and evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS), Micromedex, in three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The study began in 1987 as a national effort to implement decision support technologies in the Veterans Administration Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). The specific...

  19. Computerized Analysis of MR and Ultrasound Images of Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Yearbook of Radiology) 3. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Huo Z, Vyborny CJ; Computer-aided diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Proceedings...International Workshop on Digital Mammography. Toronto, Canada, June, 2000. 4. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Automatic segmentation of breast...lesions on ultrasound. Medical Physics (in press). 5. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound

  20. Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Satyavir; Yadav Kapil; Nongkynrih Baridalyne; Krishnan Anand; Gupta Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Met...

  1. Computerized history-taking as a tool to manage dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakim, David; Fritz, Christine; Braun, Niko; Fritz, Peter; Alscher, M Dominik

    2010-11-12

    Validated guidelines to manage low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol are utilized inconsistently or not at all even though their application lowers the incidence of coronary events. New approaches are needed, therefore, to implement these guidelines in everyday practice. We compared an automated method for applying The National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) guidelines with results from routine care for managing LDL-cholesterol. The automated method comprised computerized history-taking and analysis of historical data without physician input. Results from routine care were determined for 213 unselected patients and compared with results from interviews of the same 213 patients by a computerized history-taking program. Data extracted from hospital charts showed that routine care typically did not collect sufficient information to stratify risk and assign treatment targets for LDL-cholesterol and that there were inconsistencies in identifying patients with normal or elevated levels of LDL-cholesterol in relation to risk. The computerized interview program outperformed routine care in collecting historical data relevant to stratifying risk, assigning treatment targets, and clarifying the presence of hypercholesterolemia relative to risk. Computerized history-taking coupled with automated analysis of the clinical data can outperform routine medical care in applying NCEP guidelines for stratifying risk and identifying patients with hypercholesterolemia in relation to risk.

  2. Duplicated laboratory tests: evaluation of a computerized alert intervention abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Sharon A; Papa, Linda; Norris, Anne E; Chase, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Redundant testing contributes to reductions in healthcare system efficiency. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine if the use of a computerized alert would reduce the number and cost of duplicated Acute Hepatitis Profile (AHP) laboratory tests and (2) assess what patient, test, and system factors were associated with duplication. This study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design to determine the proportion of duplication of the AHP test before and after implementation of a computerized alert intervention. The AHP test was duplicated if the test was requested again within 15 days of the initial test being performed and the result present in the medical record. The intervention consisted of a computerized alert (pop-up window) that indicated to the clinician that the test had recently been ordered. A total of 674 AHP tests were performed in the pre-intervention period and 692 in the postintervention group. In the pre-intervention period, 53 (7.9%) were duplicated and in postintervention, 18 (2.6%) were duplicated (ptests (p≤.001). Implementation of computerized alerts may be useful in reducing duplicate laboratory tests and improving healthcare system efficiency.

  3. Computerized tomography. Yesterday and today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, R.; Melanson, D. (Montreal Neurological Inst., Quebec (Canada))

    1983-10-01

    This presentation describes the evolution of computerized tomography over the past decade and its contribution to the radiologic investigation of neurologic disorders. This new technique has not only stimulated development in the diagnosis of cerebral diseases, but the whole body as well. Detailed investigation of the spine, spinal cord, sella turcica, the orbits, as well as the petrous pyramids has been made possible through the development of high resolution scanning.

  4. A computerized track detector reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Satyavir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR 1674,217 (USD 35,622. Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213. The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924. Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision.

  6. Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision. PMID:21078203

  7. Project, construction and test of a mini computerized tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, J.M. de [Universidade de Sorocaba (UNISO), SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas (CETEC)

    2003-06-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object from both transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. CT is an imaging technique that has revolutionized the field of medical diagnostics. There are many others applications for CT images, such as, nondestructive evaluation of industrial products and analysis of biological specimens. A mini computerized tomograph was projected, constructed and tested. It operates with a gamma ray source of {sup 241} Am (photons of 60 keV and 100 mCi of intensity) and a NaI(Tl) solid state detector. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 100 mm effective field of view, and 1 mm spatial resolution. The preliminary results indicated a resolution between 5 % to 7 % to detect mass attenuation coefficient variations. The total cost of the Mini Computerized Tomograph of UNISO (MTCU) was about US$ 20.000,00. (author)

  8. Computerized classification testing with the Rasch model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the

  9. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  10. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  11. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  12. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  13. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  14. Improvement of upper limb’s condition of women with post mastectomy syndrome with the help of problem-oriented program of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briskin Y.A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine effectiveness of problem-oriented program of women’s physical rehabilitation with post mastectomy syndrome in improvement of upper limb’s functional state. Material: 50 women with early symptoms of post mastectomy syndrome at stationary rehabilitation stage, who underwent radical mastectomy by Madden were involved in the research. Testing of movement amplitude in shoulder joint, swelling of upper limb and muscular strength of hand’s flexors was conducted on 2 nd day after surgery and at the end of stationary rehabilitation period (12-14 th day. Results: Main means of the authors’ program were: general and special physical exercises; static and dynamic breathing exercises; breathing through preloaded lips, controlled coughing, autogenic drainage, manual pressing, manual vibration; post-isometric relaxation; elements of labor therapy; lymphatic drainage massage and self massage; topical talks; consultations; auto training. The trainings were conducted individually 2-3 times a day; 20-30 minutes every session. The patients’ independent trainings included: fulfillment of therapeutic positions, self-massage, relaxation exercises and auto-training. Conclusions: application of problem-oriented physical rehabilitation program facilitates improvement of upper limb’s functional potentials of women with post mastectomy syndrome.

  15. Scintillation detectors in computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilar, O.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L. (Tesla, Premysleni (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav Pristroju Jaderne Techniky)

    1984-07-01

    A new scintillator, Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/ (BGO), was tested for use in the detection part of computerized tomographs. In comparison with the NaI(Tl) scintillator it has a three-fold mass stopping power and allows the detection of medium and high energy gamma radiation with a higher detection efficiency, i.e., for the same detection efficiency its size is much smaller. Some other mechanical, physical and optical parameters of the BGO scintillator are given. BGO is prospective for use in high energy spectrometry and may replace NaI(Tl) wherever the following parameters are significant: crystal size, detection efficiency for gamma radiation, and good spatial resolution.

  16. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  17. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program.

  18. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... dietary supplements you use. back to top Computerized Medication Box FDA has cleared for marketing the Electronic ...

  19. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  20. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  1. Modified Head Shake Computerized Dynamic Posturography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    form of dizziness (in- cluding complaints of lightheadedness, vertigo , or un- steadiness) lasting longer than 1 hr or recurring for greater than 1...noted limitations. Method: Forty participants ranging in age from 20 to 79 years with no history of dizziness completed Conditions 2 and 5 of the SOT...shake, Sensory Organization Test, computerized dynamic posturography, dizziness Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is anassessment of an

  2. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  3. Modificaciones en las perspectivas de los médicos sobre el registro médico electrónico: investigación cualitativa longitudinal Changes in physicians' attitudes to computerized ambulatory medical record systems: a longitudinal qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernán González Bernaldo de Quirós

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las creencias de los médicos sobre un registro médico electrónico para la atención ambulatoria en diferentes etapas del proceso de implementación del sistema. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa longitudinal basada en entrevistas en profundidad (desde julio de 2001 hasta diciembre de 2003, desarrolladas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Se entrevistó a 20 cardiólogos de atención ambulatoria con perfiles profesionales diversos (muestreo intencional antes, durante y al finalizar la implementación del sistema (10 entrevistas por etapa. El análisis fue realizado por 2 investigadores independientes y las categorías refinadas conjuntamente. Resultados: Antes y durante la primera etapa de la implementación los médicos esperaban que el sistema mejorara los procesos administrativos de la atención y la disponibilidad de los datos individuales que cada uno había registrado en consultas anteriores, pero no imaginaban que la información colectiva pudiera modificar los aspectos médicos de la atención. Al finalizar la implementación, en cambio, percibieron que el sistema les permitía acceder a una visión integral del paciente que modificaba el desempeño profesional. Durante la implementación, los médicos opusieron el contacto con el paciente a la interacción con el ordenador, oposición que les impide categorizar su uso como parte del acto médico y considerar los datos del sistema como signos directos del paciente. Conclusiones: Con la implementación, los médicos modificaron su perspectiva sobre el registro médico electrónico, llegando a percibirlo como un auxiliar para la práctica médica. El valor que se asigna al sistema depende de su relevancia dentro del marco institucional.Objectives: To explore physicians' beliefs about a computerized ambulatory medical record system at different stages of its implementation. Methods: We performed a longitudinal qualitative in-depth interview study

  4. Human-eye versus computerized color matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U; Sim, C P; Loh, W L; Teo, J H

    1999-01-01

    This project compared the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry. Fifty dental personnel were asked to color match Vita Lumin shade tabs to seven different randomly arranged test tabs from the Z100 shade guide. All evaluators were blinded to the shades of the test tabs and were asked to match only body shade of the Vita Lumin tab to the middle third or body of each test tab. The results obtained were subsequently computed into L*a*b* values and compared with results obtained by computerized colorimetry. Results indicate that the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry is shade dependent. Discrepancy was significant for b* coordinates for shades A1 and B2 and L* and b* coordinates for shade C4. For all shades evaluated, color difference between human-eye and computerized color matching is perceivable under clinical settings, as delta E values are greater than 3. There is a need for correction factors in the formal specification of the color-matching software due to the discrepancy between human-eye and computerized colorimetric color matching.

  5. Problem-Oriented Project Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2012-01-01

    , providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments, and marking papers and essays is complemented and in some ways overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem that they have picked themselves. However, different dimensions of this new...... teacher role can be observed – from expert in an academic field to a role that focuses more on processes, methodological dimensions, and the importance of a reflexive approach. In some situations, the role as social mediator is needed questioning and assisting the members of the group in the complex task...

  6. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vojkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder. Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, premature loss of teeth due to excessive attrition and mobility, headache, muscle ache, sleep interruption of an individual and problems with removable and fixed denture. Basically, two groups of etiological factors can be distinguished, viz., peripheral (occlusal factors and central (pathophysiological and psychological factors. The role of occlusion (occlusal discrepancies as the causative factor is not enough mentioned in relation to bruxism. Objective. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the connection between occlusal factors and nocturnal parafunctional activities (occlusal disharmonies and bruxism. Method. Two groups were formed- experimental of 15 persons with signs and symptoms of nocturnal parafunctional activity of mandible (mean age 26.6 years and control of 42 persons with no signs and symptoms of bruxism (mean age 26.3 yrs.. The computerized occlusal analyses were performed using the T-Scan II system (Tekscan, Boston, USA. 2D occlusograms were analyzed showing the occlusal force, the center of the occlusal force with the trajectory and the number of antagonistic tooth contacts. Results. Statistically significant difference of force distribution was found between the left and the right side of the arch (L%-R% (t=2.773; p<0.02 in the group with bruxism. The difference of the centre of occlusal force - COF trajectory between the experimental and control group was not significant, but the trajectory of COF was longer in the group of

  7. Framework of Problem - Oriented Research in Nursing Ethics%当代护理伦理学研究问题及分析框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新庆

    2012-01-01

    Problem- oriented research methodology is popular in the history of western nursing ethics re- search while China lacks such a research tradition. This article presents several emerging research domains in the near future, which include: Is nursing ethics an independent discipline? What does nursing ethics mean? What are the proper ethical principles in the practice of nursing? The author argues that apart from the philo- sophical or ethical way of thinking, empirical methods such as interview and partic:ipant observation are also needed as far as identifying, analyzing and resolving nursing ethical issues are concerned%西方"以问题为导向"的护理伦理研究由来已久,我国缺乏"以问题为导向"的研究传统,我国护理伦理学的学科独立性、哲学基础、基本原则和研究伦理问题等尚未得到应有关注。面向护理实践中引发伦理问题研究呼唤多元化的研究方法。

  8. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  9. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  10. Written and computerized care plans. Organizational processes and effect on patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Buckwalter, Kathleen; Maas, Meridean

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how use of a standardized nomenclature for nursing diagnosis and intervention statements on the computerized nursing care plan in a long-term care (LTC) facility would affect patient outcomes, as well as organizational processes and outcomes. An experimental design was used to compare the effects of two methods of documentation: Computer care plan and paper care plan. Twenty participants (10 in each group) were randomly assigned to either group. No statistically significant differences were found by group for demographic data. Repeated measures ANOVA was computed for each of the study variables with type of care plan, written or computerized, as the independent variable. There were no statistically significant differences between participants, group (care plan), within subjects (across time), or interaction (group and time) effects for the dependent variables: Level of care, activities of daily living, perception of pain, cognitive abilities, number of medications, number of bowel medications, number of constipation episodes, weight, percent of meals eaten, and incidence of alteration in skin integrity. There were significantly more nursing interventions and activities on the computerized care plan, although this care plan took longer to develop at each of the three time periods. Results from this study suggest that use of a computerized plan of care increases the number of documented nursing activities and interventions, but further research is warranted to determine if this potential advantage can be translated into improved patient and organizational outcomes in the long-term care setting.

  11. Evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (Micromedex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsgaarde, H P; Moreshead, G E

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes data collected as part of a project designed to identify and assess the technical and organizational problems associated with the implementation and evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS), Micromedex, in three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The study began in 1987 as a national effort to implement decision support technologies in the Veterans Administration Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). The specific objectives of this project were to (1) examine one particular decision support technology, (2) identify the technical and organizational barriers to the implementation of a CCIS in the VA host environment, (3) assess the possible benefits of this system to VA clinicians in terms of therapeutic decision making, and (4) develop new methods for identifying the clinical utility of a computer program designed to provide clinicians with a new information tool. The project was conducted intermittently over a three-year period at three VA medical centers chosen as implementation and evaluation test sites for Micromedex. Findings from the Kansas City Medical Center in Missouri are presented to illustrate some of the technical problems associated with the implementation of a commercial database program in the DHCP host environment, the organizational factors influencing clinical use of the system, and the methods used to evaluate its use. Data from 4581 provider encounters with the CCIS are summarized. Usage statistics are presented to illustrate the methodological possibilities for assessing the "benefits and burdens" of a computerized information system by using an automated collection of user demographics and program audit trails that allow evaluators to monitor user interactions with different segments of the database.

  12. Computerized tomographic evaluation of intracranial metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Yong; Lee, Mi Sook; Choi, Jin Ok; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    In a study of intracranial metastases, 46 cases having satisfactory clinical, operative and histological proofs were analyzed by computerized tomography at Presbyterian Medical Center from May, 1982 to February, 1986. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio of intracranial metastases were 67:33. The 5th decade group (34.8%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 6th decade (21.7%) and 7th decade (21.7%). 2. The number of lesions was found be: single -25 cases (54.3%); multiple -21 cases (45.7%). 3. The source of intracranial metastases found to be: lung 15 cases (32.6%); unknown 12 cases (26.0%); chorioca 3 cases (6.5%); liver 3 cases (6.5%); stomach 2 cases (4.3%); parotid, breast, kidney, prostate, melanoma, rectal ca, rhabdomyosarcoma, nasal ca, lymphoma, testicular ca, cervix, each 1 case (2.2%). 4. The locations of the intracranial metastases were as follows: Cerebral hemisphere 37.7% in parietal region Cerebral hemisphere 15.9% in in frontal region Cerebral hemisphere 13.4% in occipital region Cerebral hemisphere 10.5% in temporal region Cerebellar hemisphere 3.2% Cerebellopontine angle 3.2% Intraventricular 4.8% Meninges 4.8% Skull vault 6.5% 5. Peritumor edema was found to be: Grade II-17 cases (37.0%): Grade III-14 cases (30.4%); Grade I-8 cases (17.4%); Grade 0-7 cases (15.2%) in that order. 6. The chief complaints of intracranial metastases on admission, were as follows: Headache 30 cases (65.2%); Vomiting 11 cases (23.9%); deteriorated mental state 10 cases (21.7%); Hemiplegia 7 cases (15.2%); visual disturbance 6 cases (13.0%); hemiparesis 4 cases (8.7%); seizure 4 cases (8.7%); other symptoms were less frequent. 7. On pre-contrast scan, hyperdense lesions were present in 18 cases (39.1%); hypodense lesions in 15 cases (32.6%); mixed density in 8 cases (17.4%); isodensity was present in 5 cases (10.9%). On post-contrast scan, ring enhancement was seen in 19 cases (41.3%); nodular enhancement in 17 cases (37%), mixed ring

  13. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  14. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  15. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...

  16. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  17. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa;

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...

  18. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  19. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  20. Computerized adaptive testing: overview and introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Nering, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has increased substantially since it was first formulated in the 1970s. This paper provides an overview of CAT and introduces the contributions to this Special Issue. The elements of CAT discussed here include item selection procedures, estimation of the la

  1. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  2. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  3. Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

    1983-01-01

    Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

  4. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  5. Computerized Interactive Gaming via Supporting Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Jiang, Jianmin; Palmer, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Computerized interactive gaming requires automatic processing of large volume of random data produced by players on spot, such as shooting, football kicking, and boxing. This paper describes a supporting vector machine-based artificial intelligence algorithm as one of the possible solutions to the problem of random data processing and the provision of interactive indication for further actions. In comparison with existing techniques, such as rule-based and neural networks, and so forth, our S...

  6. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  7. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  8. The Future of Computerized Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    available in digital form -- data such as newspaper articles, video, and books -- and can be searched according to topics and keywords , or sounds and...away from using observational or model- driven data to inform their decisions. At the same time, enhancements to methods for rapidly creating, merging...themselves---and that we need automated ways of reoptimizing as these metamodels evolve over time. Causal computerized decision making: As I discuss

  9. Computerized analysis of the smile in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vicente de Moura LOPES

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In most cases the search for orthodontic treatment is related withesthetics cause. Nowadays, a beautiful smile is extremely importantfor the society. Establishing elements for diagnosis and planning,looking at a harmonious and well-balanced smile became an obligation at dentistry offices. The esthetics is evaluated by the outline of the bone tissues and its relation with the soft tissues. A good way to get this evaluation is using photographs. The purpose of this research was to analyze computer standard pictures of the maximum smile, as complement to the orthodontic documentation to help not only in the diagnostic and planning but also in the valuation of obtained results. Standard pictures of the maximum smile were obtained in the natural position of the head. Linear,angular and proportional measures were evaluated through the computerized program (CEFX2001 – CDT. The sample consisted of 28 patients, white, male, age between 19 and 25 years old, with Class I occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The values of the descriptive statistics and error analysis were obtained. The results were compared with the values found in the literature, and the values found at a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT, but with female patients. The final results were similar to the values found in the literature and the values found in a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT,but with female patients.

  10. Learning Chemistry and beyond with a Lesson Plan on Potato Crisps, Which Follows a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Lessons--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Bertram, Stefanie; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan on potato crisps for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes in Germany. The lesson plan focuses on the discussion about low-fat and low-carb diets as they are presented in everyday media such as TV or newspapers in Germany. The discussion follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to…

  11. Learning Chemistry and beyond with a Lesson Plan on Potato Crisps, Which Follows a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Lessons--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Bertram, Stefanie; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan on potato crisps for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes in Germany. The lesson plan focuses on the discussion about low-fat and low-carb diets as they are presented in everyday media such as TV or newspapers in Germany. The discussion follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to…

  12. Computerized Tomography Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN among adult inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Passamani Diogo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN is one of the complications of the use of intravascular contrast agents, being defined as a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate caused by the iodinated contrast. Most CIN data derive from the cardiovascular literature, which identified as the most consistent risk factors pre-existing chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. However, these studies limit their conclusions to a more specific patient population. Computerized tomography as a cause of CIN has been studied less often. Objective: To report on the incidence of computerized tomography contrast induced nephropathy (CIN in an inpatient population of a tertiary general hospital, identifying potentially avoidable risk factors. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study with inpatients admitted at a tertiary hospital requiring contrast-induced CT. The primary outcome was the development of CIN, measure by the alteration of serum creatinine or glomerular filtration rate in 48 or 72 hours. Through clinical interview, we verified possible risk factors and preventive measures instituted by the medical team and their association with development of CIN. Results: Of a total of 410 patients, 35 (8.5% developed CIN. There was a positive correlation between CIN and the presence of diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.35-4.06; p = 0.02, heart failure (OR = 2.23; 95%CI 1.18-8.8; p = 0.022, and renal failure (OR = 3.36; 95%CI 1.57- 7.17; p = 0.002 Conclusion: Incidence of CIN varies according to the population. Diabetes mellitus, heart failure and renal failure were independent risk factors for the development of CT-associated CIN. Further studies are needed to better understand and treat CT-associated CIN.

  13. Computerized clinical documentation system in the pediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Deborah Y

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether a computerized clinical documentation system (CDS: 1 decreased time spent charting and increased time spent in patient care; 2 decreased medication errors; 3 improved clinical decision making; 4 improved quality of documentation; and/or 5 improved shift to shift nursing continuity. Methods Before and after implementation of CDS, a time study involving nursing care, medication delivery, and normalization of serum calcium and potassium values was performed. In addition, an evaluation of completeness of documentation and a clinician survey of shift to shift reporting were also completed. This was a modified one group, pretest-posttest design. Results With the CDS there was: improved legibility and completeness of documentation, data with better accessibility and accuracy, no change in time spent in direct patient care or charting by nursing staff. Incidental observations from the study included improved management functions of our nurse manager; improved JCAHO documentation compliance; timely access to clinical data (labs, vitals, etc; a decrease in time and resource use for audits; improved reimbursement because of the ability to reconstruct lost charts; limited human data entry by automatic data logging; eliminated costs of printing forms. CDS cost was reasonable. Conclusions When compared to a paper chart, the CDS provided a more legible, compete, and accessible patient record without affecting time spent in direct patient care. The availability of the CDS improved shift to shift reporting. Other observations showed that the CDS improved management capabilities; helped physicians deliver care; improved reimbursement; limited data entry errors; and reduced costs.

  14. Computerized Information System for Nursing Educators; The First Step Towards Computerized Instruction or Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvir, Howard P.

    This document outlines the guidelines and procedures for educators interested in using the Computerized Information System for Nursing Educators (CISNE), a project sponsored by Francophone International Learning Module Systems. In the first of the report's four sections are a brief description of CISNE guidelines for entry procedures and forms for…

  15. Visualization in the age of computerization

    CERN Document Server

    Carusi, Annamaria; Webmoor, Timothy; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Digitalization and computerization are now pervasive in science. This has deep consequences for our understanding of scientific knowledge and of the scientific process, and challenges longstanding assumptions and traditional frameworks of thinking of scientific knowledge. Digital media and computational processes challenge our conception of the way in which perception and cognition work in science, of the objectivity of science, and the nature of scientific objects. They bring about new relationships between science, art and other visual media, and new ways of practicing science and organizing

  16. Computerized documentation systems: blessings or curse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasses, F R

    1993-01-01

    This article considers the possibility that computerized documentation systems will negatively impact knowledge development in nursing. Ideas from three vantage points is presented. First, systems are being developed from theoretical frameworks that are not necessarily grounded in nursing, and these systems, in turn, influence the nurses's ability to process and conceptualize information. Second, computer systems may support the retrieval of empirical data to the elimination of other types of data necessary to the development of nursing knowledge. Third, computers may decrease opportunities for collegial dialogue. These factors together create an atmosphere of "technologic determinism" (Robinson & Robinson, 1990), which can inhibit the development of new ideas in nursing.

  17. Computerized axial tomography in clinical pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, D C; Kufta, C; Axelbaum, S P; Schellinger, D

    1977-02-01

    Computerized axial tomography (CAT), a noninvasive radiologie method, provides a new dimension in screening and diagnosis of intracranial pathology. Evaluation of 725 scans in infants and children demonstrates that CAT may be performed with negligible risk, although sedation and restraint are essential to the successful performance of studies in children under 6 years of age. CAT is the preferred initial diagnostic method in suspected hydrocephalls and is accurate in the detection and precise localization of brain tumors. The management of hydrocephalus and brain tumors has been significantly altered by the availability of CAT. Few invasive neuroradiologic procedures are required and pneumography is especially curtailed. Serial scanning is the best available method of monitoring ventricular alterations in hydrocephalus, tumor size during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and postoperative recurrence of benign neoplasms. Complex intracranial anomalies are detectable with computerized tomography, but complete definition of pathology often requires angiography and air studies. Limited clinical experience in detecting neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage suggests that CAT will be a valuable tool for futlre investigations of that problem.

  18. Automatic computerized radiographic identification of cephalometric landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D J; Sinclair, P M; Coggins, J M

    1998-02-01

    Computerized cephalometric analysis currently requires manual identification of landmark locations. This process is time-consuming and limited in accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel method for automatic computer identification of cephalometric landmarks. Spatial spectroscopy (SS) is a computerized method that identifies image structure on the basis of a convolution of the image with a set of filters followed by a decision method using statistical pattern recognition techniques. By this method, characteristic features are used to recognize anatomic structures. This study compared manual identification on a computer monitor and the SS automatic method for landmark identification on minimum resolution images (0.16 cm2 per pixel). Minimum resolution (defined as the lowest resolution at which a cephalometric structure could be identified) was used to reduce computational time and memory requirements during this development stage of the SS method. Fifteen landmarks were selected on a set of 14 test images. The results showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in mean landmark identification errors between manual identification on the computer display and automatic identification using SS. We conclude that SS shows potential for the automatic detection of landmarks, which is an important step in the development of a completely automatic cephalometric analysis.

  19. ¿Es factible que los médicos de primaria utilicen CIE-9-MC?: Calidad de la codificación de diagnósticos en las historias clínicas informatizadas Can primary care physicians use the ICD-9-MC?: An evaluation of the quality of diagnosis coding in computerized medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Orueta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el grado de exhaustividad y precisión de los códigos CIE-9-MC asignados por los médicos de primaria en sus historias clínicas informatizadas; evaluar el impacto de actividades para su mejora. Métodos: Los códigos de 87.806 pacientes de 56 médicos de Osakidetza/Servicio Vasco de Salud fueron evaluados en 3 ocasiones en 1 año, según los siguientes criterios: correspondencia con un código CIE-9-MC válido; concordancia entre diagnóstico y código; porcentaje de consultas sin diagnóstico. Finalmente, se contrastaron, con un registro previo de morbilidad atendida, los promedios de diagnósticos únicos y tasas anuales de enfermedades de los 84.136 pacientes que permanecieron con el mismo médico al menos 6 meses. Se realizaron 2 intervenciones para mejorar la codificación: corrección central de errores detectados; asesoramiento e información a los médicos de sus resultados individuales. Resultados: En la primera evaluación, el 59% de los diagnósticos no contenía ningún código CIE-9-MC asociado, mientras que a la finalización este porcentaje descendió al 2%. El porcentaje de errores (discrepancia entre diagnóstico del episodio y código CIE9-MC disminuyó del 17 al 3%. El promedio anual de diagnósticos por paciente fue ligeramente menor que en el archivo de referencia (2,26 frente a 2,43, así como las tasas de diversos grupos de enfermedades. Conclusiones: Es factible que los médicos de atención primaria alcancen un alto grado de calidad en la clasificación de diagnósticos mediante CIE-9-MC. La implantación de medidas de evaluación, corrección de errores e información a los clínicos permitió mejorar notablemente los resultados iniciales.Objectives: To determine the completeness and accuracy of ICD-9-CM codes allocated by primary health care physicians in their computerized medical records and evaluate the effects of improvement procedures. Methods: The codes of 87,806 patients assigned to 56

  20. The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

  1. [Diagnosis of toxic lesions of the brain using computerized tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, I I; Karpova, M N; Tskhovrebov, T M

    1990-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography was used to examine the brain in 39 patients aged 14 to 39 years with different experience of using volatile narcotically acting substances. The discovered alterations make it possible to appraise the influence of toxic substances and the degree of brain atrophy, which attests to the diagnostic value of computerized tomography in patients with toxicomanias.

  2. Participatory design for computerization of clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Pedersen, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    There have been made many attempts on computerization of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), none have, however achieved any general application in clinical work practice. The objective of this paper is: (1) to raise awareness about the impact the design method used for computerization of CPGs......: PD as a design philosophy, PD as a toolbox and PD as a way to create a shared realm of understanding among IT-designers and health professionals as these are areas of utmost relevance for the design of computerized CPGs. Additionally, the application of PD for computerization of CPGs is illustrated...... by two cases. We conclude that PD is a beneficial approach for design of computerized CPGs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc....

  3. CT based computerized identification and analysis of human airways: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiantao; Gu, Suicheng; Liu, Shusen; Zhu, Shaocheng; Wilson, David; Siegfried, Jill M; Gur, David

    2012-05-01

    As one of the most prevalent chronic disorders, airway disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to understand its underlying mechanisms and to enable assessment of therapeutic efficacy of a variety of possible interventions, noninvasive investigation of the airways in a large number of subjects is of great research interest. Due to its high resolution in temporal and spatial domains, computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practices for studying the normal and abnormal manifestations of lung diseases, albeit there is a need to clearly demonstrate the benefits in light of the cost and radiation dose associated with CT examinations performed for the purpose of airway analysis. Whereas a single CT examination consists of a large number of images, manually identifying airway morphological characteristics and computing features to enable thorough investigations of airway and other lung diseases is very time-consuming and susceptible to errors. Hence, automated and semiautomated computerized analysis of human airways is becoming an important research area in medical imaging. A number of computerized techniques have been developed to date for the analysis of lung airways. In this review, we present a summary of the primary methods developed for computerized analysis of human airways, including airway segmentation, airway labeling, and airway morphometry, as well as a number of computer-aided clinical applications, such as virtual bronchoscopy. Both successes and underlying limitations of these approaches are discussed, while highlighting areas that may require additional work.

  4. CT based computerized identification and analysis of human airways: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Jiantao; Gu Suicheng; Liu Shusen; Zhu Shaocheng; Wilson, David; Siegfried, Jill M.; Gur, David [Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou 450003 (China); Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 580 S. Aiken Avenue, Suite 400, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    As one of the most prevalent chronic disorders, airway disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to understand its underlying mechanisms and to enable assessment of therapeutic efficacy of a variety of possible interventions, noninvasive investigation of the airways in a large number of subjects is of great research interest. Due to its high resolution in temporal and spatial domains, computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practices for studying the normal and abnormal manifestations of lung diseases, albeit there is a need to clearly demonstrate the benefits in light of the cost and radiation dose associated with CT examinations performed for the purpose of airway analysis. Whereas a single CT examination consists of a large number of images, manually identifying airway morphological characteristics and computing features to enable thorough investigations of airway and other lung diseases is very time-consuming and susceptible to errors. Hence, automated and semiautomated computerized analysis of human airways is becoming an important research area in medical imaging. A number of computerized techniques have been developed to date for the analysis of lung airways. In this review, we present a summary of the primary methods developed for computerized analysis of human airways, including airway segmentation, airway labeling, and airway morphometry, as well as a number of computer-aided clinical applications, such as virtual bronchoscopy. Both successes and underlying limitations of these approaches are discussed, while highlighting areas that may require additional work.

  5. Combined single photon emission computerized tomography and conventional computerized tomography: Clinical value for the shoulder surgeons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Hirschmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the cases described, we strive to introduce single photon emission computerized tomography in combination with conventional computer tomography (SPECT/CT to shoulder surgeons, illustrate the possible clinical value it may offer as new diagnostic radiologic modality, and discuss its limitations. SPECT/CT may facilitate the establishment of diagnosis, process of decision making, and further treatment for complex shoulder pathologies. Some of these advantages were highlighted in cases that are frequently seen in most shoulder clinics.

  6. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  7. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  9. Geometric Computing Based on Computerized Descriptive Geometric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-yan; HE Yuan-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD), video games and other computer graphic related technology evolves substantial processing to geometric elements. A novel geometric computing method is proposed with the integration of descriptive geometry, math and computer algorithm. Firstly, geometric elements in general position are transformed to a special position in new coordinate system. Then a 3D problem is projected to new coordinate planes. Finally, according to 2D/3D correspondence principle in descriptive geometry, the solution is constructed computerized drawing process with ruler and compasses. In order to make this method a regular operation, a two-level pattern is established. Basic Layer is a set algebraic packaged function including about ten Primary Geometric Functions (PGF) and one projection transformation. In Application Layer, a proper coordinate is established and a sequence of PGFs is sought for to get the final results. Examples illustrate the advantages of our method on dimension reduction, regulatory and visual computing and robustness.

  10. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  11. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, J.

    1995-12-31

    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs.

  12. COMPUTERIZED MODEL OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor MANDU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of risk situation and the manager’s awareness of it are serious threats for the organization and its objectives. Consequently, the manager has to have available, analyze, select and interpret many pieces of information, under stress, before making a decision for avoiding a disaster. Under these circumstances, a computerized model of risk management is the most adequate solution to make the intervention possibilities effective through a quicker and more accurate intervention. The model offers enough confidence and a favorable psychological state for managing risk. In accordance with this model, the risk manager processes the information by means of some operational (mathematical methods and that favors reaching optimum solutions in the shortest delay, based on some estimated anticipations through a rational model.

  13. Sandia computerized shock compression bibliographical database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbeck, J.S.; Anderson, C.E.; Hokanson, J.C.; Asay, J.R.; Grady, D.E.; Graham, R.A.; Kipp, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A searchable and updateable bibliographical database is being developed which will be designed, controlled, and evaluated by working technical experts in the field of shock-compression science. It will emphasize shock-compression properties in the stress region of a few tens of GPa and provide a broad and complete base of bibliographical information on the shock-compression behavior of materials. Through the operation of technical advisors, the database provides authoritative blbliographical and keyword data for use by both the inexperienced and expert user. In its current form, it consists of: (1) a library of journal articles, reports, books, and symposia papers in the areas of shock physics and shock mechanics; and (2) a computerized database system containing complete bibliographical information, exhaustive keyword descriptions, and author abstracts for each of the documents in the database library.

  14. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  15. Computerized tomographic study of normal Evans index in adult Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Umdagas Hamidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of degree of ventricular enlargement should be based on established indices rather than on personal experience as this is highly subjective. Our aim was to establish normal values for Evans index in a Nigerian adult population as none has been found in the Nigerian medical literature. Materials and Methods: Axial computerized tomographic brain scans of 488 normal subjects were reviewed retrospectively. Of them, 319 (65.36% of the patients were males and 169 (34.63% were females; their ages ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean age of 37.26 years. The images were acquired using a multi-slice GE Sigma excite scanner. Evans index was measured as the linear ratio of the total width of the frontal horns of the cerebral lateral ventricles to the maximum intracranial diameter. Results: The mean value for Evans index for the studied population was 0.252 ± 0.04. The EI increased with age and it was slightly higher among males. The difference in Evans value in males and females was not statistically significant. Individuals above 60 years old had the highest Evans values in both sexes. Conclusion: This study has established ranges of normal value for Evans index in a Nigerian population. It agrees with the diagnostic cut-off value of > 0.3 for hydrocephalus and it compares well with that of the Caucasians.

  16. [Computerized decision support systems: EBM at the bedside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobussi, Matteo; Banzi, Rita; Moja, Lorenzo; Bonovas, Stefanos; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Polo Friz, Hernan; Nanni, Oriana; Mangia, Massimo; Ruggiero, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    One of the aims of Evidence-Based Medicine is to improve quality and appropriateness of care by the expedition of the knowledge transfer process. Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) are computer programs that provide alerts to the prescribing doctor directly at the moment of medical examination. In fact, alerts are integrated within the single patient electronic health record. CDSS based on the best available and updated evidence and guidelines may be an efficient tool to facilitate the transfer of the latest results from clinical research directly at the bedside, thus supporting decision-making. The CODES (COmputerized DEcision Support) trial is a research program funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and the Lombardy Region. It aims to evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of a CDSS at the hospital level and to assess its efficacy in daily clinical practice. The CODES project includes two pragmatic RCTs testing a CDSS (i.e. the EBMeDS - MediDSS) in two large Italian hospitals: the first is a general hospital in Vimercate (Lombardy), the second is an oncologic research center in Meldola (Emilia Romagna). The CDSS supports a full spectrum of decisions: therapy, drug interactions, diagnosis, and management of health care services are covered by a hundreds of reminders. However only few reminders are activated per patient, highlighting crucial problems in the delivery of high-quality care. The two trials have similar design and primary outcome, the rate at which alerts detected by the software are resolved by a decision of the clinicians. The project also includes the assessment of barriers and facilitators in the adoption of these new technologies by hospital staff members and the retrospective evaluation of the repeated risks in prescription habits. The trials are ongoing and currently more than 10,000 patients have been randomized. The qualitative analysis revealed a progressive shift in the perception of the tool. Doctors are now seeing it

  17. Problems and Solutions of Popularization of Accounting Computerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kan; Fu, YingLi; Gu, CaiDong; Zhang, Liang

    With the integration of China's economy and international markets, accounting computerization, which conducts accounting and accounting control by taking advantage of computer, has become a major component sector of accounting modernization and the main content of accounting reform. The popularization of accounting computerization is beyond question. Only this popularization can meet the requirement of knowledge economy for accounting information. It is the need to deepen accounting reform, to further enhance the level of accounting work and to achieve China's modernization of science and technology as well. This paper discusses problems and relevant solutions in the popularization process of accounting computerization so as to carry out this popularization better.

  18. Computerized techniques pave the way for drug-drug interaction prediction and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Safdari

    2016-06-01

    Results: Computerized data-mining in pharmaceutical sciences and related databases provide new key transformative paradigms that can revolutionize the treatment of diseases and hence medical care. Given that various aspects of drug discovery and pharmacotherapy are closely related to the clinical and molecular/biological information, the scientifically sound databases (e.g., DDIs, ADRs can be of importance for the success of pharmacotherapy modalities. Conclusion: A better understanding of DDIs not only provides a robust means for designing more effective medicines but also grantees patient safety.

  19. Unintended Transformations of Clinical Relations with a Computerized Physician Order Entry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Böttger, Ulrich; Boye, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A socio-technical approach was used to study the qualitative effects of deploying a medication CPOE (Computerized Physician Order Entry System with no decision support) at two internal medical wards in a hospital in Denmark. Our results show spatial and temporal transformations of core acts...... and relations in medication work, i.e. of the intended use of the system inscribed in hardware and software, in the relations of care between doctors and patients, of collaboration between doctors and nurses, and prospectively of the patients’ trajectories when readmitted to hospital or another health care...... institution, reusing data from the system. This study throws light on problems of continuity of patient care paths, patient-related and IT-system-related error handling and time spent on core activities – when ubiquitous IT is used locally in a real physical setting with specific traditions of performing...

  20. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  1. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  2. Computerized knowledge bases in primary health care: a curse or a blessing for health promotion, prevention and patient quality?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alendahl, K; Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a future scenario analysis of how the introduction of computerized knowledge bases (KBs) can come to affect primary care practice. For the collection and analysis of data, a two-level video method was applied. First, four consultations where a computerized KB was used were video-recorded. A search workshop was then carried out by letting a multi-disciplinary panel comment on the video recordings. The comments were categorized with regard to content and perspective. Analyses of the comments showed a concern for a disregard of patients' health beliefs and for difficulties in portioning out the acquired medical knowledge to the patient during the consultation. Furthermore, the computerized KB was found to easily break the natural flow of the consultation and be perceived as a third party. The conclusion is that the most critical aspects for using computerized KBs in a reformed primary health care concern the integration of the systems into the consultation process. Health promotion, prevention, and patient quality are central here, and the introduction of KB technology must not lead the consultation away from these issues.

  3. Computerized mouse pupil size measurement for pupillary light reflex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Tan, Jinglu; Zhang, Keqing; Lei, Bo

    2008-06-01

    Accurate measurement of pupil size is essential for pupillary light reflex (PLR) analysis in clinical diagnosis and vision research. Low pupil-iris contrast, corneal reflection, artifacts and noises in infrared eye imaging pose challenges for automated pupil detection and measurement. This paper describes a computerized method for pupil detection or identification. After segmentation by a region-growing algorithm, pupils are detected by an iterative randomized Hough transform (IRHT) with an elliptical model. The IRHT iteratively suppresses the effects of extraneous structures and noise, yielding reliable measurements. Experimental results with 72 images showed a mean absolute difference of 3.84% between computerized and manual measurements. The inter-run variation for the computerized method (1.24%) was much smaller than the inter-observer variation for the manual method (7.45%), suggesting a higher level of consistency of the former. The computerized method could facilitate PLR analysis and other non-invasive functional tests that require pupil size measurements.

  4. Computerized adaptive testing--ready for ambulatory monitoring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Fischer, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have abundant theoretical advantages over established static instruments, which could improve ambulatory monitoring of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). However, an empirical demonstration of their practical benefits is warranted....

  5. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    30, 2013. COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN ... School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Addis Ababa ... layout while algorithms such as CORELAP are used to build new ..... Facilities Planning: Layout Optimization.

  6. Computerized Staffing and Scheduling of PRN Nursing Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Veranth, Martha M; Cheson, Christine

    1984-01-01

    A computerized system developed at LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah for staffing and scheduling PRN nursing personnel is described. Pre- and post-implementation staffing and scheduling activities are compared.

  7. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  8. Computerized ionospheric tomography with the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza; Erol, Cemil B.

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) is a method to estimate ionospheric electron density distribution by using the global positioning system (GPS) signals recorded by the GPS receivers. Ionospheric electron density is a function of latitude, longitude, height and time. A general approach in CIT is to represent the ionosphere as a linear combination of basis functions. In this study, the model of the ionosphere is obtained from the IRI in latitude and height only. The goal is to determine the best representing basis function from the set of Squeezed Legendre polynomials, truncated Legendre polynomials, Haar Wavelets and singular value decomposition (SVD). The reconstruction algorithms used in this study can be listed as total least squares (TLS), regularized least squares, algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and a hybrid algorithm where the reconstruction from the TLS algorithm is used as the initial estimate for the ART. The error performance of the reconstruction algorithms are compared with respect to the electron density generated by the IRI-2001 model. In the investigated scenario, the measurements are obtained from the IRI-2001 as the line integral of the electron density profiles, imitating the total electron content estimated from GPS measurements. It has been observed that the minimum error between the reconstructed and model ionospheres depends on both the reconstruction algorithm and the basis functions where the best results have been obtained for the basis functions from the model itself through SVD.

  9. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng

    2017-02-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.

  10. Radation distribution in head & thorax computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of the exposure levels in the computerized tomography (CT practices is necessary to define the respected national reference levels, quality control of CT centers and the risk assessment for radiation induced cancers. Material and Methods: On the basis of this necessity, the radiation exposure distribution due to common CT practices has been investigated at Razi Hospital CT center in Rasht using tissue-equivalent phantoms and the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD. The Head and Thorax phantoms were used with the standard dimensions incorporating holes at the center and edges for TLD placement. Dosimetry was carried out using LiF Mg, Cu, P small chips due to their relatively tissue equivalence, high sensitivity convenient annealing procedure and the non-complex glow curve. Results: Results showed that CTDI for Head is 52.85 mGy and for Body is 68.15mGy. CTDLW for Head is 13.67 mGy and for Body is 16.94mGy . Conclusion: In comparison with other radiographical procedures, patient absorbed doses in CT imaging are usually very high. Content of dose is increased by increase of mAs.

  11. Exploration and Practice of Problem-oriented Teaching in"Wine-making Technology" Course%问题导向教学在“酿酒工艺学”课程中的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余有贵; 刘静霆; 曾传广

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of classroom teaching of"Wine-making Technology"course, problem-oriented teach-ing method was used. Several years' exploration and practice proved that the method reflected the leading role of teachers and the main role of students in the teaching process, formed a good atmosphere of bilateral interaction, and have obtained good teaching effect.%为了提高“酿酒工艺学”课程的课堂教学效率,采用问题导向教学法组织教学。经过几年的探索与实践后证明,该方法体现了教学过程中教师的主导作用和学生的主体作用,双边互动氛围好,教学效果良好。

  12. 问题导向的工业工程专业生产实习的改革与探索%Problem-oriented Reform and Exploration of the Production Practice Course for Industrial Engineering Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓明明; 杨玮; 栾飞

    2014-01-01

    文章针对高校工业工程专业的生产实习中存在的问题,运用系统分析的问题导向原则,发挥工业工程专业的改善特色,开展工业工程专业生产实习的改革和探索。实习效果有明显的改善,对改革经验有一定的参考价值。%This paper focused on the problem of the production practice course for industrial engineering major. Combining the problem-oriented principle in systems analysis with improving characteristic of Industrial Engineering major, the reform and exploration of the production practice course for Industrial Engineering major were practiced. The effect of the"working practice"was improved well. The experience of the reform is valuable.

  13. Review and expectation of integrated curriculum of basic medical sciences of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yin NIU; Song YU; Xiao-kui GUO

    2015-01-01

    Since early 1950 s,many domestic and foreign medical schools have carried out the integrated teaching reform of medical education. In our school of basic medical sciences,there have been three types of integrated curriculum reform carried out in history,i. e. horizontally integrated courses,problem-oriented basic medical sciences curriculum, and organ system-based integrated curriculum. This article reviews the experience of these three teaching reforms and the problems encountered and hopes to provide some references for the integration of basic medical sciences curriculum of other medical schools.

  14. Development and validation of a survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Fear, Kathleen; Chaffee, Bruce W; Zimmerman, Christopher R; Karls, Edward M; Gatwood, Justin D; Stevenson, James G; Pearlman, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    To develop a theoretically informed and empirically validated survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts. The survey is grounded in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and an adapted accident causation model. Development of the instrument was also informed by a review of the extant literature on prescribers' attitude toward computerized medication safety alerts and common prescriber-provided reasons for overriding. To refine and validate the survey, we conducted a two-stage empirical validation study consisting of a pretest with a panel of domain experts followed by a field test among all eligible prescribers at our institution. The resulting survey instrument contains 28 questionnaire items assessing six theoretical dimensions: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived fatigue, and perceived use behavior. Satisfactory results were obtained from the field validation; however, a few potential issues were also identified. We analyzed these issues accordingly and the results led to the final survey instrument as well as usage recommendations. High override rates of computerized medication safety alerts have been a prevalent problem. They are usually caused by, or manifested in, issues of poor end user acceptance. However, standardized research tools for assessing and understanding end users' perception are currently lacking, which inhibits knowledge accumulation and consequently forgoes improvement opportunities. The survey instrument presented in this paper may help fill this methodological gap. We developed and empirically validated a survey instrument that may be useful for future research on DDI alerts and other types of computerized medication safety alerts more generally.

  15. Assessing Sensorimotor Function Following ISS with Computerized Dynamic Posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J; Paloski, William H; Clark, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    Postflight postural ataxia reflects both the control strategies adopted for movement in microgravity and the direct effects of deconditioning. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) has been used during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS) expeditions to quantify the initial postflight decrements and recovery of postural stability. The CDP data were obtained on 37 crewmembers as part of their pre- and postflight medical examinations. Sensory organization tests evaluated the ability to make effective use of (or suppress inappropriate) visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information for balance control. This report focuses on eyes closed conditions with either a fixed or sway-referenced base of support, with the head erect or during pitch-head tilts (± 20° at 0.33 Hz). Equilibrium scores were derived from peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway. Motor-control tests were also used to evaluate a crewmember's ability to automatically recover from unexpected support-surface perturbations. The standard Romberg condition was the least sensitive. Dynamic head tilts led to increased incidence of falls and revealed significantly longer recovery than head-erect conditions. Improvements in postflight postural performance during the later expeditions may be attributable to higher preflight baselines and/or advanced exercise capabilities aboard the ISS. The diagnostic assessment of postural instability is more pronounced during unstable-support conditions requiring active head movements. In addition to supporting return-to-duty decisions by flight surgeons, the CDP provides a standardized sensorimotor measure that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to either minimize deconditioning on orbit or promote reconditioning upon return to Earth.

  16. Diagnostic Prevalence of Ankylosing Spondylitis Using Computerized Health Care Data, 1996 to 2009: Underrecognition in a US Health Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Harrold, Leslie R; Asgari, Maryam M; Deodhar, Atul; Salman, Craig; Gelfand, Joel M; Wu, Jashin J; Herrinton, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the prevalence and features of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis in diverse, population-based, community settings. We used computerized diagnoses to estimate the prevalence of axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We identified persons aged 18 years or older with 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis Code 720.X (ankylosing spondylitis and other inflammatory spondylopathies) in clinical encounter data from 1996 through 2009 to estimate the prevalence of axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis. We reviewed medical records to confirm the diagnosis in a random sample and estimated the positive predictive value of computerized data to identify confirmed cases using various case definitions. In the computerized data, 5568 adults had diagnostic codes indicating axSpA. On the basis of our case-finding approach using a single physician diagnosis code for ICD-9 720.X, the point prevalence of these conditions, standardized to the 2000 US Census, was 2.26 per 1000 persons for axSpA and 1.07 per 1000 for ankylosing spondylitis. Less than half of suspected cases saw a rheumatologist. The most specific algorithm for confirmed ankylosing spondylitis required 2 or more computerized diagnoses assigned by a rheumatologist, with 67% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 64%-69%) and 81% positive predictive value (95% confidence interval, 79%-83%). Observed prevalence in the KPNC population, compared with national estimates for axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis, suggests there is substantial underrecognition of these conditions in routine clinical practice. However, use of computerized data is able to identify true cases of ankylosing spondylitis, facilitating population-based research.

  17. Instruction manual for the Wahoo computerized database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasota, D.; Watts, K.

    1995-05-01

    As part of our research on the Lisburne Group, we have developed a powerful relational computerized database to accommodate the huge amounts of data generated by our multi-disciplinary research project. The Wahoo database has data files on petrographic data, conodont analyses, locality and sample data, well logs and diagenetic (cement) studies. Chapter 5 is essentially an instruction manual that summarizes some of the unique attributes and operating procedures of the Wahoo database. The main purpose of a database is to allow users to manipulate their data and produce reports and graphs for presentation. We present a variety of data tables in appendices at the end of this report, each encapsulating a small part of the data contained in the Wahoo database. All the data are sorted and listed by map index number and stratigraphic position (depth). The Locality data table (Appendix A) lists of the stratigraphic sections examined in our study. It gives names of study areas, stratigraphic units studied, locality information, and researchers. Most localities are keyed to a geologic map that shows the distribution of the Lisburne Group and location of our sections in ANWR. Petrographic reports (Appendix B) are detailed summaries of data the composition and texture of the Lisburne Group carbonates. The relative abundance of different carbonate grains (allochems) and carbonate texture are listed using symbols that portray data in a format similar to stratigraphic columns. This enables researchers to recognize trends in the evolution of the Lisburne carbonate platform and to check their paleoenvironmental interpretations in a stratigraphic context. Some of the figures in Chapter 1 were made using the Wahoo database.

  18. A computerized English-Spanish correlation index to five biomedical library classification schemes based on MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, E V

    1971-07-01

    A computerized English/Spanish correlation index to five biomedical library classification schemes and a computerized English/Spanish, Spanish/English listings of MeSH are described. The index was accomplished by supplying appropriate classification numbers of five classification schemes (National Library of Medicine; Library of Congress; Dewey Decimal; Cunningham; Boston Medical) to MeSH and a Spanish translation of MeSH The data were keypunched, merged on magnetic tape, and sorted in a computer alphabetically by English and Spanish subject headings and sequentially by classification number. SOME BENEFITS AND USES OF THE INDEX ARE: a complete index to classification schemes based on MeSH terms; a tool for conversion of classification numbers when reclassifying collections; a Spanish index and a crude Spanish translation of five classification schemes; a data base for future applications, e.g., automatic classification. Other classification schemes, such as the UDC, and translations of MeSH into other languages can be added.

  19. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  20. Computers, medical care and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresse, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes Physician Actuated Computerized Treatment (PACT) which provides paperless Medical Office Management (MOM) (1). Software, hardware and physician are fused to produce an on-line database medical management system containing medical records, clerical functions and bookkeeping. PACT developed in the 1980's, was financed entirely by private physicians in a working clinical environment. MOM operates on a mini-computer with a minimum of 10 MB hard disk and 16K of memory. Maximum system design is a function of cost and total desired on-line storage. User friendly screens can prompt the operator in English, Spanish, French, German and Italian. Data entry is in native language.

  1. Pain Perception: Computerized versus Traditional Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, M; Kumar, A; Srivastava, D; Sharma, P; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety- provoking procedure for both children and adult patients in dentistry. A computerized system for slow delivery of local anesthetic has been developed as a possible solution to reduce the pain related to the local anesthetic injection. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare pain perception rates in pediatric patients with computerized system and traditional methods, both objectively and subjectively. It was a randomized controlled study in one hundred children aged 8-12 years in healthy physical and mental state, assessed as being cooperative, requiring extraction of maxillary primary molars. Children were divided into two groups by random sampling - Group A received buccal and palatal infiltration injection using Wand, while Group B received buccal and palatal infiltration using traditional syringe. Visual Analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation of pain perception by patient. Sound, Eye, Motor (SEM) scale was used as an objective method where sound, eye and motor reactions of patient were observed and heart rate measurement using pulse oximeter was used as the physiological parameter for objective evaluation. Patients experienced significantly less pain of injection with the computerized method during palatal infiltration, while less pain was not statistically significant during buccal infiltration. Heart rate increased during both buccal and palatal infiltration in traditional and computerized local anesthesia, but difference between traditional and computerized method was not statistically significant. It was concluded that pain perception was significantly more during traditional palatal infiltration injection as compared to computerized palatal infiltration, while there was no difference in pain perception during buccal infiltration in both the groups.

  2. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  3. A Problem-Oriented Mathematical Optimization Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Robert B.; Rhyner, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    This article describes a one-semester junior and senior level course in applied mathematical optimization for undergraduates which provides the opportunity to test models by doing numerical experiments and to learn to use computer subroutines for solving optimization problems. (MN)

  4. Problem Oriented Differential Diagnosis of Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    maize . The disease responds pooriy to therapy; therefore, prevention is recommended by removing the offending staple food from the diet or providing...skin inoculation ; may develop metastatic chronic abscesses. Meningococcal disease: petechiae and purpura common; may be complicated by vasculitis...distributed at site of skin inoculation : skin abscesses may develop gradually. 214 Myiasis: horse, cattle, rodent, rabbit, or human botfly, or tumbu fly may

  5. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  6. Construct Validation of a Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Test for Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaus, Stephanie; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E.; Glas, Cees A.W.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing enables precise measurements of patient-reported outcomes at an individual level across different dimensions. This study examined the construct validity of a multidimensional computerized adaptive test (CAT) for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis

  7. Perspectives in medical education-2. A blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha

    2006-09-01

    A blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan is presented, with the goal of training well rounded physicians who possess the ability to think critically and the clinical skill to function as generalists before they enter specialty training. Practical solutions are offered in three problem areas that lie at the heart of the shortcomings in Japanese medical education. They have to do with (i) the way Japanese students learn, (ii) the way Japanese teachers teach, and (iii) the material that students are taught. The inherently passive nature of Japanese students can be changed by emphasizing "active learning" and "critical thinking at the bedside" through a problem-oriented approach, both in the classroom and in the wards. Changing student learning, however, requires a commitment to teaching. At the present time, there is no incentive to teach at all, let alone teach in a constructive or interactive way. Teaching is widely perceived as a burden that takes time away from research, rather than as a credible and rewarding academic pursuit. Thus, promotion policies must be altered to reward teachers and accord teaching its rightful place as a primary function of the faculty. Finally, the introduction of active learning and interactive teaching depends on reducing the current emphasis on didactic instruction, which is passive and unidirectional. Thus, medical school curricula must be restructured to emphasize a problem-oriented, organ system-based approach throughout medical school, starting from the preclinical years. Reforms in all three areas must be implemented in concert for them to succeed.

  8. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  9. Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

  10. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  11. Validation of Computerized Cognitive Assessment in Cross-Cultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    B, WAIS-R Coding) in predominantly Caucasian samples (e.g. Kabat et al., 2001). 8 TABLE 5: Pearson Product Moment Correlations...satisfaction with computerized versus traditional cognitive testing. References Kabat , M.H., Kane, R.L., Jefferson, A.L., & DiPino, R.K. (2001

  12. Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2008-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

  13. A more cost-effective method of preoperative computerized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W B

    1989-07-01

    Stimulated by the explosive expansion of the computerized desk top publishing industry during the past few years, microcomputer hardware and software are evolving at a staggering rate. Memory is rapidly increasing, and prices are declining. I have found that with the hardware and software described in this paper, I was able to obtain, in a much more cost-effective manner, as useful preoperative information for my practice as I could obtain with more expensive "turnkey" (only one use) computerized imaging systems. This type of microcomputer, of course, is not limited to just the imaging system, but can be used for a variety of other programs as well, such as word processing, slide labeling and production, spreadsheet functions, billing and filing, and numerous business and other applications. The ease of use with readily available 35-mm slides of my patients has greatly enhanced the appeal of this system. Computerized imaging, when used as an educational tool, can be very helpful in preoperative planning, resident teaching, and for illustration and discussion of a patient's proposed surgery. The electronic imaging disclaimer compiled by the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons has been extremely helpful in clarifying the limits of computerized imaging and reducing any false expectations that my patients might have. All of us are experiencing the dawn of a very exciting evolution.

  14. Computerized tomography used as a routine procedure at postmortem investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2009-01-01

    This is a prospective investigation of a consecutive series of 250 deceased individuals who were computerized tomography (CT)-scanned and autopsied. In 13% of patients, important findings at the CT-scanning were not found at the autopsy, and in 48% of patients, important autopsy findings were...

  15. Computerized Atlases: The Potential of Computers in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, G.; Waters, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the use of computer atlases to see how they might contribute to the attainment of established social studies goals. Reviews advantages and disadvantages of existing software and hardware. Describes the potentials of computerized atlases and the hardware required to support such uses. (JDH)

  16. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  17. Limb-length discrepancy measured with computerized axial tomographic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurman, W.W.; Jacobsen, F.S.; Anderson, J.C.; Chu, W.K.

    1987-06-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for measuring limb-length discrepancies with computerized axial tomographic equipment is described. With this method less irradiation is delivered and some of the errors of computation are eliminated, compared with conventional methods. The costs of the technique are comparable with those of scanograms. The method is particularly applicable in the patient who has contracture of a joint.

  18. Computerized sociometric and peer assessment: An empirical and practical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic analysis and comparison was conducted of the psychometric properties of standard (paper-and-pencil) and computerized sociometry and peer assessments. The standard assessment took place with 817 children (47.5% boys) in 34 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms of 28 elementary schools. The c

  19. NCLEX-RN Performance: Predicting Success on the Computerized Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Julie Keith; Beeman, Pamela Butler

    2001-01-01

    Discriminant analysis was used to identify variables predictive of success in the computerized National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses with data from 289 nursing graduates. Using seven significant predictors, 94% of passes and 92% of failures were correctly identified. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  20. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jun; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations.

  1. Computerized Atlases: The Potential of Computers in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, G.; Waters, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the use of computer atlases to see how they might contribute to the attainment of established social studies goals. Reviews advantages and disadvantages of existing software and hardware. Describes the potentials of computerized atlases and the hardware required to support such uses. (JDH)

  2. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  3. Discovering Visual Scanning Patterns in a Computerized Cancellation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ho-Chuan; Wang, Tsui-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an attention sequential mining mechanism for investigating the sequential patterns of children's visual scanning process in a computerized cancellation test. Participants had to locate and cancel the target amongst other non-targets in a structured form, and a random form with Chinese stimuli. Twenty-three…

  4. Computerized Screening for Visual Stress in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chris; Henderson, Lisa-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Visual stress--a condition in which unpleasant visual symptoms are experienced when reading--has been reported to be more prevalent in dyslexic individuals but at the present time the relationship between dyslexia and visual stress remains controversial. ViSS, a computerized visual stress screener that incorporates reading-like visual search, has…

  5. 381 Developing of a Computerized Brain Diagnosing System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (Pp. 381-396). Ogunsanwo O. D. - Department of Computer Science, Gate way ICT ... computerized brain diagnosing system that would be used in carrying out the .... on Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology are being built into photocopiers, ..... This aspect explores the techniques use for the design of interface, menus and.

  6. The Effects of Computerized Information Systems on Juvenile Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Gary L.

    1976-01-01

    Organizational theorists alternatively hypothesized that computerized information systems (CIS) will produce no necessary changes, centralization, or decentralization in juvenile courts. This hypothesis is supported by the results of a four year study on the phenomenon. Suggestions are offered for improving the juvenile judicial system through…

  7. Computerized adaptive testing for measuring development of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobusse, G.; Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    Developmental indicators that are used for routine measurement in The Netherlands are usually chosen to optimally identify delayed children. Measurements on the majority of children without problems are therefore quite imprecise. This study explores the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to

  8. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  9. Computerized Mastery Testing Using Fuzzy Set Decision Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A new computerized mastery test is described that builds on the Lewis and Sheehan procedure (sequential testlets) (1990), but uses fuzzy set decision theory to determine stopping rules and the Rasch model to calibrate items and estimate abilities. Differences between fuzzy set and Bayesian methods are illustrated through an example. (SLD)

  10. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  11. The Nominal Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ayala, R. J.

    One important and promising application of item response theory (IRT) is computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The implementation of a nominal response model-based CAT (NRCAT) was studied. Item pool characteristics for the NRCAT as well as the comparative performance of the NRCAT and a CAT based on the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model were…

  12. An Assessment of a Computerized Simulation of Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.; Lucas, Margaretha

    1993-01-01

    Developed Computerized Counseling Simulation, simulation of client-counselor interaction. Tested simulation on seven groups with varying degrees of counseling experience: counselors, predoctoral counseling interns, counseling students, first-year counseling students, student peer counselors, undergraduates, and noncounselors (total n=108). Interns…

  13. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and assistance. Upon request, the committee shall provide documentation explaining the computer system... make available such personnel as are necessary to explain the operation of the computer system's... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of computerized information....

  14. Rice seed identification by computerized AFLP-DNA fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ We developed a computerized seed identification system. Fifteen rice varieties that were widely used in China were analyzed by AFLP fingerprinting. 12 primer pairs were screened. In order to simplify the procedure and cut down the cost in seed identification, the least number of primer pairs for practical seed identification should be selected. In this study, 3 primer pairs were selected.

  15. Computerized adaptive testing in industrial and organizational psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makransky, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The overarching goal of this dissertation is to increase the precision and efficiency of the measurement tools that are used to make selection decisions in industrial/organizational psychology, by introducing psychometric innovations in the framework of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Chapter 1

  16. Exploring the Impact of Technology on Communication in Medicine and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyash, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes some events in the use of medical technology in relation to the spoken word and doctor-patient communication. Reports on a new computerized diagnostic system (PROMIS-the Problem Oriented Medical Record System) and discusses its impact on health communication and medical education. (PD)

  17. Economic assessment of pressure sore prevention using a computerized mattress system in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catz, Amiram; Zifroni, Avi; Philo, Ora

    2005-11-15

    To assess the economic profitability of a new computerized mattress system in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) by comparison with two other alternatives, as an example of the use of a quantitative approach for decision-making in choosing between alternatives for sore prevention. The cost of achieving one day without signs of impending pressure sore was compared between the alternative options using cost minimization analysis. Savings in nursing costs for the three options were calculated for cost-benefit analysis. A foam mattress system is significantly cheaper than the other examined alternatives, and if the nursing manpower cost is constant and the nursing staff is capable of performing sufficient repositioning, this system would achieve the desired medical outcome at a minimal cost. However, if the nursing staff cannot perform sufficient repositioning, or if the use of nursing manpower can be adjusted to the actual need, then it is the computerized mattress system that achieves the desired outcome at the minimal cost. In this case, less than 20 New Israeli Shekels (NIS) per day spent on the equipment save NIS 45 per day in labor costs. The economic evaluation indicates that the computerized mattress system is advisable for patients with SCI who require assistance for repositioning, but its profitability depends on the employment terms of the nursing manpower. In addition, other possible alternative pressure management systems should be examined, and additional research may be needed to determine the optimal combination of such systems for a spinal cord rehabilitation department.

  18. Morphological analysis of the vestibular aqueduct by computerized tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: sergioanat.morf@epm.br; Smith, Ricardo Luiz [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Isotani, Sadao [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Alonso, Luis Garcia [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Anadao, Carlos Augusto [Otorhinolaryngology Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Prates, Jose Carlos [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Objective: In the last two decades, advances in the computerized tomography (CT) field revise the internal and medium ear evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the morphology and morphometric aspects of the vestibular aqueduct on the basis of computerized tomography images (CTI). Material and method: Computerized tomography images of vestibular aqueducts were acquired from patients (n = 110) with an age range of 1-92 years. Thereafter, from the vestibular aqueducts images a morphometric analysis was performed. Through a computerized image processing system, the vestibular aqueduct measurements comprised of its area, external opening, length and the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus. Results: The morphology of the vestibular aqueduct may be funnel-shaped, filiform or tubular and the respective proportions were found to be at 44%, 33% and 22% in children and 21.7%, 53.3% and 25% in adults. The morphometric data showed to be of 4.86 mm{sup 2} of area, 2.24 mm of the external opening, 4.73 mm of length and 11.88 mm of the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus, in children, and in adults it was of 4.93 mm{sup 2}, 2.09 mm, 4.44 mm, and 11.35 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Computerized tomography showed that the vestibular aqueduct presents high morphological variability. The morphometric analysis showed that the differences found between groups of children and adults or between groups of both genders were not statistically significant.

  19. Ellipsis and Coreference Resolution in a Computerized Virtual Patient Dialogue System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Jie; Pao, Chien-Wei; Chen, Yen-Heng; Liu, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Hui-Huang

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the design of an ellipsis and coreference resolution module integrated in a computerized virtual patient dialogue system. Real medical diagnosis dialogues have been collected and analyzed. Several groups of diagnosis-related concepts were defined and used to construct rules, patterns, and features to detect and resolve ellipsis and coreference. The best F-scores of ellipsis detection and resolution were 89.15 % and 83.40 %, respectively. The best F-scores of phrasal coreference detection and resolution were 93.83 % and 83.40 %, respectively. The accuracy of pronominal anaphora resolution was 92 % for the 3rd-person singular pronouns referring to specific entities, and 97.31 % for other pronouns.

  20. Consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, H J

    1999-12-01

    This article presents an overview of a research project concerning the consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record (EMR). It describes an analysis of user needs, the design and implementation of a prototype EMR system, and the evaluation of the ease of consultation of medical narratives when using this system. In a questionnaire survey, 85 hospital physicians judged the quality of their paper-based medical record with respect to data entry, information retrieval and some other aspects. Participants were more positive about the paper medical record than the literature suggests. They wished to maintain the flexibility of data entry but indicated the need to improve the retrieval of information. A prototype EMR system was developed to facilitate the consultation of medical narratives. These parts were divided into labeled segments that could be arranged source-oriented and problem-oriented. This system was used to evaluate the ease of information retrieval of 24 internists and 12 residents at a teaching hospital when using free-text medical narratives divided at different levels of detail. They solved, without time pressure, some predefined problems concerning three voluminous, inpatient case records. The participants were randomly allocated to a sequence that was balanced by patient case and learning effect. The division of medical narratives affected speed, but not completeness of information retrieval. Progress notes divided into problem-related segments could be consulted 22% faster than when undivided. Medical history and physical examination divided into segments at organ-system level could be consulted 13% faster than when divided into separate questions and observations. These differences were statistically significant. The fastest divisions were also appreciated as the best combination of easy searching and best insight in the patient case. The results of our evaluation study suggest a trade-off between searching and reading: too much

  1. Advanced interaction techniques for medical models

    OpenAIRE

    Monclús, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Medical Visualization allows the analysis of anatomical structures with the use of 3D models reconstructed from a stack of intensity-based images acquired through different techniques, being Computerized Tomographic (CT) modality one of the most common. A general medical volume graphics application usually includes an exploration task which is sometimes preceded by an analysis process where the anatomical structures of interest are first identified. ...

  2. Status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment might be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing, focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above mentioned criteria. Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, 11 were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner-administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real time with an individual's prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information gathered from

  3. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  4. Computerized games to study the development of attention in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Jones, L; Rothbart, M K; Posner, M I

    2000-05-01

    Children enjoy playing games. We can take advantage of this in the designs of computerized tasks that will engage their interest. These designs also serve to advance the study of chronometric measures, such as manual and saccadic reaction times and event related potentials, with young children. The goals of our method development are (1) to allow for comparable tasks across a wide variety of ages, (2) to make possible comparisons of child performance with data gathered in adult cognitive studies, and (3) to help to support inferences about the development of underlying mechanisms. We have designed a battery of computerized tasks in order to study the development of attention functions of alertness, orienting, and executive control during childhood. Our purpose is to describe each of these tasks in detail and present the results that have been obtained so far. The battery was tested using a sample of 5-year-old children as subjects.

  5. Computerization of Mental Health Integration complexity scores at Intermountain Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniki, Thomas A; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P; Wilcox, Adam B; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare's Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient's mental health complexity as "mild," "medium," or "high" based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer's conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34).

  6. Algorithms for Computerized Fetal Heart Rate Diagnosis with Direct Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since pattern classification of fetal heart rate (FHR was subjective and enlarged interobserver difference, objective FHR analysis was achieved with computerized FHR diagnosis. Methods: The computer algorithm was composed of an experts’ knowledge system, including FHR analysis and FHR score calculation, and also of an objective artificial neural network system with software. In addition, a FHR frequency spectrum was studied to detect ominous sinusoidal FHR and the loss of baseline variability related to fetal brain damage. The algorithms were installed in a central-computerized automatic FHR monitoring system, which gave the diagnosis rapidly and directly to the attending doctor. Results: Clinically perinatal mortality decreased significantly and no cerebral palsy developed after introduction of the centralized system. Conclusion: The automatic multichannel FHR monitoring system improved the monitoring, increased the objectivity of FHR diagnosis and promoted clinical results.

  7. Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Ashton, V Lynn; Johnson, Lynda G; Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was "some" (n = 65) or "frequent" (n = 65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized neurocognitive battery. There were significant differences on 6 of the 23 scores, including scores derived from the Symbol-Digit Coding Test, Stroop Test, and the Shifting Attention Test. The two groups were also significantly different on the Psychomotor Speed (Cohen's d = 0.37), Reaction Time (d = 0.68), Complex Attention (d = 0.40), and Cognitive Flexibility (d = 0.64) domain scores. People with "frequent" computer use performed better than people with "some" computer use on some tests requiring rapid visual scanning and keyboard work.

  8. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to provide substantial improvements over currently used sequential and fixed length tests.

  9. A Fully Computerized Method to Backup the Router Configuration File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan H.Majeed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully computerized method to backup the router configuration file. The method consists of a friendly graphical interface programmed by Java programming language The proposed method is compared with the two existing methods, namely: TFTP server method and Copy/Paste method. The comparison reveals that the proposed method has many advantages over the existing ones. The proposed method has been implemented on Cisco routers (series 2500, 2600 and 2800

  10. Computerized tomography using a modified orthogonal tangent correction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, T C; Smith, S C; Lantz, B M

    1976-10-01

    A modified orthogonal tangent correction algorithm is presented for computerized tomography. The algorithm uses four X-rays scans spaced 45 degrees apart, to reconstruct a transverse axial image. The reconstruction procedure is interative in which image matrix elements are corrected by alternately matching the two sets of orthogonal scan data. The algorithm has been applied to phantom data as well as to video recorded fluoroscopic data.

  11. TBASE: a computerized database for transgenic animals and targeted mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woychik, R P; Wassom, J S; Kingsbury, D; Jacobson, D A

    1993-05-27

    A computerized database, called TBASE, has been developed to organize and make available information on transgenic animals and targeted mutations by using resources at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Johns Hopkins University (JHU). The database is available through the JHU Computational Biology Gopher Server. To ensure that all interested users have access, several mechanisms will be installed to accommodate varying levels of telecommunication network connectivity.

  12. Managing people problems in changing to computerized text processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    Change is always both a promise and a threat. Changing to a computerized text processing system is, from a management viewpoint, mostly a promise; but from an employee viewpoint, mostly a threat. A variety of people problems arise from such a changeover because of the perceived threats involved. Most of these problems can be expected, so that, by proper management, their effects can be reduced or eliminated.

  13. Computerized estimation of coal reserves of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solymosi, F.; Kiss, J.

    1988-01-01

    No standardized methodology for long term planning exists in Hungary in the coal industry. A computerized method of coal reserve estimation based on normatives is described. The method has been applied in the Maza-South-Varalja-South region (Transdanubia, South Hungary). The applicability of the method is outlined and the error limit that was missing in coal reserve estimations is suggested to be introduced.

  14. Computerized assessment of pain drawing area: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wenngren

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Wenngren, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate if pain area in patients with chronic pain could be measured by a computerized assessment on previously marked pain drawings on paper figures and to analyze the further application of the method.Methods: Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men who were admitted to Umeå University Hospital during 2003 for assessment of chronic pain answered a set of questionnaires (pain intensity on the visual analog scale [VAS], disability on the Disability Rating Index [DRI], life satisfaction on the LiSat-11 and filled in pain drawings on paper figures of the human body. The pain drawings were later analyzed by using computerized assessment.Results: Women marked a greater pain area than men, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.433. No significant difference was shown for the previous seven days between men and women on the VAS (p = 0.914, DRI (p = 0.493, or LiSat-11 (p = 0.124. A statistically significant correlation was found between pain area and VAS for the previous seven days (r = 0.250; p = 0.046. Pain area was statistically significantly correlated to the DRI (r = 0.336; p = 0.014 and close to negatively correlated to the LiSat-11 (r = -0.687; p = 0.057.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that pain drawing area could be measured by a computerized assessment of pain drawings. The method points to the possibility of relating pain area with other instruments. In the present study, an association between the patients’ pain drawing area and pain intensity and between pain area and level of activity was shown.Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, screening, pain drawing, computerized assessment

  15. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  16. Re-evaluation of Vernacular Architecture Research Paradigm:From Feature Oriented to Problem Oriented%乡土建筑研究范式的再定位:从特色导向到问题导向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志宏

    2014-01-01

    本文深入分析了乡土建筑研究中以“特色为导向”研究范式存在的问题,认为它是近代中国文化认同的危机而形成的“中国特色”建筑话语的延续。在当下现代文化转型基本完成的语境下,“特色导向”的研究范式不再具有天然的合理性。乡土建筑研究应该回归乡土,研究乡土中现实的条件和问题,即所谓“问题导向”的研究范式。乡土研究应该更加关注那些日常的、大量性的、“无特色”的普通当代民居,注重对其形态生成机制和演化规律的研究。最后为乡土建筑研究提出一些新的研究可能。%This paper attempts to re-evaluate the feature-oriented research paradigm of vernacular architecture, which is regarded as the architectural discourse with the “Chinese identity” created by Chinese cultural crisis of western invasion from 19 century. When Chinese modern cultural transformation had already completed recently, however, the feature-oriented paradigm has also lost its rationality along with its professional attention. Thus, vernacular architecture research paradigm should be transformed from feature oriented to problem oriented, attach importance to the true reality and issues in rural areas, pay more attention to the ordinary, extensive, and nondescript folk houses, and focus on the basic mechanism and law of morphological evolution of the vernacular architecture. Finally, it’s expected that it will provide references for future studies.

  17. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Shing Lin,1,2 Chiu-Lin Tsai,3 Ching-Yeh Tu,3 Ching-Liang Hsieh2,4,5 1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 2Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 3Division of Chinese Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 5Research Center for Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions.Methods: Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient.Results: During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL.Conclusion: Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, adverse reaction

  18. Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants; Vantagens obtidas em radioprotecao quando do uso do ensaio de radiografia computadorizada - RC (digital) em plantas de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, Joao Carlos Videira; Milani, Hilton Sergio B.; Paes, Eliseu Almir de Oliveira; Boita, Mario de [ARCtest Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tecnica@arctest.com.br; Souza, Laercio de; Serra, Flavio Augusto dos Santos [PETROBRAS, Paulinia, SP, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria do Planalto Paulista (REPLAN)]. E-mails: laerciosouza@petrobras.com.br; serra@petrobras.com.br

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted.

  19. Economic impact of prescribing error prevention with computerized physician order entry of injectable antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerich, V; Borg, C; Villanueva, C; Thiery-Vuillemin, A; Helias, P; Rohrlich, P-S; Demarchi, M; Pivot, X; Limat, S

    2013-03-01

    A cost-benefit analysis was carried out to determine the potential economic costs and benefits of pharmaceutical analysis in preventing prescribing errors for full standardized injectable antineoplastic drugs computerized physician order entry, in a pharmaceutical unit (University teaching hospital), compared with theoretical setting with no pharmaceutical analysis. The viewpoint is that of the payer or the French national Public Health Insurance system, and is limited to hospital cost (only direct medical costs related to net cost and net benefit. A decision analysis model was performed to compare two strategies: with pharmaceutical analysis (± pharmacy intervention) and without pharmaceutical analysis. are expressed in terms of benefit-to-cost ratio and total benefit. The robustness of the results was assessed through a series of one-way sensitivity analyses. Over 1 year, prescribing error incidence was estimated at 1.5% [1.3-1.7], i.e. 218 avoided prescribing errors. Potential avoidance of hospital stay was estimated at 419 days or 1.9 ± 0.3 days per prescribing error. Cost-benefit analysis could estimate a net benefit-to-cost ratio of 33.3 (€17.34/€0.52) and a total benefit at €16.82 per pharmaceutical analysis or €249,844 per year. The sensitivity analysis showed robustness of results. Our study shows a substantial economic benefit of pharmaceutical analysis and intervention in the prevention of prescribing errors. The clinical pharmacist adds both value and economic benefit, making it possible to avoid additional use of expensive antineoplastic drugs and hospitalization. Computerized physician order entry of antineoplastic drugs improves the relevance of clinical pharmacist interventions, expanding pharmaceutical analysis and also the role of the pharmacist.

  20. Variation in outcomes in Veterans Affairs intensive care units with a computerized severity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Render, Marta L; Kim, H Myra; Deddens, James; Sivaganesin, Siva; Welsh, Deborah E; Bickel, Karen; Freyberg, Ron; Timmons, Stephen; Johnston, Joseph; Connors, Alfred F; Wagner, Douglas; Hofer, Timothy P

    2005-05-01

    To quantify the variability in risk-adjusted mortality and length of stay of Veterans Affairs intensive care units using a computer-based severity of illness measure. Retrospective cohort study. A stratified random sample of 34 intensive care units in 17 Veterans Affairs hospitals. A consecutive sample of 29,377 first intensive care unit admissions from February 1996 through July 1997. Standardized mortality ratio (observed/expected deaths) and observed minus expected length of stay (OMELOS) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated for each unit using a hierarchical logistic (standardized mortality ratio) or linear (OMELOS) regression model with Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. We adjusted for patient characteristics including age, admission diagnosis, comorbid disease, physiology at admission (from laboratory data), and transfer status. Mortality across the intensive care units for the 12,088 surgical and 17,289 medical cases averaged 11% (range, 2-30%). Length of stay in the intensive care units averaged 4.0 days (range, mean unit length of stay 3.0-5.9). Standardized mortality ratio of the intensive care units varied from 0.62 to 1.27; the standardized mortality ratio and 95% confidence interval were units and >1.0 for seven intensive care units. OMELOS of the intensive care units ranged from -0.89 to 1.34 days. In a random slope hierarchical model, variation in standardized mortality ratio among intensive care units was similar across the range of severity, whereas variation in length of stay increased with severity. Standardized mortality ratio was not associated with OMELOS (Pearson's r = .13). We identified intensive care units whose indicators for mortality and length of stay differ substantially using a conservative statistical approach with a severity adjustment model based on data available in computerized clinical databases. Computerized risk adjustment employing routinely available data may facilitate research on the utility of intensive care

  1. Implementation of a pharmacy automation system (robotics) to ensure medication safety at Norwalk hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepko, Robert J; Moore, John R; Coleman, John R

    2009-01-01

    This article reports an intervention to improve the quality and safety of hospital patient care by introducing the use of pharmacy robotics into the medication distribution process. Medication safety is vitally important. The integration of pharmacy robotics with computerized practitioner order entry and bedside medication bar coding produces a significant reduction in medication errors. The creation of a safe medication-from initial ordering to bedside administration-provides enormous benefits to patients, to health care providers, and to the organization as well.

  2. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  3. A computerized data acquisition system for infusion devices--a clinical support tool, or a risk management tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, S Y; Nevill, A J; Jeyaratnam, P

    2001-01-01

    A prototype computerized system for automatic data collection from multi-vendor infusion devices was constructed. The system was specifically designed around the needs of the critical care environment, and a survey of clinical staff was conducted to determine the functional requirements. Hardware, software and system configuration was based on the Medical Information Bus IEEE 1073 standard for medical device data communications. The infusion devices were configured into device communication controllers (DCC), which were polled at 0.25 Hz by a PC configured as a bedside communication controller (BCC). The system stores data samples after intervals of 1 ml of drug delivery and following any changes in the infusion rate. The system demonstrated significant opportunities for supporting clinical care and for the management of health care technology.

  4. An overview of selected information storage and retrieval issues in computerized document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Ihebuzor, Valentine U.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid development of computerized information storage and retrieval techniques has introduced the possibility of extending the word processing concept to document processing. A major advantage of computerized document processing is the relief of the tedious task of manual editing and composition usually encountered by traditional publishers through the immense speed and storage capacity of computers. Furthermore, computerized document processing provides an author with centralized control, the lack of which is a handicap of the traditional publishing operation. A survey of some computerized document processing techniques is presented with emphasis on related information storage and retrieval issues. String matching algorithms are considered central to document information storage and retrieval and are also discussed.

  5. Using Computerized Bilingual Dictionaries To help Maximize English Vocabulary Learning at Japanese Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucky, John Paul

    2003-01-01

    Compares various computerized bilingual dictionaries for their relative effectiveness in helping Japanese college students at several language proficiency levels to access new English target vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  6. Design and evaluation of computerized operating procedures in nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Fei-Hui; Hwang, Sheue-Ling

    2003-01-15

    A small-scale virtual system has been developed in this study to enhance operators' understanding and operating performance. For this, a computerized graphical interface based on Dynamic Work Causality Equation (DWCE) has been designed to transform the operating procedure into a flowchart. Furthermore, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) was installed to connect the signboard (proposed system) with the computerized graphical interface. An experiment was conducted to verify the effect of computerized graphic interface, indicating that the computerized system significantly decreases learning time and improves operational performance.

  7. [Computerized cardiotocography analysis of fetal heart response to acoustic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Kwon, Clarice; Miyadahira, Seizo; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-11-01

    to study the effect of acoustic stimulation in the fetal cardiac response, according to parameters from computerized cardiotocography in low risk pregnancies. twenty low risk pregnant women were included in the study, according to the following criteria: age over 18; single gestation, living fetus; gestational age between 36 and 40 weeks; amniotic liquid index over 8.0 cm and absence of fetal malformation. Cases with post-natal diagnosis of fetal anomaly were excluded. Computerized cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes, before and after fetal acoustic stimulation. Results were analyzed by the t test for dependent samples, with significance level at pstimulation was successfully performed in all cases analyzed. By the analysis of the cardiotocographic parameters, there was no significant difference when the pre and post-stimulation parameters were compared: average number of fetal movements per hour (55.6 versus 71.9, p=0.1); mean basal fetal heart rate (FHR) (135.2 versus 137.5 bpm, p=0.3); mean FHR increases>10 bpm (6.5 versus 6.8, p=0.7); mean FHR increases>15 bpm (3.8 versus 4.3, p=0.5); mean duration of high FHR variation episodes (11.4 versus 10.9 min, p=0.7); mean duration of low FHR variation episodes (2.5 versus 1.1 min, p=0.2), and mean short-term variation (10.6 versus 10.9 ms, p=0.6). in low risk gestations at term, computerized cardiotocography has not evidenced differences in the FHR parameters after the fetal sonic stimulation.

  8. COMPUTERIZED HEAT-TREATMENT IN A ZIMBABWEAN FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Collier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Zimbabwe's current economic problems, parts of the manufacturing industry are turning their attention to the possibility of utilising local design talent in upgrading their manufacturing plants. This paper describes a project undertaken by the National University of Science and Technology to convert the heat-treatment process in a major manufacturing plant from semi -manual to a computerized one. The system comprises microcontroller connection to the furnaces and sensors, and communicates with a central computer on which software for a windowed user-interface is hosted. Experimental results for the system are presented, and a strategy for other companies in the same predicament is proposed.

  9. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.; Reece, W.J.; Gertman, D.I.

    1992-10-01

    This Reference Guide contains instructions on how to install and use Version 3.5 of the NRC-sponsored Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). The NUCLARR data management system is contained in compressed files on the floppy diskettes that accompany this Reference Guide. NUCLARR is comprised of hardware component failure data (HCFD) and human error probability (HEP) data, both of which are available via a user-friendly, menu driven retrieval system. The data may be saved to a file in a format compatible with IRRAS 3.0 and commercially available statistical packages, or used to formulate log-plots and reports of data retrieval and aggregation findings.

  10. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  11. Rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis. A case study utilizing computerized tomography examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prando, D. (Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Clemente Filho, A.S.; Secaf, F. (Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    Rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis is a very serious and frequently fatal disease in which accurate analysis will often suggest the diagnosis. The Computerized Tomography (CT) scans are very helpful to establish the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and in the clear demonstration of the typical relationship between the sinus, orbital and cerebral disease. The recognition of the characteristic pattern in the involved areas should be helpful to early diagnosis and surgical treatment. The findings in one patient with craniofacial mucormycosis who underwent five times to CT examination are presented. Special attention is given to the serial CT scans and in the rapid spread to the central nervous system.

  12. Technical innovation: Multidimensional computerized software enabled subtraction computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Mona; Rosset, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Didier, Dominique; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a frequent noninvasive alternative to digital subtraction angiography. We previously reported the development of a new subtraction software to overcome limitations of adjacent bone and calcification in CT angiographic subtraction. Our aim was to further develop and improve this fast and automated computerized software, universally available for free use and compatible with most CT scanners, thus enabling better delineation of vascular structures, artifact reduction, and shorter reading times with potential clinical benefits. This computer-based free software will be available as an open source in the next release of OsiriX at the Web site http://www.osirix-viewer.com.

  13. Findings of psychopathology and computerized tomography in neuropsychiatric diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-08-01

    1978-1980 we examined 451 patients of the Psychiatric University Clinic of Bonn by computerized tomography. From 260 patients with characterized diseases of the brain and brain damages, 78 patients had neuropsychiatric diseases of old age, i.e. cerebro-vascular processes (average age of 63.7 years) and 9 patients had primary degenerative processes of the brain (average age of 62.1 years). Patients with diseases of the cerebral vessels showed irreversible psychopathological syndromes in 87%. The rate of pathological findings in CT increases in relation to degree of severity of the chronic (irreversible) organic psychosyndromes from 76% in pseudoneurasthenics syndromes to 93% in patients with organic changes of personality and to 100% in patients with dementia. The ambiguity of the conception of the multi-infarct-dementia is discussed. Only 19% of the sample with irreversible psychopathological changes showed localized neurological deficits and infarctions in CT, but none of them more than one. In all patients with dementia a cortical atrophy was found. There is a significant positive correlation between cerebral atrophy in CT and irreversible organic psychosyndrome. These findings with computerized tomography demonstrate in accordance with earlier pneumoencephalographic findings that distinct types of irreversible psychosyndromes can be correlated to distinct types of cerebral atrophy. But these statistical correlations between the degree of the severity of the loss of psychic functions and the reduction of cerebral tissue are not necessarily valid for any single case.

  14. Identification of individuals using palatal rugae: Computerized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hemanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals is a challenging task in forensic odontology. In circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, the palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source. Palatal rugae have been shown to be highly individualistic and it maintains consistency in shape throughout life. Aims and Objectives: The present study is conducted to test the efficiency of computerized software in the identification of individuals after obtaining digital photographic images of the rugae. Materials and Methods: The intra oral photographs of 100 individuals were taken using a SLR digital camera. The custom made external attachment was attached to the camera to standardize all the photographs. A special software was designed called the Palatal Rugae Comparison Software (PRCS Version 2.0 to match the clinical photographs. Five evaluators including 3 dentists, 1 computer professional, and 1 general surgeon were asked to match the rugae pattern using the software. The results were recorded along with time taken by each operator to match all the photos using software. Results: The software recorded an accuracy of 99% in identification of individuals. Conclusion: The present study supports the fact of individuality of the rugae. Computerized method has given very good results to support the individualization of rugae. Through our study, we feel that palatal rugae patterns will be of great use in the future of forensic odontology.

  15. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  16. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converse, S.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  17. Acceptance of Computerized Compared to Paper-and-Pencil Assessment in Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernhard; Schneider, Barbara; Fritze, Jurgen; Gille, Boris; Hornung, Stefan; Kuhner, Thorsten; Maurer, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the acceptance of computerized assessment, particularly compared to conventional paper-and-pencil techniques, in seriously impaired psychiatric inpatients. Describes the development of a self-rating questionnaire (OPQ, Operation and Preference Questionnaire) and reports results that showed computerized assessment was convincingly…

  18. The Effect of a Computerized Review on NCLEX-RN Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Pamela J.; Hodson, Kay E.; Henriksen, Larry

    1985-01-01

    This presentation will describe a pilot study being conducted at Ball State University. The study is attempting to determine the effect of a computerized review experience on the clinical subscale scores of NCLEX-RN. Relationships between the computerized review clinical subscores and the NCLEX-RN clinical subscale scores are also being investigated.

  19. Computerized Testing of Level III Associate Degree Nursing Students versus Paper and Pencil Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Shirna R.

    2014-01-01

    Computerized testing may be one solution to enhance performance on the curricular Health Education Systems Inc. (HESI) exam and the National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Due to the integration of improved technological processes and procedures in healthcare for computerized documentation and electronicmedical records,…

  20. Limit orders, asymmetric information and the formation of asset prices with a computerized specialist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); A. Gilette (Ann); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the existence of equilibrium in an asset market under asymmetric information. Price formation is modeled as a bilateral sealed bid auction where uninformed and informed traders submit limit orders to a computerized specialist. The computerized specialist is programmed to sell

  1. A Sample CISNE [Computerized Information Service for Nursing Educators] Nursing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvir, Howard P.

    The Computerized Information Service for Nursing Educators (CISNE) is a computerized information system designed to help nursing instructors exchange ideas in an attempt to improve teaching methods. The system, which is under development, will assist nursing educators by performing eight functions: (1) coding courses for instant input and…

  2. Proposed Standard Purchase Order, Variable Format for the Computerized Ordering of Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology and Libraries, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A purchase order variable format in support of computerized book ordering/acquisitions process is proposed for libraries and vendors by Subcommittee U, Computerized Ordering of Books, and National Information Standards Organization. General format structure, record content, generalized schematic, examples, and descriptions of data elements are…

  3. 15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section 950.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental Data Index (ENDEX... computerized, information retrieval service provides a parallel subject-author-abstract referral service....

  4. Computerized Assessment System for Academic Satisfaction (ASAS) for First-Year University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…

  5. Differential diagnosis in computerized tomography. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Differenzialdiagnosen in der Computertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgener, Francis A.; Meyers, Steven P. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Imaging Sciences; Herzog, Christopher [Rotkreuzklinikum Muenchen (Germany); Zaunbauer, Wolfgang [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2013-02-01

    The book on differential diagnosis in computerized tomography is aimed to support radiologists and physicians with experience concerning the interpretation of computerized tomography images by detailed descriptions of CT diagnoses. The book covers the following topics: intracranial indications, head and neck, spinal cord, muscle-skeleton system, thorax, abdomen and pelvis.

  6. Medical imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray in 1885. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modal...

  7. A Computerized English-Spanish Correlation Index to Five Biomedical Library Classification Schemes Based on MeSH*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Eugene V.

    1971-01-01

    A computerized English/Spanish correlation index to five biomedical library classification schemes and a computerized English/Spanish, Spanish/English listings of MeSH are described. The index was accomplished by supplying appropriate classification numbers of five classification schemes (National Library of Medicine; Library of Congress; Dewey Decimal; Cunningham; Boston Medical) to MeSH and a Spanish translation of MeSH The data were keypunched, merged on magnetic tape, and sorted in a computer alphabetically by English and Spanish subject headings and sequentially by classification number. Some benefits and uses of the index are: a complete index to classification schemes based on MeSH terms; a tool for conversion of classification numbers when reclassifying collections; a Spanish index and a crude Spanish translation of five classification schemes; a data base for future applications, e.g., automatic classification. Other classification schemes, such as the UDC, and translations of MeSH into other languages can be added. PMID:5172471

  8. Computerized epileptiform transient detection in the scalp electroencephalogram: obstacles to progress and the example of computerized ECG interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jonathan J

    2009-11-01

    Computerized detection of epileptiform transients (ETs), also called spikes and sharp waves, in the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been a research goal for the last 40years. A reliable method for detecting ETs could improve efficiency in reviewing long EEG recordings and assist physicians in interpreting routine EEGs. Computer algorithms developed so far for detecting ETs are not as reliable as human expert interpreters, mostly due to the large number of false positive detections. Typical methods for ET detection include measuring waveform morphology, detecting signal non-stationarity, and power spectrum analysis. Some progress has been made by using more advanced algorithmic approaches including wavelet analysis, artificial neural networks, and dipole analysis. Comparing the performance of different algorithms is difficult since each study uses its own EEG test dataset. In order to overcome this problem, European researchers in the field of computerized electrocardiogram interpretation organized a large multi-center research workgroup to create a standardized dataset of ECG recordings which were interpreted by a large group of cardiologists. EEG researchers need to follow this as a model and seek funding for the creation of a standardized EEG research dataset to develop ET detection algorithms and certify commercial software.

  9. Towards computerizing intensive care sedation guidelines: design of a rule-based architecture for automated execution of clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerckhove Wannes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized ICUs rely on software services to convey the medical condition of their patients as well as assisting the staff in taking treatment decisions. Such services are useful for following clinical guidelines quickly and accurately. However, the development of services is often time-consuming and error-prone. Consequently, many care-related activities are still conducted based on manually constructed guidelines. These are often ambiguous, which leads to unnecessary variations in treatments and costs. The goal of this paper is to present a semi-automatic verification and translation framework capable of turning manually constructed diagrams into ready-to-use programs. This framework combines the strengths of the manual and service-oriented approaches while decreasing their disadvantages. The aim is to close the gap in communication between the IT and the medical domain. This leads to a less time-consuming and error-prone development phase and a shorter clinical evaluation phase. Methods A framework is proposed that semi-automatically translates a clinical guideline, expressed as an XML-based flow chart, into a Drools Rule Flow by employing semantic technologies such as ontologies and SWRL. An overview of the architecture is given and all the technology choices are thoroughly motivated. Finally, it is shown how this framework can be integrated into a service-oriented architecture (SOA. Results The applicability of the Drools Rule language to express clinical guidelines is evaluated by translating an example guideline, namely the sedation protocol used for the anaesthetization of patients, to a Drools Rule Flow and executing and deploying this Rule-based application as a part of a SOA. The results show that the performance of Drools is comparable to other technologies such as Web Services and increases with the number of decision nodes present in the Rule Flow. Most delays are introduced by loading the Rule Flows

  10. Anti-3-[18F]FACBC Positron Emission Tomography-Computerized Tomography and 111In-Capromab Pendetide Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography-Computerized Tomography for Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Amzat, Rianot; Bowman, F. DuBois; Halkar, Raghuveer K.; Master, Viraj A.; Nye, Jonathon A.; Odewole, Oluwaseun A.; Osunkoya, Adeboye O.; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Alaei-Taleghani, Pooneh; Goodman, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We prospectively evaluated the amino acid analogue positron emission tomography radiotracer anti-3-[18F]FACBC compared to ProstaScint® (111In-capromab pendetide) single photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography to detect recurrent prostate carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 93 patients met study inclusion criteria who underwent anti-3-[18F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography plus 111In-capromab pendetide single photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography for suspected recurrent prostate carcinoma within 90 days. Reference standards were applied by a multidisciplinary board. We calculated diagnostic performance for detecting disease. Results In the 91 of 93 patients with sufficient data for a consensus on the presence or absence of prostate/bed disease anti-3-[18F]FACBC had 90.2% sensitivity, 40.0% specificity, 73.6% accuracy, 75.3% positive predictive value and 66.7% negative predictive value compared to 111In-capromab pendetide with 67.2%, 56.7%, 63.7%, 75.9% and 45.9%, respectively. In the 70 of 93 patients with a consensus on the presence or absence of extraprostatic disease anti-3-[18F]FACBC had 55.0% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity, 72.9% accuracy, 95.7% positive predictive value and 61.7% negative predictive value compared to 111In-capromabpendetide with10.0%, 86.7%, 42.9%, 50.0% and 41.9%, respectively. Of 77 index lesions used to prove positivity histological proof was obtained in 74 (96.1%). Anti-3-[18F]FACBC identified 14 more positive prostate bed recurrences (55 vs 41) and 18 more patients with extraprostatic involvement (22 vs 4). Anti-3-[18F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography correctly up-staged 18 of 70 cases (25.7%) in which there was a consensus on the presence or absence of extraprostatic involvement. Conclusions Better diagnostic performance was noted for anti-3-[18F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography than for 111In

  11. A Practitioner's Guide for Variable-length Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable-length computerized classification tests, CCTs, (Lin & Spray, 2000; Thompson, 2006 are a powerful and efficient approach to testing for the purpose of classifying examinees into groups. CCTs are designed by the specification of at least five technical components: psychometric model, calibrated item bank, starting point, item selection algorithm, and termination criterion. Several options exist for each of these CCT components, creating a myriad of possible designs. Confusion among designs is exacerbated by the lack of a standardized nomenclature. This article outlines the components of a CCT, common options for each component, and the interaction of options for different components, so that practitioners may more efficiently design CCTs. It also offers a suggestion of nomenclature.

  12. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Huebner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification tests (CCTs often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of three different methods for controlling maximum item exposure rates in CCTs are compared. Specifically, the Sympson-Hetter, restricted, and item eligibility methods are examined in two studies realistically simulating different types of CCTs and are evaluated based upon criteria including classification accuracy, the number of items exceeding the desired maximum exposure rate, and test overlap. The pros and cons of each method are discussed from a practical perspective.

  13. Computerized assessment of social approach behavior in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon T Page

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological bases of sociability and how this is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. An easily quantifiable social behavior frequently used to assess sociability in the mouse is the tendency to approach and interact with an unfamiliar mouse. Here we present a novel computer-assisted method for scoring social approach behavior in mice using a three-chambered apparatus. We find consistent results between data scored using the computer assisted method and a human observer, making computerized assessment a reliable, low cost, high-throughput method for testing sociability.

  14. The computerized OMAHA system in microsoft office excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaobin; Wong, Frances K Y; Zhang, Peiqiang; Leung, Carenx W Y; Lee, Lai H; Wong, Jessica S Y; Lo, Yim F; Ching, Shirley S Y

    2014-01-01

    The OMAHA System was adopted as the documentation system in an interventional study. To systematically record client care and facilitate data analysis, two Office Excel files were developed. The first Excel file (File A) was designed to record problems, care procedure, and outcomes for individual clients according to the OMAHA System. It was used by the intervention nurses in the study. The second Excel file (File B) was the summary of all clients that had been automatically extracted from File A. Data in File B can be analyzed directly in Excel or imported in PASW for further analysis. Both files have four parts to record basic information and the three parts of the OMAHA System. The computerized OMAHA System simplified the documentation procedure and facilitated the management and analysis of data.

  15. Computerized tomography analysis of aceptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichioka, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Takeshi; Matsuno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Isao; Sugano, Hiroki; Konno, Takushi.

    1988-03-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) findings of the normal femoral head in 14 patients with unilateral aceptic necrosis of the femoral head (ANF) and in healthy adults were analyzed for early diagnostic significance. CT appearance of the bone trabeculae fell into normal finding, diffuse sclerosis, and mottled sclerosis. The development of necrosis during the process was accompanied by diffuse sclerosis, suggesting that diffuse sclerosis is an early CT appearance in the case of ANF. In a three-dimensional quantification of the necrotic area for 20 patients before rotational osteotomy of the femoral head, deformation of the femoral head after the surgery was found to frequently result from 50 % or more of the necrotic area in the femoral head, irrespective of the size of necrosis on the surface of the femoral head. This suggested the influence of the three-dimensional spread of necrosis on the intensity of the femoral head. (Namekawa, K.).

  16. Cranial computerized tomography and cerebral angiography in diagnosis of infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuelich, K.J.

    1988-08-05

    Discussion of the radiological means to further analysis of the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular alterations up to real stroke with infarction. Today in the first place computer-tomography even with contrast means, moreover in the form of 'angio-CT' are used. Localization, size, form, and the grade of tissue destruction may be analyzed. Furthermore perifocal edema and the stage as also the effect of vascular anastomoses for a collateral circulation may be evaluated. Invasive angiography with puncture of carotid and vertebral arteries is used only in special rare indications. Instead, digital computerized angiography (DSA) can be adopted if particular interest is in the study of intracranial arteries, even with an 'invasive' approach, e.g. by femoral catheter (Seldinger). In summarizing: For the analysis of particular problems radiological methods may assist diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular infarct.

  17. Identification of Porphyra lines using computerized DNA fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis was performed with filaments of 15 Porphyra lines representing four important groups (P. yezoensis, P. haitanensis, P.katadai var. Hemiphylla and P. oligospermatangia ). Eight stable and repeatable RAPD bands am plified with two primers, OPN-02 and OPJ-18, were selected for the construction of DNA fingerprint ing. The RAPD results were scored based on the presence or absence of each of the 8 bands and then converted to computer language expressed with two digitals, 1 and 0, which represented the presence (numbered as 1) or absence (numbered as 0) of each band, respectively. Based on these results, a model DNA fingerprint and a computerized DNA fingerprint were constructed. In the constructed DNA fingerprint, each Porphyra line has its unique fingerprinting pattern and can be easily distinguished from each other. Later, a software, named as PhGI, was designed based on this DNA fingerprinting.It can be used in practical Porphyra line identification.

  18. Vesicoureteral reflux in adults studied by computerized radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinn, A.C.; Jacobsson, H.; Schnell, P.O. (Depts. of Urology Diagnostic Radiology and Hospital Physics, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    Direct radionuclide cystography in a computerized method as described by Willi and Treves was used in adults with recurrent pyelites but without evidence of obstruction. Reflux was observed in 15 out of 38 patients. In patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction or megaureters, reflux began early during the bladder filling and attained higher volumes than in those with uncomplicated pyelitis, who has minor reflux appearing mainly during voiding. Bladder capacity and detrusor compliance were lower in patients with reflux than in those without reflux. The low radiation exposure in radionuclide cystography permits observation of the urodynamic course of urinary reflux and correlation to the intravesical volume and pressure. The method is sensitive, and minorl refluxed volumes can be detected. Radionuclide cystrography can therefore be recommended for checking or surgical results and for follow-up of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. (au).

  19. Computerized Tomography with Total Variation and with Shearlets

    CERN Document Server

    Garduño, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    To reduce the x-ray dose in computerized tomography (CT), many constrained optimization approaches have been proposed aiming at minimizing a regularizing function that measures lack of consistency with some prior knowledge about the object that is being imaged, subject to a (predetermined) level of consistency with the detected attenuation of x-rays. Proponents of the shearlet transform in the regularizing function claim that the reconstructions so obtained are better than those produced using TV for texture preservation (but may be worse for noise reduction). In this paper we report results related to this claim. In our reported experiments using simulated CT data collection of the head, reconstructions whose shearlet transform has a small $\\ell_1$-norm are not more efficacious than reconstructions that have a small TV value. Our experiments for making such comparisons use the recently-developed superiorization methodology for both regularizing functions. Superiorization is an automated procedure for turning...

  20. Medical physics 2013. Abstracts; Medizinische Physik 2013. Abstractband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treuer, Harald (ed.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Stereotaxie und Funktionelle Neurochirurgie

    2013-07-01

    The proceedings of the medical physics conference 2013 include abstract of lectures and poster sessions concerning the following issues: Tele-therapy - application systems, nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, neuromodulation, hearing and technical support, basic dosimetry, NMR imaging -CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer), medical robotics, magnetic particle imaging, audiology, radiation protection, phase contrast - innovative concepts, particle therapy, brachytherapy, computerized tomography, quantity assurance, hybrid imaging techniques, diffusion and lung NMR imaging, image processing - visualization, cardiac and abdominal NMR imaging.

  1. FDDI information management system for centralizing interactive, computerized multimedia clinical experiences in pediatric rheumatology/Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, R; Cronenberger, H; Stein, L; Hannum, W; Reed, A M; Wilhelm, C; Hsiao, H

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design, authoring, and development of interactive, computerized, multimedia clinical simulations in pediatric rheumatology/immunology and related musculoskeletal diseases, the development and implementation of a high speed information management system for their centralized storage and distribution, and analytical methods for evaluating the total system's educational impact on medical students and pediatric residents. An FDDI fiber optic network with client/server/host architecture is the core. The server houses digitized audio, still-image video clips and text files. A host station houses the DB2/2 database containing case-associated labels and information. Cases can be accessed from any workstation via a customized interface in AVA/2 written specifically for this application. OS/2 Presentation Manager controls, written in C, are incorporated into the interface. This interface allows SQL searches and retrievals of cases and case materials. In addition to providing user-directed clinical experiences, this centralized information management system provides designated faculty with the ability to add audio notes and visual pointers to image files. Users may browse through case materials, mark selected ones and download them for utilization in lectures or for editing and converting into 35mm slides.

  2. Predicting outcomes in glioblastoma patients using computerized analysis of tumor shape: preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Czarnek, Nicholas M.; Collins, Leslie M.; Peters, Katherine B.; Clark, Kal

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor characterized by very poor survival. However, while some patients survive only a few months, some might live for multiple years. Accurate prognosis of survival and stratification of patients allows for making more personalized treatment decisions and moves treatment of GBM one step closer toward the paradigm of precision medicine. While some molecular biomarkers are being investigated, medical imaging remains significantly underutilized for prognostication in GBM. In this study, we investigated whether computer analysis of tumor shape can contribute toward accurate prognosis of outcomes. Specifically, we implemented applied computer algorithms to extract 5 shape features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 22 GBM patients. Then, we determined whether each one of the features can accurately distinguish between patients with good and poor outcomes. We found that that one of the 5 analyzed features showed prognostic value of survival. The prognostic feature describes how well the 3D tumor shape fills its minimum bounding ellipsoid. Specifically, for low values (less or equal than the median) the proportion of patients that survived more than a year was 27% while for high values (higher than median) the proportion of patients with survival of more than 1 year was 82%. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) even though the number of patients analyzed in this pilot study was low. We concluded that computerized, 3D analysis of tumor shape in MRI may strongly contribute to accurate prognostication and stratification of patients for therapy in GBM.

  3. Analysis of concrete material through gamma ray computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, J.M. de [Universidade de Sorocaba - UNISO, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Martins, A.C.G.; Milito, J.A. de [Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba - FACENS, SP (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    Computerized Tomography (CT) refers to the cross sectional imaging of an object from both transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. The most important contribution of CT is to greatly improve abilities to distinguish regions with different gamma ray transmittance and to separate over-lying structures. The mathematical problem of the CT imaging is that of estimating an image from its projections. These projections can represent, for example, the linear attenuation coefficient of {gamma}-rays along the path of the ray. In this work we will present some new results obtained by using tomographic techniques to analyze column samples of concrete to check the distribution of various materials and structural problems. These concrete samples were made using different proportions of stone, sand and cement. Another set of samples with different proportions of sand and cement were also used to verify the outcome from the CT analysis and the differences between them. Those samples were prepared at the Material Laboratory of Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba, following the same procedures used in real case of concrete tests. The projections used in this work was obtained by Mini Computerized Tomograph of Uniso (MTCU), located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Laboratory at University of Sorocaba. This tomograph operates with a gamma ray source of {sup 241}Am (photons of 60 keV and 100 mCi of intensity) and a NaI(Tl) solid state detector. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 100 mm effective field of view, and 1 mm spatial resolution. The image reconstruction problem is solved using Discrete Filtered Backprojection (FBP). (author)

  4. The utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy after a computerized tomographic colonography revealing only rectosigmoid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P E; Gentry, A B; Cash, B D

    2008-03-15

    Identifying polyps by computerized tomographic colonography typically prompts colonoscopy, increasing its cost, risk and inconvenience. Many polyps are confined to the rectosigmoid and theoretically amenable to resection via flexible sigmoidoscopy. To determine the prevalence of advanced proximal colonic neoplasia when computerized tomographic colonography reveals only rectosigmoid polyps, and characterize the yield of polypectomy via flexible sigmoidoscopy in such patients. Subjects underwent computerized tomographic colonography and colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Patients with only rectosigmoid findings by computerized tomographic colonography were identified retrospectively. Flexible sigmoidoscopy findings were estimated by including lesions distal to the descending/sigmoid colon junction during colonoscopy. Proximal lesions were also reviewed. Advanced lesions were defined as: adenocarcinoma, tubular adenoma >1 cm, > or =3 tubular adenomas, tubulovillous histology or high-grade dysplasia. By computerized tomographic colonography, 15% (203 of 1372) had only rectosigmoid polyps. Concomitant lesions in the proximal colon were seen in 32% (64 of 203) during colonoscopy. Advanced proximal neoplasia occurred in 2% (three of 203) with only rectosigmoid polyps on computerized tomographic colonography. Using flexible sigmoidoscopy to follow-up computerized tomographic colonography demonstrating only rectosigmoid polyps would eliminate 15% of subsequent colonoscopies. This strategy carries a small risk of missed proximal advanced neoplasia. This miss rate appears comparable to that of colonoscopy alone. Further study on the cost-effectiveness of this approach is warranted.

  5. Computerized tomography technique for reconstruction of obstructed temperature field in infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, F. C.; Huang, Y. H.; Liu, L.; Chen, Y. S.; Hung, Y. Y.; Lo, T. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a rapid, non-invasive and full-field technique for non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E). With all the achievements on IR instrumentation and image processing techniques attained, it has been extended far beyond simple hot-spot detection and becomes one of the most promising NDT&E techniques in the last decades. It has achieved increasing acceptance in different sectors include medical imaging, manufacturing component fault detection and buildings diagnostic. However, one limitation of IR thermography is that the testing results are greatly affected by object surface emissivity. Surface with various emissivities may lead to difficult discrimination between area of defect and area with different emissivity. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on eliminating emissivity, for example, the time derivative approach, lock-in processing and differential contrast measurements. In these methods, sequence of themo-data/images are recorded and being processed in order to eliminate differences of emissivity. Another problem of IR thermography is that any obstruction may limit stimulations and imaging which leads to the observation of unclear defect image. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an algorithm based on the principle of computerized tomography which permits the reconstruction of unavailable/partially available temperature distribution of the affected area using the measured surrounding temperature field. In the process, a set of imaginary rays are projected from many different directions across the area. For each ray, integration of the temperature derivatives along the ray is equals to the temperature difference between the boundary points intercepted by the ray. Therefore, a set of linear equations can be established by considering the multiple rays. Each equation expresses the unknown temperature derivatives in the affected area in terms of the measured boundary temperature data. Solution of the set of simultaneous

  6. The MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version (MMPI-2-CA) in a Veterans Administration Medical Outpatient Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Arbisi, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to screen quickly and thoroughly for psychological difficulties in existing and returning combat veterans who are seeking treatment for physical ailments would be of significant benefit. In the current study, item and time savings, as well as extratest correlations, associated with an audio-augmented version of the computerized…

  7. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging at Victoria General Hospital: final implementation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paul D.; Brauer, Gerhard W.; Nosil, Josip; Scobie, Duncan L.; Clark, R. P.; Ritchie, Gordon W.; Weigl, Wilhelm J.

    1990-08-01

    A plan for the installation and implementation of a comprehensive computer-based system for the management and communication of digital radiographic images and diagnostic information is described. The paper is based on the authors' experience with, and evaluation of, prototype equipment and systems over the past 5 years. The final configuration will be realized in 1992 at the completion of a 3-phase installation plan. The system will address the clinical, data management, and administrative needs of the different types of users within the department, as well as the requirement to distribute radiographic information and images to locations outside of the department. In order to be considered successful, the system described herein will need to bring about a 90% reduction in both paper- and film-based communication of images and information. The British Columbia Ministry of Health is funding this phase of the project in order to obtain information on which to base decisions regarding installation of similar systems at other sites within the Province and predict with some confidence the cost effectiveness of such decisions.

  8. A Guide to the Computerized Medical Data Resources of the Naval Health Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-09

    Hypothyroidism 220 01-08 Thyroiditis 221 01-06 Thyroid Gland Other Disorders 222 01 Thyroid 223 01-37 Diabetes Mellitus 224 01-10 Pancreatic Internal...Periapical Tissue 490 01-16 Periodontal Diseases 491 01-11 DentoFacial Anomalies Inc Malocclusion 492 01-09 Other Diseases and Conditions of the Teeth and

  9. Computerized Virtual Reality Simulation in Preclinical Dentistry: Can a Computerized Simulator Replace the Conventional Phantom Heads and Human Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, Anastasios

    2017-07-10

    In preclinical dental education, the acquisition of clinical, technical skills, and the transfer of these skills to the clinic are paramount. Phantom heads provide an efficient way to teach preclinical students dental procedures safely while increasing their dexterity skills considerably. Modern computerized phantom head training units incorporate features of virtual reality technology and the ability to offer concurrent augmented feedback. The aims of this review were to examine and evaluate the dental literature for evidence supporting their use and to discuss the role of augmented feedback versus the facilitator's instruction. Adjunctive training in these units seems to enhance student's learning and skill acquisition and reduce the required faculty supervision time. However, the virtual augmented feedback cannot be used as the sole method of feedback, and the facilitator's input is still critical. Well-powered longitudinal randomized trials exploring the impact of these units on student's clinical performance and issues of cost-effectiveness are warranted.

  10. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Javad Zarei,1 Farahnaz Sadoughi2 1Health Information Management, Health Management and Economics Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2Health Information Management Department, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran Background: In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other countries – have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs, which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran.Materials and methods: This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts’ opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health.Results: Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals.Conclusion: Information security risk management is not followed by Iran’s hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran’s Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security

  11. [Computerized system for managing nursing care indicators at Hospital São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbadia, Lilian Lestingi; D'Innocenzo, Maria; Fogliano, Rosana Rodrigues Figueira; Silva, Gabriela Eneida Françolin; de Queiroz, Rita Marina Ribeiro Melo; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel Sampaio; Salvador, Maria Elisabete

    2011-08-01

    Indicators are tools that permit to define parameters that will be used to make comparisons between a result and its expected value, as well as to add a value of judgement in this regard. The purpose of this study is to describe the experience of a group of nurses in the development of a computerized system to manage nursing care indicators at Hospital São Paulo. Four stages were used to implement the indicator management system: developing a nursing care indicator handbook; performing a manually registered pilot test; developing the computerized system; and performing the pilot test of the computerized system in eleven units at the hospital.

  12. Monitoring Re-execution Condition of Continuous Action Step in Computerized Procedure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Lee, Sung Jin [KHNP Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The APR1400 digital main control room (MCR) has many advanced features of computerized control room. One of the most important improvements is the Computerized Procedure System (CPS). Emergency operating procedure (EOP) in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) provides a series of instructions to MCR operators to cope with design base events. Computerized EOP supports the operator in terms of plant monitoring, decision making, and control access. Continuous Action Step (CAS) in EOP should be monitored through the entire procedure execution when plant processes are disturbed under emergency conditions. CPS can monitor CAS re-execution condition during EOP execution. CPS has functions to monitor CAS re-execution condition

  13. Computerization upgrade project for the Rocky Flats Plant Critical Mass Laboratory Reactor Control Console

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, H.C.; Miles, R.E.; Sachs, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses present and planned future work on computerization of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) Nuclear Reactor Control Console. No computerized control functions are planned or anticipated at this time. The scope of this computerization effort is limited to Data Acquisition and Analysis. In this work an IBM-PC will be connected to four (4) Nuclear Safety channels, and two (2) nonnuclear safety channels. Programming is being done in interpretive advanced BASIC. At the present time only two channels, Linear Picoammeters 1 and 2, are having their signals processed by the IBM-PC.

  14. Design and evaluation of a computerized test for hand motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chiu, Ching-Tsun

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to design and develop a computerized test to measure junior high school students' motor skills, specifically their abilities in hand-eye motor coordination and hand motor skills, using the Wii Remote. The hand motor skills computerized test, which is based on the operational examinations in the General Aptitude Test Battery, examines hand and finger dexterity (i.e., motion, rotation, fabrication, and disassembly tests). 55 students participated in the experiment to assess the reliability and validity of the computerized test, which were supported. Information literacy and experience in the use of Wii devices did not affect the reliability.

  15. [How do asylum seekers experience access to medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spura, Anke; Kleinke, Matthias; Robra, Bernt-Peter; Ladebeck, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    In Germany basic medical care for asylum seekers is organized outside the statutory health insurance system. Currently there are few empirically based statements on how asylum seekers experience their access to healthcare. The aim is therefore to evaluate their experiences with healthcare focussing on subjective health, utilisation and access to medical care, and experiences with medical care. Between August and November 2015, we performed 16 qualitative problem-oriented guided interviews with asylum seekers, who received or sought medical care in Saxony-Anhalt. The interpreter-assisted interviews were evaluated with content analysis. Access begins with a voucher for medical treatment issued by the social security office. Asylum seekers experience that procedure as onerous and incapacitating. These experiences influence subjective health and utilisation of medical help. If their efforts for treatment certificates are rejected, people increasingly resign. If medical treatment is achieved, they experience medical staff mostly as competent and friendly, in spite of language difficulties and time pressure. Reducing the "voucher bureaucracy" by uniform rules and practices may bring about a relief to access and utilisation of healthcare. Introducing an electronic health insurance card for asylum seekers would retransfer decision making about treatment needs from the welfare system into the medical system.

  16. Reducing the risk of hypoglycemia associated with intravenous insulin: experience with a computerized insulin infusion program in 4 adult intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Victoria; Misiasz, Meaghan R; Jones, Jocelyn; Baldwin, David

    2014-09-01

    Computerized insulin infusion protocols have facilitated more effective blood glucose (BG) control in intensive care units (ICUs). This is particularly important in light of the risks associated with hypoglycemia. End stage renal disease (ESRD) increases the risk of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. We evaluated BG control in 210 patients in 2 medical ICUs and in 2 surgical ICUs who were treated with a computerized insulin infusion program (CIIP). Our CIIP was programmed for a BG target of 140-180 mg/dL for medical ICU patients or 120-160 mg/dL for surgical ICU patients. In addition, we focused on BG control in the 11% of our patients with ESRD. Mean BG was 147 ± 20 mg/dL for surgical ICU patients and 171 ± 26 mg/dL for medical ICU patients. Of both surgical and medical ICU patients, 17% had 1 or more BG 60-79 mg/dL, while 3% of surgical ICU and 8% of medical ICU patients had 1 or more BG < 60 mg/dL. Mean BG in ESRD patients was 147 ± 16 mg/dL similar to 152 ± 23 mg/dL in patients without ESRD. Of ESRD patients, 41% had 1 or more BG < 79 mg/dL as compared with 17.8% of non-ESRD patients (P < .01). A higher BG target for medical ICU patients as compared with surgical ICU patients yielded comparably low rates of moderate or severe hypoglycemia. However, hypoglycemia among ESRD patients was more common compared to non-ESRD patients, suggesting a need for a higher BG target specific to ESRD patients.

  17. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized ...

  18. 78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof..., Software, Implants, and Components Thereof, DN 2945; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... devices, software, implants, and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Stanmore...

  19. The costs of marketing slaughter cattle by computerized and conventional auction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chieruzzi, Alice M., 1956-; Buccola, Steven T.

    1981-01-01

    by Alice M. Chieruzzi and Steven T. Buccola This report is based upon Alice Chieruzzi's Master's thesis, A Cost Comparison of Computerized and Conventional Auction Marketing Systems for Slaughter Cattle.

  20. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  1. Evaluating the use of computerized stimulus preference assessments in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Colbert, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to extend the use of stimulus preference assessments to children in foster care. In Study 1, subjects completed a computerized 4-point Likert-type questionnaire designed to assess preference for a wide range of stimuli and activities. Next, items identified as highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) on the questionnaire were tested using a computerized paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed complete correspondence between the results of the computerized preference assessments for 11 of 17 subjects. Studies 2 and 3 evaluated whether the stimuli identified as HP in Study 1 would function as reinforcers. Overall, subjects allocated their engagement to HP items, and those HP items could be used as reinforcers for math problem completion. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that computerized preference assessments may be a feasible method of identifying preferences in the foster care system. Implications for their use in foster care are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. The Effect of Occupational Information on a Computerized Vocational Counseling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effect of giving or withholding occupational information in terms of impact on reliability and concurrent validity of a computerized vocational counseling system (Exploring Careers), used with 141 high school students. Results showed students found the program helpful. (JAC)

  3. Design criteria and realization of a computerized supervisory system for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestri, F.; Mangiarotti, M.; Maciocco, G.

    1987-11-01

    This paper describes the design criteria and the realization modalities of a computerized supervisory system for nuclear applications. The man-machine interface design aspects for the Alto Lazio Nuclear Power Plant control room are discussed.

  4. Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans : Ontwikkeling van een gecomputeriseerd handboek van architectonische plattegronden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of

  5. Computerized image analysis of the Ki-67 proliferation index in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaker, Yngvild N; Brodtkorb, Marianne; Maddison, John;

    2015-01-01

    practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computerized image analysis software for scoring of Ki-67 in MCL. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an automated method for determining the Ki-67 index by computerized image analysis and tested it using a cohort of 62 MCL patients. The data were...... compared to Ki-67 scores obtained by semiquantitative estimation and image-based manual counting. When using the Ki-67 index as a continuous parameter, both image-based manual counting and computerized image analysis were related inversely to survival (P = 0.020 and P = 0.025, respectively). Ki-67 index...... obtained by semiquantitative estimation was not associated significantly with survival (P = 0.093). The results were validated in a second patient cohort with similar results. CONCLUSION: Computerized image analysis of the Ki-67 index in MCL is an attractive alternative to semiquantitative estimation...

  6. Decreased rates of hypoglycemia following implementation of a comprehensive computerized insulin order set and titration algorithm in the inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Gregory, Naina; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Gerber, Linda M; Tang, Chin; Brillon, David

    2016-12-01

    More than one-third of hospitalized patients have hyperglycemia. Despite evidence that improving glycemic control leads to better outcomes, achieving recognized targets remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a computerized insulin order set and titration algorithm on rates of hypoglycemia and overall inpatient glycemic control. A prospective observational study evaluating the impact of a glycemic order set and titration algorithm in an academic medical center in non-critical care medical and surgical inpatients. The initial intervention was hospital-wide implementation of a comprehensive insulin order set. The secondary intervention was initiation of an insulin titration algorithm in two pilot medicine inpatient units. Point of care testing blood glucose reports were analyzed. These reports included rates of hypoglycemia (BG 200 mg/dL in phase 1, BG > 180 mg/dL in phase 2). In the first phase of the study, implementation of the insulin order set was associated with decreased rates of hypoglycemia (1.92% vs 1.61%; p algorithm was associated with decreased rates of hypoglycemia (2.57% vs 1.82%; p = 0.039) and increased rates of hyperglycemia (31.76% vs 41.33%; p set and titration algorithm significantly decreased rates of hypoglycemia. This significant reduction in hypoglycemia was associated with increased rates of hyperglycemia. Hardwiring the algorithm into the electronic medical record may foster adoption.

  7. Psychometric and psychological effects of review on computerized fixed and adaptive tests

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Díaz, Julio; Revuelta Menéndez, Javier; Ximénez, Carmen; Abad,Francisco José

    2000-01-01

    Two computerized versions of an English vocabulary test for Spanish speakers (an adaptive and a fixed one) were applied in a Spanish sample of first-year psychology undergraduate students. The effects of test type (computer-adaptive vs. computerized-fixed) and review condition (allowed vs. not allowed) on several psychological variables were examined. Withinsubject variables were measured both before and after review to study the effects of review on the psychological and psychometric variabl...

  8. The ABC's required for establishing a practical computerized plant engineering management data base system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiocco, F. R.; Hume, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A system's approach is outlined in the paper to assist facility and Plant Engineers improve their organization's data management system. The six basic steps identified may appear somewhat simple; however, adequate planning, proper resources, and the involvement of management will determine the success of a computerized facility management data base. Helpful suggestions are noted throughout the paper to insure the development of a practical computerized data management system.

  9. PSYCHOLOGY OF COMPUTERIZATION AS A STEP TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF CYBERPSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Voiskounsky, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    The need for the psychology of computerization as a separate psychological discipline was suggested by Prof. Oleg K. Tikhomirov in mid-1980s. First he tried to initiate this discipline as a by-product of his experiments in the psychology of thinking, which formed the basis of the Personal Meanings Theory of Thinking, to be formulated later; soon Tikhomirov enlarged the field of the psychology of computerization. The aims of the new discipline were to study (1) the differences between human me...

  10. Discussion of “Attitude of Physicians Towards Automatic Alerting in Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, D. W.; Baysari, M. T.; Dugas, M.

    2013-01-01

    With these comments on the paper “Attitude of Physicians Towards Automatic Alerting in Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems”, written by Martin Jung and coauthors, with Dr. Elske Ammenwerth as senior author, the journal wants to stimulate a broad discussion on computerized physician order...... entry systems. An international group of experts have been invited by the editor of Methods to comment on this paper. Each of the invited commentaries forms one section of this paper....

  11. An ergonomics study of computerized emergency operating procedures: Presentation style, task complexity, and training level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song; Song Fei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xuhong [Scanpower Risk Management China Inc., Towercrest International Plaza, No. 3 Maizidian West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016 (China); Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs.

  12. Method of computerized glow curve deconvolution for analysing thermoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T [Division of General Education, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Omae-cho 268-1, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Gartia, R K [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2003-11-07

    The conventional worldwide accepted method of computerized glow curve deconvolution based on the general order kinetics formalism has two fatal defects in systems where the trapping levels (two or more) have non-zero retrapping probability. The first one is ignoring the thermal connectivity between thermoluminescence (TL) peaks. This arises from the fact that under such a situation electrons trapped at one trapping level, once activated, can be retrapped in another thermally connected level via the conduction band during the recording of the glow curve. The other is the impossibility of obtaining a global minimum, in fitting the experimental TL with the theoretical one with existing techniques. This paper aims to provide answers to these defects. The first one can be overcome by resorting to rigorous analysis using appropriate mathematical rate equations describing the flow of charge carriers. Though the second defect cannot be overcome completely, one can obtain a reasonable fit, which may not be unique. The algorithm is tested for synthetic as well as experimental glow curves.

  13. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: is computerized tomography a must?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Abdullah; Tutus, Ali; Kayan, Devrim; Yılmaz, Yakup; Bircan, Kamuran

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of pediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) cases, and discuss the results and necessity of non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) in these cases. In all, 48 pediatric patients who underwent PNL were retrospectively evaluated. Before PNL, either intravenous urography or CT was performed. In all patients, we evaluated the PNL time, scopy time with stone burden, and complications. During the PNL procedure, we switched to open surgery in two cases: in one because of renal pelvis perforation and in the other because of transcolonic access. In one patient who was scheduled to undergo PNL, we performed open surgery, primarily because we detected a retrorenal colon with CT. The stone burden in 45 patients who underwent PNL was 445 ± 225 mm(2), the PNL time was 51 ± 23 min, and the scopy time was 6.1 ± 2.7 min. We removed nephrostomy tubes 1-4 days after the procedure. In two patients, 24 h after removal of nephrostomy tubes, we inserted double J stents because of prolonged urine extravasation from the tract. In all, 34 of the 45 patients were stone-free, 5 patients had clinically insignificant stone fragments, and 6 patients had residual stones. PNL is a safe and effective method in the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney stones. Clinical experience is the most important factor in obtaining stone-free results. CT should be performed in all pediatric patients in order to prevent colon perforation.

  14. Development of a computerized adaptive test for Schizotypy assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.

  15. Computerized Operator Support System – Phase II Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas A.; Boring, Ronald L.; Lew, Roger T.; Thomas, Kenneth D.

    2015-02-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) prototype for nuclear control room process control is proposed and discussed. The COSS aids operators in addressing rapid plant upsets that would otherwise result in the shutdown of the power plant and interrupt electrical power generation, representing significant costs to the owning utility. In its current stage of development the prototype demonstrates four advanced functions operators can use to more efficiently monitor and control the plant. These advanced functions consist of: (1) a synthesized and intuitive high level overview display of system components and interrelations, (2) an enthalpy-based mathematical chemical and volume control system (CVCS) model to detect and diagnose component failures, (3) recommended strategies to mitigate component failure effects and return the plant back to pre-fault status, and (4) computer-based procedures to walk the operator through the recommended mitigation actions. The COSS was demonstrated to a group of operators and their feedback was collected. The operators responded positively to the COSS capabilities and features and indicated the system would be an effective operator aid. The operators also suggested several additional features and capabilities for the next iteration of development. Future versions of the COSS prototype will include additional plant systems, flexible computer-based procedure presentation formats, and support for simultaneous component fault diagnosis and dual fault synergistic mitigation action strategies to more efficiently arrest any plant upsets.

  16. The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

  17. A combined reconstruction algorithm for computerized ionospheric tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, D. B.; Ou, J. K.; Yuan, Y. B.

    Ionospheric electron density profiles inverted by tomographic reconstruction of GPS derived total electron content TEC measurements has the potential to become a tool to quantify ionospheric variability and investigate ionospheric dynamics The problem of reconstructing ionospheric electron density from GPS receiver to satellite TEC measurements are formulated as an ill-posed discrete linear inverse problem A combined reconstruction algorithm of computerized ionospheric tomography CIT is proposed in this paper In this algorithm Tikhonov regularization theory TRT is exploited to solve the ill-posed problem and its estimate from GPS observation data is input as the initial guess of simultaneous iterative reconstruction algorithm SIRT The combined algorithm offer a more reasonable method to choose initial guess of SIRT and the use of SIRT algorithm is to improve the quality of the final reconstructed imaging Numerical experiments from the actual GPS observation data are used to validate the reliability of the method the reconstructed results show that the new algorithm works reasonably and effectively with CIT the overall reconstruction error reduces significantly compared to the reconstruction error of SIRT only or TRT only

  18. Assessment of computerized tomography devices in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C., E-mail: pmco@cdtn.br, E-mail: ambienttal@ambienttal.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Horta, Mara Alice Avelar Saraiva [Faculdade Sao Camilo de Minas Gerais - FASC - MG, Graduacao de Tecnologia em Radiologia (Brazil); Santana, Priscila do Carmo [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares - PCTN, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, Marcos Juliano [Ambienttal Protecao Radiologica Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is the diagnostic imaging method most commonly performed today. It is a device that is undergoing a technological evolution and their quality control is sorely needed. The image quality evaluation process allow a better diagnosis and control of the patient dose received during image acquisition. The CT doses are higher than other X-ray examination techniques, like a conventional X-ray. Performance evaluation of computed tomography in Minas Gerais is not significant. Therefore, this work aims to analyze 20 CT equipment in Minas Gerais, with parameters according to the national regulatory agency (ANVISA - Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria) in twelve quality control tests. Sixty five percent (65%) of CT equipment evaluated showed excellent results and were not disapproved in any of the tests performed and 30% had failed in only one of the twelve tests performed. The worst result was found in the CT scanners in the test that evaluates the low contrast resolution, where 20% of CT showed non-compliance, followed by the test that evaluates the x-rays collimation beam, where 15% had failed. The tests allowed us to observe that the twenty computerized tomography equipment achieved a great pass rate. Considering that the evaluated CTs performed the quality control tests for the first time, it is concluded that the equipment used in clinics and hospitals are of good quality image and low radiation doses. (author)

  19. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. (Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Springer, E.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  20. Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammen Oommen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items. The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74 than the BDI total score did (r = .70. Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity.

  1. Digital balanced detection for fast optical computerized tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Rehan; Ozanyan, Krikor B.

    2006-10-01

    Analogue Balanced Photo-detection has found extensive usage in high- sensitivity small signal applications e.g. coherent heterodyne detection. It is particularly effective for laser intensity noise removal. Nevertheless, the high cost of the commercially available analogue systems makes them unsuitable for multi-channel applications, such as fast tomography. In this paper a flexible, scalable, inexpensive and compact solution for multi channel digital balanced detection is presented. The proposed system has two components: an analogue front-end, comprising a differential photodiode amplifier for minimizing the external interference noise, and a digital balanced noise remover. The latter component initially calculates a balancing factor (BF) from the average power ratio of the signal and reference photocurrents, measured with the object removed from the signal path. Three digital balancing algorithms (DBAx) are considered for subsequent processing. In DBA1, BF is directly used in real-time ratiometric calculations. In DBA2, the BF is adjusted in real time by monitoring the window-averaged power of the received photocurrents. In DBA3, first the baseline is removed using differentiation and then ratiometric detection is performed. Using the digital alternative only one measurement of the reference beam is necessary for single-source, multi-channel detection systems. The data from multiple channels are processed in parallel by pipelined hardware, configured as a state machine. The proposed system leads to a fast optical computerized tomography system using digital balanced detection.

  2. Computerized database management system for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kok Swee; Chong, Sze Siang; Tso, Chih Ping; Nia, Mohsen Esmaeili; Chong, Aun Kee; Abbas, Siti Fathimah

    2014-01-01

    Data analysis based on breast cancer risk factors such as age, race, breastfeeding, hormone replacement therapy, family history, and obesity was conducted on breast cancer patients using a new enhanced computerized database management system. My Structural Query Language (MySQL) is selected as the application for database management system to store the patient data collected from hospitals in Malaysia. An automatic calculation tool is embedded in this system to assist the data analysis. The results are plotted automatically and a user-friendly graphical user interface is developed that can control the MySQL database. Case studies show breast cancer incidence rate is highest among Malay women, followed by Chinese and Indian. The peak age for breast cancer incidence is from 50 to 59 years old. Results suggest that the chance of developing breast cancer is increased in older women, and reduced with breastfeeding practice. The weight status might affect the breast cancer risk differently. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive remediation for geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Wexler, Bruce E; Alexopoulos, George S

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a novel treatment model designed to target specific neurocognitive deficits in geriatric depression with neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive remediation (NBCCR). The recent National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) report "From Discovery to Cure" calls for studies focusing on mechanisms of treatment response with the goal of arriving at new interventions for those who do not respond to existing treatments. We describe the process that led to the identification of specific executive deficits and their underlying neurobiology, as well as the rationale for targeting these symptoms as a part of a strategy intended to improve both executive dysfunction and depression. We then propose a strategy for further research in this emerging area. Despite significant developments, conventional antidepressant treatments leave many older adults still depressed and suffering. Psychotherapy may be effective in some depressed elders, although a recent review concluded that none of the available treatment studies meets stringent criteria for efficacy in the acute treatment of geriatric depression. Appropriately developed and targeted NBCCR, has the potential to serve as a novel treatment intervention for geriatric depression. Pathophysiological changes associated with executive dysfunction may be an appropriate target for NBCCR. Examining both behavioral changes and indices of structural integrity and functional change of networks related to cognitive and emotional regulation may lead to a novel treatment and elucidate the role of specific cerebral networks in geriatric depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Chung

    Full Text Available Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients.We made the computerized table setting test (CTST to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically.Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect.The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.

  5. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  6. Computerized atmospheric trace contaminant control simulation for manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Buildup of atmospheric trace contaminants in enclosed volumes such as a spacecraft may lead to potentially serious health problems for the crew members. For this reason, active control methods must be implemented to minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants to levels that are considered safe for prolonged, continuous exposure. Designing hardware to accomplish this has traditionally required extensive testing to characterize and select appropriate control technologies. Data collected since the Apollo project can now be used in a computerized performance simulation to predict the performance and life of contamination control hardware to allow for initial technology screening, performance prediction, and operations and contingency studies to determine the most suitable hardware approach before specific design and testing activities begin. The program, written in FORTRAN 77, provides contaminant removal rate, total mass removed, and per pass efficiency for each control device for discrete time intervals. In addition, projected cabin concentration is provided. Input and output data are manipulated using commercial spreadsheet and data graphing software. These results can then be used in analyzing hardware design parameters such as sizing and flow rate, overall process performance and program economics. Test performance may also be predicted to aid test design.

  7. Potential of Computerized Maintenance Management System in Facilities Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farisya Azahar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For some time it has been clear that managing buildings or estates has been carried out in the context of what has become known as facilities management. British Institute of Facilities Management defined facilities management is the integration of multi-disciplinary activities within the built environment and the management of their impact upon people and the workplace. Effective facilities management is vital to the success of an organisation by contributing to the delivery of its strategic and operational objectives. Maintenance of buildings should be given serious attention before (stage design, during and after a building is completed. But total involvement in building maintenance is after the building is completed and during its operations. Residents of and property owners require their building to look attractive, durable and have a peaceful indoor environment and efficient. The objective of the maintenance management system is to stream line the vast maintenance information system to improve the productivity of an industrial plant. a good maintenance management system makes equipment and facilities available. This paper will discuss the fundamental steps of maintenance management program and Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS

  8. A statistical model for interpreting computerized dynamic posturography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Paloski, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is widely used for assessment of altered balance control. CDP trials are quantified using the equilibrium score (ES), which ranges from zero to 100, as a decreasing function of peak sway angle. The problem of how best to model and analyze ESs from a controlled study is considered. The ES often exhibits a skewed distribution in repeated trials, which can lead to incorrect inference when applying standard regression or analysis of variance models. Furthermore, CDP trials are terminated when a patient loses balance. In these situations, the ES is not observable, but is assigned the lowest possible score--zero. As a result, the response variable has a mixed discrete-continuous distribution, further compromising inference obtained by standard statistical methods. Here, we develop alternative methodology for analyzing ESs under a stochastic model extending the ES to a continuous latent random variable that always exists, but is unobserved in the event of a fall. Loss of balance occurs conditionally, with probability depending on the realized latent ES. After fitting the model by a form of quasi-maximum-likelihood, one may perform statistical inference to assess the effects of explanatory variables. An example is provided, using data from the NIH/NIA Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

  9. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Canini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance, specifically (1 the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2 the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal; and (3 the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control, including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1 touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2 intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3 touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people.

  10. Computers in radiology. The sedation, analgesia, and contrast media computerized simulator: a new approach to train and evaluate radiologists' responses to critical incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, L.S.; Racadio, J.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Schwid, H.A. [Dept. of Anesthesia, Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Background. Awareness and preparedness to handle sedation, analgesia, and contrast-media complications are key in the daily radiology practice. Objective. The purpose is to create a computerized simulator (PC-Windows-based) that uses a graphical interface to reproduce critical incidents in pediatric and adult patients undergoing a wide spectrum of radiologic sedation, analgesia and contrast media complications. Materials and methods. The computerized simulator has a comprehensive set of physiologic and pharmacologic models that predict patient response to management of sedation, analgesia, and contrast-media complications. Photorealistic images, real-time monitors, and mouse-driven information demonstrate in a virtual-reality fashion the behavior of the patient in crisis. Results. Thirteen pediatric and adult radiology scenarios are illustrated encompassing areas such as pediatric radiology, neuroradiology, interventional radiology, and body imaging. The multiple case scenarios evaluate randomly the diagnostic and management performance of the radiologist in critical incidents such as oversedation, anaphylaxis, aspiration, airway obstruction, apnea, agitation, bronchospasm, hypotension, hypertension, cardiac arrest, bradycardia, tachycardia, and myocardial ischemia. The user must control the airway, breathing and circulation, and administer medications in a timely manner to save the simulated patient. On-line help is available in the program to suggest diagnostic and treatment steps to save the patient, and provide information about the medications. A printout of the case management can be obtained for evaluation or educational purposes. Conclusion. The interactive computerized simulator is a new approach to train and evaluate radiologists' responses to critical incidents encountered during radiologic sedation, analgesia, and contrast-media administration. (orig.)

  11. Conscious versus unconscious thinking in the medical domain: the deliberation-without-attention effect examined

    OpenAIRE

    Bonke, Benno; Zietse, Robert; Norman, Geoff; Schmidt, Henk G.; Bindels, Roger; Mamede, Sílvia; Rikers, Remy

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that with important decisions, unconscious thought has surprisingly led to better choices than conscious thought. The present study challenges this so-called ‘deliberation-without-attention effect’ in the medical domain. In a computerized study, physicians and medical students were asked, after either conscious or unconscious thought, to estimate the 5-year survival probabilities of four fictitious patients with varying medical characteristics. We assumed that expe...

  12. Computerized surveillance of opioid-related adverse drug events in perioperative care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattis Katherine G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the complexity of surgical care, perioperative patients are at high risk of opioid-related adverse drug events. Existing methods of detection, such as trigger tools and manual chart review, are time-intensive which makes sustainability challenging. Using strategic rule design, computerized surveillance may be an efficient, pharmacist-driven model for event detection that leverages existing staff resources. Methods Computerized adverse drug event surveillance uses a logic-based rules engine to identify potential adverse drug events or evolving unsafe clinical conditions. We extended an inpatient rule (administration of naloxone to detect opioid-related oversedation and respiratory depression to perioperative care at a large academic medical center. Our primary endpoint was the adverse drug event rate. For all patients with a naloxone alert, manual chart review was performed by a perioperative clinical pharmacist to assess patient harm. In patients with confirmed oversedation, other patient safety event databases were queried to determine if they could detect duplicate, prior, or subsequent opioid-related events. Results We identified 419 cases of perioperative naloxone administration. Of these, 101 were given postoperatively and 69 were confirmed as adverse drug events after chart review yielding a rate of 1.89 adverse drug events/1000 surgical encounters across both the inpatient and ambulatory settings. Our ability to detect inpatient opioid adverse drug events increased 22.7% by expanding surveillance into perioperative care. Analysis of historical surveillance data as well as a voluntary reporting database revealed that 11 of our perioperative patients had prior or subsequent harmful oversedation. Nine of these cases received intraoperative naloxone, and 2 had received naloxone in the post-anesthesia care unit. Pharmacist effort was approximately 3 hours per week to evaluate naloxone alerts and confirm adverse drug

  13. ["Meet the AIX-PERTs." Emergency medical care at the beginning of the medical reform curriculum in Aachen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, S; Bickenbach, J; Fries, M; Hoffmann, N; Classen-Linke, I; Killersreiter, B; Wainwright, U; Kuhlen, R; Rossaint, R

    2004-06-01

    Extensive knowledge and skills in the basics of emergency medical care are of paramount importance for every physician and should therefore be an integral part of medical education. Regulations for medical licensure in Germany were revised by the administrative authorities in 2002 and as a consequence the Medical Faculty of the University of Aachen (Germany) decided to start the Medical Reform Curriculum Aachen. A multidisciplinary, problem-oriented and organ-related approach to medical education replaces the classical discrimination between basic and clinical sciences. With AIX-PERT (AIX-la-Chapelle Program for Emergency medical care and Resuscitation Training), a program consisting of problem-based learning sessions was developed for introduction to the first year students. Defined teaching objectives in emergency medicine are now incorporated in undergraduate medical education. The extremely positive evaluation of the new approach encouraged us to promote AIX-PERT further. In the future the effects of success of this approach will be assessed by longitudinal studies of skills and knowledge during the continuing curriculum.

  14. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  15. Randomized study of effectiveness of computerized ultrasound simulators for an introductory course for residents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Philip Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess the impact of ultrasound simulation (SonoSim on educational outcomes of an introductory point-of-care ultrasound course compared to hands-on training with live models alone. Methods: Fifty-three internal medicine residents without ultrasound experience were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups. They participated in an introductory point-of-care ultrasound course covering eight topics in eight sessions from June 23, 2014 until July 18, 2014. Both participated in lecture and hands-on training, but experimental group received an hour of computerized simulator training instead of a second hour of hands-on training. We assessed clinical knowledge and image acquisition with written multiple-choice and practical exams, respectively. Of the 53 enrolled, 40 participants (75.5% completed the course and all testing. Results: For the 30-item written exam, mean score of the experimental group was 23.1±3.4 (n=21 vs. 21.8±4.8 (n=19, (P>0 .05. For the practical exam, mean score for both groups was 8.7 out of 16 (P>0 .05. Conclusion: The substitution of eight hours of ultrasound simulation training for live model scanning in a 24 hour training course did not enhance performance on written and image acquisition tests in an introductory ultrasound course for residents. This result suggests that ultrasound simulation technology used as a substitute for live model training on an hour-for-hour basis, did not improve learning outcomes. Further investigation into simulation as a total replacement for live model training will provide a clearer picture of the efficacy of ultrasound simulators in medical education.

  16. Evaluation method of reference levels of radiation diagnostic in computerized tomography; Metodo de evaluacion de niveles de referencia de radiodiagnostico en tomografia computarizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Walter; Borges, Jose C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mota, Helvecio C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2000-07-01

    The computerized tomography (CT) is a complex technique, with many parameters to be selected and protocols of quality control not standardized, connected with high doses in the patients. In this work a simple methodology is developed, to evaluate levels of reference of diagnosis in computerized tomography using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. This methodology, can be used in the routine of inspection of evaluation of radiological safety in medical radiation diagnostics, executed by the Department of Medical Physics of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry and by the sanitary authorities in Brazil. In order to evaluate this dosimeter magnitude the distribution of dose it was studied the dose distribution obtained trough a profile of dose measured in the axial axis of a simulator(phantom) of water with thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100, for three techniques of examination by CT. The magnitude MSAD was evaluated by means of two different methods. In first, it was evaluated for an only cut, and in the second for multiple cuts. This last method presents/displays to be more practical and adapted to be applied in the routine of evaluation of reference levels, with TLDs.

  17. Computerized tomography with total variation and with shearlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño, Edgar; Herman, Gabor T.

    2017-04-01

    To reduce the x-ray dose in computerized tomography (CT), many constrained optimization approaches have been proposed aiming at minimizing a regularizing function that measures a lack of consistency with some prior knowledge about the object that is being imaged, subject to a (predetermined) level of consistency with the detected attenuation of x-rays. One commonly investigated regularizing function is total variation (TV), while other publications advocate the use of some type of multiscale geometric transform in the definition of the regularizing function, a particular recent choice for this is the shearlet transform. Proponents of the shearlet transform in the regularizing function claim that the reconstructions so obtained are better than those produced using TV for texture preservation (but may be worse for noise reduction). In this paper we report results related to this claim. In our reported experiments using simulated CT data collection of the head, reconstructions whose shearlet transform has a small ℓ 1-norm are not more efficacious than reconstructions that have a small TV value. Our experiments for making such comparisons use the recently-developed superiorization methodology for both regularizing functions. Superiorization is an automated procedure for turning an iterative algorithm for producing images that satisfy a primary criterion (such as consistency with the observed measurements) into its superiorized version that will produce results that, according to the primary criterion are as good as those produced by the original algorithm, but in addition are superior to them according to a secondary (regularizing) criterion. The method presented for superiorization involving the ℓ 1-norm of the shearlet transform is novel and is quite general: It can be used for any regularizing function that is defined as the ℓ 1-norm of a transform specified by the application of a matrix. Because in the previous literature the split Bregman algorithm is used

  18. Why Computerized Adaptive Testing In Pediatric Brain Tumor Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Nowinski, Cindy J; Cella, David; Hartsell, William F; Han-Chih Chang, John; Manley, Peter E; Goldman, Stewart

    2017-08-07

    Monitoring of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of patients with brain tumors is needed yet not always feasible. This is partially due to lack of brief-yet-precise assessments with minimal administration burden that are easily incorporated into clinics. Dynamic computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or static fixed-length short-forms, derived from psychometrically-sound item banks, are designed to fill this void. This study evaluated the comparability of scores obtained from CATs and short-forms. Patients (ages 7-22) were recruited from brain tumor clinics and completed PROMIS CATs and short-forms (Fatigue, Mobility, Upper Extremity, Depressive Symptoms, Anxiety, and Peer Relationships). Pearson correlations, paired t-tests, and Cohen's d were used to evaluate the relationship, significant differences and the magnitude of the difference between these two scores, respectively. Data from 161 patients with brain tumors were analyzed. Patients completed each CAT within 2 minutes. Scores obtained from CATs and short-forms were highly correlated (r=0.95 - 0.98). Significantly different CAT versus short-form scores were found on 4 (of 6) domains yet with negligible effect sizes (|d| < 0.09). These relationships varied across patients with different levels of reported symptoms, with the strongest association at the worst or best symptom scores. This study demonstrated the comparability of scores from CATs and short-forms. Yet the agreement between these two varied across degrees of symptom severity which was a result of the ceiling effects of static short-forms. We recommend CATs to enable individualized assessment for longitudinal monitoring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Jun; Pu Jiantao; Zheng Bin; Wang Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K. [Department of Radiology, Imaging Research Division, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations. Methods: The authors developed a computer scheme to automatically match the nodule outlines marked manually by radiologists on CT images. A large variety of characteristics regarding the annotated nodules in the database including volume, spiculation level, elongation, interobserver variability, as well as the intersection of delineated nodule voxels and overlapping ratio between the same nodules marked by different radiologists are automatically calculated and summarized. The scheme was applied to analyze all 157 examinations with complete annotation data currently available in LIDC dataset. Results: The scheme summarizes the statistical distributions of the abovementioned geometric and diagnosis features. Among the 391 nodules, (1) 365 (93.35%) have principal axis length {<=}20 mm; (2) 120, 75, 76, and 120 were marked by one, two, three, and four radiologists, respectively; and (3) 122 (32.48%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios {>=}80% for the delineations of two radiologists, while 198 (50.64%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios <60%. The results also showed that 72.89% of the nodules were assessed with malignancy score between 2 and 4, and only 7.93% of these nodules were considered as severely malignant (malignancy {>=}4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LIDC contains examinations covering a diverse distribution of nodule characteristics and it can be a useful resource to assess the performance of the nodule detection and/or segmentation schemes.

  20. Case of cerebral cryptococcosis. Mainly computerized tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Nomura, Takayoshi; Imagawa, Kenji; Asai, Akira; Kawasaki, Michiro (National Hospital of Nagoya (Japan))

    1984-05-01

    A 66-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with chief complaint of vertigo, gait disturbance and dysarthria. These symptoms started about one year before admission and worsened. Vomiting and urinary incontinence appeared. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria. In plain CT (computerized tomography) irregular ill-defined low density area was noted in the cerebellar vermis and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. And slight ventricular dilatation was found. Irregular shape of ring-like enhancement corresponding to capsule and patchy or mottled enhancement inside the tumor were seen. Suboccipital craniectomy was performed and yellowish necrotic tumor with hard capsule was removed. Histological diagnosis was not neoplasm or tuberculoma. Postoperatively liver function progressively worsened. She died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Autopsy revealed typical liver cirrhosis without malignant change. 3.0 x 2.5 cm sized, slightly hard, yellowish lesion was found on upper part of cerebellar hemispheres. This had extremely necrotic tissue and a great number of cryptococcus neoformans were found. And other intracranial lesion was not confirmed. Finding of pulmonary cryptococcosis was not gained. Our case is very rare because of solitary cerebellar abscess and absence of meningitic episode or pulmonary cryptococcosis. There are three types of inflammation in cerebral cryptococcosis. The commonest manifestation is the meningitic type, the second mode is granulomatous lesion and the third and the least presentation is intracranial abscess formation. CT reveals various finidngs according to clinical stage. CT findings are those of meningitis, meningoencephalitis, granuloma and abscess. Cryptococcal granuloma or abscess often simulates brain abscess, glioma and metastatic brain tumor. We discussed CT findings of cerebral cryptococcosis and examined the CT number of our case.

  1. An automated behavioral measure of mind wandering during computerized reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Myrthe; Bixler, Robert; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2017-02-08

    Mind wandering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in which attention shifts from task-related to task-unrelated thoughts. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in mind wandering, but research has been stymied by a lack of objective measures, leading to a near-exclusive reliance on self-reports. We addressed this issue by developing an eye-gaze-based, machine-learned model of mind wandering during computerized reading. Data were collected in a study in which 132 participants reported self-caught mind wandering while reading excerpts from a book on a computer screen. A remote Tobii TX300 or T60 eyetracker recorded their gaze during reading. The data were used to train supervised classification models to discriminate between mind wandering and normal reading in a manner that would generalize to new participants. We found that at the point of maximal agreement between the model-based and self-reported mind-wandering means (smallest difference between the group-level means: M model = .310, M self = .319), the participant-level mind-wandering proportional distributions were similar and were significantly correlated (r = .400). The model-based estimates were internally consistent (r = .751) and predicted text comprehension more strongly than did self-reported mind wandering (r model = -.374, r self = -.208). Our results also indicate that a robust strategy of probabilistically predicting mind wandering in cases with poor or missing gaze data led to improved performance on all metrics, as compared to simply discarding these data. Our findings demonstrate that an automated objective measure might be available for laboratory studies of mind wandering during reading, providing an appealing alternative or complement to self-reports.

  2. Computerization of Hungarian reforestation manual with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimber, Kornél; Gálos, Borbála; Mátyás, Csaba; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Hungarian forests are highly sensitive to the changing climate, especially to the available precipitation amount. Over the past two decades several drought damages were observed for tree species which are in the lower xeric limit of their distribution. From year to year these affected forest stands become more difficult to reforest with the same native species because these are not able to adapt to the increasing probability of droughts. The climate related parameter set of the Hungarian forest stand database needs updates. Air humidity that was formerly used to define the forest climate zones is not measured anymore and its value based on climate model outputs is highly uncertain. The aim was to develop a novel computerized and objective method to describe the species-specific climate conditions that is essential for survival, growth and optimal production of the forest ecosystems. The method is expected to project the species spatial distribution until 2100 on the basis of regional climate model simulations. Until now, Hungarian forest managers have been using a carefully edited spreadsheet for reforestation purposes. Applying binding regulations this spreadsheet prescribes the stand-forming and admixed tree species and their expected growth rate for each forest site types. We are going to present a new machine learning based method to replace the former spreadsheet. We took into great consideration of various methods, such as maximum likelihood, Bayesian networks, Fuzzy logic. The method calculates distributions, setups classification, which can be validated and modified by experts if necessary. Projected climate change conditions makes necessary to include into this system an additional climate zone that does not exist in our region now, as well as new options for potential tree species. In addition to or instead of the existing ones, the influence of further limiting parameters (climatic extremes, soil water retention) are also investigated. Results will be

  3. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  4. A computerized system to monitor resilience indicators in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; de Souza, Alan Pinheiro; Gomes, Jose Orlando

    2012-01-01

    The concepts developed by resilience engineering allow the understanding and monitoring the functioning of organizations and, particularly, to map the role of human activities, in success or in failure, enabling a better comprehension about how people make decisions in unexpected situations. The capture of information about human activities in the various organization levels gives managers a deeper real-time understanding of what is influencing the people performance, providing awareness of the factors that influence positively or negatively the organizational goals initially projected. The monitoring is important because the correct functioning of complex systems depends on the knowledge that people have to perform their activities and how the system environment provides tools that actually support the human performance. Therefore, organizations should look forward through precursors in operating signals to identify possible problems or solutions in the structure of tasks and activities, safety, quality, schedule, rework, and maintenance. We apply the concepts of resilience engineering to understand the organization by the analysis of cognitive tasks and activities. The aim is the development of a computerized system to monitor human activities to produce indicators to access system resilience. The validation of the approach was made in a real organization and the results show the successful applicability of the system. Based on findings obtained after the experiment of the system in a real organization, and managers and workers opinions, it was possible to show that the use of system provided an anticipated (real-time) perception about how activities are effectively being performed, allowing managers and workers to make decisions more consistent with daily problems, and also to anticipate solutions to cope with unexpected situations.

  5. Introduction to Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The lecture will first briefly review physical discoveries and tools developed for physics which later found applications in medicine, and then it will illustrate the most relevant of these applications: magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography, single photon emission computerized tomography, positron emission tomography, and conventional and advanced radiation therapy. Prerequisite knowledge: none

  6. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  7. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  8. Preventive Effect of Problem-Oriented Nursing Intervention on Pressure Ulcer in Coma Patients with Craniocerebral Injury%以问题为导向的护理干预对颅脑损伤昏迷患者压疮的预防作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 王梅花; 张国芹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the preventive effect of problem-oriented nursing intervention on pressure ulcer in coma pa-tients with craniocerebral injury. Methods 43 coma patients with craniocerebral injury hospitalized in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2016 were chosen as the observation group and another 40 cases in the same period were selected as the control group. The control group was given routine nursing intervention, and the observation group was implemented problem-oriented nursing intervention on the basis of the control group. Norton assessment scale for pressure ulcer was adopted to evaluate the risk of pressure ul-cers and pressure ulcer stage in the two groups during the intervention. Results There was no significant difference in the risk of pres-sure ulcer in two groups before the treatment (P>0. 05). After nursing intervention, there were 9 cases suffered from pressure ulcer in the observation group and the incidence rate was lower than that in the control group. The difference was of statistical significance ( P0.05)。护理干预后,观察组共有9例发生压疮,低于对照组压疮的发生率,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组干预后压疮各分期均低于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论以问题为导向的护理干预可减少颅脑损伤昏迷患者压疮的发生风险,对于预防压疮的形成具有实用价值。

  9. A comparison of computerized dynamic posturography therapy to standard balance physical therapy in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutubuddin, Abu A; Cifu, David X; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Carne, William; McGuirk, Theresa E; Baron, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Postural instability is a common impairment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). People with PD are prone to balance and walking difficulties. This study analyzed the feasibility of a prospective investigation of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) and standard Physical Therapy (PT) treatments in individuals with mild-moderate PD. Treatment took place at two sites: 1) CDP therapy at the Southeast Parkinson's Disease Research Education and Clinical Center (PADRECC) within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and 2) standard physical therapy at a community outpatient rehabilitation center. Final analysis compared 15 patients randomly assigned for therapy to either the CDP or PT treatments. Therapy time was eight weeks (four weeks of CPD or PT followed by home therapy for four weeks). The CDP therapy included gradually intensified closed chain and mobility training. Standard PT consisted of upright, mat, and theraball exercises and gait training. The home exercise phase was identical for both groups. The pilot data demonstrated treatment was tolerated by 68 percent of the sample despite the occurrence of a progressive neurological condition and medical comorbidities. While results failed to reveal any differences between treatment groups, both groups demonstrated improvement on selected outcome measures. An expanded prospective study with methodological improvements appears warranted.

  10. Investigation on developing a computerized imitating system of pediatric clinical patients%儿科计算机模拟病人系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚; 朱美华; 梁敏; 温红艳; 肖一平

    2014-01-01

    广州医科大学第二附属医院构建的多媒体计算机模拟病人系统包含学生信息管理、题库管理、在线考试、成绩查询管理四大模块;可模拟儿科典型病例,将学生置身于实际临床情景之中,通过单向性操作,一步步解决临床难题.应用此系统,能提高学生的考核成绩和临床思维能力,明显调动其学习积极性,较好地解决医学生数量增多而临床典型教学病例短缺的矛盾,并可作为儿科专业技能考试的试题库.%The computerized imitating system constructed by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University contains four blocks:administration of student infomation,administration of question bank,on-line tests and administration of score inquiry.It's designed to imitate typical pediatric cases,so that the medical students may put themselves into the "practical" clinical scenario and solve the challenges step by step in one-direction procedure.Teaching with computerized clinical scenario imitating patients can improve students' test resuhs and activate students' learning enthusiasm significantly.It not only helps to solve the contradiction between increasing number of medical students and clinical typical teaching case shortage but also improves the clinical thinking ability of the medical students.This system can also be used as a test bank for pediatric technical skills examination.

  11. Validation of a self-administered computerized system to detect cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Samuel D; Reese, Robert J; Norsworthy, Larry A; Dellaria, Donna K; Kinkade, Jacob W; Benge, Jared; Brown, Kimberly; Ratka, Anna; Simpkins, James W

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of economical and accurate approaches to identifying persons in the community who have mild, undetected cognitive impairments. Computerized assessment systems have been suggested as a viable approach to identifying these persons. The validity of a computerized assessment system for identification of memory and executive deficits in older individuals was evaluated in the current study. Volunteers (N = 235) completed a 3-hr battery of neuropsychological tests and a computerized cognitive assessment system. Participants were classified as impaired (n = 78) or unimpaired (n = 157) on the basis of the Mini Mental State Exam, Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Trail Making Test (TMT), Part B. All six variables (three memory variables and three executive variables) derived from the computerized assessment differed significantly between groups in the expected direction. There was also evidence of temporal stability and concurrent validity. Application of computerized assessment systems for clinical practice and for identification of research participants is discussed in this article. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Use of computerized tests to assess the cognitive impact of interventions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Sanches de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the aging of the population, the possibility of the occurrence of cognitive decline rises. A number of types of intervention seek to attenuate or reverse this impairment. The use of computerized tests helps quantify the effects of interventions on cognitive function in the elderly. The objective of the present review was to analyze studies that have utilized computerized cognitive tests to determine the effects of interventions in the elderly population, describing the batteries and tests employed, the populations studied and reports by authors on the limitations or benefits of employing these tests in older adults. The review was performed on the PubMed database using the descriptors: cognitive computerized test and elderly. We retrieved 530 studies and, following analysis of their abstracts, selected 32 relevant to the subject. The studies utilized 19 different types of computerized tests and batteries to assess the interventions, which were predominantly drug trials. There were no reports on limitations in the use of the computerized tests, suggesting this type of intervention had good applicability, sensitivity, and little or no practice effects in this population.

  13. Redefining the sonography workflow through the application of a departmental computerized workflow management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Feng; Tsai, Jerry Ch; Chen, Wei-Juhn; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Pan, Huay-Ben; Yang, Tsung-Lung

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the effective application of a computerized workflow management system (WMS) into sonography workflow in order to reduce patient exam waiting time, number of waiting patients, sonographer stress level, and to improve patient satisfaction. A computerized WMS was built with seamless integration of an automated patient sorting algorithm, a real-time monitoring system, exam schedules fine-tuning, a tele-imaging support system, and a digital signage broadcasting system of patient education programs. The computerized WMS was designed to facilitate problem-solving through continuous customization and flexible adjustment capability. Its effects on operations, staff stress, and patient satisfaction were studied. After implementation of the computerized WMS, there is a significant decrease in patient exam waiting time and sonographer stress level, significant increase in patient satisfaction regarding exam waiting time and the number of examined patients, and marked decrease in the number of waiting patients at different time points in a day. Through multidisciplinary teamwork, the computerized WMS provides a simple and effective approach that can overcome jammed exams associated problems, increase patient satisfaction level, and decrease staff workload stress under limited resources, eventually creating a win-win situation for both the patients and radiology personnel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  15. Integration of Computers into the Medical School Curriculum: An Example from a Microbiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Mark W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    While the use of computers has become widespread in recent years, a unified, integrated approach to their use in the medical school curriculum has not yet emerged. Describes a program at the University of New Mexico that will phase-in computerization of its curriculum beginning in the fall of 1993. (LZ)

  16. Patient electronic medical record – the importance of proper implementation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karlińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies offer the potential to transform health care. Electronic Medical Record (EMR is used to make paperless computerized patient data in order to increase efficiency of hospital systems and reduce chances of human errors. Its level of implementation is usually assessed using an EMR Adoption Model (EMRAM.

  17. Computerized tomography-based anatomic description of the porcine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekheit, Mohamed; Bucur, Petru O; Wartenberg, Mylene; Vibert, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the anatomic features is imperative for successful modeling of the different surgical situations. This study aims to describe the anatomic features of the porcine using computerized tomography (CT) scan. Thirty large, white, female pigs were included in this study. The CT image acquisition was performed in four-phase contrast study. Subsequently, analysis of the images was performed using syngo.via software (Siemens) to subtract mainly the hepatic artery and its branches. Analysis of the portal and hepatic veins division pattern was performed using the Myrian XP-Liver 1.14.1 software (Intrasense). The mean total liver volume was 915 ± 159 mL. The largest sector in the liver was the right medial one representing around 28 ± 5.7% of the total liver volume. Next in order is the right lateral sector constituting around 24 ± 5%. Its volume is very close to the volume of the left medial sector, which represents around 22 ± 4.7% of the total liver volume. The caudate lobe represents around 8 ± 2% of the total liver volume.The portal vein did not show distinct right and left divisions rather than consecutive branches that come off the main trunk. The hepatic artery frequently trifurcates into left trunk that gives off the right gastric artery and the artery to the left lateral sector, the middle hepatic artery that supplies both the right and the left medial sectors and the right hepatic artery trunk that divides to give anterior branch to the right lateral lobe, branch to the right medial lobe, and at least a branch to the caudate lobe. Frequently, there is a posterior branch that crosses behind the portal vein to the right lateral lobe. The suprahepatic veins join the inferior vena cava in three distinct openings. There are communications between the suprahepatic veins that drain the adjacent sectors. The vein from the right lateral and the right medial sectors drains into a common trunk. The vein from the left lateral and from the left

  18. Computerization in industry causes problems for people with reading and writing difficulties (dyslexia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, A

    1986-01-01

    For 10 years computerization in industry has advanced at a rapid pace. A problem which has not received attention is that of people with reading and writing difficulties who experience severe problems when they have to communicate with a computer monitor screen. These individuals are often embarrassed by their difficulties and conceal them from their fellow workers. A number of case studies are described which show the form the problems can take. In one case, an employee was compelled to move from department to department as each was computerized in turn. Computers transform a large number of manual tasks in industry into jobs which call for reading and writing skills. Better education at elementary school and at the workplace in connection with computerization are the most important means of overcoming this problem. Moreover, computer programs could be written in a more human way.

  19. Improved Design of Crew Operation in Computerized Procedure System of APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, No Kyu; Jung, Yeon Sub; Sung, Chan Ho [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The operators perform the paper-based procedures in analog-based conventional main control room (MCR) depending on only communications between operators except a procedure controller such as a Shift Supervisor (SS), however in digital-based MCR the operators can confirm the procedures simultaneously in own console when the procedure controller of computerized procedure (CP) opens the CP. The synchronization and a synchronization function between procedure controller and other operators has to be considered to support the function of crew operation. This paper suggests the improved design of crew operation in computerized procedure system of APR1400. This paper suggests the improved design of APR1400 CPS. These improvements can help operators perform the crew procedures more efficiently. And they reduce a burden of communication and misunderstanding of computerized procedures. These improvements can be applied to CPS after human factors engineering verification and validation.

  20. The effects of strategic decision making structure and computerization on organizational performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, J.J. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (United States); Carter, N.M. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Cullen, J.B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This study investigates whether the fit between computerization and strategic decision making predicts organizational performance. Results suggest that increased computerization along with the decentralization of strategic decisions leads to greater performance than increased computer usage and the centralization of strategic decisions. Findings indicate that the effects from a manager`s decision to computerize operations and change the organization`s strategic decision making structure are not immediately felt. These findings support the idea that performance needs to be measured on a long-term basis rather than on a short-term basis. The results also suggest that it may be erroneous to evaluated managers strictly on a short-term basis since the effects from strategic decisions may not be fully felt for one or more years. 64 refs.

  1. Correlation between the Cogstate computerized measure and WAIS-IV among birth cohort mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataja, Eeva-Leena; Karlsson, Linnea; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Parsons, Christine; Schembri, Adrian; Kiiski-Mäki, Hanna; Karlsson, Hasse

    2017-03-01

    Large studies, with limited resources call for cost-effective cognitive assessment methods. Computerized tests offer viable alternatives but more data are needed on their functioning. Our aim was to evaluate the overlap between a computerized neuropsychological test battery and a traditional test of general intelligence (IQ). Cognitive functioning was assessed in birth cohort mothers (n = 80) with two widely used methods: Cogstate, computerized test battery, and WAIS-IV, a traditional IQ test. Correlational analyses were conducted. We found weak-to-moderate correlations between the measures, except for verbal comprehension. The indices of overall performance showed more consistent correlations than Subtests. The overall correlations were in accordance with earlier studies. Cogstate is relatively independent of verbal comprehension abilities. The choice of the cognitive assessment method should be strongly guided by the research question. More studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of the Cogstate Composite Score in cognitive screening.

  2. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES, PART TWO: APPLICABILITY OF CURRENT METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-10-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no U.S. nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  3. Cognitive evaluation of the predictors of use of computerized protocols by clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, Shobba; Weir, Charlene R; Morris, Alan H; Warner, Homer R

    2003-01-01

    We describe a cognitive approach to evaluating the factors that motivate clinicians to use computerized protocols. Using Value-Expectancy theories we developed an open-ended interview to assess clinicians' beliefs and experiences about the use of computerized protocols. Using a qualitative methodology, 3 reviewers independently identified key concepts raised by 13 interviewees. These concepts were aggregated and independently sorted into 39 categories. Then final categories were chosen by consensus. Analysis of the concepts showed consistency across clinician specialties of physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists. Inter-rater reliability calculated using Cohen's Kappa was 0.474. Identified constructs from Value-Expectancy and Intrinsic Motivation theories were: Work Importance, Perception of Situation, Role Relevance, Beliefs regarding Control, Beliefs regarding Normative Expectations, Beliefs regarding Self-Efficacy, Attitude, Habit, Environmental Support and Pre-Behavior. This model will form the basis for an instrument to assess the beliefs and expectations of clinical use regarding the use of computerized protocols.

  4. Determinants of success for computerized cognitive behavior therapy: examination of an insomnia program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Norah; Walsh, Kate; Lewycky, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated plausible moderators of outcome in a 6-week computerized treatment for insomnia. Using secondary data from two randomized controlled trials, participants were 228 adults with chronic insomnia. Participants received computerized treatment from their homes. Outcomes were assessed using a sleep diary, as well as several standardized self-report scales. Using linear mixed models with SPSS, treatment was largely robust to comorbid conditions, education, age, and gender. Results showed that psychiatric comorbidity and education moderated the impact of treatment on fatigue and that sleep symptom comorbidity moderated the impact of treatment on maladaptive attitudes about sleep. Implications of these findings are that more widespread use of computerized treatment for insomnia may be warranted.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES IN HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  6. [Failure mode and effects analysis on computerized drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Atenciano, J A; Roldán-Aviña, J P; González-García, Mercedes; Blanco-Sánchez, M C; Pinto-Melero, M A; Pérez-Ramírez, C; Calvo Rubio-Burgos, Miguel; Osuna-Navarro, F J; Jurado-Carmona, A M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and analyze errors in drug prescriptions of patients treated in a "high resolution" hospital by applying a Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).Material and methods A multidisciplinary group of medical specialties and nursing analyzed medical records where drug prescriptions were held in free text format. An FMEA was developed in which the risk priority index (RPI) was obtained from a cross-sectional observational study using an audit of the medical records, carried out in 2 phases: 1) Pre-intervention testing, and (2) evaluation of improvement actions after the first analysis. An audit sample size of 679 medical records from a total of 2,096 patients was calculated using stratified sampling and random selection of clinical events. Prescription errors decreased by 22.2% in the second phase. FMEA showed a greater RPI in "unspecified route of administration" and "dosage unspecified", with no significant decreases observed in the second phase, although it did detect, "incorrect dosing time", "contraindication due to drug allergy", "wrong patient" or "duplicate prescription", which resulted in the improvement of prescriptions. Drug prescription errors have been identified and analyzed by FMEA methodology, improving the clinical safety of these prescriptions. This tool allows updates of electronic prescribing to be monitored. To avoid such errors would require the mandatory completion of all sections of a prescription. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidural haematoma: computerized tomography (CT) parameters in 19 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider-Groswasser, I; Frishman, E; Razon, N

    1991-01-01

    Between the years 1984 to 1989, 624 urgent brain CT examinations were performed for head-trauma patients in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. In 19 patients, epidural haematomas were diagnosed. Different radiological parameters were discussed such as homogeneity of the haematoma, midline shift, ventricular collapse, obliteration of the peri-mesencephalic cistern and the presence of additional brain damage.

  8. Acute renal failure following contrast injection for head computerized tomography in two patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, H.; Sando, H.; Nunokawa, T.; Murakami, T.; Miyakawa, Y. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    Two cases of diabetes mellitus with renal and retinal involvement developed acute renal failure after undergoing head computerized tomography. The first case was a 62-year-old male who had been diagnosed as having diabetes 25 years before. He had diabetic retinopathy of Scott IIIb. Before head computerized tomography, the serum BUN was 37 mg/dl, and creatinine was 4.1 mg/dl. Oliguria began immediately after the scanning and confinued for 48 hr. The serum levels of BUN and creatinine rose to 106 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively. Case 2 was a 49-year-old male who had been diagnosed as having diabetes 15 years before. He showed Scott IIb and IV retinopathy. The BUN and creatinine levels in the serum were 32 and 2.3 mg/dl, respectively. After receiving head computerized tomography, he developed oliguria and remained oliguric for 48 hr. During that period, the serum levels of BUN and creatinin were elevated to 112 and 7.5 mg/dl, respectively. Fortunately, both of these patients recovered from the oliguria without resorting to hemodialysis. The iodine contrast medium routinely used for contrast enhancement in the head computerized tomography was implicated in the acute renal failure of these patients. Only eleven cases have so far been reported in the literature who developed acute renal failure following computerized tomography. In view of the three or four times greater dosis of iodine contrast medium employed in computerized tomography compared to intravenous pyelography, the acute incidence of such complications might be much higher. Among the thirteen cases including the two reported here, as many as eight were diabetic. It is well recongnized that the incidence of acute renal failure after intravenous pyelography is particularly high in cases of diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Applications of a Time Sequence Mechanism in the Simulation Cases of a Web-Based Medical Problem-Based Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Shyang; Cheng, Yuh-Ming; Weng, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Yong-Guo; Lin, Chyi-Her

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Internet applications nowadays has led many medical schools and centers to incorporate computerized Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methods into their training curricula. However, many of these PBL systems do not truly reflect the situations which practitioners may actually encounter in a real medical environment, and hence their…

  10. A new cone beam computerized tomography system for use in endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, T; Honda, K

    2007-03-01

    To present a newly developed cone beam computerized tomography system (3DX Micro-CT) and its application in endodontic surgery. Cone beam CT has attracted considerable attention as a new diagnostic imaging technique in dentistry. The assessment of fractured endodontic instruments and the planning of endodontic surgery present challenges that conventional radiography cannot meet successfully. In this report, the value of the 3DX cone beam computerized radiography system is illustrated by the case of a fractured endodontic instrument protruding into the maxillary sinus.

  11. Status of routine post-mortem computerized tomography in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2008-01-01

      In February 2006 a dual slice CT scanner was installed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Odense, Denmark. Since that time a CT-scanning has been performed on all bodies prior to autopsy. This article provides an overview of the experience gained.  We found that computerized tomography...... rarely is a substitute for autopsy, but may contribute with important new information in many cases such as identifications (including mass-disasters), battered child, gunshot wounds, traffic accidents and air embolism. Computerized tomography provides documentation in digital form - easily stored...

  12. [Methodological study on digitalization of tongue image in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Jie; Shen, Li

    2004-12-01

    This is a research aimed at proposing a computerized tongue analysis method based on computerized image processing for quantizing the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The chromatic algorithm and 2-D Gabor wavelet transformation are applied to segmenting tongue from original image. The statistical method is adopted in identifying the colors of each pixel, which are attributed to the tongue substance and coating respectively. Thickness of tongue coating is determined by energy of 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients (GWTE). The distribution of GWTE and invariant moment algorithm are used to judge the tongue texture. The experiment result shows that all methods proposed in this paper are effective.

  13. Computerization of the Standard Corsi Block-Tapping Task Affects Its Underlying Cognitive Concepts : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Michiel H G; Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2014-01-01

    The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of move

  14. Computerization of the standard corsi block-tapping task affects its underlying cognitive concepts : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Michiel H G; Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2015-01-01

    The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of move

  15. Computerized Memory Training Leads to Sustained Improvement in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…

  16. Computerized Memory Training Leads to Sustained Improvement in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…

  17. Influence of computerized sounding out on spelling performance for children who do and do not rely on AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Hogan, Tiffany P; Beukelman, David R; Schwarz, Ilsa E

    2015-05-01

    Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. We investigated how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudowords for children with complex communication needs who did and did not use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Results indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words by participants, suggesting that computerized sounding out might assist in more accurate spelling for children who use AAC. Future research is needed to determine how language and reading abilities influence the use of computerized sounding out with children who have a range of speech intelligibility abilities and do and do not use AAC.

  18. Barriers to implementation of a computerized decision support system for depression: an observational report on lessons learned in "real world" clinical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderajan Prabha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wide promotion, clinical practice guidelines have had limited effect in changing physician behavior. Effective implementation strategies to date have included: multifaceted interventions involving audit and feedback, local consensus processes, marketing; reminder systems, either manual or computerized; and interactive educational meetings. In addition, there is now growing evidence that contextual factors affecting implementation must be addressed such as organizational support (leadership procedures and resources for the change and strategies to implement and maintain new systems. Methods To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of implementation of a computerized decision support system for depression (CDSS-D in routine public mental health care in Texas, fifteen study clinicians (thirteen physicians and two advanced nurse practitioners participated across five sites, accruing over 300 outpatient visits on 168 patients. Results Issues regarding computer literacy and hardware/software requirements were identified as initial barriers. Clinicians also reported concerns about negative impact on workflow and the potential need for duplication during the transition from paper to electronic systems of medical record keeping. Conclusion The following narrative report based on observations obtained during the initial testing and use of a CDSS-D in clinical settings further emphasizes the importance of taking into account organizational factors when planning implementation of evidence-based guidelines or decision support within a system.

  19. A Computerized Clinical Information System for Physicians, Pharmacists and Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Honigman, Benjamin; Rumack, Barry H.; Pons, Peter T.; Conner, Christopher S.; Prince, Jan; Rann, Leonard; Kemp, Marten

    1984-01-01

    MICROMEDEX Clinical Information System (MCIS) is a complete evaluated clinical data base available in a variety of computer formats: mainframe, personal computers with hard disc or laser disc, and local area networks. The data bases contain up-to-date information that is revised quarterly, concerning medical, surgical, toxicologic and traumatic entities as well as drug evaluations and therapeutics. It also includes a section of abstracts of the world's literature in acute care medicine. The o...

  20. Medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in our region. It involves patients travelling outside of their home country for medical treatment. This article provides an outline of the current research around medical tourism, especially its impact on Australians. Patients are increasingly seeking a variety of medical treatments abroad, particularly those involving cosmetic surgery and dental treatment, often in countries in South-East Asia. Adverse events may occur during medical treatment abroad, which raises medico-legal and insurance issues, as well as concerns regarding follow-up of patients. General practitioners need to be prepared to offer advice, including travel health advice, to patients seeking medical treatment abroad.

  1. Implementation of computerized physician order entry in National Guard hospitals: Assessment of critical success factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid M Altuwaijri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the needs, process and experience of implementing a computerized physician order entry (CPOE system in a leading healthcare organization in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: The National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA deployed the CPOE in a pilot department, which was the intensive care unit (ICU in order to assess its benefits and risks and to test the system. After the CPOE was implemented in the ICU area, a survey was sent to the ICU clinicians to assess their perception on the importance of 32 critical success factors (CSFs that was acquired from the literature. The project team also had several meetings to gather lessons learned from the pilot project in order to utilize them for the expansion of the project to other NGHA clinics and hospitals. Results: The results of the survey indicated that the selected CSFs, even though they were developed with regard to international settings, are very much applicable for the pilot area. The top three CSFs rated by the survey respondents were: The "before go-live" training, the adequate clinical resources during implementation, and the ordering time. After the assessment of the survey and the lessons learned from the pilot project, NGHA decided that the potential benefits of the CPOE are expected to be greater the risks expected. The project was then expanded to cover all NGHA clinics and hospitals in a phased approach. Currently, the project is in its final stages and expected to be completed by the end of 2011. Conclusion: The role of CPOE systems is very important in hospitals in order to reduce medication errors and to improve the quality of care. In spite of their great benefits, many studies suggest that a high percentage of these projects fail. In order to increase the chances of success and due to the fact that CPOE is a clinical system, NGHA implemented the system first in a pilot area in order to test the system without putting patients at

  2. Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

  3. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  4. A-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing with Unequal Item Exposure across Strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Chang, Hua-Hua

    The purpose of this study was to compare a proposed revised a-stratified, or alpha-stratified, USTR method of test item selection with the original alpha-stratified multistage computerized adaptive testing approach (STR) and the use of maximum Fisher information (FSH) with respect to test efficiency and item pool usage using simulated computerized…

  5. Visualizing Syllables: Real-Time Computerized Feedback within a Speech-Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeThorne, Laura; Aparicio Betancourt, Mariana; Karahalios, Karrie; Halle, Jim; Bogue, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Computerized technologies now offer unprecedented opportunities to provide real-time visual feedback to facilitate children's speech-language development. We employed a mixed-method design to examine the effectiveness of two speech-language interventions aimed at facilitating children's multisyllabic productions: one incorporated a novel…

  6. ECAT: A New Computerized Tomographic Imaging System for Position-Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, M. E.; Hoffman, E. J.; Huang, S. C.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The ECAT was designed and developed as a complete computerized positron radionuclide imaging system capable of providing high contrast, high resolution, quantitative images in 2 dimensional and tomographic formats. Flexibility, in its various image mode options, allows it to be used for a wide variety of imaging problems.

  7. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M;

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  8. The Couzens Machine. A Computerized Learning Exchange. Final Report, 1973-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ken, Comp.; Libengood, Richard, Comp.

    The Couzens Machine is a computerized learning exchange and information service developed for the residents of Couzens Hall, a dormitory at the University of Michigan. Organized as a collective within the framework of a course and supported by an instructional development grant from the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, the Couzens…

  9. Status of routine post-mortem computerized tomography in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2008-01-01

    rarely is a substitute for autopsy, but may contribute with important new information in many cases such as identifications (including mass-disasters), battered child, gunshot wounds, traffic accidents and air embolism. Computerized tomography provides documentation in digital form - easily stored...

  10. MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Computerized Interpretation: An Adjunct to Quality Mental Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle

    1994-01-01

    Provides reviews of computerized scoring and interpretive systems for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2 and MMPI-A): Caldwell Report, the Psychological Assessment Resources MMPI-2 Interpretive System, and the National Computer Systems Programs. Concludes that when used appropriately, such scoring systems enhance a counselor's…

  11. Edema quantification by computerized morphometry as an evaluation parameter for the resistance of colon anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priolli Denise Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This work had the objective of verifying the validity of using computerized morphometry as a method of quantitative analysis of the interference of edema in scar formation following colon anastomosis. METHODS: Forty-five adult female Wistar rats were utilized, divided into three groups of 15 animals according to whether sacrifice was performed on the first, second or seventh postoperative day. Each group was subdivided into a main group consisting of 10 animals, and a control group consisting of five animals. In the main group, in addition to the quantitative computerized morphometric analysis of the edema in the submucosal layer, the resistance of the colon anastomosis to bursting strength was verified. In the control group, edema quantification was studied alone. RESULTS: The results found via the computerized morphometry method showed that there is a 7% decrease in the presence of edema during the first postoperative week. They confirmed that there is an inverse statistically significant relationship (p< 0.001 between edema presence and the resistance of the anastomosis to bursting strength. CONCLUSION: The use of computerized morphometry is a reliable, fast, objective and low-cost methodology for the quantification of edema in colon anastomoses.

  12. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  13. Psychometric evaluation of the EORTC computerized adaptive test (CAT) fatigue item pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Giesinger, Johannes M; Holzner, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. To obtain a more precise and flexible measure of fatigue, the EORTC Quality of Life Group has developed a computerized adaptive test (CAT) measure of fatigue. This is part of an ongoing project developing a CAT v...

  14. Development of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) for the EORTC QLQ-C30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Grønvold, Mogens; on behalf of the EORTC Quality of Life Group

    2013-01-01

    The EORTC QLQ-C30 is one of the most widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments globally. The Quality of Life Group is developing a new version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire based on computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The new CAT instrument will measure the same HRQOL...

  15. Does a computerized price comparison module reduce prescribing costs in general practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Nørskov; Olesen, Frede

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the trends in prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and drug expenses before and after the introduction of a computerized cost containment module into the computer record system of a defined group of GPs. The GPs' expectations for and experiences with the module were...

  16. Relevance of computerized tomography in the preoperative evaluation of patients with vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Zobbe, Vibeke; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine whether inclusion of computerized tomography (CT) in the prospective evaluation of vulvar cancer changed the surgical treatment strategy in terms of detection of lymph node metastases, tumor spread and comorbidity, and additionally to examine...

  17. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  18. Timed performance weaknesses on computerized tasks in pediatric brain tumor survivors: A comparison with sibling controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, M.A. de; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Mourik, R. van; Maurice-Stam, H.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Beek, L.R.; Granzen, B.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.N.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2017-01-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, insight into the late effects of the disease and treatment is of high importance. This study focused on profiling the neurocognitive functions that might be affected after treatment for a pediatric brain tumor, using a broad battery of computerized tests.

  19. A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

  20. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  1. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.

  2. Computerized Information and Support for Patients with Breast Cancer or HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnick, Sharon J.; Owens, Betta; Botta, Renee; Sathe, Laurie; Hawkins, Robert; Cooper, Leah; Kelley, Mary; Gustafson, David

    1999-01-01

    Use of the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System, a computerized information system, by patients with breast cancer or HIV was compared. Groups differed in the frequency of access and use of certain aspects (e.g., discussion groups). Identification of patient concerns provided useful information for system improvements. (SK)

  3. Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

  4. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  5. Operation ARA: A Computerized Learning Game that Teaches Critical Thinking and Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They…

  6. An Evaluation of Computerized Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Safety Skills to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Nicholas R.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training (IST) for teaching children to protect themselves. However, BST may be resource intensive and difficult to implement on a large scale. We evaluated a computerized version of BST (CBST) to teach safety skills and determined the extent to which…

  7. Detection of aberrant item score patterns in computerized adaptive testing : An empirical example using the CUSUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Schakel, Lolle; Smid, Nico G.

    2010-01-01

    The scalability of individual trait scores on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) was assessed through investigating the consistency of individual item score patterns. A sample of N = 428 persons completed a personality CAT as part of a career development procedure. To detect inconsistent item score

  8. Detection of person misfit in computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen-Stoop, van Edith M.L.A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2002-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. For a computerized adaptive test (CAT) using dichotomous items, several person-fit statistics for detecting mis.tting item score patterns have been proposed. Both for pape

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Nurse-Focused Computerized Clinical Decision Support on Urinary Catheter Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robin Lynn Neal

    2012-01-01

    A growing national emphasis has been placed on health information technology (HIT) with robust computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) integration into health care delivery. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is the most frequent health care-associated infection in the United States and is associated with high cost, high volumes and…

  10. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

  11. Risk analysis and user satisfaction after implementation of computerized physician order entry in Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Willem; de Gier, Han J. J.; van der Schaaf, Tjerk; Taxis, Katja; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) in hospitals is widely considered to be important for patient safety, but implementation is lagging behind and user satisfaction is often low. Risk analysis methods may improve the implementation process and thus user satisfaction. Objective The a

  12. Identification of drug-related problems by a clinical pharmacist in addition to computerized alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Zaal (Rianne); M.M.P.M. Jansen (Mark M. P.); M. Duisenberg-Van Essenberg (Marjolijn); C.C. Tijssen (Cees); J.A. Roukema; P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Both clinical pharmacists and computerized physician order entry systems with clinical decision support (CPOE/CDSS) can reduce drug-related problems (DRPs). However, the contribution of a clinical pharmacist in addition to CPOE/CDSS has not been established in a prospective st

  13. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  14. Dynamic Assessment of EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension via Computerized Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Saman; Latif, Shokoufeh Vakili

    2015-01-01

    In Vygotsky's theory, learner's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and autonomous performance could be further developed through social interaction with an expert. Computerized concept mapping enjoys the advantage of meeting learners' differences and therefore can be applied as a scaffold to support learning process.Taking a dynamic assessment…

  15. Accuracy of computerized tomography for the evaluation of mandibular sites prior to implant placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sforza, Nicola Marco; Franchini, Federico; Lamma, Achille

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to observe the effect of positioning of the mandible on the accuracy of cross-sectional images obtained by reformatting computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An additional aim was to evaluate the ability of a software program (DentalVox, Era Scientific) to re...

  16. A Procedure for the Computerized Analysis of Cleft Palate Speech Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, David A.; Jones, David L.; Barton, Belinda; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    The phonetic symbols used by speech-language pathologists to transcribe speech contain underlying hexadecimal values used by computers to correctly display and process transcription data. This study aimed to develop a procedure to utilise these values as the basis for subsequent computerized analysis of cleft palate speech. A computer keyboard…

  17. A Procedure for the Computerized Analysis of Cleft Palate Speech Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, David A.; Jones, David L.; Barton, Belinda; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    The phonetic symbols used by speech-language pathologists to transcribe speech contain underlying hexadecimal values used by computers to correctly display and process transcription data. This study aimed to develop a procedure to utilise these values as the basis for subsequent computerized analysis of cleft palate speech. A computer keyboard…

  18. Detecting bullying in early elementary school with a computerized peer-nomination instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ringoot, A.P.; Jansen, P.W.; Raat, H.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the PEERS Measure, a computerized assessment instrument that takes an innovative approach to using the peer-nomination method to identify bullying among elementary school children in Grades 1-2. Its psychometric characteristics were measured in 4,017 children from 190 schoo

  19. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  20. Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Comparison of the Nominal Response Model and the Three Parameter Logistic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAyala, R. J.; Koch, William R.

    A nominal response model-based computerized adaptive testing procedure (nominal CAT) was implemented using simulated data. Ability estimates from the nominal CAT were compared to those from a CAT based upon the three-parameter logistic model (3PL CAT). Furthermore, estimates from both CAT procedures were compared with the known true abilities used…

  1. Computerized Exercises to Promote Transfer of Cognitive Skills to Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, computerized and non-computerized cognitive remediation programs have been designed for both individual and group settings. We believe, however, that a common misconception lies in considering the efficiency of a cognitive remediation therapy as resulting from the sole use of a computer. This omits that metacognitive skills need also to be trained throughout the remediation phase. RECOS is a theory-based therapeutic approach designed to promote the transfer of cognitive skills to functional improvements. It involves working with one person at a time using both paper/pencil tasks and a set of interactive computer exercises. Paper/pencil exercises are used to promote problem-solving techniques and to help patients to find appropriate suitable strategies. During the following computerized 1-h session, therapists guide participants to the procedural dimension of the action, which refers to knowledge about doing things and relies on retrospective introspection. We assume that each patient has a rich and underestimated procedural knowledge he/she is not aware of. By providing complex and interactive environments, computerized exercises are recommended to bring this knowledge to light. When strategies used by the participant become conscious, conditional knowledge determines when and why to use them in real-life situations.

  2. Computerized exercises to promote transfer of cognitive skills to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVianin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, computerized and non-computerized cognitive remediation programs have been designed for both individual and group settings. We believe however that a common misconception lies in considering the efficiency of a cognitive remediation therapy as resulting from the sole use of a computer. This omits that metacognitive skills need also to be trained throughout the remediation phase. RECOS is a theory-based therapeutic approach designed to promote the transfer of cognitive skills to functional improvements. It involves working with one person at a time using both paper/pencil tasks and a set of interactive computer exercises. Paper/pencil exercises are used to promote problem solving techniques and to help patients to find and appropriate suitable strategies. During the following computerized one-hour session, therapists guide participants to the procedural dimension of the action which refers to knowledge about doing things and relies on retrospective introspection. We assume that each patient has a rich and underestimated procedural knowledge he/she is not aware of. By providing complex and interactive environments, computerized exercises are recommended to bring this knowledge to light. When strategies used by the participant become conscious, conditional knowledge determines when and why to use them in real life situations.

  3. Development of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the EORTC QLQ-C30 physical functioning dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Groenvold, Mogens; Aaronson, Neil K

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive test (CAT) methods, based on item response theory (IRT), enable a patient-reported outcome instrument to be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining direct comparability of scores. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORT...

  4. The Development of COBOL and RPG Instructional Modules to Audit Computerized Accounting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Details steps involved (as found in the literature) in the systems approach to design and develop instruction in order to provide a rationale for the development of instructional modules in COBOL and RPG to teach accounting students how to audit computerized accounting systems. Outlines of two modules are appended. (EAO)

  5. Comparison of the Standard and Computerized Versions of the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Daniel L.; Nolen, Patricia A.

    1982-01-01

    Children aged 7 to 14 years were administered a computerized version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test. Computer and traditional version performance was found to be similar in terms of total mean score, correlation with the WISC-R, Raven's subscale intercorrelations, and Raven's total mean score composition. (Author/RD)

  6. Computerized Exercises to Promote Transfer of Cognitive Skills to Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, computerized and non-computerized cognitive remediation programs have been designed for both individual and group settings. We believe, however, that a common misconception lies in considering the efficiency of a cognitive remediation therapy as resulting from the sole use of a computer. This omits that metacognitive skills need also to be trained throughout the remediation phase. RECOS is a theory-based therapeutic approach designed to promote the transfer of cognitive skills to functional improvements. It involves working with one person at a time using both paper/pencil tasks and a set of interactive computer exercises. Paper/pencil exercises are used to promote problem-solving techniques and to help patients to find appropriate suitable strategies. During the following computerized 1-h session, therapists guide participants to the procedural dimension of the action, which refers to knowledge about doing things and relies on retrospective introspection. We assume that each patient has a rich and underestimated procedural knowledge he/she is not aware of. By providing complex and interactive environments, computerized exercises are recommended to bring this knowledge to light. When strategies used by the participant become conscious, conditional knowledge determines when and why to use them in real-life situations. PMID:27148085

  7. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  8. Transfer from Structured to Open-Ended Problem Solving in a Computerized Metacognitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Esther

    2007-01-01

    A new computerized environment introducing a variety of metacognitive support mechanisms (MSMs) in different phases of the problem-solving process was designed to influence students' transfer from solving structured problems (near transfer) to solving open-ended problems (far transfer). Two hundred and thirty one students (aged 13-14 years) were…

  9. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  10. Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans : Ontwikkeling van een gecomputeriseerd handboek van architectonische plattegronden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of a

  11. A computerized method of estimation of sensor motor reaction, complicated with additional cognitive component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadij V. Ganin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is related to new integrated approach to objective computerizing evaluation of cognitive-component which delays the latent period of the sensor-motor reaction on specific visual stimuli, which carried different semantic information. It is recommended to use this method for clinical diagnostic of pathologies associated with disorders of cognitive human activity and for assessment of mental fatigue.

  12. Internet-Based and other computerized psychological treatments for adults depression: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized and, more recently, Internet-based treatments for depression have been developed and tested in controlled trials. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the effects of these treatments and investigate characteristics of studies that may be related to the effects. In particular,

  13. Computerized acoustic assessment of treatment efficacy of nebulized epinephrine and albuterol in RSV bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talmon Gil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We evaluated the use of computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles compared to a clinical score in assessing the effect of inhaled albuterol or inhaled epinephrine in infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Methods Computerized lung sounds analysis with quantification of wheezing and crackles and a clinical score were used during a double blind, randomized, controlled nebulized treatment pilot study. Infants were randomized to receive a single dose of 1 mgr nebulized l-epinephrine or 2.5 mgr nebulized albuterol. Computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles (PulmoTrack® and a clinical score were performed prior to, 10 minutes post and 30 minutes post treatment. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test. Results 15 children received albuterol, 12 received epinephrine. The groups were identical at baseline. Satisfactory lung sounds recording and analysis was achieved in all subjects. There was no significant change in objective quantification of wheezes and crackles or in the total clinical scores either within the groups or between the groups. There was also no difference in oxygen saturation and respiratory distress. Conclusion Computerized lung sound analysis is feasible in young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and provides a non-invasive, quantitative measure of wheezing and crackles in these infants. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00361452

  14. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  15. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  16. Concept mapping as learning tool in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new informatio

  17. Problem-oriented stereo vision quality evaluation complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorchuk, D.; Gusamutdinova, N.; Konovalenko, I.; Ershov, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an original low cost hardware setting for efficient testing of stereo vision algorithms. The method uses a combination of a special hardware setup and mathematical model and is easy to construct, precise in applications of our interest. For a known scene we derive its analytical representation, called virtual scene. Using a four point correspondence between the scene and virtual one we compute extrinsic camera parameters, and project virtual scene on the image plane, which is the ground truth for depth map. Another result, presented in this paper, is a new depth map quality metric. Its main purpose is to tune stereo algorithms for particular problem, e.g. obstacle avoidance.

  18. Dealing with Insecurity in Problem Oriented Learning Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Lund, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    in management theories. Data from three cohorts of students were analysed based on Engeströms Activity Theory (Engeström 1997, 2009; Engeström & Sannino, 2010) allowing us to uncover aspects of contradictions and potentials of expansive learning. Based on the findings the article discusses to what extent...

  19. Information-related complexity: a problem-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Perevalov, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    A general notion of information-related complexity applicable to both natural and man-made systems is proposed. The overall approach is to explicitly consider a rational agent performing a certain task with a quantifiable degree of success. The complexity is defined as the minimum (quasi-)quantity of information that's necessary to complete the task to the given extent -- measured by the corresponding loss. The complexity so defined is shown to generalize the existing notion of statistical complexity when the system in question can be described by a discrete-time stochastic process. The proposed definition also applies, in particular, to optimization and decision making problems under uncertainty in which case it gives the agent a useful measure of the problem's "susceptibility" to additional information and allows for an estimation of the potential value of the latter.

  20. Computerized content analysis of writings of Mahatma Gandhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Louis A; Bechtel, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    Three brief excerpts from the autobiographical writings of Mohandas K. Gandhi were analyzed for neuropsychobiological content using the PCAD 2000 computer program. The computer software produces scores on 13 scales such as anxiety, hostility, cognitive impairment, and depression; compares the assigned scores with norms derived from 5-minute speech samples taken from normal, medically and psychiatrically healthy adults and children; and suggests DSM-IV diagnostic categories for consideration. The results demonstrate an objective, repeatable method for achieving insight into the mental states and traits of historic figures based on their writings.

  1. Computerized physician order entry with clinical decision support in long-term care facilities: costs and benefits to stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sujha; Hoover, Sonja; Gilman, Boyd; Field, Terry S; Mutter, Ryan; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2007-09-01

    Nursing homes are the setting of care for growing numbers of our nation's older people, and adverse drug events are an increasingly recognized safety and quality concern in this population. Health information technology, including computerized physician/provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS), has been proposed as an important systems-based approach for reducing medication errors and preventable drug-related injuries. This article describes the costs and benefits of CPOE with CDS for the various stakeholders involved in long-term care (LTC), including nurses, physicians, the pharmacy, the laboratory, the payer (e.g., the insurer), nursing home residents, and the LTC facility. Critical barriers to adoption of these systems are discussed, primarily from an economic perspective. The analysis suggests that multiple stakeholders will incur the costs related to implementation of CPOE with CDS in the LTC setting, but the costs incurred by each may not be aligned with the benefits, which may present a major barrier to broad adoption. Physicians and LTC facilities are likely to bear a large burden of the costs, whereas residents and payers will enjoy a large portion of the benefits. Consideration of these costs and benefits suggests that financial incentives to physicians and facilities may be necessary to encourage and accelerate widespread use of these systems in the LTC setting.

  2. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-ups on the dentins.Impressions were taken of the casts with alginate and duplicated with dental stone. Models were measured with digital caliper manually. Then images were taken from the occlusal views of the casts by a digital camera. Measurements were done on digital images with the AutoCAD software.The results of the computerized and manual methods were compared with the gold standard.Intra class correlation coefficient of reliability was used to measure the accuracy ofthe methods and the Friedman technique used to evaluate the significance of differences.Results: Results indicated that all measurements were highly correlated, e.g. gold standard and manual (0.9613-0.9991, gold standard and computerized (0.7118-0.9883, manual and computerized (0.6734-0.9914. Statistically significant differences were present between these methods (P<0.05, but they proved not to be clinically significant.Conclusion: Manual measurement is still the most accurate method when compared to the computerized measurements and the results of measurement by computer should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Electronic Health Record A Systems Analysis of the Medications Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlat, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    An accessible primer, Electronic Health Record: A Systems Analysis of the Medications Domain introduces the tools and methodology of Structured Systems Analysis as well as the nuances of the Medications domain. The first part of the book provides a top-down decomposition along two main paths: data in motion--workflows, processes, activities, and tasks in parallel to the analysis of data at rest--database structures, conceptual, logical models, and entities relationship diagrams. Structured systems analysis methodology and tools are applied to: electronic prescription, computerized physician or

  4. Medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  5. Multilingual translation techniques in the analysis of narrative medical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G W; Polacsek, R A; Erozan, Y S; de la Monte, S M; Miller, R E; Hutchins, G M; Riede, U N

    1986-03-01

    The feasibility of computer translation of scientific and medical documents is controversial. This report describes a minicomputer-based translation system (TRANSOFT) that employs word order rearrangement followed by word-for-word translation and resolution of ambiguities based on context. This translation system was applied to an entire medical textbook written in German and to short medical texts written in French, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. Results suggest the versatility of TRANSOFT for narrowly defined translation problems. As foreign language medical documents and medical records become increasingly available in computer readable form through word processing, computerized typesetting and hospital information systems, computer translation methods may provide a rapid and inexpensive means of obtaining draft translations.

  6. The electronic medical record system: health care marvel or morass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D C

    1998-01-01

    The author considers the potential advantages and disadvantages, as well as possible unintended consequences, of introducing electronic medical record systems in health care organizations. Special consideration is given to the issues such information systems raise concerning privacy, confidentiality, and quality of care from both patient and provider perspectives. The potential gains from computerizing medical records include the benefit of instantaneous availability of patients' medical history, treatment regimes, and current health status in routine and emergency clinical situations. Ease of access to this information should reduce adverse outcomes. The added value of a complete and up-to-date medical record immediately available to medical caregivers seems undeniable. The potential disadvantages include issues around patient confidentiality and unauthorized access to records, the enormous capital investment for computer hardware, and system maintenance.

  7. Internet telehealth for pediatric asthma case management: integrating computerized and case manager features for tailoring a Web-based asthma education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Meg; Gustafson, David H; Sorkness, Christine A; Molfenter, Todd; Staresinic, Anthony; Meis, Tracy; Hawkins, Robert P; Shanovich, Kathleen Kelly; Walker, Nola P

    2007-07-01

    This article reports on the development of a personalized, Web-based asthma-education program for parents whose 4- to 12-year-old children have moderate to severe asthma. Personalization includes computer-based tailored messages and a human coach to build asthma self-management skills. Computerized features include the Asthma Manager, My Calendar/Reminder, My Goals, and a tailored home page. These are integrated with monthly asthma-education phone calls from an asthma-nurse case manager. The authors discuss the development process and issues and describe the current randomized evaluation study to test whether the year-long integrated intervention can improve adherence to a daily asthma controller medication, asthma control, and parent quality of life to reduce asthma-related healthcare utilization. Implications for health education for chronic disease management are raised.

  8. Prototype of a computerized scale for the active search for potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Érika Fernanda Dos Santos Bezerra; Pereira, Marta Cristiane Alves; Martinez, Yolanda Dora Évora; Mendes, Karina Dal Sasso; Rossaneis, Mariana Angela

    2017-09-12

    to develop a prototype of a computerized scale for the active search for potential organ and tissue donors. methodological study, with the analysis of 377 electronic medical records of patients who died due to encephalic death or cardiorespiratory arrest in the intensive care units of a tertiary hospital. Among the deaths due to cardiorespiratory arrest, the study aimed to identify factors indicating underreported encephalic death cases. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment severity indexes were applied in the protocols. Based on this, a scale was built and sent to five experts for assessment of the scale content, and subsequently, it was computerized by using a prototyping model. 34 underreported encephalic death cases were identified in the medical records of patients with cardiorespiratory arrest. Statistically significant differences were found in the Wilcoxon test between the scores of hospital admissions in the intensive care unit and the opening of the encephalic death protocol for both severity indexes. the prototype was effective for identifying potential organ donors, as well as for the identification of the degree of organ dysfunction in patients with encephalic death. desenvolver protótipo de escala informatizada para busca ativa de potenciais doadores de órgãos e tecidos. pesquisa metodológica, com análise de 377 prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes que evoluíram a óbito, por morte encefálica, ou parada cardiorrespiratória, nas unidades de terapia intensiva de hospital terciário. Nos óbitos por parada cardiorrespiratória, buscou-se identificar fatores que indicassem subnotificação de morte encefálica. Nos protocolos, foram aplicados os índices de gravidade Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II e Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment. A partir disso, construiu-se a escala que foi encaminhada a cinco especialistas, para avaliação de conteúdo, e, posteriormente

  9. Computerized clinical decision support systems for acute care management: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahota Navdeep

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute medical care often demands timely, accurate decisions in complex situations. Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs have many features that could help. However, as for any medical intervention, claims that CCDSSs improve care processes and patient outcomes need to be rigorously assessed. The objective of this review was to systematically review the effects of CCDSSs on process of care and patient outcomes for acute medical care. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, ACP Journal Club, and others, and the Inspec bibliographic database were searched to January 2010, in all languages, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CCDSSs in all clinical areas. We included RCTs that evaluated the effect on process of care or patient outcomes of a CCDSS used for acute medical care compared with care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results Thirty-six studies met our inclusion criteria for acute medical care. The CCDSS improved process of care in 63% (22/35 of studies, including 64% (9/14 of medication dosing assistants, 82% (9/11 of management assistants using alerts/reminders, 38% (3/8 of management assistants using guidelines/algorithms, and 67% (2/3 of diagnostic assistants. Twenty studies evaluated patient outcomes, of which three (15% reported improvements, all of which were medication dosing assistants. Conclusion The majority of CCDSSs demonstrated improvements in process of care, but patient outcomes were less likely to be evaluated and far less likely to show positive results.

  10. Vector entropy imaging theory with application to computerized tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jianping; Heng, Pheng Ann

    2002-07-01

    Medical imaging theory for x-ray CT and PET is based on image reconstruction from projections. In this paper a novel vector entropy imaging theory under the framework of multiple criteria decision making is presented. We also study the most frequently used image reconstruction methods, namely, least square, maximum entropy, and filtered back-projection methods under the framework of the single performance criterion optimization. Finally, we introduce some of the results obtained by various reconstruction algorithms using computer-generated noisy projection data from the Hoffman phantom and real CT scanner data. Comparison of the reconstructed images indicates that the vector entropy method gives the best in error (difference between the original phantom data and reconstruction), smoothness (suppression of noise), grey value resolution and is free of ghost images.

  11. Longitudinal Prescribing Patterns for Psychoactive Medications in Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Utilization of Pharmacy Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, I. T.; McGregor, M.; Engelman, L.; Touchette, P.; Tournay, A.; Sandman, C.; Fernandez, G.; Plon, L.; Walsh, D.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about longitudinal prescribing practices for psychoactive medications for individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD) who are living in community settings. Computerized pharmacy records were accessed for 2344 community-based individuals with IDDD for whom a total of 3421 prescriptions were…

  12. A Computer-Based Diagnostic/Information Patient Management System for Isolated Environments. MEDIC Ten Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-04

    68) (history of yellow color to skin or sclera) BOWELS: (recent change in bowel habits) RSRMAL (69) DIARRHEA (71) MUCUS IN STOOL (73...CONSTIPATED (70) 8100D IN STOOL (72) URINATION: (recent chamte in urination) MOTTO: [77/) PAINFUL FREQUENCY (75) (76) DARK URINE (77...corpsmen for application to computerized medical diagnosis. Proceedings of the 6th Congress of the International Ergonomics Associationf 1976, p

  13. The status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment may be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. Methods All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above-mentioned criteria. Results Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, eleven were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. Conclusion All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real-time with an individual’s prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the MCIS, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information

  14. Bases teóricas para a implementação do aprendizado orientado por problemas na residência médica em anestesiologia Bases teóricas para la implementación del aprendizaje orientado por problemas en la práctica médica en anestesiología Theoretical basis for the implementation of problem-oriented learning in anesthesiology residency programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getúlio Rodrigues de Oliveira Filho

    2003-04-01

    entre los contextos de aprendizaje y aplicación del conocimiento y por la elaboración de la información. Otras teorías han sido utilizadas para justificar el uso del método AOP en la enseñanza de estudiantes de Medicina y en otras áreas. El método AOP utiliza los conceptos aplicados al aprendizaje de adultos, los cuales se aplican a los episodios de aprendizaje de médicos. CONTENIDO: Este articulo describe el método AOP, sus bases teóricas y psicológicas, el papel de instructores y estudiantes en el proceso y sugestiones cuanto a su implementación. CONCLUSIONES: Comparado a la enseñanza tradicional, el AOP tiene como principales ventajas la mayor satisfacción de los estudiantes e instructores, la mayor diversificación de las fuentes de consulta y busca de conocimiento y el mayor tiempo despendido en el estudio individual. Una vez que el método no presenta desventajas, comparado al método tradicional, él puede ser considerado como una alternativa válida para la enseñanza de la Anestesiología en la Práctica Médica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Problem-oriented learning (POL is a teaching method the primary objective of which is the accumulation of medical concepts in the context of clinical problems, and which has been widely used in medical graduation since the 60s. POL is based on the information processing theory where acquisition of new knowledge is made easier by activating preexisting knowledge about the subject, by the similarity between learning contexts and knowledge application and by information improvement. Other theories have been evoked to justify POL method in Medical teaching and in other areas. The POL method uses adult teaching concepts applied to medical learning episodes. CONTENTS: This article describes the POL method, its theoretical and psychological basis, the role of professors and students in the process and suggestions for its implementation. CONCLUSIONS: As compared to traditional methods, POL has as major advantages a

  15. Medical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Projected Employment, 2024 Change, 2014-24 Employment by Industry Percent Numeric SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Medical scientists, except epidemiologists 19- ...

  16. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lampit, Amit; Hallock, Harry; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    .... Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed...

  17. Calcification of all four parathyroid glands in a hemodialysis patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism revealed by computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Rodríguez, M; González, F; Ablanedo, P

    2001-09-01

    This report describes the parathyroid scan, computerized tomography and histologic findings in a young female hemodialysis patient with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. These findings included hyperplasia and calcification of all four parathyroid glands.

  18. Influence of Computerized Sounding Out on Spelling Performance for Children who do and not rely on AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Beukelman, David R.; Schwarz, Ilsa E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Methods Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. Results The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. Conclusion The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24512195

  19. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  20. Working memory test battery for young adults: Computerized working memory assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Chang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a battery of computerized working memory (WM) tests and a scoring system suitable for young adult users. The tests comprised five classic tasks derived from Baddeley’s model of WM, reflecting each of the five WM functions. We recruited 115 undergraduate and graduate students from various academic fields and constructed a preliminary WM scoring norm for young adults. The scoring norm was used as a basis for developing a computerized assessment system. The results of correlation analysis show that the fluid intelligence of young adults is related to the memory function of WM, but not to the central executive system. The proposed working memory test battery for young adults comprehensively reflects the WM capacity of adults. PMID:28362867

  1. Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide establishes the essential and desirable elements of data required for the identification in computerized material property databases of fibers, fillers, and core materials used in composite materials. A recommended format for entry of these fields into a computerized database is provided. Examples of the application of this guide are also included. 1.2 The recommended format described in this guide is suggested for use in recording data in a database, which is different from contractural reporting of actual test results. The latter type of information is described in materials specifications shown in business transactions and is subject to agreement between vendor and purchaser. 1.3 The materials covered by this guide include fibers, both continuous and discontinuous, and fillers of various geometries which are used as reinforcements in composite materials, as well as core materials used in sandwich composites. Cores may be foam, honeycomb, or naturally occurring materials such as balsa wood....

  2. Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Bartels, Else M.; Krusager, Peter

    2011-01-01

    .99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. CONCLUSION......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison METHODS...... subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI), median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all questionnaires. RESULTS: ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0...

  3. Computerized training program usage at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzic, D.H.; Reed, W.H.; Lawton, R.K.; Fluehr, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The increased US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) interest in the nuclear power industry training programs resulted in the Omaha Public Power District staff at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station investigating the potential for computerizing their recently accredited training records, student training requirements, and the process of determining student certification status. Additional areas that were desirable were a computerized question data bank with random test generation, maintaining history of question usage, and tracking of the job task analysis process and course objectives. SCI Software's online personnel training information management system (OPTIM) was selected, subsequent to a bid evaluation, to provide these features while operating on the existing corporate IBM mainframe.

  4. Warning systems in a computerized nursing process for Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Couto Carvalho Barra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid study combining technological production and methodological research aiming to establish associations between the data and information that are part of a Computerized Nursing Process according to the ICNP® Version 1.0, indicators of patient safety and quality of care. Based on the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the American Association of Critical Care Nurses for the expansion of warning systems, five warning systems were developed: potential for iatrogenic pneumothorax, potential for care-related infections, potential for suture dehiscence in patients after abdominal or pelvic surgery, potential for loss of vascular access, and potential for endotracheal extubation. The warning systems are a continuous computerized resource of essential situations that promote patient safety and enable the construction of a way to stimulate clinical reasoning and support clinical decision making of nurses in intensive care.

  5. A computerized system for the simultaneous monitoring of place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockwell, N T; Ferguson, D S; Beninger, R J

    1996-02-01

    Place conditioning is one of the most popular behavioral methods for assessing the rewarding properties of various substances. Many substances that are rewarding also influence motor activity. This report describes a computerized system designed to simultaneously monitor both place conditioning and locomotor activity. The system consists of 4 independent conditioning boxes, each equipped with 6 pairs of photosensors connected to an Experiment Controller, an electronic board containing a microprocessor, a programable timer, and 16 K of RAM used to store both instructions and data. The effects of the stimulant (+)-amphetamine were assessed using this system and found to produce a place preference comparable to that obtained from a previously utilized mechanical timer system. The computerized system also demonstrated that amphetamine increased unconditioned activity. There are a number of advantages and broader applications of the new methodology.

  6. Validation and comparison of two computerized methods of obtaining a diet history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landig, J; Erhardt, J G; Bode, J C; Bode, C

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to validate two computerized methods of obtaining a diet history (DH and EBIS). The food consumption of 12 men and eight women was calculated by weighing each food item over a period of 8 days. Thereafter the diet history was taken over this period by using both programs alternatively. The intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates, and 10 further nutrients was evaluated and the percentage difference calculated. In general, the intake of nutrients calculated from the diet history tended to be underestimated by most of the people interviewed. The mean daily intake of the nutrients calculated from the DH program deviates from -34% to +20% (mean SD = 48.1) and -35% to +15% for EBIS (mean SD = 28.1). In conclusion, both computerized methods proved useful for epidemiological studies, but not for the determination of deficiencies in individuals.

  7. Traditional versus computerized presentation and response methods on a structured AAC assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stacy; Vessoyan, Kelli; Duncan, Brent

    2012-06-01

    This pilot investigation compared participants' performance using traditional versus computerized presentation and response methods on a subtest of the Test of Aided-Symbol Performance™ (TASP). Participants were between 6 years and 21 years of age and were using some form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Investigators used a within-subject crossover design, with participants randomly assigned to the administration condition they experienced first. Two months later, participants experienced the second condition. Results showed no significant difference in performance regardless of the administration condition, which supported the investigators' hypothesis. Accepting computerized presentation and response methods for the TASP would allow this measure to be used more broadly and expand the current methods of confidently evaluating options for AAC recommendations.

  8. Clinical Informatics: Recursive Concurrence Intravenous Medication Administration Systems Protocols for Addressing the Potential Problem of Recessive Lethal Autonomy in Smart Infusion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2016-01-01

    Smart Infusion Pumps are vital tools for use in administering a broad range of parenteral/intravenous medications. Safe and effective use of smart infusion pumps depends upon their integration with Pump Servers, Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems, Pharmacy Information Systems, DERS/MERS Dose/Medication Error Reduction Systems( and the digital Drug Libraries that they use), eMARS/electronic Medication Administration Records Systems, etc. More computer systems result in more computer ne...

  9. [Euthanasia: medications and medical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossignol, D

    2008-09-01

    The Belgian law relative to euthanasia has been published in 2002. A physician is allowed to help a patient with intractable suffering (physical or psychological). Legal conditions are clear. However, nothing is said about medical procedures or medications to be used. The present paper will present specific clinical situations at the end of life, practical procedures and medications. A special focus is made on psychological impact of euthanasia.

  10. [Computerization experience in a day hospital of integrated radiochemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, A; Andrulli, A D; Leone, M; Tortoreto, F; Di Julio, L; Gorga, L; Valentini, V; Cellini, N

    1997-09-01

    We report on a cost-effective easy-access software developed for the functional integration of the clinical records and history of oncologic patients with the management of the Day Hospital of the Radiotherapy Department of the University Hospital A. Gemelli, in Rome. The software was designed to archive the clinical records and history of oncologic patients and the relative chemotherapy, to manage the examination scheduling, to draw up nursing files with the planned therapy and to make statistical analyses of the department activity. Five forms are available: the patient form, recording patient data; the admission form, recording the type of therapy (e.g., chemotherapy, tests, medical examinations, etc.), the relative cost and chemotherapy protocol, detailing for instance the type of drug; the nursing file, detailing chemotherapy schedule and the dilution of each drug; the menu, to select and retrieve any record. The minimum configuration requires a 386 Intel CPU, 4 Mb RAM and 4 Mb free on the hard disk. The software is the File Maker Pro 2.1 for Windows which can interact with Apple Macintosh computers. Since October, 1995, we have saved the clinical records of 272 oncologic outpatients (2415 entries in all), with a mean of 201/month. This computer system permitted us to save and retrieve data for both clinical and didactic purposes and to plan our activity. One year after it was implemented and used in clinical practice, the system is a cost-effective and user-friendly tool for the management of the Radiochemotherapy Day Hospital of our Radiotherapy Department.

  11. User’s Guide for COMBIMAN Programs (COMputerized BIomechanical MAN-Model) Version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    accomplishing this has been to build mock-ups and use an undetermined number of "representative" test pilots to evaluate the work environment and...the "representative" pilots depends on the availability of pilots and the whims of the designers. The COMputerized Blomechanical MAN-model (COMBIMAN...de- fined with letter S, is the field of stereovision , which is the field visible to both eyes simultaneously. The field defined with letter F

  12. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  13. Computerized classification of auditory trauma: Results of an investigation on screening employees exposed to noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockhoff, I.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic, computerized method was developed to classify results from a screening of employees exposed to noise, resulting in a fast and effective method of identifying and taking measures against auditory trauma. This technique also satisfies the urgent need for quick discovery of cases which deserve compensation in accordance with the Law on Industrial Accident Insurance. Unfortunately, use of this method increases the burden on the already overloaded investigatory resources of the auditory health care system.

  14. A Computerized Data-Capture System for Animal Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Bente, Dennis A; Friesen, Jeremy; White, Kyle; Koll, Jordan; Gary P Kobinger

    2011-01-01

    The restrictive nature of an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL4) laboratory complicates even simple clinical evaluation including data capture. Typically, clinical data are recorded on paper during procedures, faxed out of the ABSL4, and subsequently manually entered into a computer. This system has many disadvantages including transcriptional errors. Here, we describe the development of a highly customizable, tablet-PC-based computerized data-capture system, allowing reliable collection of obse...

  15. Dental implants in bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space using cone beam computerized tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nizar; Arunachalam, Lalitha Tanjore; Jacob, Caroline Annette; Kumar, Suresh Anand

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of various anatomic landmarks is pivotal for important success. Bifid canals pose a challenge and can lead to difficulties while performing implant surgery in the mandible. Bifid canals can be diagnosed with panoramic radiography and more accurately with cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). This case report details the placement of the implant in a patient with bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space, which was successfully treated using CBCT. PMID:27433073

  16. Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS), A database-driven multidisciplinary design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Bolukbasi, A. O.

    1989-01-01

    The Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS) system under development at McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company (MDHC) is targeted to make revolutionary improvements in both response time and resource efficiency in the conceptual and preliminary design of rotorcraft systems. It makes the accumulated design database and supporting technology analysis results readily available to designers and analysts of technology, systems, and production, and makes powerful design synthesis software available in a user friendly format.

  17. Supporting Patient Care in the Emergency Department with a Computerized Whiteboard System

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Lanaghan, Kevin; Slovis, Corey M.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient information management and communication within the emergency department (ED) is essential to providing timely and high-quality patient care. The ED whiteboard (census board) usually serves as an ED’s central access point for operational and patient-related information. This article describes the design, functionality, and experiences with a computerized ED whiteboard, which has the ability to display relevant operational and patient-related information in real time. Embedded functi...

  18. Analysis of How People with Intellectual Disabilities Organize Information Using Computerized Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Lussier-Desrochers, Dany; Sauzéon, Hélène; Consel, Charles; Roux, Jennie; Balland, Emilie; Godin-Tremblay, Valérie; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Lachapelle, Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Access to residential settings for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) contributes to their social participation, but presents particular challenges. Assistive technologies can help people perform activities of daily living. However, the majority of the computerized solutions offered use guidance modes with a fixed, unchanging sequencing that leaves little room for self-determination to emerge. The objective of the project was to develop a flexible guidance mode...

  19. Computerized Tests of Team Performance and Crew Coordination Suitable for Military/Aviation Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ben D; Britt, Thomas W; Kelley, Amanda M; Athy, Jeremy R; Legan, Shauna M

    2017-08-01

    The coordination of team effort on shared tasks is an area of inquiry. A number of tests of team performance in challenging environments have been developed without comparison or standardization. This article provides a systematic review of the most accessible and usable low-to-medium fidelity computerized tests of team performance and determines which are most applicable to military- and aviation-relevant research, such as studies of group command, control, communication, and crew coordination. A search was conducted to identify computerized measures of team performance. In addition to extensive literature searches (DTIC, Psychinfo, PubMed), the authors reached out to team performance researchers at conferences and through electronic communication. Identified were 57 potential tests according to 6 specific selection criteria (e.g., the requirement for automated collection of team performance and coordination processes, the use of military-relevant scenarios). The following seven tests (listed alphabetically) were considered most suitable for military needs: Agent Enabled Decision Group Environment (AEDGE), C3Conflict, the C3 (Command, Control, & Communications) Interactive Task for Identifying Emerging Situations (NeoCITIES), Distributed Dynamic Decision Making (DDD), Duo Wondrous Original Method Basic Awareness/Airmanship Test (DuoWOMBAT), the Leader Development Simulator (LDS), and the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). Strengths and weaknesses of these tests are described and recommendations offered to help researchers identify the test most suitable for their particular needs. Adoption of a few standard computerized test batteries to study team performance would facilitate the evaluation of interventions intended to enhance group performance in multiple challenging military and aerospace operational environments.Lawson BD, Britt TW, Kelley AM, Athy JR, Legan SM. Computerized tests of team performance and crew coordination suitable for military/aviation settings

  20. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCo...