WorldWideScience

Sample records for computerized nicotine education

  1. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  2. INTEGRATION PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTERIZED MEANS OF EDUCATION INTO THE PROCESS OF TEACHER TRAINING AT PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Important problems of using the computerized means of education in the process of teacher training at pedagogical college are considered. On the basis of the analysis of the organisation of educational process in different pedagogical colleges, the general principles of construction of the educational module “Methodology of computerized means of education in educational process” are considered.

  3. A computerized program to educate adults about environmental health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.; Dewey, J.; Schur, P.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized program called Environmental Risk Appraisal (ERA) has been developed to educate adults about environmental health risks and to motivate positive behavior change. A questionnaire addresses issues such as radon, environmental tobacco smoke, pesticides, lead, air and water pollution, and work-site risks. Responses are computer processed in seconds to produce an individualized computer printout containing a score, educational messages, and phone numbers to call for more information. A variety of audiences including environmental groups, worksites, women's organizations and health professionals were represented in this study of 269 participants. Many respondents indicated they were exposed to important environmental hazards and nearly 40 percent reported they had, or might have had, an environmental related illness at some time. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program is effective as an educational tool in raising awareness of environmental health risks

  4. Computerized bioterrorism education and training for nurses on bioterrorism attack agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Casillas, Adrian; King, Major L; Gresham, Louise; Pierce, Elaine; Farb, Daniel; Wiechmann, Carrie; Weichmann, Carrie

    2010-08-01

    Biological agents have the ability to cause large-scale mass casualties. For this reason, their likely use in future terrorist attacks is a concern for national security. Recent studies show that nurses are ill prepared to deal with agents used in biological warfare. Achieving a goal for bioterrorism preparedness is directly linked to comprehensive education and training that enables first-line responders such as nurses to diagnose infectious agents rapidly. The study evaluated participants' responses to biological agents using a computerized bioterrorism education and training program versus a standard bioterrorism education and training program. Both programs improved participants' ability to complete and solve case studies involving the identification of specific biological agents. Participants in the computerized bioterrorism education and training program were more likely to solve the cases critically without reliance on expert consultants. However, participants in the standard bioterrorism education and training program reduced the use of unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  5. The Effect of Educational Computerized Games on Learning English Spelling among Iranian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeed; Ghayour, Maaedeh

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of educational computerized games on learning English spelling among Iranian children. In doing so, 66 young Iranian English learners with the average age of 9.5, attending the children's branch of Iran Language Institute (ILI), the most well-established state-run language teaching institute in Iran,…

  6. Problems of computerization in the brunch of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolyaka А.Е.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of computer technologies was probed in preschool education. 27 pedagogical workers of child's preschool establishments took part in research. The differentiated approach is rotined in the selection of facilities of physical education of children of preschool age. The basic requirements are selected to the computer programs. Found out disparity between enhanceable demand on the computer programs and their introduction in an educational educate process. Multilevel classification and sequence is set in the selection of mobile games.

  7. BIBLIO: A Computerized Retrieval System for Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. Lee; Edwards, Renee

    1983-01-01

    Describes BIBLIO, a computer program created for the storage and retrieval of articles in the 1970-80 issues of "Communication Education." Tells how articles were coded, method used to retrieve information, and advantages and uses of the system. (PD)

  8. COMPUTERIZATION OF EDUCATION AS A TOOL OF UNIVERSITY TEACHER’S BASIC FUNCTIONS SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Denysenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of education computerization confronts modern educators a number of economic, technical, social, psychological and educational problems that need to be solved. The use of computer technology in educational process opens enormous opportunities for the development of cognitive abilities – from sensory and perceptual to speech and mental forms. In broad dissemination and use of technical aids, optical and acoustic techniques, programmed education, cinema, television, computer, the modern scientists and researchers see one of the main factors to enhance education and upbringing level both at regular and higher education institutions. Unfortunately, the process of the organic combination of technical and pedagogical sciences in terms of theory and practice introducing computer (multimedia teaching aids is not as powerful as expected; and as it has been dictated by the needs of the modern society. The slow pace of computerization’s implementation of the learning process at high school has been caused by the reasons of different nature and scale. The main objective of the article is to highlight the problems of computer teaching aids using in teaching process at higher education institutions. The conducted analysis of studying computerization allowed us determining the impact and role in providing the university teacher’s basic functions. It has been established that the teacher is one of the management leading objects of educational and cognitive students’ activity and all its functions practically may have computer support.

  9. Touch-screen computerized education for patients with brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyk, M; Gaynor, S; Kelly, J; Ott, V

    1998-01-01

    The use of computer technology for patient education has increased in recent years. This article describes a study that measures the attitudes and perceptions of healthcare professionals and laypeople regarding the effectiveness of a multimedia computer, the Brain Injury Resource Center (BIRC), as an educational tool. The study focused on three major themes: (a) usefulness of the information presented, (b) effectiveness of the multimedia touch-screen computer methodology, and (c) the appropriate time for making this resource available. This prospective study, conducted in an acute care medical center, obtained healthcare professionals' evaluations using a written survey and responses from patients with brain injury and their families during interviews. The findings have yielded excellent ratings as to the ease of understanding and usefulness of the BIRC. By using sight, sound, and touch, such a multimedia learning center has the potential to simplify patient and family education.

  10. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine is found in: Chewing tobacco Cigarettes E-cigarettes Liquid nicotine Nicotine gum (Nicorette) Nicotine patches (Habitrol, Nicoderm) Pipe tobacco Some insecticides Tobacco leaves Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  11. Brief psycho-education affects circadian variability in nicotine craving during cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2013-09-01

    Nicotine cravings are a key target of smoking cessation interventions. Cravings demonstrate circadian variation during abstinence, often peaking during the morning and evening hours. Although some research has also shown diurnal variation in the efficacy of nicotine replacement medications, little research has examined how brief psychosocial interventions affect temporal patterns of craving during abstinence. The present study examined the impact of two brief psycho-education interventions on circadian variations in cravings during a 24-h period. 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions. During the first session, participants received (a) mindfulness psycho-education that encouraged acceptance of cravings as a normal, tolerable part of quitting that people should not expect to perfectly control, (b) standard cessation psycho-education, or (c) no psycho-education. Half the sample initiated a cessation attempt the following day. Dependent variables were assessed using ecological momentary assessment (24-h of monitoring, immediately after first lab session) and questionnaires four days later. Partially consistent with hypotheses, both forms of psycho-education were associated with differential diurnal variation in cravings during cessation. Relative to those receiving no psycho-education, standard smoking cessation psycho-education decreased morning cravings. Psycho-education encouraging acceptance of cravings was associated with lower craving in both the morning and evening, albeit only among successfully abstinent smokers. Results demonstrate that brief non-pharmacological interventions can affect circadian craving patterns during smoking cessation. Further investigation of mechanisms of change and of the impact of psycho-education on cessation outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotine Lozenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms ...

  13. The Design and Development of a Computerized Tool Support for Conducting Senior Projects in Software Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yang; Teng, Kao-Chiuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computerized tool support, the Meetings-Flow Project Collaboration System (MFS), for designing, directing and sustaining the collaborative teamwork required in senior projects in software engineering (SE) education. Among many schools' SE curricula, senior projects serve as a capstone course that provides comprehensive…

  14. Computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashov, I.B.

    1985-01-01

    Operating principle is described for the devices of computerized tomography used in medicine for diagnosis of brain diseases. Computerized tomography is considered as a part of computerized diagnosis, as a part of information science. It is shown that computerized tomography is a real existed field of investigations in medicine and industrial production

  15. Banking on Fatherhood: Pilot Studies of a Computerized Educational Tool on Sperm Banking before Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Eric; Martinetti, Paul; Sui, Dawen; Schover, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We conducted pilot studies of the feasibility and efficacy of an interactive, computerized educational tool, Banking on Fatherhood (BOF METHODS Two small randomized trials were conducted, with 20 male cancer patients eligible to bank sperm in Study 1 and 19 oncology fellows or residents in Study 2. In each trial, half of subjects viewed BOF before completing questionnaires, and half viewed it afterwards. Outcome measures included a knowledge test in both trials and a decisional conflict scale in the patient trial. All participants, plus a panel of ten experts, ultimately viewed BOF and completed a form evaluating its usability and value. RESULTS Patients who completed questionnaires after viewing BOF had significantly less decisional conflict about banking sperm than those who had not viewed it(P = 0.0065), but knowledge scores were not significantly different between groups. Physicians who filled out questionnaires after viewing BOF scored significantly higher on the Knowledge Test (P banking. Research with larger groups is needed to validate its effectiveness. PMID:19061198

  16. PADS (Patient Archiving and Documentation System): a computerized patient record with educational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnloser, J H; Pürner, F

    1992-01-01

    Rapid acquisition and analysis of information in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting is essential, even more so the documentation of the decision making process which has vital consequences for the lives of ICU patients. We describe an Ethernet based local area network (LAN) with clinical workstations (Macintosh fx, ci). Our Patient Archiving and Documentation System (PADS) represents a computerized patient record presently used in a university hospitals' ICU. Taking full advantage of the Macintosh based graphical user interface (GUI) our system enables nurses and doctors to perform the following tasks: admission, medical history taking, physical examination, generation of problem lists and follow up notes, access to laboratory data and reports, semiautomatic generation of a discharge summary including full word processor capabilities. Furthermore, the system offers rapid, consistent and complete automatic encoding of diagnoses following the International Classification of Disease (ICD; WHO, [1]). For educational purposes the user can also view disease entities or complications related to the diagnoses she/he encoded. The system has links to other educational programs such as cardiac auscultation. A MEDLINE literature search through a CD-ROM based system can be performed without exiting the system; also, CD-ROM based medical textbooks can be accessed as well. Commercially available Macintosh programs can be integrated in the system without existing the main program thus enabling users to customize their working environment. Additional options include automatic background monitoring of users learning behavior, analyses and graphical display of numerous epidemiological and health care related problems. Furthermore, we are in the process of integrating sound and digital video in our system. This system represents one in a line of modular departmental models which will eventually be integrated to form a decentralized Hospital Information System (HIS).

  17. Insight into nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the epidemic of nicotine addiction in India and other nations is a global public health tragedy of untoward proportions. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Smoking-caused disease is a consequence of exposure to toxins in tobacco smoke and addiction to nicotine is the proximate cause of these diseases. This article focuses on nicotine as a determinant of addiction to tobacco and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine that sustain cigarette smoking. The pharmacologic reasons for nicotine use are an enhancement of mood, either directly or through relief of withdrawal symptoms and augmentation of mental or physical functions. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5A's and 5R's approach and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals play an important role in helping patients to quit tobacco at the community and national levels, to promote tobacco prevention and control nicotine addiction. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care.

  18. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  19. A computerized education module improves patient knowledge and attitudes about appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Mackenzie, Thomas D; Metlay, Joshua P; Camargo, Carlos A; Gonzales, Ralph

    2011-12-01

    Over-use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) increases antimicrobial resistance, treatment costs, and side effects. Patient desire for antibiotics contributes to over-use. To explore whether a point-of-care interactive computerized education module increases patient knowledge and decreases desire for antibiotics. Bilingual (English/Spanish) interactive kiosks were available in 8 emergency departments as part of a multidimensional intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. The symptom-tailored module included assessment of symptoms, knowledge about ARIs (3 items), and desire for antibiotics on a 10-point visual analog scale. Multivariable analysis assessed predictors of change in desire for antibiotics. Of 686 adults with ARI symptoms, 63% initially thought antibiotics might help. The proportion of patients with low (1-3 on the scale) desire for antibiotics increased from 22% pre-module to 49% post-module (pknowledge about antibiotics and ARIs. Learning correlated with changes in personal desire for antibiotics. By reducing desire for antibiotics, point-of-care interactive educational computer technology may help decrease inappropriate use for antibiotics for ARIs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nicotine Addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Rambali AB; Amsterdam JGC van; Wolterink G; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; BMT

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the current knowledge on nicotine dependence, devoting a special chapter to smoking among youths, given that most smoking careers start in adolescence. The transition period, in which youths go from elementary to high school (ages 13-14), showes to be particularly risky for

  1. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Su, Fong-Chin; Kuo, Huan-Ting; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2012-05-09

    Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB) prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6-60 months) were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033) in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005) than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009) than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced significant improvements in grip force modulation (p = 0.020) and

  2. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hsiu-Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. Methods The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6–60 months were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. Results The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033 in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005 than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009 than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced

  3. Computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the design of computerized tomographic X-ray equipment are described which lead to improvements in the mechanical properties, speed and size of scanning areas. The method envisages the body being scanned as a two-dimensional matrix of elements arising from a plurality of concentric rings. The concentric centre need not coincide with the axis of rotation. The procedures for rotation of the X-ray beam and detectors around the patient and for translating the measured information into attenuation coefficients for each matrix element of the body are described in detail. Explicit derivations are given for the mathematical formulae used. (U.K.)

  4. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  5. Adolescents' understanding and use of nicotine in e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Farrelly, Matthew C; Watson, Kimberly A

    2018-07-01

    Nicotine harms adolescent brain development and contributes to addiction. Some adolescents report using nicotine-free e-cigarettes, but the accuracy of their reporting is unclear. We explored adolescents' use of nicotine-free e-cigarettes and understanding of chemicals in e-cigarettes, including nicotine. Using social media, we recruited 1589 US adolescents (aged 15-17) who reported past 30-day use of e-cigarettes in 2016. We assessed perceptions of the nicotine source in e-liquid and whether e-cigarette aerosol is just "water vapor." We explored differences among adolescents who usually used e-cigarettes with nicotine (n = 473) and without nicotine (n = 452). We used weights to calibrate our sample to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Twenty-nine percent usually used e-cigarettes without nicotine, 28% with nicotine, 39% with "both," and 5% were "not sure." Few participants (17% of non-nicotine users vs. 34% of nicotine users, p e-cigarette aerosol was just water vapor were more likely to usually use without nicotine. Older adolescents and current tobacco users were less likely to usually use without nicotine. The adolescents who reported usually using e-cigarettes without nicotine had poorer knowledge of e-cigarettes. This lack of understanding could contribute to inaccurate reporting of nicotine use. Most youth thought the nicotine in e-cigarettes was artificial, potentially indicating a belief that this nicotine is "safer." The US Food & Drug Administration will require nicotine warnings on e-cigarettes in 2018; a complementary educational campaign could address youths' misperceptions about nicotine and other chemicals in e-cigarette aerosol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computerized versus hand-scored health literacy tools: a comparison of Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch-Kincaid in printed patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabeel, Kelsey Leonard; Russomanno, Jennifer; Oelschlegel, Sandy; Tester, Emily; Heidel, Robert Eric

    2018-01-01

    The research compared and contrasted hand-scoring and computerized methods of evaluating the grade level of patient education materials that are distributed at an academic medical center in east Tennessee and sought to determine if these materials adhered to the American Medical Association's (AMA's) recommended reading level of sixth grade. Librarians at an academic medical center located in the heart of Appalachian Tennessee initiated the assessment of 150 of the most used printed patient education materials. Based on the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K) scoring rubric, 2 of the 150 documents were excluded from statistical comparisons due to the absence of text (images only). Researchers assessed the remaining 148 documents using the hand-scored Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) method and the computerized F-K grade level method. For SMOG, 3 independent reviewers hand-scored each of the 150 documents. For F-K, documents were analyzed using Microsoft Word. Reading grade levels scores were entered into a database for statistical analysis. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Paired t -tests were used to compare readability means. Acceptable inter-rater reliability was found for SMOG (ICC=0.95). For the 148 documents assessed, SMOG produced a significantly higher mean reading grade level (M=9.6, SD=1.3) than F-K (M=6.5, SD=1.3; p SMOG method of assessment, 147 of the 148 documents (99.3%) scored above the AMA's recommended reading level of sixth grade. Computerized health literacy assessment tools, used by many national patient education material providers, might not be representative of the actual reading grade levels of patient education materials. This is problematic in regions like Appalachia because materials may not be comprehensible to the area's low-literacy patients. Medical librarians have the potential to advance their role in patient education to better serve their patient populations.

  7. Electronic health record training in undergraduate medical education: bridging theory to practice with curricula for empowering patient- and relationship-centered care in the computerized setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2014-03-01

    While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills.

  8. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  10. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  11. The Effectiveness of Problem-based Learning Approach on Students’ Skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Specifically on Programming Course Using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamad, Hasim Bin; de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Industry has a great need for highly skilled technicians that graduate from Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). In a study started at Aalborg University (AAU) the purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of the (PBL) approach on students’ skills, in particular on programming course...... using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) simulator. The study will use data from the German-Malaysian Institute in Malaysia. The findings of this study will provide a general guideline for educators in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in implementing Problem...

  12. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  13. Nicotine and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ease your withdrawal symptoms. Health experts warn that e-cigarettes are not a replacement therapy for cigarette smoking. ... not known exactly how much nicotine is in e-cigarette cartridges, because information on labels is often wrong.

  14. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  15. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  16. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Waterpipe tobacco products: nicotine labelling versus nicotine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco package labelling typically indicates "0.0% tar" and "0.05% or 0.5% nicotine". To determine the extent to which nicotine labeling is related to nicotine delivery. 110 waterpipe smokers engaged in a 45-minute waterpipe smoking session. Puff topography and plasma nicotine were measured. Three waterpipe tobacco brands were used: Nakhla (0.5% nicotine), Starbuzz (0.05% nicotine), and Al Fakher (0.05% nicotine). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Topography did not differ across brands. Peak plasma nicotine varied significantly across brands. Al Fakher had the highest nicotine delivery (11.4 ng/ml) followed by Nakhla (9.8 ng/ml) and Starbuzz (5.8 ng/ml). Nicotine labelling on waterpipe tobacco products does not reflect delivery; smoking a brand with a "0.05% nicotine" label led to greater plasma nicotine levels than smoking a brand with a "0.5% nicotine" label. Waterpipe tobacco products should be labelled in a manner that does not mislead consumers.

  18. Effects of transdermally administered nicotine on aspects of attention, task load, and mood in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Michael; Wittberger, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    This double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine nicotine effects on diverse types of attentional performance, task load, and mood considering sex effects as suggested by animal studies. Twelve smokers, 12 deprived smokers and 12 nonsmokers (6 females, 6 males in each group) were investigated. Participants were treated either by 5 mg/16 h nicotine patches (Nicorette) or placebo. Effects of treatment were examined by a computerized attention-test battery; mood was assessed by the Berliner-Alltagssprachliches-Stimmungs-Inventar and task load by the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Results showed that nicotine significantly increased the number of hits and decreased reaction time (RT) in the vigilance task. In the selective attention task combined with irrelevant speech as background noise, nicotine enhanced rate of hits. Although it was indicated that nicotine leads to a generally higher accuracy in attention tasks, response time of visual search was prolonged, contradicting a universal facilitation by nicotine. Participants experienced mental demand and temporal demand lower and rated alertness higher when in the nicotine condition. These effects were independent of smoking status, indicating "true" nicotine effects. Females took significant advantage of nicotine in the vigilance task, reaching the performance level of males, accompanied by a higher rated alertness. Results indicate task- and sex-dependent nicotine effects.

  19. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  20. The cost of developing a computerized tailored interactive multimedia intervention vs. a print based Photonovella intervention for HPV vaccine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Siddharth S; Lairson, David R; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Mobile technology is opening new avenues for healthcare providers to create and implement tailored and personalized health education programs. We estimate and compare the cost of developing an i-Pad based tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) and a print based (Photonovella) intervention to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization. The development costs of the interventions were calculated using a societal perspective. Direct cost included the cost of planning the study, conducting focus groups, and developing the intervention materials by the research staff. Costs also included the amount paid to the vendors who produced the TIMI and Photonovella. Micro cost data on the staff time and materials were recorded in logs for tracking personnel time, meeting time, supplies and software purchases. The costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2015 USD. The total cost of developing the Photonovella was $66,468 and the cost of developing the TIMI was $135,978. The amortized annual cost for the interventions calculated at a 3% discount rate and over a 7-year period was $10,669 per year for the Photonovella and $21,825 per year for the TIMI intervention. The results would inform decision makers when planning and investing in the development of interactive multimedia health interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  2. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  3. Celebral computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofteroed, B.; Sortland, O.

    1985-01-01

    Indications for cerebral computerized tomography (CT) and the diagnostic results from this examination are evaluated in 127 children. Pathological changes were found in 31 children, mostly based on such indications as increasing head size, suspicion of brain tumor, cerebral paresis, delayed psychomotor development and epileptic seizures. A list of indications for CT in children is given

  4. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  5. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  6. Computerized industrial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Computerized Tomographic (CT) has been used for a number of applications in the field of medicine and industry. For the last couple of years, the technique has been applied for the material characterization and detection of defects and flaws inside the industrial components of nuclear, aerospace and missile industries. A CT scanner of first generation was developed at the institute. The scanner has been used to demonstrate couple of applications of CT in the field of non destructive testing of materials. The data acquired by placing the test objects at various angles and scanning the object through a source detector assembly has been processed on a Pentium computer for image reconstruction using a filtered back projection method. The technique has been developed which can be modified and improved to study various other applications in materials science and a modern computerized tomographic facility can be established. (author)

  7. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  8. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  9. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  10. Computerized plant maintenance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozusko, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the computer has and continues to have a great impact on industry. We are in an adjustment cycle with the current computer evolution, and will need to adapt to make the changes for the coming decade. Hardware and software are continually being enhanced. Computers are becoming more powerful and will eventually provide an effective man-machine interface. This paper shares experiences encountered during implementations of computerized maintenance systems

  11. Computerized medical convocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Annie; Gilbert, Jean-Francois; Chiadot, Pierre; Vanzetto, Rene; Darnault, Jean

    1969-06-01

    Thanks to a close collaboration between the Medical and Social department and the Numerical Calculation Laboratory, a computerized convocation system has been implemented to reduce the administrative workload and to introduce more rigor in medical management, patient historical background and statistics. This work comprises: - a preliminary study of the data generating medical convocations and the related practical requirements; - the programming work according to these data; - the realisation of the mechano-graphical file covering the overall personnel [fr

  12. Nicotine Vapor Method to Induce Nicotine Dependence in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallupi, Marsida; George, Olivier

    2017-07-05

    Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke. The device is designed to be an alternative to conventional cigarettes that emits vaporized nicotine inhaled by the user. This report describes a procedure to vaporize nicotine in the air to produce blood nicotine levels in rodents that are clinically relevant to those that are observed in humans and produce dependence. We also describe how to construct the apparatus to deliver nicotine vapor in a stable, reliable, and consistent manner, as well as how to analyze air for nicotine content. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  14. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  15. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  16. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  18. Computerized procedures system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  19. Computerized spleen volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Mohring, R.; Schertel, L.

    1981-01-01

    We examined in experimental studies and clinical investigations on 34 patients in how far volumetry of the spleen can be carried out with a commonly available program, a whole-body computerized tomograph (SOMATOM) and an analytic equipment (EVALUSKOP). In this connection the authors tried to find also other ways of spleen volumetry by means of this unit combination. Our final result was that the given program for the usage of labelled areas presents itself as the best-suited technique for spleen volumetry which is also applicable in practice. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  1. Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Smokers: Impact of Nicotine Metabolism on Nicotine Dose Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul; Ghahremani, Dara G; Tyndale, Rachel F; Cox, Chelsea M; Kazanjian, Ari S; Paterson, Neil; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Petersen, Nicole; Vigil, Celia; London, Edythe D

    2017-07-01

    The use of cigarettes delivering different nicotine doses allows evaluation of the contribution of nicotine to the smoking experience. We compared responses of 46 young adult smokers to research cigarettes, delivering 0.027, 0.110, 0.231, or 0.763 mg nicotine, and conventional cigarettes. On five separate days, craving, withdrawal, affect, and sustained attention were measured after overnight abstinence and again after smoking. Participants also rated each cigarette, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was used to identify participants as normal or slow metabolizers. All cigarettes equally alleviated craving, withdrawal, and negative affect in the whole sample, but normal metabolizers reported greater reductions of craving and withdrawal than slow metabolizers, with dose-dependent effects. Only conventional cigarettes and, to a lesser degree, 0.763-mg nicotine research cigarettes increased sustained attention. Finally, there were no differences between ratings of lower-dose cigarettes, but the 0.763-mg cigarettes and (even more so) conventional cigarettes were rated more favorably than lower-dose cigarettes. The findings indicate that smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal reflects primarily non-nicotine effects in slow metabolizers, but depends on nicotine dose in normal metabolizers. By contrast, relief of withdrawal-related attentional deficits and cigarette ratings depend on nicotine dose regardless of metabolizer status. These findings have bearing on the use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes to facilitate smoking cessation and on policy regarding regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. They suggest that normal and slow nicotine metabolizers would respond differently to nicotine reduction in cigarettes, but that irrespective of metabolizer status, reductions to <0.763 mg/cigarette may contribute to temporary attentional deficits.

  2. Computerized tomographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbarsen, R.; Barrett, D.M.; Garrott, P.M.; Foley, L.E.; Redington, R.W.; Lambert, T.W.; Edelheit, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized tomographic system for examining human breasts is described in detail. Conventional X-ray scanning apparatus has difficulty in achieving the levels of image definition and examination speeds required for mass screening. A novel method of scanning successive layers of the breast with a rotating X-ray beam is discussed and details of the control circuitry and sequence steps are given. The method involves immersing the breast in an inner fluid (e.g. water) filled container which is stationary during an examination and is surrounded by a large outer container which is also filled with the fluid; the inner and outer containers are always maintained at a constant height and the X-ray absorption across the fan-shaped beam is as close as possible to constant. (U.K.)

  3. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  4. Computerized tomography in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellerich, I.; Mueller, D.; Koch, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Besides clinical symptoms, progress and electromyography computerized tomography improves the diagnostics of myotonic dystrophy. Even small changes in muscular structure are detectable and especially the musculus soleus exhibits early and pronounced alterations. By means of density distribution pattern an improved characterization of the disease is possible. Additional information is obtained by cerebral computerized tomography. Atrophy of brain tissue is to be expected in all patients with myotonic dystrophy. (author)

  5. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  6. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  7. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  8. Computerized data treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Maddox, J.H.; Wren, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has accepted responsibility for a hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance in 25 eastern states as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). SRL has developed a computerized program for recording, processing, updating, retrieving, and analyzing hydrogeochemical data from this reconnaissance. This program will handle an expected 150 million bytes of hydrogeochemical data from 150,000 to 200,000 sample sites over the next four years. The SRL--NURE hydrogeochemical data management system is written in FORTRAN IV for an IBM System 360/195 computer and is designed to easily accommodate changes in types of collected data and input format. As the data become available, they are accepted and combined with relevant data already in the system. SRL also developed a sample inventory and control system and a graphics and analysis system. The sample inventory and control system accounts for the movements of all samples and forms from initial receipt through final storage. Approximately six million sample movements are expected. The graphics and analysis system provides easily usable programs for reporting and interpreting data. Because of the large volume of data to be interpreted, the graphics and analysis system plays a central role in the hydrogeochemical program. Programs developed to provide two- and three-dimensional plots of sampled geographic areas show concentrations and locations of individual variables which are displayed and reproduced photographically. Pattern recognition techniques are also available, and they allow multivariate data to be categorized into ''clusters,'' which may indicate sites favorable for uranium exploration

  9. Extended nicotine self-administration increases sensitivity to nicotine, motivation to seek nicotine and the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Kelly J; Lay, Belinda P P; Holmes, Nathan M

    2017-03-01

    An array of pharmacological and environmental factors influence the development and maintenance of tobacco addiction. The nature of these influences likely changes across the course of an extended smoking history, during which time drug seeking can become involuntary and uncontrolled. The present study used an animal model to examine the factors that drive nicotine-seeking behavior after either brief (10 days) or extended (40 days) self-administration training. In Experiment 1, extended training increased rats' sensitivity to nicotine, indicated by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve, and their motivation to work for nicotine, indicated by an increase in the break point achieved under a progressive ratio schedule. In Experiment 2, extended training imbued the nicotine-paired cue with the capacity to maintain responding to the same high level as nicotine itself. However, Experiment 3 showed that the mechanisms involved in responding for nicotine or a nicotine-paired cue are dissociable, as treatment with the partial nicotine receptor agonist, varenicline, suppressed responding for nicotine but potentiated responding for the nicotine-paired cue. Hence, across extended nicotine self-administration, pharmacological and environmental influences over nicotine seeking increase such that nicotine seeking is controlled by multiple sources, and therefore highly resistant to change. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a relapsing disorder that constitutes a substantial worldwide health problem, with evidence suggesting that nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli play divergent roles in maintaining smoking behavior in men and women. While animal models of tobacco addiction that utilize nicotine self-administration have become more widely established, systematic examination of the multiple factors that instigate relapse to nicotine-seeking have been limited. Here, we examined nicotine self-administration and subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using an animal model of self-administration and relapse. Rats lever pressed for nicotine (0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg/infusion, IV) during 15 daily 2-h sessions, followed by extinction of lever responding. Once responding was extinguished, we examined the ability of previously nicotine-paired cues (tone+light), the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (2.5mg/kg, IP), a priming injection of nicotine (0.3mg/kg, SC), or combinations of drug+cues to reinstate nicotine-seeking. Both males and females readily acquired nicotine self-administration and displayed comparable levels of responding and intake at both nicotine doses. Following extinction, exposure to the previously nicotine-paired cues or yohimbine, but not the nicotine-prime alone, reinstated nicotine-seeking in males and females. Moreover, when combined with nicotine-paired cues, both yohimbine and nicotine enhanced reinstatement. No significant sex differences or estrous cycle dependent changes were noted across reinstatement tests. These results demonstrate the ability to reinstate nicotine-seeking with multiple modalities and that exposure to nicotine-associated cues during periods of a stressful state or nicotine can increase nicotine-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  12. Technologies in computerized lexicography | Kruyt | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the topic of this paper is technology, focus is on functional rather than technical aspects of computerized lexicography. Keywords: computerized lexicography, electronic dictionary, electronic text corpus, lexicographer's workbench, integrated language database, automatic linguistic analysis, information retrieval, ...

  13. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  14. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  15. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  16. Computerized adaptive testing in computer assisted learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Matteucci, Mariagiulia; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; De Wannemacker, Stefan; Clarebout, Geraldine; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A major goal in computerized learning systems is to optimize learning, while in computerized adaptive tests (CAT) efficient measurement of the proficiency of students is the main focus. There seems to be a common interest to integrate computerized adaptive item selection in learning systems and

  17. Computerized radiology instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.E.; Drake, D.G.; Day, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The storage and display capabilities of a teleradiology system are used in an educational setting to allow the student (radiologist, resident, or medical student) to interactively respond to questions regarding a series of displayed images (radiographs, CT and US scans, and so forth). The computer prompts the respondent for the correct response, and both correct and incorrect responses are made known to the user. The immediate feedback to the user is a key to the student's acceptance of this form of teaching

  18. A Project to Computerize Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Measures in Occupational Education for Research and Determination of Applicability to Handicapped Learners. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Connie W.; Hinson, Tony M.

    This publication is the final report of a 21-month project designed to (1) expand and refine the computer capabilities of the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) to ensure rapid data access for generating routine and special occupational data-based reports; (2) develop and implement a computer storage and retrieval system…

  19. Chronic Nicotine Treatment During Adolescence Attenuates the Effects of Acute Nicotine in Adult Contextual Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica D; Gould, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood. C57BL/6J mice received saline or chronic nicotine (12.6mg/kg/day) during adolescence (postnatal day 38) or adulthood (postnatal day 54) for a period of 12 days. Following a 30-day protracted abstinence, mice received either an acute injection of saline or nicotine (0.045, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to training and testing a mouse model of contextual fear. It was found that chronic nicotine administration in adult mice did not alter sensitivity to acute nicotine following a protracted abstinence. In adolescent mice, chronic nicotine administration disrupted adult learning and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine in adulthood as only the highest dose tested (0.36mg/kg) was able to enhance contextual fear learning. These results suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure impairs learning in adulthood, which could increase the risk for continued nicotine use in adulthood by requiring administration of higher doses of nicotine to reverse learning impairments caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. Results from this study add to the growing body of literature suggesting chronic nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to impaired learning in adulthood and demonstrates that nicotine exposure during adolescence attenuates the cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine in adulthood, which suggests altered cholinergic function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  20. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  1. Computerization of the process of physical education in shaping physical fitness of students. [Informatizaciia processa fizicheskogo vospitaniia v formirovanii zdorovogo obraza zhizni studentov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futornyі S.М.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the direction of the informatization process of modern society. It is recognized that in the perspective of higher education need to dominate the information components. It is shown that the education system should provide the necessary knowledge about the new information society and the environment to form a new outlook. Established that students do not have enough information about the importance of a healthy lifestylethe role of physical activity to enhance physical health.It is noted that the students' lack of basic skills for self-monitoring their physical condition. Stress that the system of values, motivations, habits,purposeful behavior of the individual become the core of the implementation of social ideology in the formation of a healthy lifestyle. Encouraged to disseminate knowledge among students about the possibilities of using information technology as well as manipulation and saving health.

  2. Smoking, nicotine and the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Pramod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Terwijl roken schadelijk is voor de nieren, lijkt nicotine juist een beschermend effect op deze organen te hebben. Matige alcoholconsumptie lijkt positieve effecten te hebben na niertransplantatie: het vermindert het risico op overlijden en het ontstaan van diabetes. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van

  3. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  5. Computerized ECT data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Y.; Fukui, S.; Iwahashi, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Koyama, K.

    1988-01-01

    For the analytical method of the eddy current testing (ECT) of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants, the authors have developed the computerized ECT data analysis system using a large-scale computer with a high-resolution color graphic display. This system can store acquired ECT data up to 15 steam generators, and ECT data can be analyzed immediately on the monitor in dialogue communication with a computer. Analyzed results of ECT data are stored and registered in the data base. This system enables an analyst to perform sorting and collecting of data under various conditions and obtain the results automatically, and also to make a plan of tube repair works. This system has completed the test run, and has been used for data analysis at the annual inspection of domestic plants. This paper describes an outline, features and examples of the computerized eddy current data analysis system for steam generator tubes in PWR nuclear power plants

  6. Quantitative inspection by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Assis, J.T. de; Jesus, E.F.O. de

    1989-01-01

    The computerized Tomography (CT) is a method of nondestructive testing, that furnish quantitative information, that permit the detection and accurate localization of defects, internal dimension measurement, and, measurement and chart of the density distribution. The CT technology is much versatile, not presenting restriction in relation to form, size or composition of the object. A tomographic system, projected and constructed in our laboratory is presented. The applications and limitation of this system, illustrated by tomographyc images, are shown. (V.R.B.)

  7. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ''Kurchatov Institute'' Russian Research Center (''KI'' RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC

  8. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4. These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4, CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  9. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.; Van Laethem, Danny M. G.; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual F...

  10. E-Cigarette Users' Attitudes on the Banning of Sales of Nicotine E-Liquid, Its Implication on E-Cigarette Use Behaviours and Alternative Sources of Nicotine E-Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Agha Mohammadi, Nasrin; Ghadimi, Azadeh; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2017-12-01

    -cigarette shops resulted in a boom in the black market supplying nicotine e-liquid and, self- or home-made nicotine e-liquid. Enforcing regulations and monitoring black market sales is warranted. Efforts to educate e-cigarette users of the danger of sourcing nicotine e-liquid from the black market and self- or home-made nicotine e-liquid are essential.

  11. Nicotine Impairs Macrophage Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Stitzel, Jerry A; Bai, An; Zambrano, Cristian A; Phillips, Matthew; Marrack, Philippa; Chan, Edward D

    2017-09-01

    Pure nicotine impairs macrophage killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but it is not known whether the nicotine component in cigarette smoke (CS) plays a role. Moreover, the mechanisms by which nicotine impairs macrophage immunity against MTB have not been explored. To neutralize the effects of nicotine in CS extract, we used a competitive inhibitor to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mecamylamine-as well as macrophages derived from mice with genetic disruption of specific subunits of nAChR. We also determined whether nicotine impaired macrophage autophagy and whether nicotine-exposed T regulatory cells (Tregs) could subvert macrophage anti-MTB immunity. Mecamylamine reduced the CS extract increase in MTB burden by 43%. CS extract increase in MTB was also significantly attenuated in macrophages from mice with genetic disruption of either the α7, β2, or β4 subunit of nAChR. Nicotine inhibited autophagosome formation in MTB-infected THP-1 cells and primary murine alveolar macrophages, as well as increased the intracellular MTB burden. Nicotine increased migration of THP-1 cells, consistent with the increased number of macrophages found in the lungs of smokers. Nicotine induced Tregs to produce transforming growth factor-β. Naive mouse macrophages co-cultured with nicotine-exposed Tregs had significantly greater numbers of viable MTB recovered with increased IL-10 production and urea production, but no difference in secreted nitric oxide as compared with macrophages cocultured with unexposed Tregs. We conclude that nicotine in CS plays an important role in subverting macrophage control of MTB infection.

  12. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.; Rose, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of [ 3 H]nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM [ 14 C]nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of 14 C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo

  13. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  14. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; St Helen, Gideon; Delucchi, Kevin; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-06-01

    African American (AA) smokers experience greater tobacco-related disease burden than Whites, despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD). Understanding factors that influence daily nicotine intake in AA smokers is an important step toward decreasing tobacco-related health disparities. One factor of interest is smoking topography, or the study of puffing behavior. (i) to create a model using puff characteristics, nicotine dependence, and nicotine metabolism to predict daily nicotine exposure, and (ii) to compare puff characteristics and nicotine intake from two cigarettes smoked at different times to ensure the reliability of the puff characteristics included in our model. Sixty AA smokers smoked their preferred brand of cigarette at two time points through a topography device. Plasma nicotine, expired CO, and changes in subjective measures were measured before and after each cigarette. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) was measured from 24-hour urine collected during ad libitum smoking. In a model predicting daily nicotine exposure, total puff volume, CPD, sex, and menthol status were significant predictors (R(2) = 0.44, P smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 936-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

  16. Computerized index for teaching files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramble, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized index can be used to retrieve cases from a teaching file that have radiographic findings similar to an unknown case. The probability that a user will review cases with a correct diagnosis was estimated with use of radiographic findings of arthritis in hand radiographs of 110 cases from a teaching file. The nearest-neighbor classification algorithm was used as a computer index to 110 cases of arthritis. Each case was treated as an unknown and inputted to the computer index. The accuracy of the computer index in retrieving cases with the same diagnosis (including rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory osteoarthritis, and pyrophosphate arthropathy) was measured. A Bayes classifier algorithm was also tested on the same database. Results are presented. The nearest-neighbor algorithm was 83%. By comparison, the estimated accuracy of the Bayes classifier algorithm was 78%. Conclusions: A computerized index to a teaching file based on the nearest-neighbor algorithm should allow the user to review cases with the correct diagnosis of an unknown case, by entering the findings of the unknown case

  17. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  18. Nicotine response and nicotinic receptors in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C M; Medhurst, L J; Collins, A C

    1987-01-01

    Nicotine response and nicotinic receptor binding were characterized in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice which have been selectively bred for differential "sleep-time" following ethanol administration. LS mice are more sensitive than SS mice to nicotine as measured by a battery of behavioral and physiological tests and as measured by sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures. The greater sensitivity of the LS mice is not due to differences in binding of [3H]nicotine. Unlike inbred mouse strains which differ in sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures, these selected mouse lines do not differ in levels of binding of [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) in the hippocampus. Significant differences in BTX binding were found in the cerebellum and striatum. Although these two mouse lines do not differ in blood levels of nicotine following nicotine administration, they differ slightly in brain levels of nicotine indicating differential distribution of the drug. Since this distribution difference is much smaller than the observed behavioral differences, these mice probably differ in CNS sensitivity to nicotine; however, follow-up studies are necessary to test whether the differential response of these mice is due to subtle differences in distribution of nicotine to the brain.

  19. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  20. Acute effects of nicotine amplify accumbal neural responses during nicotine-taking behavior and nicotine-paired environmental cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Guillem

    Full Text Available Nicotine self-administration (SA is maintained by several variables, including the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues and the nicotine-induced amplification of those cue properties. The nucleus accumbens (NAc is implicated in mediating the influence of these variables, though the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer nicotine. During SA sessions each press of a lever was followed by an intravenous infusion of nicotine (30 µg/kg paired with a combined light-tone cue. Extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity showed that 20% of neurons exhibited a phasic change in firing during the nicotine-directed operant, the light-tone cue, or both. The phasic change in firing for 98% of neurons was an increase. Sixty-two percent of NAc neurons additionally or alternatively showed a sustained decrease in average firing during the SA session relative to a presession baseline period. These session decreases in firing were significantly less prevalent in a group of neurons that were activated during either the operant or the cue than in a group of neurons that were nonresponsive during those events (referred to as task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons, respectively. Moreover, the session decrease in firing was dose-dependent for only the task-nonactivated neurons. The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1 excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2 a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAc role in nicotine-induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

  1. Effects of nicotine and nicotine expectancy on attentional bias for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine's effects on mood are thought to enhance its addictive potential. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on affect regulation have not been reliably demonstrated in human laboratory studies. We investigated the effects of nicotine abstinence (Experiment 1), and nicotine challenge and expectancy (Experiment 2) on attentional bias towards facial emotional stimuli differing in emotional valence. In Experiment 1, 46 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to either continue to abstain from smoking or to smoke immediately before testing. In Experiment 2, 96 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to smoke a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and to be told that the cigarette did or did not contain nicotine. In both experiments participants completed a visual probe task, where positively valenced (happy) and negatively valenced (sad) facial expressions were presented, together with neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location and abstinence on reaction time, indicating that abstinent smokers showed an attentional bias for neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location, nicotine challenge and expectation on reaction time, indicating that smokers receiving nicotine, but told that they did not receive nicotine, showed an attentional bias for emotional stimuli. Our data suggest that nicotine abstinence appears to disrupt attentional bias towards emotional facial stimuli. These data provide support for nicotine's modulation of attentional bias as a central mechanism for maintaining affect regulation in cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  3. Measurement of nicotine in household dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungroul; Aung, Ther; Berkeley, Emily; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure

  4. Influence of Methionine Supplementation on Nicotine Teratogenicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human and animal studies have shown that maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy adversely affects pre and postnatal growth and increases the risk of fetal mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of nicotine and protective effect of methionine on the toxic effects of nicotine. Pregnant ...

  5. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN CIGARETTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    determination of nicotine in two brands of commercial cigarettes and ... to disruption of arteries and cardiovascular risk factors [8, 9]. Smoking .... e d. Figure 2. Cyclic voltammetric response (scan rate of 100 mV/s) of 1.0 mM nicotine at AGCE in.

  6. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might...... and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome......This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  7. Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garshick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3, but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3. It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM.

  8. Alcohol's actions on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tiffany J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that alcoholism and tobacco addiction often co-occur, relatively little information is available on the biological factors that regulate the co-use and abuse of nicotine and alcohol. In the brain, nicotine acts at several different types of receptors collectively known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Alcohol also acts on at least some of these receptors, enhancing the function of some nAChR subtypes and inhibiting the activity of others. Chronic alcohol and nicotine administration also lead to changes in the numbers of nAChRs. Natural variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the genes encoding different nAChR subunits may be associated with individual differences in the sensitivity to some of alcohol's and nicotine's effects. Finally, at least one subtype of nAChR may help protect cells against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

  9. Prevalence of Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) to Vape Recreational Drugs by Club Patrons in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtle, Natalie; Abouchedid, Rachelle; Archer, John R H; Ho, James; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2017-03-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, often called e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that heat nicotine into vapour that is inhaled, a process called 'vaping'. Use eclipsed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) in 2014 but ENDS role in smoking cessation remains controversial. Safety has not been proven and there have been reports to US poison centres regarding potential ENDS-related nicotine toxicity. A further concern is use of ENDS to vape recreational drugs, but there is limited data to substantiate this. The aim of this study was to report on ENDS use to vape recreational drugs in patrons of a South London nightclub where high prevalence of recreational drug use has previously been shown. A convenience sample of 101 participants was surveyed in March 2015 as part of a larger survey on drug use. Individuals were asked if they used ENDS to vape nicotine and/or other substances (and if so which substances). Ninety (89.1 %) of respondents were male with median age of 28 years (IQR 23-34). Eighty (79.2 %) currently smoked cigarettes; 20 (19.8 %) currently used ENDS for nicotine. Six (5.9 %) reported using ENDS to take other substances: 2 for 'liquid cannabis' and 4 did not elaborate on the substance(s) used. Of these 6, 3 were using ENDS to vape nicotine and 3 had never used them for nicotine. 5.9 % of individuals in this sample reported using ENDS to vape substances other than nicotine. Further work is required in larger populations to determine how common this is, evaluate which agents are being vaped and to inform appropriate public education.

  10. Chinese computerized nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qichang; Cai Dunjiu

    1996-01-01

    The Second Version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (CENDL-2) includes the complete neutron nuclear data sets of 54 important elements and isotopes used for nuclear science and engineering with the incident neutron energy from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, the international universal format ENDF/B-6 was adopted. Now, the Chinese Computerized nuclear data library has been developed and put into operation. That is, the users can make on-line use of the main data libraries for evaluated neutron reaction data in the world of EXFOR experimental nuclear data library on the terminal of computer via the perfect computer software system, carry out directly the nuclear engineering calculation or nuclear data evaluation, enjoy the use of the resource of our nuclear data libraries for their development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology applications

  11. Computerized evaluation of flood impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, J.; Quach, T.T.; Marche, C.; Lessard, G.

    1998-01-01

    A computerized evaluation process for assessing the economic impacts of a potential dam failure is described. The DOMINO software, which was developed by Hydro-Quebec, takes into account flow data from dam break simulations of floods, the territory involved, plus the economic evaluations of the real estate and infrastructures affected. Some examples of software applications and impact evaluations are presented. The principal elements involved in estimating economic or other types of impacts induced by natural flooding or dam failure, are: (1) flow forecasting, (2) defining the contour of the involved territory, and (3) accounting for the various impacts identified in the affected zone. Owing to its wide range of functions and utilities, DOMINO has proven to be a very useful, user-friendly and portable decision-making tool. 5 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Nicotine concentration of e-cigarettes used by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-10-01

    E-cigarettes are popular among youth, but little is known about the nicotine concentrations of e-liquids used by adolescents. In Spring, 2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four Connecticut high schools and two middle schools. Among past-30-day e-cigarette users (n=513, 45% female, mean age 15.9 [SD=1.4]), we examined what nicotine concentration adolescents typically used in their e-cigarettes (range 0-30mg/mL and "I don't know"). We first examined whether age, sex, smoking status, e-cigarette use frequency, and/or e-cigarette acquisition source were associated with using nicotine-free e-liquid, nicotine e-liquid, or not knowing the e-liquid nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users (n=185), we then examined whether the aforementioned variables were associated with using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using nicotine-free e-liquid (28.5%), nicotine e-liquid (37.4%), or not knowing their e-liquid nicotine concentration (34.1%). Nicotine users comprised more smokers and heavier e-cigarette users compared to nicotine-free e-liquid users and those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Nicotine users also comprised more males and were more likely to purchase e-cigarettes online or from tobacco shops compared to those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users, cigarette smoking, male sex, and purchasing e-cigarettes from tobacco shops predicted using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using e-liquids with variable nicotine concentrations. Smokers, males, and those who purchased their own e-cigarettes reported using the highest nicotine levels. Of concern, many adolescents were unaware of the nicotine concentration in their e-liquid, raising concerns about inadvertent nicotine exposure among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphisms exhibit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking behavior is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Nicotine is the major addictive substance in cigarettes. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. One of the genes, α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...

  14. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  15. Preliminary results of an examination of electronic cigarette user puff topography: the effect of a mouthpiece-based topography measurement device on plasma nicotine and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) heat a nicotine-containing solution; the resulting aerosol is inhaled by the user. Nicotine delivery may be affected by users' puffing behavior (puff topography), and little is known about the puff topography of ECIG users. Puff topography can be measured using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. However, the extent to which a mouthpiece influences nicotine delivery and subjective effects in ECIG users is unknown. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were measured in 13 experienced ECIG users who used their preferred ECIG and liquid (≥ 12 mg/ml nicotine) during 2 sessions (with or without a mouthpiece). In both sessions, participants completed an ECIG use session in which they were instructed to take 10 puffs with 30-second inter-puff intervals. Puff topography was recorded in the mouthpiece condition. Almost all measures of the effects of ECIG use were independent of topography measurement. Collapsed across session, mean plasma nicotine concentration increased by 16.8 ng/ml, and mean heart rate increased by 8.5 bpm (ps topography measurement equipment, ECIG-using participants took larger and longer puffs with lower flow rates. In experienced ECIG users, measuring ECIG topography did not influence ECIG-associated nicotine delivery or most measures of withdrawal suppression. Topography measurement systems will need to account for the low flow rates observed for ECIG users. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Computerized medical record: deontology and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, F A; Dusserre, L

    1996-02-01

    Computerization of medical records is making headway for patients' follow-up, scientific research, and health expenses control, but it must not alter the guarantees provided to the patients by the medical code of ethics and the law of January 6, 1978. This law, modified on July 1, 1994, requires to register all computerized records of personal data and establishes rights to protect privacy against computer misdemeanor. All medical practitioners using computerized medical records must be aware that the infringement of this law may provoke suing in professional, civil or criminal court.

  17. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    PRDC TR 84-33 \\Q.�d-33- \\ MICROCOMPUTER NETWOJlt FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) Baldwin Quan Thomas A . Park Gary Sandahl John H...ACCEIIION NO NPRDC TR 84-33 4. TITLE (-d Sul>tlllo) MICROCOMP UTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADA PTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) 1. Q B. uan T. A . Park...adaptive testing ( CAT ) Bayesian sequential testing 20. ABSTitACT (Continuo on ro•••• aide II noco .. _, _., ld-tlly ,.,. t.loclt _._.) DO Computerized

  18. Nicotine Reduction Revisited: Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; LeSage, Mark G.; Ashley, David L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Backinger, Cathy; Zeller, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009 giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.[1-2] Both regulatory approaches allow establishing product standards for tobacco constituents, including nicotine. The FSPTCA does not allow nicotine levels to be decreased to zero, although FDA has the authority to reduce nicotine yields to very low, presumably non-addicting levels. The proposal to reduce levels of nicotine to a level that is non-addicting was originally suggested in 1994.[3] Reduction of nicotine in tobacco products could potentially have a profound impact on reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. To examine this issue, two meetings were convened in the United States with non-tobacco-industry scientists of varied disciplines, tobacco control policy-makers and representatives of government agencies. This article provides an overview of the current science in the area of reduced nicotine content cigarettes and key conclusions and recommendations for research and policy that emerged from the deliberations of the meeting members. PMID:20876072

  19. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non......-smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine....... The disappearance rate of nicotine increased significantly as the pH increased, which resulted in P(app) values of 0.57+/-0.55 x 10(-4), 2.10+/-0.23 x 10(-4), and 3.96+/-0.54 x 10(-4)cms(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.993) was obtained between the P...

  20. Bioelectronic sniffer for nicotine using enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsubayashi, Kohji; Nakayama, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Midori; Saito, Hirokazu; Otsuka, Kimio; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-28

    A novel bioelectronic sniffer for nicotine in the gas phase was developed with enzyme inhibition principle to butyrylcholinesterase activity. The bioelectronic devices for nicotine in the gas and liquid phases were constructed using a Clark-type dissolved oxygen electrode and a membrane immobilized butyrylcholinesterase and choline oxidase. After the assessment of the sensor performances to choline and butyrylcholine as pre-examinations, the characteristics of the biosensor and bio-sniffer for nicotine were evaluated in the liquid and gas phases, respectively. The sensor signal of the bio-devices with 300 micromol l(-1) of butyrylcholine decreased quickly following application of nicotine and reached to the steady-state current, thus relating the concentration of nicotine in the liquid and gas phases. The biosensor was used to measure nicotine solution from 10 to 300 micromol l(-1). In the gas-phase experiment, the current signal of the bio-sniffer was also found to be linearly to the nicotine concentration over the range of 10.0-1000 ppb including 75.0 ppb as threshold limit value (TLV) by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  1. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  2. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  3. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  4. Human Reliability Analysis For Computerized Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Gertman, David I.; Le Blanc, Katya

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  5. Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen Lissak

    2005-01-01

    ... and prognosis of breast cancer. The research involves investigation of automatic methods for image artifacts correction, tumor segmentation, and extraction of computerized features that help distinguish between benign and malignant lesions...

  6. Anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography and (111)In-capromab pendetide single photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography for recurrent prostate carcinoma: results of a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M; Nieh, Peter T; Jani, Ashesh B; Amzat, Rianot; Bowman, F Dubois; Halkar, Raghuveer K; Master, Viraj A; Nye, Jonathon A; Odewole, Oluwaseun A; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Alaei-Taleghani, Pooneh; Goodman, Mark M

    2014-05-01

    photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography for prostate carcinoma recurrence. The former method detected significantly more prostatic and extraprostatic disease. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  8. Computerized automated remote inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated inspection system utilizes a computer to control the location of the ultrasonic transducer, the actual inspection process, the display of the data, and the storage of the data on IBM magnetic tape. This automated inspection equipment provides two major advantages. First, it provides a cost savings, because of the reduced inspection time, made possible by the automation of the data acquisition, processing, and storage equipment. This reduced inspection time is also made possible by a computerized data evaluation aid which speeds data interpretation. In addition, the computer control of the transducer location drive allows the exact duplication of a previously located position or flaw. The second major advantage is that the use of automated inspection equipment also allows a higher-quality inspection, because of the automated data acquisition, processing, and storage. This storage of data, in accurate digital form on IBM magnetic tape, for example, facilitates retrieval for comparison with previous inspection data. The equipment provides a multiplicity of scan data which will provide statistical information on any questionable volume or flaw. An automatic alarm for location of all reportable flaws reduces the probability of operator error. This system has the ability to present data on a cathode ray tube as numerical information, a three-dimensional picture, or ''hard-copy'' sheet. One important advantage of this system is the ability to store large amounts of data in compact magnetic tape reels

  9. Nicotinic activation of laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Leonard, Christopher S; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the neurological mechanisms underlying nicotine reinforcement is a healthcare imperative, if society is to effectively combat tobacco addiction. The majority of studies of the neurobiology of addiction have focused on dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA......). However, recent data suggest that neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nucleus, which sends cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic-containing projections to DA-containing neurons of the VTA, are critical to gating normal functioning of this nucleus. The actions of nicotine on LDT neurons...... are unknown. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of nicotine on identified cholinergic and non-cholinergic LDT neurons using whole-cell patch clamp and Ca(2+)-imaging methods in brain slices from mice (P12-P45). Nicotine applied by puffer pipette or bath superfusion elicited membrane...

  10. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  12. Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation.

  13. Inside-out neuropharmacology of nicotinic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Lester, Henry A

    2015-09-01

    Upregulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is a venerable result of chronic exposure to nicotine; but it is one of several consequences of pharmacological chaperoning by nicotine and by some other nicotinic ligands, especially agonists. Nicotinic ligands permeate through cell membranes, bind to immature AChR oligomers, elicit incompletely understood conformational reorganizations, increase the interaction between adjacent AChR subunits, and enhance the maturation process toward stable AChR pentamers. These changes and stabilizations in turn lead to increases in both anterograde and retrograde traffic within the early secretory pathway. In addition to the eventual upregulation of AChRs at the plasma membrane, other effects of pharmacological chaperoning include modifications to endoplasmic reticulum stress and to the unfolded protein response. Because these processes depend on pharmacological chaperoning within intracellular organelles, we group them as "inside-out pharmacology". This term contrasts with the better-known, acute, "outside-in" effects of activating and desensitizing plasma membrane AChRs. We review current knowledge concerning the mechanisms and consequences of inside-out pharmacology. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Layer-specific interference with cholinergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex by smoking concentrations of nicotine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, R.B.; Bloem, B.R.; Verhoog, M.B.; Mansvelder, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period in which the developing prefrontal cortex (PFC) is sensitive to maladaptive changes when exposed to nicotine. Nicotine affects PFC function and repeated exposure to nicotine during adolescence impairs attention performance and impulse control during adulthood. Nicotine

  15. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  16. The Influence of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Electronic Cigarette User's Plasma Nicotine Concentration, Heart Rate, and Subjective Effects Under Directed and Ad Libitum Use Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Hiler, Marzena M; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device. In both sessions, participants completed a directed e-cigarette use bout (10 puffs, 30-s interpuff interval) and a 90-min ad libitum bout. Puff topography was recorded in the session with the topography mouthpiece. Plasma nicotine, heart rate, and subjective effects, aside from "Did the e-cigarette Taste Good?" were independent of topography measurement (higher mean taste ratings were observed in the no topography condition). Mean (SEM) plasma nicotine concentration following the ad libitum bout was 34.3ng/mL (4.9) in the no topography condition and 35.7ng/mL (4.3) in the topography condition. Longer puff durations, longer interpuff intervals, and larger puff volumes were observed in the ad libitum relative to the directed bout. E-cigarette use significantly increased plasma nicotine concentration and heart rate while suppressing abstinence symptoms. These effects did not differ when a topography mouthpiece was present. Future studies using ad libitum e-cigarette use bouts would facilitate understanding of e-cigarette toxicant yield. No prior study has examined whether mouthpiece-based topography recording devices influence e-cigarette associated nicotine delivery, heart rate, or subjective effects under ad libitum conditions or assessed ad

  17. Tying up Nicotine: New Selective Competitive Antagonist of the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A

    2015-01-01

    Conformational restriction of the pyrrolidine nitrogen in nicotine by the introduction of an ethylene bridge provided a potent and selective antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Resolution by chiral SFC, pharmacological characterization of the two enantiomers...

  18. The effects of Nicotinic Acid and Xanthinol Nicotinate on human memory in different categories of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loriaux, S.M.; Deijen, J.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; de Swart, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment effect of nicotinic acid and xanthinol nicotinate on human memory was compared with placebo in 96 healthy subjects. Forty-three subjects were young (35-45 years), 30 subjects middle aged (55-65 years) and 23 subjects were old aged (75-85 years). Pre- and post-treatment scores were

  19. Opname van nicotine door kippen en overdracht naar eieren bij toepassing van nicotine tegen bloedluis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Rijk, de T.C.; Zomer, P.; Vos Van Avezathe, A.; Kan, C.A.; Zeilmaker, M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Uit onderzoek van de AID blijkt nicotine gebruikt te worden voor de bestrijding van bloedluis bij kippen. Dit levert mogelijk gezondheidsrisico's op voor de consument van het kippenvlees of de eieren. Omdat niet duidelijk is of het nicotine na de bestrijding van bloedluis in het vlees of eieren

  20. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  1. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  2. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. ► Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. ► Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. ► Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine – which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed – RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-α2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type (α1, β1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type (α3, α6, α7, β2 and β4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, α3, α7, β1 and ε were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-α2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by mecamylamine. α1 and α3-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NASH fibrosis compared to normal livers. Conclusion: Nicotine at levels in smokers’ blood is pro-fibrogenic, through

  3. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A; Pentel, Paul R; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self-administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sympathomimetic Effects of Acute E-Cigarette Use: Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Peters, Kacey M; Yang, Benjamin K; Yin, Fen; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-09-20

    Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. Thirty-three healthy volunteers who were not current e-cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied. On different days, each participant used an e-cigarette with nicotine, an e-cigarette without nicotine, or a sham control. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was determined by heart rate variability, and susceptibility to oxidative stress was determined by plasma paraoxonase activity. Following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine, but not to the e-cigarette without nicotine or the sham control, there was a significant and marked shift in cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. The decrease in high-frequency component and the increases in the low-frequency component and the low-frequency to high-frequency ratio were significantly greater following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine compared with exposure to the e-cigarette without nicotine or to sham control. Oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase, did not increase following any of the 3 exposures. The acute sympathomimetic effect of e-cigarettes is attributable to the inhaled nicotine, not to non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette aerosol, recapitulating the same heart rate variability pattern associated with increased cardiac risk in multiple populations with and without known cardiac disease. Evidence of oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase activity, was not uncovered following acute e-cigarette exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Evaluation of brain scintigraphy and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailloles, F.; Dairou, R.; Desbleds, M.T.; Benoit, C.; Larmande, P.; Bok, B.; Alperovitch, A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to assess the clinical usefulness of brain computerized tomography and radionuclide scan, a prospective study was performed on a series of 554 patients. The detection rate was assessed as well as the identification rate of lesions. In addition, the usefulness of both tests was appreciated subjectively by two neurologists reviewing the patients' files. Both give reasonably similar results: computerized tomography is superior to radionuclide scan in the diagnosis of tumors and intracerebral hematomas, the radionuclide scan being slightly superior in the diagnosis of purely ischemic CVA and subdural hematomas. The superiority which was subjectively conceded to computerized tomography was greater than that objectively demonstrated. However, clinical usefulness of computerized tomography was judged important in only 50% of the cases. Moreover, to request both computerized tomography and radionuclide scan appeared as having no interest in 83% of the cases. In that series, the diagnostic hypotheses were in agreement with the final diagnosis in 88% of the cases. Bias encountered in this type of studies are discussed [fr

  6. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  7. Computerized Games and Simulations in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explores research on the use of computerized games and simulations in language education. The author examined the psycholinguistic and sociocultural constructs proposed as a basis for the use of games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning. Research in this area is expanding rapidly. However, to date, few studies have…

  8. Using mobile and web-based computerized tests to evaluate university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Ventura, S.; De Bra, P.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile learning and testing is emerging as a potential educational environment. In this article we evaluate the use of mobile devices for testing as compared to web-based assessment systems. We also describe an authoring tool to develop adaptable and adaptive computerized tests that can be executed

  9. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vojkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder. Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, premature loss of teeth due to excessive attrition and mobility, headache, muscle ache, sleep interruption of an individual and problems with removable and fixed denture. Basically, two groups of etiological factors can be distinguished, viz., peripheral (occlusal factors and central (pathophysiological and psychological factors. The role of occlusion (occlusal discrepancies as the causative factor is not enough mentioned in relation to bruxism. Objective. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the connection between occlusal factors and nocturnal parafunctional activities (occlusal disharmonies and bruxism. Method. Two groups were formed- experimental of 15 persons with signs and symptoms of nocturnal parafunctional activity of mandible (mean age 26.6 years and control of 42 persons with no signs and symptoms of bruxism (mean age 26.3 yrs.. The computerized occlusal analyses were performed using the T-Scan II system (Tekscan, Boston, USA. 2D occlusograms were analyzed showing the occlusal force, the center of the occlusal force with the trajectory and the number of antagonistic tooth contacts. Results. Statistically significant difference of force distribution was found between the left and the right side of the arch (L%-R% (t=2.773; p<0.02 in the group with bruxism. The difference of the centre of occlusal force - COF trajectory between the experimental and control group was not significant, but the trajectory of COF was longer in the group of

  10. Formal Verification of Computerized Procedure with Colored Petri Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Shin, Yeong Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Computerized Procedure System (CPS) supports nuclear power plant operators in performing operating procedures which are instructions to guide in monitoring, decision making and controlling nuclear power plants. Computerized Procedure (CP) should be loaded to CPS. Due to its execution characteristic, computerized procedure acts like a software in CPS. For example, procedure flows are determined by operator evaluation and computerized procedure logic which are pre-defined. So the verification of Computerized Procedure logic and execution flow is needed before computerized procedures are installed in the system. Formal verification methods are proposed and the modeling of operating procedures with Coloured Petri Nets(CP-nets) is presented

  11. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  12. Computerized tomography in orthopaedics and traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, E.; Heckl, R.; Rehabilitations-Krankenhaus Langensteinbach, Karlsbad

    1981-01-01

    Computerized tomography in traumatology is the selected method for the indications mentioned, so that angiographic investigations are only necessary in exceptional cases. Computerized tomography is also better than other methods when diagnozing soft part tumours, however, angiography is still indicated preoperatively for individual cases. CT is only good as additional help to conventional diagnostics with bone tumours. The differential diagnosis cysts-tumour is possible using contrast medium injections. The frequently large soft part share of tumours is recognizable with osteolytic tumours so that a better irradiation and operation planning can be effected. Diseases in the spinal canal can only be assessed with reservation using modern equipment. Lumbar dislocations of the disk can mostly not be sufficiently determined. Perivertebral abscesses can be certainly detected using computerized tomography. This is particularly so for abscesses prior to calcification. (orig.) [de

  13. Nicotinic modulaton of neuronal networks: from receptors to cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelder, H.D.; van Aerde, K.I.; Couey, J.J.; Brussaard, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Nicotine affects many aspects of human cognition, including attention and memory. Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in neuronal networks modulates activity and information processing during cognitive tasks, which can be observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs) and

  14. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  15. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  16. Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

    2012-10-15

    Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Computerization in industry causes problems for people with reading and writing difficulties (dyslexia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, A

    1986-01-01

    For 10 years computerization in industry has advanced at a rapid pace. A problem which has not received attention is that of people with reading and writing difficulties who experience severe problems when they have to communicate with a computer monitor screen. These individuals are often embarrassed by their difficulties and conceal them from their fellow workers. A number of case studies are described which show the form the problems can take. In one case, an employee was compelled to move from department to department as each was computerized in turn. Computers transform a large number of manual tasks in industry into jobs which call for reading and writing skills. Better education at elementary school and at the workplace in connection with computerization are the most important means of overcoming this problem. Moreover, computer programs could be written in a more human way.

  18. Computerized management of plant intervention tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remacle, J.; Quoidbach, G.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of 'computerized management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by TRACTEBEL in 1983 for the Belgian power plants of ELECTRABEL. The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. It consists of a group of interconnected functional modules acting on a unique and homogeneous data base. A short description of 3 modules is given, i.e., the 'User' Module, the 'Equipment' Module and the 'Periodic Procedure' Module. (Z.S.)

  19. Computerization of the safeguards analysis decision process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that safeguards regulations are evolving to meet new demands for timeliness and sensitivity in detecting the loss or unauthorized use of sensitive nuclear materials. The opportunities to meet new rules, particularly in bulk processing plants, involve developing techniques which use modern, computerized process control and information systems. Using these computerized systems in the safeguards analysis involves all the challenges of the man-machine interface experienced in the typical process control application and adds new dimensions to accuracy requirements, data analysis, and alarm resolution in the regulatory environment

  20. Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, J.; Girl, J.; Sotornik, I.; Kocandrle, V.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term experience in the application of computerized tomography to the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is summarized. Based on a large number of examinations (164) of parathyroid glands associated with the possibility of verification and comparison with the results of ultrasonography and other imaging methods, the potential of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and its advantages and limitations are summarized. It is concluded that owing to its high diagnostic precision, this technique can be regarded reliable in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands. (author). 11 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs

  1. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [ 3 H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Compound list: nicotinic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nicotinic acid NIC 00081 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Hum...an/in_vitro/nicotinic_acid.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/R...at/in_vitro/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat.../in_vivo/Liver/Single/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosc

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Sahar Rafiei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid...

  4. The metabolic fate of nectar nicotine in worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W; Apostolides, Zeno

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are generalist pollinators that forage for nectar and pollen of a very large variety of plant species, exposing them to a diverse range of secondary metabolites produced as chemical defences against herbivory. Honey bees can tolerate high levels of many of these toxic compounds, including the alkaloid nicotine, in their diet without incurring apparent fitness costs. Very little is known about the underlying detoxification processes mediating this tolerance. We examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in newly emerged worker bees using radiolabeled nicotine and LC-MS/MS analysis to determine the kinetic distribution profile of nicotine as well as the absence or presence and identity of any nicotine-derived metabolites. Nicotine metabolism was extensive; virtually no unmetabolised nicotine were recovered from the rectum. The major metabolite found was 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid, the end product of 2'C-oxidation of nicotine. It is the first time that 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid has been identified in an insect as a catabolite of nicotine. Lower levels of cotinine, cotinine N-oxide, 3'hydroxy-cotinine, nicotine N-oxide and norcotinine were also detected. Our results demonstrated that formation of 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid is quantitatively the most significant pathway of nicotine metabolism in honey bees and that the rapid excretion of unmetabolised nicotine does not contribute significantly to nicotine tolerance in honey bees. In nicotine-tolerant insects that do not rely on the rapid excretion of nicotine like the Lepidoptera, it is possible that the 2'C-oxidation of nicotine is the conserved metabolic pathway instead of the generally assumed 5'C-oxidation pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of nicotine on the mechanical properties of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz JP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Juan P Ruiz1,2, Daniel Pelaez1,2, Janice Dias1, Noël M Ziebarth1, Herman S Cheung1,21Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami College of Engineering, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2Research Service and Geriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To measure the elasticity of the nucleus and cytoplasm of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as well as changes brought about by exposure to nicotine in vitro.Methods: MSCs were synchronized to the G0 stage of the cell cycle through serum deprivation techniques. The cells were then treated with medium containing nicotine (0.1 µM, 0.5 µM, and 1 µM. Atomic force microscopy was then used to measure the Young’s modulus of both the nucleus and cytoplasm of these cells.Results: For both unsynchronized and synchronized cells, the nucleus was softer than the cytoplasm, although this difference was not found to be statistically significant. The nucleus of cells treated with nicotine was significantly stiffer than the control for all concentrations. The cytoplasm was significantly stiffer in nicotine-treated cells than in control cells for the 0.5 µM and 1.0 µM concentrations only.Conclusions: The results of this study could suggest that nicotine affects the biophysical properties of human MSCs in a dose-dependent manner, which may render the cells less responsive to mechanoinduction and other physical stimuli.Keywords: atomic force microscopy, elasticity, mesenchymal stem cells, nicotine

  6. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  7. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Facts / Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Street names: Chew, Dip, Snuff Print Expand All Revised July 2017 What are tobacco, nicotine, and e-cigarette products? ©Shutterstock/ CatherineL-Prod Also known as: Cigarettes: ...

  8. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  9. Habenular expression of rare missense variants of the β4 nicotinic receptor subunit alters nicotine consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A Ślimak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, encoding the α5, α3 and β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits, has been linked to nicotine dependence. The habenulo-interpeduncular (Hb-IPN tract is particularly enriched in α3β4 nAChRs. We recently showed that modulation of these receptors in the medial habenula (MHb in mice altered nicotine consumption. Given that β4 is rate-limiting for receptor activity and that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CHRNB4 have been linked to altered risk of nicotine dependence in humans, we were interested in determining the contribution of allelic variants of β4 to nicotine receptor activity in the MHb. We screened for missense SNPs with allele frequencies > 0.0005 and introduced the corresponding substitutions in Chrnb4. Fourteen variants were analyzed by co-expression with α3. We found that β4A90I and β4T374I variants, previously shown to associate with reduced risk of smoking, and an additional variant β4D447Y, significantly increased nicotine-evoked current amplitudes, while β4R348C, the mutation most frequently encountered in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS, showed reduced nicotine currents. We employed lentiviruses to express β4 or β4 variants in the MHb. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that β4 lentiviral-mediated expression leads to specific upregulation of α3β4 but not β2 nAChRs in the Mhb. Mice injected with the β4-containing virus showed pronounced aversion to nicotine as previously observed in transgenic Tabac mice overexpressing Chrnb4 at endogenous sites including the MHb. Habenular expression of the β4 gain-of-function allele T374I also resulted in strong aversion, while transduction with the β4 loss-of function allele R348C failed to induce nicotine aversion. Altogether, these data confirm the critical role of habenular β4 in nicotine consumption, and identify specific SNPs in CHRNB4 that modify nicotine-elicited currents and alter nicotine

  10. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...

  12. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies in the literature have shown that exposure of mice and rats to nicotine early in development alters its effects when the rodents are subsequently challenged with nicotine. Anatoxin-a is a nicotinic agonist produced by several genera of cyanobacteria, and has caus...

  13. Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Wileyto, E Paul; Saddleson, Megan L; Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Donny, Eric C; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    To determine (1) if nicotine content affects study attrition-a potential behavioral measure of acceptability-in a trial that required compliance with three levels of reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes, and (2) if attrition is associated with subjective and behavioral responses to RNC cigarettes. Secondary analysis of a 35-day, parallel-design, open-label, randomized controlled trial. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomized to smoke for three 10-day periods: their preferred brand (control group) or RNC cigarettes with three nicotine levels in a within-subject stepdown (one group: high-moderate-low) or non-stepdown (five groups: high-low-moderate, low-moderate-high, low-high-moderate, moderate-low-high, moderate-high-low) fashion. A single site in Philadelphia, PA, USA. A total of 246 non-treatment-seeking daily smokers [mean age = 39.52, cigarettes per day (CPD) = 20.95, 68.3% white] were recruited from October 2007 to June 2013. The primary outcome was attrition. Key predictors were nicotine content transition and study period. Exploratory predictors were taste and strength subjective ratings, total puff volume and carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Covariates included: age, gender, race, education and nicotine dependence. Overall attrition was 31.3% (n = 77): 24.1% of the control and 25.0% of the stepdown RNC cigarette groups dropped out versus 44.6% of non-stepdown groups (P = 0.006). Compared with controls, attrition odds were 4.5 and 4.7 times greater among smokers transitioning from preferred and the highest RNC cigarettes to the lowest RNC cigarettes, respectively (P = 0.001 and 0.003). Providing more favorable initial taste ratings of study cigarettes decreased attrition odds by 2% (P = 0.012). The majority of participants completed a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Participant dropout was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favorable

  14. Robinson's Computerized Strabismus Model Comes of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H. Spekreijse (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we review our further development of D.A. Robinson's computerized strabismus model. First, an extensive literature study has been carried out to get more accurate data on the anatomy of the average eye and the eye muscles, and about how these vary with age and with

  15. Computerized Italian criticality guide, description and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, M.; Landeyro, P.A.

    1988-10-01

    Our group is developing an 'expert system' for collecting engineering know-how on back-end nuclear plant design. An expert system is the most suitable software tool for our problem. During the analysis, the design process was divided into different branches. At each branch of the design process the Expert System relates a computerized design procedure. Any design procedure is composed of a set of design methods, together with their condition of application and reliability limits. In the framework of this expert system, the nuclear criticality safety analysis procedure was developed, in the form of a computerized criticality guide, attempting to reproduce the designer's normal 'reasoning' process. The criticality guide is composed of two parts: A computerized text, including theory, a description of the accidents occurred in the past and a description of the italian design experience; An interactive computer aided calculation module, containing a graphical facility for critical parameter curves. In the present report are presented the criticality guide (computerized Italian Criticality Guide) and its validation test. (author)

  16. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  17. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  18. Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

  19. Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

  20. The limited angle problem in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Fast reconstruction formulae in X-ray computerized tomography demand the directions, in which the measurements are taken, to be equally distributed over the whole circle. In many applications data can only be provided in a restricted range. Here the intrinsic difficulties are studied by giving a singular value decomposition of the Radon transform in a restricted range. Practical limitations are deduced. (orig.)

  1. Ethics and the Computerization of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert L.; Perrolle, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    The current and potential impact of computerization on pharmacy practice is discussed, focusing on ethical dilemmas in the pharmacist-patient relationship, confidentiality of records, and the role of artificial intelligence in decision making about drug therapy. Case studies for use by teachers of pharmaceutical ethics are provided. (Author/MSE)

  2. Individual Differences in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JinGyu

    Research on the major computerized adaptive testing (CAT) strategies is reviewed, and some findings are reported that examine effects of examinee demographic and psychological characteristics on CAT strategies. In fixed branching strategies, all examinees respond to a common routing test, the score of which is used to assign examinees to a…

  3. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  4. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  5. The Computerized Reference Department: Buying the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Harry M.; Kok, Victoria T.

    1985-01-01

    Basis for systematic computerization of academic research library's reference, collection development, and collection management functions emphasizes productivity enhancement for librarians and support staff. Use of microcomputer and university's mainframe computer to develop applications of database management systems, electronic spreadsheets,…

  6. Computerized system for measuring cerebral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlone, J.S.; Hibbard, L.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Kasturi, R.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized stereotactic measurement system for evaluating rat brain metabolism was developed to utilize the large amount of data generated by quantitative autoradiography. Conventional methods of measurement only analyze a small percent of these data because these methods are limited by instrument design and the subjectiveness of the investigator. However, a computerized system allows digital images to be analyzed by placing data at their appropriate three-dimensional stereotactic coordinates. The system automatically registers experimental data to a standard three-dimensional image using alignment, scaling, and matching operations. Metabolic activity in different neuronal structures is then measured by generating digital masks and superimposing them on to experimental data. Several experimental data sets were evaluated and it was noticed that the structures measured by the computerized system, had in general, lower metabolic activity than manual measurements had indicated. This was expected because the computerized system measured the structure over its volume while the manual readings were taken from the most active metabolic area of a particular structure

  7. How will computerization revolutionize managed care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabin, T

    1994-01-01

    Computerization of behavioral health care information systems is revolutionizing how payors, managed care companies, and providers exchange information. In this article, an imaginary scenario is depicted of how patient data will be accessed and communicated to facilitate care management of behavioral health care services in the near future.

  8. Computerized Italian criticality guide, description and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carotenuto, M; Landeyro, P A [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1988-10-15

    Our group is developing an 'expert system' for collecting engineering know-how on back-end nuclear plant design. An expert system is the most suitable software tool for our problem. During the analysis, the design process was divided into different branches. At each branch of the design process the Expert System relates a computerized design procedure. Any design procedure is composed of a set of design methods, together with their condition of application and reliability limits. In the framework of this expert system, the nuclear criticality safety analysis procedure was developed, in the form of a computerized criticality guide, attempting to reproduce the designer's normal 'reasoning' process. The criticality guide is composed of two parts: A computerized text, including theory, a description of the accidents occurred in the past and a description of the italian design experience; An interactive computer aided calculation module, containing a graphical facility for critical parameter curves. In the present report are presented the criticality guide (computerized Italian Criticality Guide) and its validation test. (author)

  9. Geometrical efficiency in computerized tomography: generalized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.R.; Robilotta, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified model for producing sensitivity and exposure profiles in computerized tomographic system was recently developed allowing the forecast of profiles behaviour in the rotation center of the system. The generalization of this model for some point of the image plane was described, and the geometrical efficiency could be evaluated. (C.G.C.)

  10. Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Weeks, Jillian J; Panas, Rachel S; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-09-01

    A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about variables that are likely to be important in their own research, and provide policy makers with converging evidence between clinical and preclinical studies about the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy. Convergence between clinical and preclinical research is important, given the ease with which clinical trial participants can access nonstudy tobacco products in the current marketplace. Herein, we review contributions of preclinical animal research, with a focus on rodent self-administration, to the science of nicotine reduction. Throughout this review, we highlight areas where clinical and preclinical research converge and areas where the two differ. Preclinical research has provided data on many important topics such as the threshold for nicotine reinforcement, the likelihood of compensation, moderators of the impact of nicotine reduction, the impact of environmental stimuli on nicotine reduction, the impact of nonnicotine cigarette smoke constituents on nicotine reduction, and the impact of nicotine reduction on vulnerable populations. Special attention is paid to current research gaps including the dramatic rise in alternative tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ie, e-cigarettes). The evidence reviewed here will be critical for policy makers as well as clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction. This review will provide policy makers and clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction with an overview of the preclinical animal research conducted on nicotine reduction and the regulatory implications of that research. The review also highlights the utility of

  11. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  12. Computerized reactor monitor and control for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Vegh, E.

    1981-09-01

    The computerized process control system developed in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, Hungary, is described together with its special applications at research reactors. The nuclear power of the Hungarian research reactor is controlled by this computerized system, too, while in Lybia many interesting reactor-hpysical calculations are built into the computerized monitor system. (author)

  13. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  14. Decreased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures as a consequence of nicotine pretreatment in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice were pretreated with a subseizure-producing dose of nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) 7.5, 15 and 30 minutes prior to challenge with seizure-producing doses of this drug. Nicotine pretreated animals were less susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than were saline pretreated animals. The latency to seizure following nicotine challenge was greater in nicotine pretreated animals than in saline controls. Nicotine pretreated LS mice show a greater decrease in nicotine-induced seizure susceptibility than do nicotine pretreated SS mice. This decrease in seizure susceptibility is consistent with induction of nicotinic receptor desensitization via nicotine pretreatment. It is hypothesized that LS and SS mice might differ in sensitivity to nicotine in part because they differ in baseline levels of desensitized versus functional nicotinic receptors.

  15. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P I; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F A; Van Laethem, Danny M G; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS.Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light

  16. Nicotinic and iso nicotinic acids: interactions with gamma radiation and acid-base equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The values of pKa 1 and pKa 2 for nicotinic and iso nicotinic acids in aqueous medium were determined. The effects of gamma radiation about these acids by infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry and thermal gravimetric analysis were also studied. It was verified that the radiolysis of acids occurred by the two process of first order, determining the degradation constant and the degradation factors for each one of the solutions. (C.G.C.)

  17. Tolerance to and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J

    1988-02-01

    Female DBA mice were subjected to one of four treatments: ethanol-containing or control diets, nicotine (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg/hr) infusion or saline infusion. After removal from the liquid diets or cessation of infusion, the animals were challenged with an acute dose of ethanol or nicotine. Chronic ethanol-fed mice were tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature and open field activity and were cross tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and heart rate. Nicotine infused animals were tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and rotarod performance and were cross tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature. Ethanol-induced sleep time was decreased in chronic ethanol- but not chronic nicotine-treated mice. Chronic drug treatment did not alter the elimination rate of either drug. Chronic ethanol treatment did not alter the number or affinity of brain nicotinic receptors whereas chronic nicotine treatment elicited an increase in the number of [3H]-nicotine binding sites. Tolerance and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine is discussed in terms of potential effects on desensitization of brain nicotinic receptors.

  18. Reduced Nicotine Content Expectancies Affect Initial Responses to Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Smyth, Joshua M; Strasser, Andrew A; Branstetter, Steven A

    2016-10-01

    We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost). Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers completed a 3-session crossover trial. During each session, participants smoked their preferred brand cigarette - blinded and described as containing "usual," "low," and "very low" nicotine content - through a topography device and completed CO and subjective response assessments. Although nicotine content was identical, compared to the "usual" content cigarette, participants experienced less craving reduction after smoking the "very low" nicotine cigarette, and rated its smoke as weaker (p marketing and labeling are likely important considerations if a federal nicotine reduction policy is initiated.

  19. In vivo imaging of nicotinic receptor upregulation following chronic (-)-nicotine treatment in baboon using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassiou, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Meikle, Steven R.; Birrell, Alex; Constable, Chris; Fulham, Michael J.; Wong, Dean F.; Musachio, John L.

    2001-01-01

    To quantify changes in neuronal nAChR binding in vivo, quantitative dynamic SPECT studies were performed with 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380 in baboons pre and post chronic treatment with (-)-nicotine or saline control. Infusion of (-)-nicotine at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg/24h for 14 days resulted in plasma (-)-nicotine levels of 27.3 ng/mL. This is equivalent to that found in an average human smoker (20 cigarettes a day). In the baboon brain the regional distribution of 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380 was consistent with the known densities of nAChRs (thalamus > frontal cortex > cerebellum). Changes in nAChR binding were estimated from the volume of distribution (V d ) and binding potential (BP) derived from 3-compartment model fits. In the (-)-nicotine treated animal V d was significantly increased in the thalamus (52%) and cerebellum (50%) seven days post cessation of (-)-nicotine treatment, suggesting upregulation of nAChRs. The observed 33% increase in the frontal cortex failed to reach significance. A significant increase in BP was seen in the thalamus. In the saline control animal no changes were observed in V d or BP under any experimental conditions. In this preliminary study, we have demonstrated for the first time in vivo upregulation of neuronal nAChR binding following chronic (-)-nicotine treatment

  20. Status of nicotine dependence and some related factors among waterpipe consumer women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Saeed Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, water pipe smoking has been spread among adults especially in Asian African communities in the Middle East and Arabic countries. The aim of this study is determination of the nicotine dependence status and some related factors among women consumer in Bushehr. Material and Methods: 430 water pipe smoker women were examined in this cross-sectional study. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to collect data. After data collection, data were analyzed by SPSS software with using appropriate statistical tests. Results: In this study, 43.4% (N= 186 of women had moderate nicotine dependency. The overall mean and standard deviation score for nicotine dependence were 40.71±12.63. In this study, consumer’s education (p=0.004 and job (p=0.015, husband’s education (p=0.003, and job (p=0.043, history of water pipe smoking (p=0.000, intention to quit (p=0.021, and type of tobacco (p=0.003, significantly associated with nicotine dependence. Logit regression results showed that husband 's education level, age at onset of water pipe consuming and intention to quit water pipe explain nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence among almost half of the consumer women was in average level and it is essential to design educational interventions for low socio - economic individuals particularly in teens and young people that this behavior has not institutionalized yet. Also for people who have no intention of quit water pipe, at first, we provide the conditions for their quitting through empowerment process and then encourage them to quit water pipe.

  1. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...

  2. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that play important roles in control of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are important therapeutic targets for development of drugs...

  3. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  4. Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2015-08-01

    Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled "36mg/ml") or placebo ("0″) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one's own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  6. Detoxification and elimination of nicotine by nectar-feeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Du Rand, E E; Nicolson, S W

    2017-05-01

    Many dilute nectars consumed by bird pollinators contain secondary metabolites, potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants as defences against herbivores. Consequently, nectar-feeding birds are challenged not only by frequent water excess, but also by the toxin content of their diet. High water turnover, however, could be advantageous to nectar consumers by enabling them to excrete secondary metabolites or their transformation products more easily. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences osmoregulation in white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. We also examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in these two species to shed more light on the post-ingestive mechanisms that allow nectar-feeding birds to tolerate nectar nicotine. A high concentration of nicotine (50 µM) decreased cloacal fluid output and increased its osmolality in both species, due to reduced food intake that led to dehydration. White-eyes excreted a higher proportion of the ingested nicotine-containing diet than sunbirds. However, sugar concentration did not affect nicotine detoxification and elimination. Both species metabolised nicotine, excreting very little unchanged nicotine. Cape white-eyes mainly metabolised nicotine through the cotinine metabolic pathway, with norcotinine being the most abundant metabolite in the excreta, while white-bellied sunbirds excreted mainly nornicotine. Both species also utilized phase II conjugation reactions to detoxify nicotine, with Cape white-eyes depending more on the mercapturic acid pathway to detoxify nicotine than white-bellied sunbirds. We found that sunbirds and white-eyes, despite having a similar nicotine tolerance, responded differently and used different nicotine-derived metabolites to excrete nicotine.

  7. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  8. [The evaluation of motivation and addiction to nicotine in smokers attempting to quit smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a factor which increases the risk of developing many diseases, especially of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Quitting smoking is an essential element of prophylaxis and therapy. The effectiveness of treating the syndrome of nicotine addiction mostly depends on the motivation to give up the habit. The study aimed at evaluating the motivation and the strength of nicotine addiction as well as the factor which motivates smokers for giving up the habit. Sixty-two smokers were included in the study. There were 31 males and 31 females. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.26 ± 14.45. The study was performed using the author-made survey (including for example questions regarding sociodemographic data and motives for quitting smoking), Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (for analyzing degree of nicotine addiction) and Schneider Motivation Test (to evaluate the degree of motivation to quit smoking). Thirty-seven subjects out of the total number of 62 were the least addicted to nicotine. They were highly motivated to give up the habit of smoking. The mean value of motivation depended on the level of education of the subjects and was 7.71-8.50 scores. Health concerns were the reasons to make a decision to quit smoking for the majority of the subjects. Health concern is the most common reason for giving up the habit of smoking. The relationship between the motivation to quit smoking and the sex of the subjects was not observed.

  9. Nicotine, adolescence, and stress: A review of how stress can modulate the negative consequences of adolescent nicotine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  11. 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Cox, Sharon; Goniewicz, Maciej; McRobbie, Hayden; Kimber, Catherine; Doig, Mira; Kośmider, Leon

    2018-06-07

    To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. London and the South East, England. Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over four weeks (one week per condition). Puffing patterns (daily puff number [PN], puff duration [PD], inter-puff interval [IPI]), mL of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted), and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. There was a significant nicotine concentration x power interaction for PD (p<0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with i) high nicotine/fixed power (p< 0.001 and ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (p< 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, p<0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: p<0.01). Whilst acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine x power interaction for formaldehyde (p<0.05). Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g., higher number and duration of puffs) and increases

  12. Computerized tomography in atypical Pott's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, M.N.B.; Wang, E.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Classical Pott's disease is described as a two-vertebrae disease with the destruction of the intervening invertebral disc. Computerized tomography has been used in the differential diagnosis of spine infections and neoplasms. We reviewed CT scans of patients seen at the Philippine General Hospital over a two-year period with atypical presentations of atypical tuberculous spondylitis. We used the computerized tomography findings described as characteristic of classical Pott's disease as criteria in evaluating the CT scans of patients diagnosed to have Atypical Pott's Disease. Although the number of patients prevented sensitivity and specificity studies to be done, our results strongly suggest that the same CT criteria used to diagnose Classical Pott's Disease may also be used to diagnose Pott's disease in its atypical form. (Author.). 13 refs

  13. Computerized simulation of converter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalkanen, H; Suomi, M L; Wallgren, M [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    Converter process is essentially an oxidising refining process aiming in addition to (1) the primary refining action, decarburisation of high carbon iron melt, also to (2) maximal elimination of impurity elements, especially silicon, phosphorus and sulphur, (3) melting of substantial amounts of scrap using the extra heat released in oxidation reactions and (4) to exact final steel temperature control, optimal for further treatments. `Quantitative modelling of such a complex non-stationary chemical process as oxygen converting necessitates extensive formulation of chemical and thermal evolution of the process in connection with the technological properties of the reactor and the process control measures. A comprehensive converter simulation program like CONSIM-3. 1 and its preceding versions that is based on the theoretical and practical knowledge on the process can be used for (1) educating specialists and smelter personnel, (2) planning of the blowing programs, (3) developing and testing of process control systems and after some elaboration and restructuring (4) it can be integrated to static or dynamic process control systems. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  14. Computerized simulation of converter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalkanen, H.; Suomi, M.L.; Wallgren, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    Converter process is essentially an oxidising refining process aiming in addition to (1) the primary refining action, decarburisation of high carbon iron melt, also to (2) maximal elimination of impurity elements, especially silicon, phosphorus and sulphur, (3) melting of substantial amounts of scrap using the extra heat released in oxidation reactions and (4) to exact final steel temperature control, optimal for further treatments. `Quantitative modelling of such a complex non-stationary chemical process as oxygen converting necessitates extensive formulation of chemical and thermal evolution of the process in connection with the technological properties of the reactor and the process control measures. A comprehensive converter simulation program like CONSIM-3. 1 and its preceding versions that is based on the theoretical and practical knowledge on the process can be used for (1) educating specialists and smelter personnel, (2) planning of the blowing programs, (3) developing and testing of process control systems and after some elaboration and restructuring (4) it can be integrated to static or dynamic process control systems. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  15. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  16. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank for e...... for emotional functioning (EF), which is one of the core domains of the QLQ-C30....

  17. 10 years of computerized tomography reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duemmling, K.

    1984-01-01

    The history and some highlights of computerized tomography are reviewed. The various technologies employed in the course of CT development are described along with the limitations that led to their disappearance. The problems still to be solved in medicine, the increasing influence of nuclear magnetic resonance, and some scientific aspects have opened up new lines of development which are briefly mentioned. (orig./WU) [de

  18. Computerized reactor pressure vessel materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Monserrate, C.; Kenworthy, L.D.; Tether, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A computerized information system for storage and retrieval of reactor pressure vessel materials data was established, as part of Task Action Plan A-11, Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness. Data stored in the system are necessary for evaluating the resistance of reactor pressure vessels to flaw-induced fracture. This report includes (1) a description of the information system; (2) guidance on accessing the system; and (3) a user's manual for the system

  19. Computerized reactor power regulation with logarithmic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossanyi, A.; Vegh, E.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized reactor control system has been operating at a 5 MW WWR-SM research reactor in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, for some years. This paper describes the power controller used in the SPC operating mode of the system, which operates in a 5-decade wide power range with +-0.5% accuracy. The structure of the controller easily limits the minimal reactor period and produces a reactor transient with constant period if the power demand changes. (author)

  20. COMPRESS - a computerized reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, E.

    1986-01-01

    The computerized reactor safety system, called COMPRESS, provides the following services: scram initiation; safety interlockings; event recording. The paper describes the architecture of the system and deals with reliability problems. A self-testing unit checks permanently the correct operation of the independent decision units. Moreover the decision units are tested by short pulses whether they can initiate a scram. The self-testing is described in detail

  1. Computerized UT system for stud bolt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisanuki, T.; Uchida, K.; Fushimi, T.; Onda, K.

    1988-01-01

    Cracking of stud bolts used in steam turbine casing, valve and pressure vessel has caused concern regarding the safety and reliability of power plants. In order to detect harmful cracks in early state, the improvement of UT technique is required. As regarding the ultrasonic inspection technique, a longitudinal beam technique and/or an angle beam technique are generally used. The authors report their development of a computerized UT system for bolt inspection and improvement of the angle beam technique

  2. Computerized tomography of gall bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.I.; Karmazanovskij, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have summed up the experience in the use of computerized tomography (CT) in diagnosis of gall bladder cancer. The investigation of 17 patients with cancer of this site showed a high informative value of the method. A retrospective comparative study of the results of CT and surgical interventions was carried out. It has been concluded that CT makes it possible not only to diagnose malignant lesions of the bile ducts but also to assess a possible scope of a forthcoming operation

  3. Computerized dosimetry management systems within EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, G.

    1996-01-01

    EDF, using the ALARA approach, has embarked an ambitious project of optimising the doses received in its power plants. In directing its choice of actions and the effectiveness of such actions, the French operator is using a computerized personal and collective dosimetry management system. This system provides for ongoing monitoring of dosimetry at personal, site and unit level or indeed for the entire population of EDF nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Increased intracranial pressure: evaluation by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoote, W.E.; Pressman, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Computerized tomography is clearly very useful in the evaluation of patients with increased intracranial pressure and suspected pseudotumor cerebri. It provides an index of ventricular size and configuration and has the capability of demonstrating intracranial lesions. Moreover, this new technique is rapid and non-invasive, and is without attendant risks. Examinations may be performed serially as the clinical process evolves, thereby giving roentgenographic correlation to the clinical features. (U.S.)

  5. Computerized tomographic diagnosis of basal skull fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tokutaro; Shimoyama, Ichiro; Endoh, Mitsutoshi; Ninchoji, Toshiaki; Uemura, Kenichi.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of basal skull fractures used to be difficult, particularly on the basis of routine skull roentgenography alone. We have now examined the diagnostic value of conventional computerized tomography in basal skull fractures. We studied 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures. We examined them based on at least one of the following computerized tomographic criteria for basal skull fractures: 1) fracture line(s), 2) intracranial air, 3) fluid in the paranasal sinuses, and 4) fluid in the middle ear, including the mastoid air cells. The signs of the fracture line and of the intracranial air are definite indications of basal skull fracture, but the signs of fluid in the paranasal sinuses and/or in the middle ear are not definite. When combined, however, with such other clinical signs as black eye, Battle's sign, CSF leakage, CSF findings, and profuse nasal or ear bleeding, the diagnosis is more reliable. Seventy cases (85.4%) in this series had basal skull fractures according to our computerized tomographic criteria. Among them , 26 cases (31.7%) were diagnosed with fracture lines, 17 cases (20.7%) with intracranial air, 16 cases (19.5%) with fluid in the paranasal sinuses, 10 cases (12.2%) with fluid in the middle ear, and one case (1.2%) with fluid in both. Twelve cases (14.6%) of the 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures could not have been diagnosed on our computerized tomographic criteria alone. We diagnosed them because of CSF leakage, CSF findings, surgical findings, etc. (author)

  6. Nicotine pharmacokinetics and its application to intake from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C; Ings, R M; Russel, M A

    1985-01-01

    Five subjects were given 25 micrograms/kg nicotine intravenously over 1 min, before and after a loading period involving the smoking of six cigarettes. Plasma nicotine concentrations declined in a biphasic manner, the half-lives of the initial and terminal phases averaging 9 min and 133 min respectively. Terminal half-lives before and after the loading period were essentially the same suggesting the absence of saturation kinetics at nicotine concentrations that build up during smoking. The plasma clearance of nicotine and the volume of distribution were very high averaging 915 ml/min and 1731, respectively. Two approaches were used to calculate the nicotine intake from smoking. The average dose of nicotine absorbed from one cigarette was 1.06 mg which was 82% of the standard machine-smoked yield of 1.3 mg. To illustrate their potential use in 'nicotine titration' studies, these approaches were used to compare nicotine intake from smoking a high (2.4 mg) and low (0.6 mg) nicotine cigarette. The dose of nicotine absorbed averaged 1.14 mg and 0.86 mg per cigarette respectively, being 48% and 143% of the machine-smoked yields. PMID:3986082

  7. Serotonergic modulation of nicotine-induced kinetic tremor in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Kunisawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT, significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT1A antagonist. In addition, the cerebral 5-HT depletion by repeated treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine did not reduce, but rather potentiated the facilitatory effects of 8-OH-DPAT. In contrast, the 5-HT2 agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, significantly attenuated nicotine tremor, which was antagonized by ritanserin (5-HT2 antagonist. The 5-HT3 agonist SR-57227 did not affect nicotine-induced tremor. Furthermore, when testing the direct actions of 5-HT antagonists, nicotine tremor was inhibited by WAY-100135, but was unaffected by ritanserin, ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist or SB-258585 (5-HT6 antagonist. These results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors are involved in induction of nicotine tremor mediated by α7 nACh receptors. In addition, 5-HT2 receptors have an inhibitory modulatory role in induction of nicotine tremor.

  8. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  9. Electronic cigarettes are a source of thirdhand exposure to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Lee, Lily

    2015-02-01

    Substances remaining on the surfaces in areas where people have smoked contribute to thirdhand exposure. Nicotine from tobacco smoke has been shown to react with oxidizing chemicals in the air to form secondary pollutants, such as carcinogenic nitrosamines. While previous studies have demonstrated thirdhand exposure to nicotine from tobacco smoke, none have investigated whether nicotine from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can also be deposited on various surfaces. Three brands of e-cigarettes were refilled with varying nicotine concentrations. We released 100 puffs from each product directly into an exposure chamber. Surface wipe samples were taken from 5 indoor 100 cm(2) surfaces (window, walls, floor, wood, and metal) pre- and post-release of vapors. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and was analyzed using gas chromatography. Three of the 4 experiments showed significant increases in the amount of nicotine on all five surfaces. The floor and glass windows had the greatest increases in nicotine, on average by a factor of 47 and 6, respectively (p risk for thirdhand exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes. Thirdhand exposure levels differ depending on the surface and the e-cigarette brand. Future research should explore the potential risks of thirdhand exposure to carcinogens formed from the nicotine that is released from e-cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzy M. Hendrickson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused. As many as 80-95% of alcoholics are also smokers, suggesting that ethanol and nicotine, the primary addictive component of tobacco smoke, may functionally interact in the central nervous system and/or share a common mechanism of action. While nicotine initiates dependence by binding to and activating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, ligand-gated cation channels normally activated by endogenous acetylcholine (ACh, ethanol is much less specific with the ability to modulate multiple gene products including those encoding voltage-gated ion channels, and excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. However, emerging data indicate that ethanol interacts with nAChRs, both directly and indirectly, in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic reward circuitry to affect brain reward systems. Like nicotine, ethanol activates DAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Blockade of VTA nAChRs reduces ethanol-mediated activation of DAergic neurons, NAc DA release, consumption, and operant responding for ethanol in rodents. Thus, ethanol may increase ACh release into the VTA driving activation of DAergic neurons through nAChRs. In addition, ethanol potentiates distinct nAChR subtype responses to ACh and nicotine in vitro and in DAergic neurons. The smoking cessation therapeutic and nAChR partial agonist, varenicline, reduces alcohol consumption in heavy drinking smokers and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms in nAChR subunit genes are associated with alcohol dependence phenotypes and smoking behaviors in human populations. Together, results from preclinical, clinical, and genetic studies indicate that nAChRs may have an inherent role in the abusive properties of ethanol, as well as in nicotine and alcohol co-dependence.

  11. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolite types, from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Dušan K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant alkaloid, nicotine, is a strongly toxic heterocyclic compound: the lethal dose for an adult human being (40-60 mg is importantly lower in comparison with the other known poisons such as arsenic or strychni­ne. Cigarettes represent "the most toxic and addictive form of nicotine". Besides the negative effects of nicotine on public health produced by self-administration, recently another potentially very dangerous effect has been recognized: because of its miscibility with water, nicotine can be found in industrial wastewaters, and consequently, in groundwater. Therefore, the problem of nicotine removal from aqueous solutions has became an interesting topic. In this work, the removal of nicotine has been probed by adsorption on solid materials. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolites (clinoptilolite, ZSM-5 and β zeolite and on activated carbon was investigated from aqueous solutions, at 298 K. The obtained results are presented as adsorption isotherms: the amount of adsorbed nicotine as a function of equilibrium concentration. These data were obtained from the residual amount of nicotine in the aqueous phase, by the use of UV spectroscopy. The highest amounts of adsorbed nicotine was found for activated carbon and p zeolite (~ mmol·g-1. The attempt to modify the adsorption properties of ZSM-5 zeolite has been also done: ZSM-5 was modified by ion-exchange with VIII group metal (Cu2+ and Fe3+. In addition, the adsorption of nicotine on ZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios has been done. It has been noticed that ion-exchange did not improve the adsorption possibilities, while the adsorption was importantly lower in the case of higher silicon content in ZMS-5 structure. 13C NMR spectra were collected for suspensions formed of solid adsorbent and aqueous solution of nicotine; in this way, the part of nicotine molecule which is most probably connected with the adsorbent was recognized.

  12. Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.; Hadden, M.L.; Painter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. By strengthening systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A), one can reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two major programs of international cooperation are now underway to achieve this goal. The first is between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation (Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program), and the second is between the US Government and Governments of the former Soviet Republics (Government-to-Government Program). As part of these programs, the DOE is working with facilities to assist them in implementing computerized MPC and A systems. This work is a collaboration between computer scientists and safeguards experts in both the US and the new Republics. The US is making available technology and expertise to enable Russian experts to build on computerized MPC and A software developed in the US. This paper describes the joint efforts of these international teams to develop sophisticated computerized MPC and A systems using modern computer hardware and software technology. These systems are being customized to meet the site-specific needs of each facility

  13. Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowski, B.; Haenggi, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Beck, A.; Aurich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The development of a computerized method which allows a direct quantitative comparison of perfusion parameters. The display should allow a clear direct comparison of brain perfusion parameters in different vascular territories and over the course of time. The analysis is intended to be the basis for further evaluation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The method should permit early diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm. Materials and Methods: The Angiotux 2D-ECCET software was developed with a close cooperation between computer scientists and clinicians. Starting from parameter images of brain perfusion, the cortex was marked, segmented and assigned to definite vascular territories. The underlying values were averages for each segment and were displayed in a graph. If a follow-up was available, the mean values of the perfusion parameters were displayed in relation to time. The method was developed under consideration of CT perfusion values but is applicable for other methods of perfusion imaging. Results: Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images allows an immediate comparison of these parameters and follow-up of mean values in a clear and concise manner. Values are related to definite vascular territories. The tabular output facilitates further statistic evaluations. The computerized analysis is precisely reproducible, i. e., repetitions result in exactly the same output. (orig.)

  14. Computerized management of plant intervention tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoidbach, G.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant or of any other complex industrial facility (chemical industries, refineries, and so on) in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. This 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is organized around a data base of all plant components in the facility that might be subjected to maintenance or tagout. It allows to manage, by means of intelligent and configurable 'mail service', the course of the intervention requests as well as various treatments of those requests, in a safe and efficient way, adapted to each particular organization. The concept of 'Computerized Management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by BELGATOM in 1983 for the Belgian nuclear power plants of ELECTRABEL. A first implementation of this concept was made at that time for the Doel NPP under the name POPIT (Programming Of Plant Intervention Tasks). In 1988, it was decided to proceed to a functional upgrade of the application, using advanced software and hardware techniques and products, and to realize a second implementation in the Tihange NPP under the name ACM (Application Consignation Maintenance). (author)

  15. Diversity in computerized reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.D.; Piel, L.

    1999-01-01

    Based on engineering judgement, the most important measures to increase the independency of redundant trains of a computerized safety instrumentation and control system (I and C) in a nuclear power plant are evaluated with respect to practical applications. This paper will contribute to an objective discussion on the necessary and justifiable arrangement of diversity in a computerized safety I and C system. Important conclusions are: - (i) diverse equipment may be used to control dependent failures only if measures necessary for designing, licensing, and operating a computerized safety I and C system homogeneous in equipment are neither technically nor economically feasible; - (ii) the considerable large operating experience in France with a non-diverse equipment digital reactor protection system does not call for equipment diversity. Although there are no generally accepted methods, the licensing authority is still required to take into account dependent failures in a probabilistic safety analysis; - (ii) the frequency of postulated initiating events implies which I and C functionality should be implemented on diverse equipment. Using non-safety I and C equipment in addition to safety I and C equipment is attractive because its necessary unavailability to control an initiating event in teamwork with the safety I and C equipment is estimated to range from 0.01 to 0.1. This can be achieved by operational experience

  16. Staging of bronchogenic carcinoma by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, B.; Bauer, W.M.; Rath, M.; Fenzl, G.; Stelter, W.J.; Lissner, J.

    1981-01-01

    It was possible to check the information obtained by CT scanning in 36 patients out of 49 who had been subjected to computerized tomography, in respect of the extension of the primary tumour (T stage), and in 25 patients in respect of the degree of mediastinal lymphatic node involvement (N stage). In all 49 patients, the presence of bronchogenic carcinoma had been safely established. In 97% of the cases, assessment of the extension of the primary tumour was found to be correct. Assessment of the N stage, however, is more problematic, since detection of mediastinal lymphatic nodes by computerized tomography does not necessarily tell us something about their metastatic involvement. If all recognizable lymphatic nodes are interpreted as potential metastases, we have no false negative but 61% false positive results because of the frequency of postinflammatory or anthracotic lymphatic nodes. In case of exclusive assessment of lymphatic node enlargement above 1 cm diameter, the rate of metastatic nodes increases considerably (83%). Computerized tomography is definitely superior to all roentgenological methods in assessing the stage of a bronchogenic carcinoma; hence, it could occupy a key position in determining the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in patients with this disease. (orig.) [de

  17. Case of neurosarcoidosis monitored by computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, T; Kimura, M; Komai, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, I [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1979-12-01

    A 21-year-old man complaining of impaired visual acuity was admitted to the hospital. Physical examinations showed asymptomatic bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and cardiomyopathy. Neurological findings disclosed left blindness and right temporal hemianopsia. Computerized tomography, pneumoencephalography and carotid angiography revealed a suprasellar mass. After the admission, the following symptoms deteriorated rapidly: diabetes insipidus, anterior pituitary dysfunction, visual loss of the right eye and hepatomegaly, subsequently consciousness disorder developed during a month though he was given steroids. The more deteriorated the clinical course, the larger the suprasellar mass with expanding hydrocephalus in repeated computerized tomographies. After the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation, consciousness improved. Diabetes insipidus also improved after Diabenese administration. On the operation, adhesive arachnoiditis over all the frontotemporal cortex and swollen purplishly red optic chiasm were exposed. Microscopically the specimen from the optic chiasm evidenced a sarcoid granuloma which composed of epitheroid cells, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated giant cells with numerous hemosiderin droplets. The specimen from the surface of the left frontal lobe showed thick fibrosis in the subarachnoid space. By steroids therapy, diabetes insipidus and hepatomegaly disappeared five months after the admission, whereas blindness never recovered. He died of developed status epilepticus eleven months after the admission. The authors reviewed neuroradiological findings of neurocarcoidosis based on pathological findings in the literature, and emphasized that computerized tomography was the most useful for diagnosis and treatment of neurosarcoidosis.

  18. Computerized Virtual Reality Simulation in Preclinical Dentistry: Can a Computerized Simulator Replace the Conventional Phantom Heads and Human Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, Anastasios

    2017-10-01

    In preclinical dental education, the acquisition of clinical, technical skills, and the transfer of these skills to the clinic are paramount. Phantom heads provide an efficient way to teach preclinical students dental procedures safely while increasing their dexterity skills considerably. Modern computerized phantom head training units incorporate features of virtual reality technology and the ability to offer concurrent augmented feedback. The aims of this review were to examine and evaluate the dental literature for evidence supporting their use and to discuss the role of augmented feedback versus the facilitator's instruction. Adjunctive training in these units seems to enhance student's learning and skill acquisition and reduce the required faculty supervision time. However, the virtual augmented feedback cannot be used as the sole method of feedback, and the facilitator's input is still critical. Well-powered longitudinal randomized trials exploring the impact of these units on student's clinical performance and issues of cost-effectiveness are warranted.

  19. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  20. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, A.; Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  1. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  2. Pediatric Exposure to E-Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Tobacco Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Alisha; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of exposures to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), nicotine, and tobacco products among young children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of exposures associated with nicotine and tobacco products among children younger than 6 years old was conducted by using National Poison Data System data. From January 2012 through April 2015, the National Poison Data System received 29 141 calls for nicotine and tobacco product exposures among children younger than 6 years, averaging 729 child exposures per month. Cigarettes accounted for 60.1% of exposures, followed by other tobacco products (16.4%) and e-cigarettes (14.2%). The monthly number of exposures associated with e-cigarettes increased by 1492.9% during the study period. Children e-cigarettes had 5.2 times higher odds of a health care facility admission and 2.6 times higher odds of having a severe outcome than children exposed to cigarettes. One death occurred in association with a nicotine liquid exposure. The frequency of exposures to e-cigarettes and nicotine liquid among young children is increasing rapidly and severe outcomes are being reported. Swift government action is needed to regulate these products to help prevent child poisoning. Prevention strategies include public education; appropriate product storage and use away from children; warning labels; and modifications of e-cigarette devices, e-liquid, and e-liquid containers and packaging to make them less appealing and less accessible to children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  4. High-affinity α4β2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Previously, studies from our lab have shown that while acute nicotine administered prior to training and testing enhances contextual fear conditioning, acute nicotine injections prior to extinction sessions impair extinction of contextual fear. Although there is also strong evidence showing that the acute nicotine's enhancing effects on contextual fear conditioning require high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are involved in the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute nicotine administration on contextual fear extinction in knock-out (KO) mice lacking α4, β2 or α7 subtypes of nAChRs and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Both KO and WT mice were first trained and tested for contextual fear conditioning and received a daily contextual extinction session for 4 days. Subjects received intraperitoneal injections of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2-4 min prior to each extinction session. Our results showed that the mice that lack α4 and β2 subtypes of nAChRs showed normal contextual fear extinction but not the acute nicotine-induced impairment while the mice that lack the α7 subtype showed both normal contextual extinction and nicotine-induced impairment of contextual extinction. In addition, control experiments showed that acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction persisted when nicotine administration was ceased and repeated acute nicotine administrations alone did not induce freezing behavior in the absence of context-shock learning. These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  6. Thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid, sodium nicotinate and its compounds with some bivalent transition metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A.L.C.S. do; Caires, F.J., E-mail: caires.flavio@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, D.J.C.; Gigante, A.C.; Ionashiro, M.

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transition metal ion nicotinates were synthesized. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behaviour. • The gaseous products released were detected by TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. - Abstract: Solid-state M(L){sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O compounds, where M stands for bivalent transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), L is nicotinate and n = 0–4.5, have been synthesized. Characterization and thermal behaviour of these compounds were investigated employing elemental analysis based on the mass losses observed in the TG–DTA curves, complexometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. The thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid and its sodium salt was also investigated. For the hydrated transition metal compounds, the dehydration and thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occur in a single step. For the sodium nicotinate, the final residue up to 765 °C is sodium carbonate and for the transition metal nicotinates, the final residues are Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, CuO and ZnO. The results also provided information concerning the thermal stability, thermal decomposition and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the thermal decomposition of the compounds.

  7. Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Role of Nicotine and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Zhuang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, proteolysis, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and angiogenesis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs, although the well-defined initiating mechanism is not fully understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs such as MMP-2 and -9 and other proteinases degrading elastin and extracellular matrix are the critical pathogenesis of AAAs. Among the risk factors of AAAs, cigarette smoking is an irrefutable one. Cigarette smoke is practically involved in various aspects of the AAA pathogenesis. Nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco leaves and a primary component in cigarette smoke, can stimulate the MMPs expression by vascular SMCs, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells in vascular wall and induce angiogenesis in the aneurysmal tissues. However, for the inflammatory and apoptotic processes in the pathogenesis of AAAs, nicotine seems to be moving in just the opposite direction. Additionally, the effects of nicotine are probably dose dependent or associated with the exposure duration and may be partly exerted by its receptors—nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. In this paper, we will mainly discuss the pathogenesis of AAAs involving inflammation, proteolysis, smooth muscle cell apoptosis and angiogenesis, and the roles of nicotine and nAChRs.

  8. Genotoxicity study on nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.S.; Wang, H.F.; Shi, J.Y.; Wang, X.Y.; Liu, Y.F.; Li, K.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Liu, K.X.; Guo, Z.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied DNA adduction with 14 C-labelled nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in mouse liver at doses equivalent to low-level exposure of humans. The dose ranges of nicotine and NNK administered were from 0.4 μg to 4.0 x 10 2 μg·kg -1 , and from 0.1 μg to 2.0 x 10 4 μg·kg -1 , respectively. In the exposure of mice to either nicotine or NNK, the number of DNA adducts increased linearly with increasing dose. The detection limit of DNA adducts was 1 adduct per 10 11 nucleotide molecules. This limit is 1-4 orders of magnitude lower than that of other techniques used for quantification of DNA adducts. The results of the animal experiments enabled us to speculate that nicotine is a potential carcinogen. According to the procedure for 14 C-labelled-NNK synthesis, the authors discuss the ultimate chemical speciation of NNK bound to DNA. From the animal tests the authors derived a directly perceivable relation between tobacco consumption and DNA adduction as the carcinogenic risk assessment

  9. Thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid, sodium nicotinate and its compounds with some bivalent transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, A.L.C.S. do; Caires, F.J.; Gomes, D.J.C.; Gigante, A.C.; Ionashiro, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transition metal ion nicotinates were synthesized. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behaviour. • The gaseous products released were detected by TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. - Abstract: Solid-state M(L) 2 ·nH 2 O compounds, where M stands for bivalent transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), L is nicotinate and n = 0–4.5, have been synthesized. Characterization and thermal behaviour of these compounds were investigated employing elemental analysis based on the mass losses observed in the TG–DTA curves, complexometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. The thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid and its sodium salt was also investigated. For the hydrated transition metal compounds, the dehydration and thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occur in a single step. For the sodium nicotinate, the final residue up to 765 °C is sodium carbonate and for the transition metal nicotinates, the final residues are Mn 3 O 4 , Fe 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO and ZnO. The results also provided information concerning the thermal stability, thermal decomposition and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the thermal decomposition of the compounds

  10. Feasibility of a computerized intervention for offenders with substance use disorders: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Michael; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Marsch, Lisa A; Belenko, Steven; Leukefeld, Carl; Prendergast, Michael; French, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that treatment is effective in reducing recidivism among inmates with substance use problems, scarce resources mean that few of those in need of treatment actually receive it. Computerized substance abuse interventions could be used to expand access to treatment in prisons without placing an undue burden on resources. The major aim of the study was to compare treatment conditions in terms of their service utilization, skills acquisition, and treatment satisfaction. The study recruited men and women with substance use disorders from 10 prisons in 4 states. In an open label clinical trial, 494 subjects were randomly assigned either to the Experimental condition, a computerized drug treatment intervention, the Therapeutic Education System (TES; n  = 249), or to the Control condition, Standard Care ( n  = 245). Chi-square tests compared groups on categorical variables and independent samples t tests were used for interval level continuous variables. Initial evidence demonstrated: (1) comparable group rates of session attendance and high rates of TES module completion for experimental subjects; (2) comparable group gains in the development of coping skills; and (3) a more favorable view of TES than of Standard Care . Collectively, these results show that a computerized intervention, such as TES, can be implemented successfully in prison. Given the barriers to the delivery of substance abuse treatment typically encountered in correctional settings, computerized interventions have the potential to fill a significant treatment gap and are particularly well suited to inmates with mild to moderate substance use disorders who often are not treated.

  11. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, I.M.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  12. T-type calcium channel antagonism decreases motivation for nicotine and blocks nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Vardigan, Joshua D; Drott, Jason M; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lee, Ariel; Li, Zhaoxia; Lê, A D; Hutson, Pete H

    2010-10-15

    Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine delivery (n = 11 or 12 Long Evans rats/group). Furthermore, we examined the specificity of the TTA-A2 effects by characterizing its influence on PR responding for food (in the absence or presence of nicotine-potentiated responding), food- versus nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food administration (n = 11 or 12 Wistar Hannover rats/group), and its ability to induce a conditioned place aversion. TTA-A2 dose-dependently decreased self-administration of nicotine on a PR schedule and the ability of both nicotine and a cue paired with nicotine to reinstate responding. The effects were specific for nicotine's incentive motivational properties, as TTA-A2 did not influence responding for food on a PR schedule but did attenuate the ability of nicotine to potentiate responding for food. Likewise, TTA-A2 did not alter food-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food but did decrease nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement. Finally, TTA-A2 did not produce an aversive state, as indicated by a lack of ability to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  14. Degradation of Nicotine in Chlorinated Water: Pathways and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The objective of the study is to illustrate how drinking water would affect alkaloid pesticides, and to address the issue by (a) investigating the fate of nicotine in chlorinated drinking water and deionized water, (b) determining the reaction rate and pathway of the reaction between nicotine and aqueous chlorine, (c) identifying nicotine’s degradation products, and (d) providing data that can be used to assess the potential threat from nicotine in drinking water.

  15. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolite types, from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Stošić Dušan K.; Dondur Vera T.; Rac Vladislav A.; Rakić Vesna M.; Zakrzewska Joanna S.

    2007-01-01

    The plant alkaloid, nicotine, is a strongly toxic heterocyclic compound: the lethal dose for an adult human being (40-60 mg) is importantly lower in comparison with the other known poisons such as arsenic or strychni­ne. Cigarettes represent "the most toxic and addictive form of nicotine". Besides the negative effects of nicotine on public health produced by self-administration, recently another potentially very dangerous effect has been recognized: because of its miscibility with water, nico...

  16. Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Denaro, C.; Jenkins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The stable isotope-labeled compound 3',3'-dideuteronicotine was used to investigate the disposition kinetics of nicotine in smokers, the systemic absorption of nicotine from cigarette smoke, and the bioavailability of nicotine ingested as oral capsules. Blood levels of labeled nicotine could be measured for 9 hours after a 30-minute intravenous infusion. Analysis of disposition kinetics in 10 healthy men revealed a multiexponential decline after the end of an infusion, with an elimination half-life averaging 203 minutes. This half-life was longer than that previously reported, indicating the presence of a shallow elimination phase. Plasma clearance averaged 14.6 ml/min/kg. The average intake of nicotine per cigarette was 2.29 mg. A cigarette smoke-monitoring system that directly measured particulate matter in smoke was evaluated in these subjects. Total particulate matter, number of puffs on the cigarette, total puff volume, and time of puffing correlated with the intake of nicotine from smoking. The oral bioavailability of nicotine averaged 44%. This bioavailability is higher than expected based on the systemic clearance of nicotine and suggests that there may be significant extrahepatic metabolism of nicotine

  17. Nasal nicotine solution: a potential aid to giving up smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Fernö, O

    1983-01-01

    A nasal solution was developed containing 2 mg nicotine for use as a kind of liquid snuff. Its absorption was studied in three subjects. An average peak of plasma nicotine concentrations of 86.9 nmol/l (14.1 ng/ml) was reached seven and a half minutes after taking the solution. This compared with an average peak of 158.4 nmol/l (25.7 ng/ml) one and a half minutes after completing (but seven and a half minutes after starting) a middle tar cigarette (1.4 mg nicotine) and an average peak of 52.4 nmol/l (8.5 ng/ml) after chewing nicotine gum (2 mg nicotine) for 30 minutes. The more rapid and efficient absorption of nicotine from the nasal nicotine solution than from nicotine chewing gum suggests that it might prove a useful aid to giving up smoking. Nasal nicotine solution might be particularly useful in smokers for whom the gum is less suitable on account of dentures or peptic ulcers or who experience nausea and dyspeptic symptoms from the gum. PMID:6402202

  18. Nicotine facilitates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targeting to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenska, Kateryna; Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Chernyshov, Volodymyr; Arias, Hugo R; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2017-08-24

    Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in mitochondria to regulate the internal pathway of apoptosis in ion channel-independent manner. However, the mechanisms of nAChR activation in mitochondria and targeting to mitochondria are still unknown. Nicotine has been shown to favor nAChR pentamer assembly, folding, and maturation on the way of biosynthesis. The idea of the present work was to determine whether nicotine affects the content, glycosylation, and function of mitochondrial nAChRs. Experiments were performed in isolated liver mitochondria from mice, that either consumed or not nicotine with the drinking water (200μL/L) for 7days. Mitochondria detergent lysates were studied by sandwich or lectin ELISA for the presence and carbohydrate composition of different nAChR subunits. Intact mitochondria were examined by flow cytometry for the binding of fluorescently labeled α-cobratoxin and were tested in functional assay of cytochrome c release under the effect of either Ca 2+ or wortmannin in the presence or absence of nAChR-selective ligands, including PNU-282987 (1nM), dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE, 1μM), PNU-120596 (0.3, 3, or 10μM) and desformylflustrabromine hydrochloride (dFBr, 0.001, 0.3, or 1μM). It was found that nicotine consumption increased the ratio of mitochondrial vs non-mitochondrial nAChRs in the liver, enhanced fucosylation of mitochondrial nAChRs, but prevented the binding of α-cobratoxin and the cytochrome c release-attenuating effects of nAChR-specific agonists, antagonists, or positive allosteric modulators. It is concluded that nicotine consumption in vivo favors nAChR glycosylation and trafficking to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to the effects of specific ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Menthol Enhances Nicotine Reward-Related Behavior by Potentiating Nicotine-Induced Changes in nAChR Function, nAChR Upregulation, and DA Neuron Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; McKinney, Sheri; Lester, Henry A

    2017-11-01

    Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates nAChR number and function on midbrain DA neurons more than nicotine alone. Menthol also enhances nicotine-induced changes in DA neuron excitability. In a conditioned place preference (CPP) assay, we observed that menthol plus nicotine produces greater reward-related behavior than nicotine alone. Our results connect changes in midbrain DA neurons to menthol-induced enhancements of nicotine reward-related behavior and may help explain how smokers of menthol cigarettes exhibit reduced cessation rates.

  20. Association of nicotine metabolism and sex with relapse following varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Anaïs; Dobrinas, Maria; Gholamrezaee, Mehdi; Lubomirov, Rubin; Cornuz, Jacques; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine is metabolized into cotinine and then into trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6. Recent studies reported better effectiveness of varenicline in women and in nicotine normal metabolizers phenotypically determined by nicotine-metabolite ratio. Our objective was to study the influence of nicotine-metabolite ratio, CYP2A6 genotype and sex on the response to nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study which included smokers participating in a smoking cessation program. Response to treatment was defined by the absence of relapse when a set threshold of reduction in cigarettes per day relative to the week before the study was no more reached. The analysis considered total and partial reduction defined by a diminution of 100% and of 90% in cigarettes per day, respectively. The hazard ratio of relapsing was estimated in multivariate Cox regression models including the sex and the nicotine metabolism determined by the phenotype or by CYP2A6 genotyping (rs1801272 and rs28399433). In the normal metabolizers determined by phenotyping and in women, the hazard ratio for relapsing was significantly lower with varenicline for a partial decrease (HR = 0.33, 95% CI [0.12, 0.89] and HR = 0.20, 95% CI [0.04, 0.91], respectively) and nonsignificantly lower for a total cessation (HR = 0.45, 95% CI [0.20, 1.0] and HR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.14, 1.0]). When compared with the normal metabolizers determined by phenotyping, the hazard ratio for a partial decrease was similar in the normal metabolizers determined by genotyping (HR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.18, 0.94]) while it was significantly lower with varenicline for a total cessation (HR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.26, 0.98]). Women and normal nicotine metabolizers may benefit more from varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  2. Effects of a selective cannabinoid CB2 agonist and antagonist on intravenous nicotine self administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Gamaleddin

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there have been significant advances in the discovery and understanding of the cannabinoid system along with the development of pharmacologic tools that modulate its function. Characterization of the crosstalk between nicotine addiction and the cannabinoid system may have significant implications on our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. Two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 have been identified. CB1 receptors are expressed in the brain and modulate drug taking and drug seeking for various drugs of abuse, including nicotine. CB2 receptors have been recently identified in the brain and have been proposed to play a functional role in mental disorders and drug addiction. Our objective was to explore the role of CB2 receptors on intravenous nicotine self administration under two schedules of reinforcement (fixed and progressive ratio and on nicotine seeking induced by nicotine priming or by nicotine associated cues. For this, we evaluated the effects of various doses of the selective CB2 antagonist AM630 (1.25 to 5 mg/kg and CB2 agonist AM1241 (1 to 10 mg/kg on these behavioral responses in rats. Different groups of male Long Evans rats were trained to lever press for nicotine at a unit dose of 30 µg/kg/infusion. Subsequently, animals were randomized using a Latin-square design and injected with either AM1241 or AM630 using a counterbalanced within subject design. Administration of the CB2 ligands did not affect either nicotine-taking nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results do not support the involvement of CB2 receptors in nicotine-taking or nicotine-seeking behavior.

  3. Smoking practices and nicotine dependence among adolescents in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the smoking prevalence and associated factors among in-school and out-of-school adolescents and their nicotine dependence. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2008 comprising 1014 adolescents aged 12-18 years residing in two rural districts of Sindh and Punjab. Trained interviewers collected information from the adolescents regarding age, ethnicity, religion, occupation and education of parents, smoking behaviour, smoking history of family/friend, type of family system, number of siblings and place of residence. Statistical package Epi-Info version 6 was used to enter the data and analysis was performed by using SPSS version 12. Results: Overall smoking prevalence among the 1014 adolescents was 15.2%, with significant gender stratification (7.9% among girls versus 20.2% among boys). Of these, 50% were moderately nicotine dependent. However, the prevalence among in-school adolescents (14.6%) was not significantly different from out-of-school adolescents (16.1%). The factors associated with adolescents smoking were father's illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [OR]= 8.2), friend's smoking (adjusted OR=6.8), father's smoking (adjusted OR=5.4) and nuclear family setup (adjusted OR=3.6). When explored for the first place of smoking, friend's home was mentioned by majority of adolescents boys and girls. Conclusion: Although there was a significant difference found between the prevalence of smoking among adolescent males and females, but any difference among in-school and out-of-school adolescents smoking prevalence could not be established. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic and computerized tomographic semiotics of cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishkovskij, A.N.; Kuznetsov, S.V.; Fadeev, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 447 patients with suspected cholelithiasis were examined by means of routine X-ray methods, ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT).Of them in 104 (23.3%) chole- and/or choledocholithiasis were later confirmed. An US and CT-picture of the biliferous tracts in health were described.In cholelithiasis during US examination echogenic concrements producing a stable acoustic shadow were defined in the gall bladder cavity and/or in the biliferous ducts. A study was made of the features of the US picture with relation to size, quantity, echodensity and grouping of concrements in the biliferous ducts. CT-symptomatology of cholelithiasis was described

  5. Computerized tomography in radiodiagnosis of pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyareva, I.A.; Mamaev, V.V.; Savchenko, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in the use of computerized tomography (CT) in combined radiodiagnosis of pneumonia was analysed. It has been concluded that CT objectively reflects morphological inflammatory changes and permits their all-round assessment over time. The diagnosis of pneumonia in CT is based on classical x-ray symptoms. As compared to survery radiography CT reveals symptoms of pneumonia to the full at earlier stages. CT is an important additional method of investigation of inflammatory pulmonary diseases but it should not be used separately without survey radiography. In a majority of cases when CT is performed there is no need in x-ray tomography

  6. Visualization in the age of computerization

    CERN Document Server

    Carusi, Annamaria; Webmoor, Timothy; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Digitalization and computerization are now pervasive in science. This has deep consequences for our understanding of scientific knowledge and of the scientific process, and challenges longstanding assumptions and traditional frameworks of thinking of scientific knowledge. Digital media and computational processes challenge our conception of the way in which perception and cognition work in science, of the objectivity of science, and the nature of scientific objects. They bring about new relationships between science, art and other visual media, and new ways of practicing science and organizing

  7. Development of a computerized tomographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.; Santos, C.A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory at COPPE/UFRJ has been developing techniques for detection and applications of nuclear radiations. A lot of research work has been done and resulted in several M.Sc. and D.Sc. thesis, concerning subjects like neutrongraphy, gammagraphy, image reconstruction, special detectors, etc. Recent progress and multiple applications of the computerized tomography to medical and industrial non-destructive tests, pushed the Laboratory to a vast program in this field of research. In this paper, we report what has been done and the results obtained. (Author) [pt

  8. Computerized tomography in diagnosis of cerebrocranial injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornienko, V.N.; Vasin, N.Ya.; Kuz'menko, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The method of computerized tomographical examination are presented. Th KT-characters of concussion of the brain, its contusion of different severity, compressions in case of traumatic intracranial hematomas, contusion injuries, brain edema and different aftereffects of cerebrocranial injury are given. On the basis of comparison of the data of clinical and KT examination the dynamics of intracranial traumatic injuries in the course of treatment is described. The problems of therapeutic and surgical tactics depending on the degree and form of intracranial structure injuries and the phase of clinical course of posttraumatic process are discussed

  9. Computerized abdominal tomography in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchikura, Keiko; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Akihisa; Ono, Yasuhiko

    1986-05-01

    Cranial and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) was performed in a 10-year-old boy with Wilson's disease complicated by liver cirrhosis. Abdominal CT showed diffuse high density areas over the whole part of the liver propably due to copper sediments, although there was no abnormal cranial CT findings. Decreased high density area of the liver was seen 60 days after the administration of D-penicillamine, suggesting the excretion of copper from the liver. Abdominal CT, as well as cranial CT, may be of help to diagnose Wilson's disease and evaluate therapeutic effects. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  11. Nicotine addiction management following surgery: a quality improvement approach in the post anesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Barry A; Roblin, Daniel; Hammal, Fadi

    2018-03-14

    For smokers, hospital admission is accompanied by forced involuntary nicotine abstinence due to smoke-free site/grounds policies. An audit of patients admitted to our surgical wards revealed that identification of smoking status was inadequate and that nicotine addiction management (NAM) was infrequently offered. The project aimed to enhance both these metrics by initiating NAM in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Out of 744 patients admitted to our PACU in August 2015, 54% had their smoking status documented. The 200 patients (27%) out of the 744 were smokers and only 50% were offered NAM before discharge. PACU unit staff to determine the smoking status of every patient before discharge from the PACU (later changed to OR nursing staff) and, if a patient was identified as a smoker, to offer NRT (patch and mouth spray only) and initiate therapy prior to transfer of the patient to the ward. Data about number of patients admitted, presence of documented smoking status, number of identified smokers, and number offered/accepted nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were collected at baseline and thereafter quarterly. Engaging video education sessions addressed the education gaps highlighted in a needs assessment. Identification of smoking status was made part of preoperative checklist and NRT was made available in post-operative recovery room. These interventions resulted in an increase in screening for tobacco use from 54% at baseline to 95% and the offer of NRT to smokers from 50 to 89%.

  12. Age influence on attitudes of office workers faced with new computerized technologies: a questionnaire analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, J C; Thon, B; Baracat, B

    1994-06-01

    The study of Bue and Gollac (1988) provided evidence that a significantly lower proportion of workers aged 45 years and over make use of computer technology compared with younger ones. The aim of the present survey was to explain this fact by a more intensive analysis of the older workers' attitude with respect to the computerization of work situations in relation to other individual and organizational factors. Six hundred and twenty office workers from 18 to 70 years old, either users or non-users of computerized devices, were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questions allowed the assessment of various aspects of the workers' current situation, such as the computer training they had received, the degree of consultation they were subjected to during the computerization process, their representation of the effects of these new technologies on working conditions and employment, the rate of use of new technologies outside the work context, and the perceived usefulness of computers for their own work. The analysis of the questionnaire revealed that as long as the step towards using computer tools, even minimally, has not been taken, then attitudes with respect to computerization are on the whole not very positive and are a source of anxiety for many workers. Age, and even more, seniority in the department, increase such negative representations. The effects of age and seniority were also found among users, as well as the effects of other factors such as qualification, education level, type and rate of computer use, and size of the firm. For the older workers, the expectation of less positive consequences for their career, or even the fear that computerization might be accompanied by threats to their own employment and the less clear knowledge of how computers operate, appeared to account for a significant part of the observed age and seniority differences in attitudes. Although the difference in the amount of computer training between age groups was smaller than

  13. Nicotine and endogenous opioids: neurochemical and pharmacological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiconstantinou, Maria; Neff, Norton H

    2011-06-01

    Although the mesolimbic dopamine hypothesis is the most influential theory of nicotine reward and reinforcement, there has been a consensus that other neurotransmitter systems contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine as well. In this regard, the brain opioidergic system is of interest. Striatum is rich in opioid peptides and opioid receptors, and striatal opioidergic neurons are engaged in a bidirectional communication with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, closely regulating each other's activity. Enkephalins and dynorphins exert opposing actions on dopaminergic neurons, increasing and decreasing dopamine release respectively, and are components of circuits promoting positive or negative motivational and affective states. Moreover, dopamine controls the synthesis of striatal enkephalins and dynorphins. Evidence suggests that opioidergic function is altered after nicotine and endogenous opioids are involved in nicotine's behavioral effects. 1) The synthesis and release of β-endorphin, met-enkephalin and dynorphin in brain, especially nucleus accumbens (NAc), are altered after acute or chronic nicotine treatment and during nicotine withdrawal. 2) Although opioid receptor binding and mRNA do not appear to change in the striatum during nicotine withdrawal, the activity of κ-opioid (KOPr) and δ-opioid (DOPr) receptors is attenuated in NAc. 3) The nicotine withdrawal syndrome reminisces that of opiates, and naloxone precipitates some of its somatic, motivational, and affective signs. 4) Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that μ-opioid (MOPr) receptors are mainly involved in nicotine reward, while DOPrs contribute to the emotional and KOPrs to the aversive responses of nicotine. 5) Finally, MOPrs and enkephalin, but not β-endorphin or dynorphin, are necessary for the physical manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  14. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low.

  15. Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J.

    1995-01-01

    DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems

  16. Patient surface doses in computerized tomography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekic, B; Kovacevic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duvnjak, N.; Marusic, P.; Anic, P.; Dolencic, P.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic value of computerized tomography has increased due to very rapid technical advances in both equipment and techniques. When the CT scanners were introduced, a significant problem for the specification of the radiation dose imparted to the patient undergoing CT examination has been created. In CT, the conditions of exposure are quite different from those in conventional X-ray imaging. CT procedure involves the continuous tomography of thin layers. Some of these layers touch each other while others overlap. The radiation doses received by patients can vary considerably. In addition to the radiation from the collimated primary beam, patients are exposed to significant scattered doses in unpredictable amounts. Every effort should be made to keep these doses to a reasonable minimum, without sacrificing the image quality. The aims of this work were to determine the surface doses delivered to various organs of patients during various computerized tomography examinations (head, thorax, kidney, abdomen and pelvis). Particular attention was directed to the precise determination of doses received by the eyes (during CT of head) and gonads (during CT of pelvis and lower abdomen) since these organs can be near or even in the primary X-ray beam

  17. Computerized tomographic in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    The process of computerized tomography has been developed for medical imaging purposes using tomographs with X-ray, and little attention has been given to others possibles applications of technique, because of its cost. As an alternative for the problem, we constructed a Tomographic System (STAC-1), using gamma-rays, for nonmedical applications. In this work we summarize the basic theory of reconstructing images using computerized tomography and we describe the considerations leading to the development of the experimental system. The method of reconstruction image implanted in the system is the filtered backprojection or convolution, with a digital filters system to carried on a pre-filtering in the projections. The experimental system is described, with details of control and the data processing. An alternative and a complementary system, using film as a detector is shown in preliminary form . This thesis discuss and shows the theorical and practical aspects, considered in the construction of the STAC-1, and also its limitations and apllications [pt

  18. A prototype of a computerized patient record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelhard, K; Eckel, R; Hölzel, D; Tretter, W

    1995-01-01

    Computerized medical record systems (CPRS) should present user and problem oriented views of the patient file. Problem lists, clinical course, medication profiles and results of examinations have to be recorded in a computerized patient record. Patient review screens should give a synopsis of the patient data to inform whenever the patient record is opened. Several different types of data have to be stored in a patient record. Qualitative and quantitative measurements, narratives and images are such examples. Therefore, a CPR must also be able to handle these different data types. New methods and concepts appear frequently in medicine. Thus a CPRS must be flexible enough to cope with coming demands. We developed a prototype of a computer based patient record with a graphical user interface on a SUN workstation. The basis of the system are a dynamic data dictionary, an interpreter language and a large set of basic functions. This approach gives optimal flexibility to the system. A lot of different data types are already supported. Extensions are easily possible. There is also almost no limit concerning the number of medical concepts that can be handled by our prototype. Several applications were built on this platform. Some of them are presented to exemplify the patient and problem oriented handling of the CPR.

  19. Discriminating nicotine and non-nicotine containing e-liquids using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Barhdadi, S; Courselle, P

    2016-02-20

    In a few countries, including Belgium, nicotine-containing e-cigarettes and e-liquids are considered medicines, and therefore cannot freely be sold, but should be distributed in a pharmacy. The fact that in the neighbouring countries these products are freely available, poses a problem for custom personnel, the more the nicotine content of the products is not always labelled, especially when they are bought through internet. Therefore there is a need for easy-to-use equipment and methods to perform a first on site screening of intercepted samples, both for border control as to check label compliance of the sample. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), combined with chemometrics was evaluated for the discrimination between nicotine containing and non-nicotine containing samples. It could be concluded that both ATR-IR and NIR could be used for the discrimination when combined with the appropriate chemometric techniques. The presented techniques do not need sample preparation and result in models with a minimum of false negative samples. If a large enough training set can be established the interpretation can be fully automated, making the presented approach suitable for on-site screening of e-liquid samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Nicotine Concentration on Plasma Nicotine and Puff Topography in Tobacco Cigarette Smokers: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Hiler, Marzena M; Soule, Eric K; Ramôa, Carolina P; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Lipato, Thokozeni; Breland, Alison B; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine in various concentrations. This study examined the extent to which ECIG liquid nicotine concentration is related to user plasma nicotine concentration in ECIG-naïve tobacco cigarette smokers. Sixteen ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed four laboratory sessions that differed by the nicotine concentration of the liquid (0, 8, 18, or 36 mg/ml) that was placed into a 1.5 Ohm, dual coil "cartomizer" powered by a 3.3V battery. In each session, participants completed two, 10-puff ECIG use bouts with a 30-second inter-puff interval; bouts were separated by 60 minutes. Venous blood was sampled before and after bouts for later analysis of plasma nicotine concentration; puff duration, volume, and average flow rate were measured during each bout. In bout 1, relative to the 0mg/ml nicotine condition (mean = 3.8 ng/ml, SD = 3.3), plasma nicotine concentration increased significantly immediately after the bout for the 8 (mean = 8.8 ng/ml, SD = 6.3), 18 (mean = 13.2 ng/ml, SD = 13.2), and 36 mg/ml (mean = 17.0 ng/ml, SD = 17.9) liquid concentration. A similar pattern was observed after bout 2. Average puff duration in the 36 mg/ml condition was significantly shorter compared to the 0mg/ml nicotine condition. Puff volume increased during the second bout for 8 and 18 mg/ml conditions. For a given ECIG device, nicotine delivery may be directly related to liquid concentration. ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers can, from their first use bout, attain cigarette-like nicotine delivery profiles with some currently available ECIG products. Liquid nicotine concentration can influence plasma nicotine concentration in ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers, and, at some concentrations, the nicotine delivery profile of a 3.3V ECIG with a dual coil, 1.5-Ohm cartomizer approaches that of a combustible tobacco cigarette in this

  1. The effects of nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole rodent model of psychosis: Neural plasticity mechanisms and nicotinic receptor changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Daniel J; Gill, W Drew; Dose, John M; Hoover, Donald B; Pauly, James R; Cummins, Elizabeth D; Burgess, Katherine C; Brown, Russell W

    2017-05-15

    Neonatal quinpirole (NQ) treatment to rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity persistent throughout the animal's lifetime. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the role of α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine behavioral sensitization and on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response to nicotine in NQ- and neonatally saline (NS)-treated rats. In Experiment 2, we analyzed changes in α7 and α4β2 nAChR density in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsal striatum in NQ and NS animals sensitized to nicotine. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were neonatally treated with quinpirole (1mg/kg) or saline from postnatal days (P)1-21. Animals were given ip injections of either saline or nicotine (0.5mg/kg free base) every second day from P33 to P49 and tested on behavioral sensitization. Before each injection, animals were ip administered the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 2 or 4mg/kg) or the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro beta erythroidine (DhβE; 1 or 3mg/kg). Results revealed NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization that was blocked by DhβE. MLA blocked the enhanced nicotine sensitization in NQ animals, but did not block nicotine sensitization. NQ enhanced the NAcc BDNF response to nicotine which was blocked by both antagonists. In Experiment 2, NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization and enhanced α4β2, but not α7, nAChR upregulation in the NAcc. These results suggest a relationship between accumbal BDNF and α4β2 nAChRs and their role in the behavioral response to nicotine in the NQ model which has relevance to schizophrenia, a behavioral disorder with high rates of tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Attenuated nicotine‐like effects of varenicline but not other nicotinic ACh receptor agonists in monkeys receiving nicotine daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin S; Moerke, Megan J; Javors, Martin A; Carroll, F Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic treatment can differentially impact the effects of pharmacologically related drugs that differ in receptor selectivity and efficacy. Experimental Approach The impact of daily nicotine treatment on the effects of nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) agonists was examined in two groups of rhesus monkeys discriminating nicotine (1.78 mg·kg−1 base weight) from saline. One group received additional nicotine treatment post‐session (1.78 mg·kg−1 administered five times daily, each dose 2 h apart; i.e. Daily group), and the second group did not (Intermittent group). Key Results Daily repeated nicotine treatment produced a time‐related increase in saliva cotinine. There was no significant difference in the ED50 values of the nicotine discriminative stimulus between the Daily and Intermittent group. Mecamylamine antagonized the effects of nicotine, whereas dihydro‐β‐erythroidine did not. Midazolam produced 0% nicotine‐lever responding. The nAChR agonists epibatidine, RTI‐36, cytisine and varenicline produced >96% nicotine‐lever responding in the Intermittent group. The respective maximum effects in the Daily group were 100, 72, 59 and 28%, which shows that the ability of varenicline to produce nicotine‐like responding was selectively decreased in the Daily as compared with the Intermittent group. When combined with nicotine, both varenicline and cytisine increased the potency of nicotine to produce discriminative stimulus effects. Conclusion and Implications Nicotine treatment has a greater impact on the sensitivity to the effects of varenicline as compared with some other nAChR agonists. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that varenicline differs from nicotine in its selectivity for multiple nAChR subtypes. PMID:27667659

  3. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Moysidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  4. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    several days. Absorbed nicotine was significantly lower after showering in 1 subject but not the other. Differences in the normalized uptakes and in the excretion patterns were observed among the participants. The observed cotinine half-lives suggest that non-smokers exposed to airborne nicotine may...

  5. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saadat Seyedeh Nazanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32 were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05. Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05. This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis

  6. Effect Of Nicotine And Tobacco Consumption On Brain Acetyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nicotine and tobacco consumption on brain acetyl cholinesterase and serum alkaline phosphatase in rats was studied. Rats were divided into three groups and the first group was fed rat chow and water ad libitum and an oral administration of 2ml of 0.1%(v/v) nicotine per 100g body weight of rats per day.

  7. Neurotensin Agonist Attenuates Nicotine Potentiation to Cocaine Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fredrickson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a “gateway drug”. Neurotensin (NT is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13 analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  8. Adrenergic Component of Nicotine Antinociception in Rats | Ibironke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biomedical Research ... Abstract. It has been widely established that nicotine , the active pharmacological agent in tobacco has antinociceptive effects , but the mechanism of this activity is yet to be fully ... These findings suggest the involvement of the adrenergic system in nicotine induced antinociception .

  9. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  10. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Haruhiro; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Saji, Hideo; Konishi, Junji

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using 3 H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of 125 I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions

  11. Nicotine affects protein complex rearrangement in Caenorhabditis elegans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowiak, Robert; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Lesicki, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting. As a result, we identified dozens of C. elegans proteins that are present exclusively or in higher abundance in either nicotine-treated or untreated worms. Based on these results, we report a possible network that captures the key protein components of nicotine-induced protein complexes and speculate how the different protein modules relate to their distinct physiological roles. Using functional annotation of detected proteins, we hypothesize that the identified complexes can modulate the energy metabolism and level of oxidative stress. These proteins can also be involved in modulation of gene expression and may be crucial in Alzheimer's disease. The findings reported in our study reveal putative intracellular interactions of many proteins with the cytoskeleton and may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling and trafficking in cells.

  12. Pulse radiolysis study on aqueous solution of nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shilong; Mei Wang; Ni Yaming; Yao Side; Wang Wenfeng

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine has been studied for the first time by pulse radiolysis techniques. It has been found that hydrated electrons, hydrogen radicals and hydroxyl radicals can react with nicotine to produce anion radicals and neutral radicals, respectively, and the related rate constants have been determined. (authors)

  13. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 ...

  14. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  15. Voltammetric determination of nicotine in cigarette tobacco at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behavior of nicotine was investigated using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques. Electrochemical activation of glassy carbon electrode significantly increased the oxidation peak current of nicotine compared to the bare glassy carbon. At the activated glassy carbon electrode, the square ...

  16. Effect Of Nicotine Administration On Weight And Histology Of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: It has been emphasized that cigarette smoking is not always synonymous with nicotine administration but the toxic effect of cigarette has often been associated with the nicotine content in cigarette. Epidemiologic studies have clearly indicated that cigarette smoking have many deleterious effects on visceral ...

  17. Counterfeit Electronic Cigarette Products with Mislabeled Nicotine Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaiye, Esther E; Cordova, Iliana; Davis, Barbara; Talbot, Prue

    2017-07-01

    We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products. Whereas nicotine was in 51.7% (15/29) of the Nigerian, 3.7% (1/27) of the Chinese and 1.6% (1/61) of the American refill fluids (range = 0.4 - 20.4 mg/mL), 8 British products did not contain nicotine. Products from China, the US, and Nigeria with trace amounts of nicotine (0.4 to 0.6 mg/mL) were authentic; however, all products from Nigeria with more than 3.7 mg/mL were counterfeit. We introduce 2 novel issues in the e-cigarette industry, the production of counterfeit refill fluids under a brandjacked label and inclusion of nicotine in 81.3% of the counterfeit products labeled 0 mg/mL. This study emphasizes the need for better control and monitoring of nicotine containing products and sales outlets.

  18. Epidemiology, radiology, and genetics of nicotine dependence in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokanson John E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the principal environmental risk factor for developing COPD, and nicotine dependence strongly influences smoking behavior. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between nicotine dependence, genetic susceptibility to nicotine dependence, and volumetric CT findings in smokers. Methods Current smokers with COPD (GOLD stage ≥ 2 or normal spirometry were analyzed from the COPDGene Study, a prospective observational study. Nicotine dependence was determined by the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND. Volumetric CT acquisitions measuring the percent of emphysema on inspiratory CT (% of lung Results Among 842 currently smoking subjects (335 COPD cases and 507 controls, 329 subjects (39.1% showed high nicotine dependence. Subjects with high nicotine dependence had greater cumulative and current amounts of smoking. However, emphysema severity was negatively correlated with the FTND score in controls (ρ = -0.19, p Conclusions Nicotine dependence was a negative predictor for emphysema on CT in COPD and control smokers. Increased inflammation in more highly addicted current smokers could influence the CT lung density distribution, which may influence genetic association studies of emphysema phenotypes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT00608764

  19. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  20. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  1. The Activity and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Nicotine from Tobacco at Moderate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.Charles F. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vapor pressure of nicotine has been reported for unprotonated nicotine and for nicotine-water solutions. Yet no published values exist for nicotine in any commercially relevant matrix or for protonated forms (e.g., tobacco, smoke, electronic cigarette solutions, nicotine replacement products, nicotine salts. Therefore a methodology was developed to measure nicotine activity (defined as the vapor pressure from a matrix divided by the vapor pressure of pure nicotine. The headspace concentration of nicotine was measured for pure nicotine and tobacco stored at 23, 30, and 40 °C which allowed for conversion to vapor pressure and nicotine activity and for the estimation of enthalpy of vaporization. Burley, Flue-cured, Oriental, and cigarette blends were tested. Experiments were conducted with pure nicotine initially until the storage and sampling techniques were validated by comparison with previously published values. We found that the nicotine activity from tobacco was less than 1% with Burley > Flue-cured > Oriental. At 23 °C the nicotine vapor pressure averaged by tobacco type was 0.45 mPa for Oriental tobacco, 1.8 mPa for Flue-cured, 13 mPa for Burley while pure nicotine was 2.95 Pa. In general, the nicotine activity increased as the (calculated unprotonated nicotine concentration increased. The nicotine enthalpy of vaporization from tobacco ranged from 77 kJ/mol to 92 kJ/mol with no obvious trends with regard to tobacco origin, type, stalk position or even the wide range of nicotine activity. The mean value for all tobacco types was 86.7 kJ/mol with a relative standard deviation of 6.5% indicating that this was an intrinsic property of the nicotine form in tobacco rather than the specific tobacco properties. This value was about 30 kJ/mol greater than that of pure nicotine and is similar to the energy needed to remove a proton from monoprotonated nicotine.

  2. Development of a computerized adaptive test for Schizotypy assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.

  3. Radiographic analysis of body composition by computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic methods of evaluating body composition have been applied for over five decades. A marked improvement in this approach occurred in the mid-nineteen-seventies with the introduction of computerized axial tomography. High image contrast, cross-sectional imaging and rapid computerized data processing make this technique a sophisticated clinically applicable tool. (author)

  4. Direct coronary and sagittal computerized tomography of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.; Bargon, G.

    1981-01-01

    Whereas quite a number of reports have been published on direct coronary and sagittal computed tomography of the cranium, no extensive experience has been collected on multidimensional computerized tomography of the pelvis. In this article, the authors report on their preliminary experiences in direct approximately sagittal and coronary computerized tomography of the pelvis in a group of 76 patients. (orig.) [de

  5. Computerized tomography in evaluation of the pulmonary hilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secaf, M.; Ferreira, J.L.N.; Secaf, E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of computerized tomography as a method for evaluating the pulmonary hilum and its application in the diagnosis of endobronchial lesions, hilar masss, contiguous involvement of the mediastinum by hilar mass, and vascular hilar lesions are discussed. A comparative evaluation between conventional tomograms and computerized tomography is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. T100. NICOTINE USE IMPACTS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hianna; Coutinho, Luccas; Higuchi, Cinthia; Noto, Cristiano; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Nicotine use is higher among patients with schizophrenia (50–98%) than in general population (25–30%). This association can reflect a non-specific liability to substance use or specific effects of tobacco on symptoms severity or side effects. Studies about nicotine use and schizophrenia symptoms dimensions are controversial. Some of them showed a relation between severe nicotine use and higher positive symptoms and others presented a correlation between lower negative symptoms and nicotine use. That is why we aimed to verify whether nicotine use is associated with symptoms dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Two hundred and seven outpatients were enrolled from the Programa de Esquizofrenia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (PROESQ/UNIFESP). Schizophrenia diagnosis was confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Dimensional psychopathology was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. The PANSS items were grouped in five dimensions: positive, negative, disorganized/cognitive, mood/depression and excitement/hostility. The total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was the index used for severity in nicotine dependence. We used Wilcoxon-mann- whitney test to compare the means of PANSS dimensions between nicotine users versus non nicotine use. Results The patients mean age was 36.75 (SD 10.648), 69.1% were male, 48.3% reported lifetime tobacco use and 34.3% reported current tobacco use. Lower scores on negative dimension were associated with nicotine use (W = 5642.5, p-value = 0.046, effect size = 0.446). All p-values were corrected by Bonferroni test. Tests that evaluated the relationship between nicotine use and the total PANSS score or other dimensions were not statistically significant. Discussion This study shows that nicotine use impacts negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Increase in hepatic metabolism leading

  7. The Inter-Disciplinary Impact of Computerized Application of Spatial Visualization on Motor and Concentration Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present inter-disciplinary research is aimed at investigating the impact of computerized application of spatial visualization on motor and concentration skills. An experiment composed of experimental and control groups for checking the central hypothesis among subjects of the same age group was carried out by physical education MA students. Virtual simulations offer MA students and teachers the unique opportunity to observe and manipulate normally inaccessible objects, variables and processes in real time. The research design focused on a qualitative research comparing the pupils' percents of success in spatial visualization and motor skills between pre- and post- training. The findings showed that just as the students realized the experimental group pupils' achievements, the computer's inter-disciplinary impact on motor performance and concentration skills became clear to the MA students. The virtual computerized training based on spatial visualization mostly contributed to the inter-disciplinary research, physical education and communication. All the findings lead to the conclusion that computerized application of spatial visualization seem to mediate between virtual reality and developing motor skills in real time involving penalty kick, basketball, jumping, etc.

  8. E-cigarette versus nicotine inhaler: comparing the perceptions and experiences of inhaled nicotine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael B; Zimmermann, Mia Hanos; Delnevo, Cristine D; Lewis, M Jane; Shukla, Parth; Coups, Elliot J; Foulds, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Novel nicotine delivery products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), have dramatically grown in popularity despite limited data on safety and benefit. In contrast, the similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nicotine inhaler is rarely utilized by smokers. Understanding this paradox could be helpful to determine the potential for e-cigarettes as an alternative to tobacco smoking. To compare the e-cigarette with the nicotine inhaler in terms of perceived benefits, harms, appeal, and role in assisting with smoking cessation. A cross-over trial was conducted from 2012 to 2013 PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS: Forty-one current smokers age 18 and older used the e-cigarette and nicotine inhaler each for 3 days, in random order, with a washout period in between. Thirty-eight participants provided data on product use, perceptions, and experiences. The Modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ) measured satisfaction, reward, and aversion. Subjects were also asked about each product's helpfulness, similarity to cigarettes, acceptability, image, and effectiveness in quitting smoking. Cigarette use was also recorded during the product-use periods. The e-cigarette had a higher total satisfaction score (13.9 vs. 6.8 [p e-cigarette received higher ratings for helpfulness, acceptability, and "coolness." More subjects would use the e-cigarette to make a quit attempt (76 %) than the inhaler (24 %) (p e-cigarette vs. 10 % (4/38) using the inhaler (p = 0.18). The e-cigarette was more acceptable, provided more satisfaction, and had higher perceived benefit than the inhaler during this trial. E-cigarettes have the potential to be important nicotine delivery products owing to their high acceptance and perceived benefit, but more data are needed to evaluate their actual efficacy and safety. Providers should be aware of these issues, as patients will increasingly inquire about them.

  9. Nicotinic mechanisms influencing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andon Nicholas PLACZEK; Tao A ZHANG; John Anthony DANI

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed throughout the hippocampus, and nicotinic signaling plays an important role in neuronal function. In the context of learning and memory related behaviors associated with hippocampal function, a potentially significant feature of nAChR activity is the impact it has on synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons has long been considered a contributing cellular mechanism of learning and memory. These same kinds of cellular mechanisms are a factor in the development of nicotine addiction. Nicotinic signaling has been demonstrated by in vitro studies to affect synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons via multiple steps, and the signaling has also been shown to evoke synaptic plasticity in vivo. This review focuses on the nAChRs subtypes that contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity at the cellular and circuit level. It also considers nicotinic influences over long-term changes in the hippocampus that may contribute to addiction.

  10. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  11. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with n...... brain. Additionally, soluble recombinant Lypd6 protein attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents in rat brain slices and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells, suggesting that binding of Lypd6 is sufficient to inhibit n......AChR-mediated intracellular signaling. We further show that perinatal nicotine exposure in rats (4 mg/kg/day through minipumps to dams from embryonic day 7 to post-natal day 21) significantly increases Lypd6 protein levels in the hippocampus in adulthood, which did not occur after exposure to nicotine in adulthood only. Our...

  12. Revisiting nicotine's role in the ageing brain and cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majdi, Alireza; Kamari, Farzin; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi

    2017-01-01

    stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening...... in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology. Although nicotine has therapeutic potential, paradoxical effects have been reported, possibly due to its inverted U-shape dose-response effects or pharmacokinetic factors. Additionally, nicotine administration should result...... in optimum therapeutic effects without imparting abuse potential or toxicity. Overall, this review aims to compile the previous and most recent data on nicotine and its effects on cognition-related mechanisms and age-related cognitive impairment....

  13. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo...... was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6...... and the control group. CONCLUSION: Nicotine exposure in a short period of time did not have a significant impact on bone healing or implant osseointegration in rabbits....

  14. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.I.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  15. Transdermal nicotine absorption handling e-cigarette refill liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giovanni; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Passini, Valter; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Mauro, Marcella; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2016-02-01

    The concentrated nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquids can be toxic if inadvertently ingested or absorbed through the skin. Reports of poisonings due to accidental ingestion of nicotine on refill liquids are rapidly increasing, while the evaluation of nicotine dermally absorbed still lacks. For that reason we studied transdermal nicotine absorption after the skin contamination with e-liquid. Donor chambers of eight Franz diffusion cells were filled with 1 mL of 0.8 mg/mL nicotine e-liquid for 24 h. The concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LOD:0.1 μg/mL). Nicotine was detectable in receiving solution 2 h after the start of exposure and increased progressively. The medium flux calculated was 4.82 ± 1.05 μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 3.9 ± 0.1 h. After 24 h, the nicotine concentration in the receiving compartment was 101.02 ± 22.35 μg/cm(2) corresponding to 3.04 mg of absorbed nicotine after contamination of a skin surface of 100 cm(2). Skin contamination with e-liquid can cause nicotine skin absorption: caution must be paid when handling refill e-liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serotonergic modulation of nicotine-induced kinetic tremor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Nomura, Yuji; Onishi, Misaki; Matsubara, Nami; Shimizu, Saki; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT 1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT), significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT 1A antagonist). In addition, the cerebral 5-HT depletion by repeated treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine did not reduce, but rather potentiated the facilitatory effects of 8-OH-DPAT. In contrast, the 5-HT 2 agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), significantly attenuated nicotine tremor, which was antagonized by ritanserin (5-HT 2 antagonist). The 5-HT 3 agonist SR-57227 did not affect nicotine-induced tremor. Furthermore, when testing the direct actions of 5-HT antagonists, nicotine tremor was inhibited by WAY-100135, but was unaffected by ritanserin, ondansetron (5-HT 3 antagonist) or SB-258585 (5-HT 6 antagonist). These results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT 1A receptors are involved in induction of nicotine tremor mediated by α7 nACh receptors. In addition, 5-HT 2 receptors have an inhibitory modulatory role in induction of nicotine tremor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nicotine Withdrawal Induces Neural Deficits in Reward Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Evans, David E; Addicott, Merideth A; Potts, Geoffrey F; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2017-06-01

    Nicotine withdrawal reduces neurobiological responses to nonsmoking rewards. Insight into these reward deficits could inform the development of targeted interventions. This study examined the effect of withdrawal on neural and behavioral responses during a reward prediction task. Smokers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Withdrawal was manipulated by having participants smoke three regular nicotine (0.6 mg yield; satiation) or very low nicotine (0.05 mg yield; withdrawal) cigarettes. Electrophysiological recordings of neural activity were obtained while participants completed a reward prediction task that involved viewing four combinations of predictive and reward-determining stimuli: (1) Unexpected Reward; (2) Predicted Reward; (3) Predicted Punishment; (4) Unexpected Punishment. The task evokes a medial frontal negativity that mimics the phasic pattern of dopaminergic firing in ventral tegmental regions associated with reward prediction errors. Nicotine withdrawal decreased the amplitude of the medial frontal negativity equally across all trial types (p nicotine dependence (p Nicotine withdrawal had equivocal impact across trial types, suggesting reward processing deficits are unlikely to stem from changes in phasic dopaminergic activity during prediction errors. Effects on tonic activity may be more pronounced. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the dopamine system and behavioral interventions designed to increase reward motivation and responsiveness (eg, behavioral activation) may aid in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and potentially improving smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this study indicate nicotine withdrawal impacts reward processing signals that are observable in smokers' neural activity. This may play a role in the subjective aversive experience of nicotine withdrawal and potentially contribute to smoking relapse. Interventions that address abnormal responding to both pleasant and

  18. New trends in the treatment of nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Zieleń, Iwona; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the therapeutic substances used to treat nicotine addiction, not registered in Poland. This paper presents the results of the latest clinical trials and the possibility of their use in the treatment of nicotine addiction. The first two discussed drugs clonidine and nortriptyline are recommended by clinical practice guidelines AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) as the substance of the second line in the fight against addiction. Nortriptyline belongs to tricyclic antidepressants. Its mechanism of action is the inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine. It is suggested as the antagonist of activity of nicotinic receptors. The results confirm its efficacy in the treatment of nicotine addiction, but many side effects limit its use. Clonidine acts presumably by inhibition of sympathetic hyperactivity characteristic of symptoms associated with nicotine rehab. The remaining compounds under discussion, such as: venlafaxine, fluoxetine, moclobemide and rimonabant, are not registered in any country with an indication to use in the treatment of nicotine addiction, however, due to the mechanism in which they act, the possibility of their use in the treatment of this disease is considered. The possibility of using anxiolytics such as: buspirone, diazepam, meprobamate and beta-blockers: metoprolol and oxprenolol is also considered in order to treat the anxiety appearing as one of the symptoms of abstinence. An interesting proposal to combat nicotine addiction are vaccines--NicVAX, CYT002-NicQb and TA-NIC. Currently, they are in clinical phase I and II of their development. Their operation would be based on the induction of specific antibodies that bind nicotine in the plasma, thus prevent it reaching the nicotinic receptors. Preliminary results confirm the possible positive effects in the prevention and treatment of nicotine addiction.

  19. Characterization and Genome Analysis of a Nicotine and Nicotinic Acid-Degrading Strain Pseudomonas putida JQ581 Isolated from Marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiwen; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Wang, Yuhong; Tong, Lu; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Jianmeng

    2017-05-31

    The presence of nicotine and nicotinic acid (NA) in the marine environment has caused great harm to human health and the natural environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to use efficient and economical methods to remove such pollutants from the environment. In this study, a nicotine and NA-degrading bacterium-strain JQ581-was isolated from sediment from the East China Sea and identified as a member of Pseudomonas putida based on morphology, physio-biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA gene analysis. The relationship between growth and nicotine/NA degradation suggested that strain JQ581 was a good candidate for applications in the bioaugmentation treatment of nicotine/NA contamination. The degradation intermediates of nicotine are pseudooxynicotine (PN) and 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP) based on UV, high performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. However, 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP) was not detected. NA degradation intermediates were identified as 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6HNA). The whole genome of strain JQ581 was sequenced and analyzed. Genome sequence analysis revealed that strain JQ581 contained the gene clusters for nicotine and NA degradation. This is the first report where a marine-derived Pseudomonas strain had the ability to degrade nicotine and NA simultaneously.

  20. The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, Francis Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; Kozink, Rachel V; Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Westman, Eric C; Van Wert, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing is mediated by activation of epidermal langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyó, Zoltán; Gille, Andreas; Bennett, Clare L.; Clausen, Björn E.; Offermanns, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) has been used for decades. One of the major problems of the therapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong cutaneous vasodilation called flushing, which develops in almost every patient taking nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing has been

  2. Case report: Two severe cases of suicide attempts using nicotine containing e-cigarette liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Ville; Värelä, Ville; Kalliomäki, Jari

    The use of electronic cigarettes and nicotine-containing liquids is getting more common, thus increasing the risk for intentional or unintentional nicotine poisoning. The results of ingestion of nicotine can be severe, even fatal. We describe two different cases of severe poisonings caused by nicotine-containing electronic cigarette liquids.

  3. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  4. Computerized accountability program is operating - DYMCAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.W.; Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear materials control and accountability program in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been placed on a computerized system identified as DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). The primary gola of the DYMCAS is to assist in detecting the diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). Secondly, the system is expected to assure quality inventory reconciliations both under normal and emergency situations. The system has been installed and was placed on active status in April 1982. Since that time numerous problems have surfaced and been resolved; i.e., delays of input, hardware breakdown, and misunderstandings of needs. An explanation of these problems, including examples and alterations that have made the system workable, are presented

  5. A computerized accountability program is operating - DYMCAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.W.; Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear materials control and accountability program in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been placed on a computerized system identified as DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). The primary goal of the DYMCAS is to assist in detecting the diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). Secondly, the system is expected to assure quality inventory reconciliations both under normal and emergency situations. The system has been installed and was placed on active status in April 1982. Since that time numerous problems have surfaced and been resolved; i.e., delays of input, hardware breakdown, and misunderstandings of needs. An explanation of these problems, including examples and alterations that have made the system workable, are presented

  6. Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line

  7. Computerized tomography findings in nasolacrimal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshio; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Kumagai, Michiasa

    1985-01-01

    We examined 17 cases (22 lesions) with stenosis or obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system with the use of computerized tomography (CT). In idio pathic cases, the site of obstruction was located either in the upper nasolacrimal duct or at the junction of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct. In post-traumatic cases, it was located in the lower nasolacrimal duct. The obstructed areas appeared as homogenous in CT image with CT values ranging between +60 and +80. These findings were suggestive of granulation tissue. The stenosed areas appeared, on the other hand, as areas of unequal density. Lacrimal passage appeared to be maintained through the low-density portion. The CT values of the lacrimal sac was around +40 in dacryocystitis and around +20 to +30 other cases. (author)

  8. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, J.

    1995-12-31

    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs.

  9. Computerized techniques for collecting the radioprotection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenusa, V.; Valeca, S.; Guta, C.; Talpalariu, C.; Stoica, V.

    2016-01-01

    An important component of a computerized radioprotection system is the module for the collection of the radioprotection data. The data collection can be made automatically from the measurement equipment or manually by the operators after they read the values measured by the mobile devices. Database systems are used for storing the data, they offer higher performances, more efficient data organization, ensure data integrity and controlled access to the data into a multiuser environment. The experimental program for the automatic collection of the remote data transfers periodically, at programmable time intervals, data files from the fixed radiation monitoring stations to a centralized system for radioprotection data. For this is used the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). A Radiation Monitoring Equipment designed and assembled in the Electronics Department of ICN Pitesti was used as a data source for the testing of the experimental programs. (authors)

  10. Development of computerized risk management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yoo Kim; Mee Jung Hwang; Seung Cheol Jang; Sang Hoon Han; Tae Woon Kim

    1997-01-01

    The author describes the kinds of efforts for the development of computerized risk management tool; (1) development of a risk monitor, Risk Monster, (2) improvement of McFarm (Missing Cutsets Finding Algorithm for Risk Monitor) and finally (3) development of reliability database management system, KwDBMan. Risk Monster supports for plant operators and maintenance schedulers to monitor plant risk and to avoid high peak risk by rearranging maintenance work schedule. Improved McFarm significantly improved calculation speed of Risk Monster for the cases of supporting system OOS (Out Of Service). KwDBMan manages event data, generic data and CCF (Common Cause Failure) data to support Risk Monster as well as PSA tool, KIRAP (KAERI Integrated Reliability Analysis Package)

  11. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  12. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1982-01-01

    Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

  13. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Dose evaluation in diagnostic for computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, W.; Borges, J.C.; Mota, H.

    1998-01-01

    The patients which are subjected to computerized tomography tests are exposed to relatively high doses given as result doses on organs that are not matter to test. It was realized a dose levels raising in patients subjected to tests by T C, utilizing to measure this magnitude, TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters which were put directly on the patient, in eye regions, thyroid, breast and navel; founding doses fluctuating between 29.10-49.39 mGy in organs examined and dose values between 0.21-29.10 mGy for organs that no matter to test. The applications of ionizing radiations in medicine do not have dose limits, but paying attention to the radiological protection optimization principle, it is recommended the use of clothes to anti-rays protection for zones not examined, getting with this to reduce the level doses as low as possible, without this to diminish the test quality. (Author)

  15. Computerized information management for institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Maureen N; Gugerty, Brian; Levine, Richard; Ho, Vincent B

    2005-01-01

    The use of human subjects for medical research in most industrialized nations requires the scientific and ethical scrutiny of research proposals by a governing institutional review board (IRB) or its equivalent. As part of their primary charge to protect human subjects, IRBs are responsible for the regulatory oversight of not only the research protocol itself but also the research conduct of the investigators and, if applicable, the funding sponsor. This article will discuss the regulatory requirements for an accurate account of IRB protocols and investigators and present an overview of the general flow of information for an IRB protocol. The current and potential uses of information management systems by IRBs will also be reviewed and accompanied by a discussion of the potential advantages and disadvantages of various computerized information systems for management of clinical research.

  16. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.) [de

  17. Computerized radionuclidic analysis in production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, A.

    1978-03-01

    The Savannah River Plant Laboratories Department has been using a dual computer system to control all radionuclidic pulse height analyses since 1971. This computerized system analyzes 7000 to 8000 samples per month and has allowed the counting room staff to be reduced from three persons to one person. More reliable process information is being returned to the production facilities and for environmental evaluations and being returned faster, even though the sample load has more than tripled. This information is now more easily retrievable for other evaluations. The computer is also used for mass spectrometer data reduction and for quality control data analysis. The basic system is being expanded by interfacing microcomputers which provide data input from all of the laboratory modules for quality assurance programs

  18. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  19. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  20. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives.

  1. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...... in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, α7 nAChR agonists and allosteric modulators differentially alter expression and functionality of the α7 nAChR with repeated administration, which suggests that there may be fundamentally different outcomes of long-term administration...... with these different types of compounds. Finally, we describe the special case of Aβ1-42 binding to the α7 nAChR, which may pose a unique challenge to drug development of α7 nAChR-specific ligands for Alzheimer's disease. Hopefully, a greater knowledge of the many factors influencing α7 nAChR function as well...

  2. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaud, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research and select the best papers published in 2015 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. Method A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems. The aim was to identify a list of candidate best papers from the retrieved papers that were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the IMIA editorial team was finally conducted to conclude in the best paper selection. Results Among the 974 retrieved papers, the entire review process resulted in the selection of four best papers. One paper reports on a CDSS routinely applied in pediatrics for more than 10 years, relying on adaptations of the Arden Syntax. Another paper assessed the acceptability and feasibility of an important CPOE evaluation tool in hospitals outside the US where it was developed. The third paper is a systematic, qualitative review, concerning usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions, providing an important evidence-based, methodological contribution in the domain of CDSS design and development in general. Lastly, the fourth paper describes a study quantifying the effect of a complex, continuous-care, guideline-based CDSS on the correctness and completeness of clinicians’ decisions. Conclusions While there are notable examples of routinely used decision support systems, this 2015 review on CDSSs and CPOE systems still shows that, despite methodological contributions, theoretical frameworks, and prototype developments, these technologies are not yet widely spread (at least with their full functionalities) in routine clinical practice. Further research, testing, evaluation, and training are still needed for these tools to be adopted in clinical practice and, ultimately, illustrate

  3. Effect of ispronicline, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in subjects with age associated memory impairment (AAMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Geoffrey C; Inglis, Fraser; Kuchibhatla, Ramana; Sharma, Tonmoy; Tomlinson, Mark; Wamsley, James

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive decline seen in the normal elderly is associated with selective loss of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Nicotine given either by inhalation or transdermally helps cognition, but unacceptable side effects limit its utility. The present study assessed the safety, tolerability and effect on cognition of ispronicline, a highly selective partial agonist at the 4beta2 nAChR, in elderly subjects (n =76) with age associated memory impairment (AAMI). This double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study explored ascending oral doses of ispronicline in the range 50-150 mg given as a single morning dose for a period of 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed, as well as cognitive function measured by means of the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized test battery. Ispronicline had a favourable safety profile and was well tolerated at doses below 150 mg. No effect of clinical importance was seen on biochemistry, haematology, urine analysis, vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitoring. The most frequent drug induced adverse event was light-headedness (dizziness). A beneficial effect was seen on cognition across the dose range. This was most marked at 50 mg on factors measuring attention and episodic memory. PK analysis indicated a plasma Cmax range of 5-25/35 ng/ml ispronicline was associated with the most beneficial effect. These early results demonstrate ispronicline was well tolerated and did not display the side effects typical of nicotine. Ispronicline also had a beneficial effect on cognition in subjects with AAMI. This was seen most strongly in a Cmax range that had been predicted from pre-clinical animal studies.

  4. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  5. Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, D A; St Helen, G; Jacob, P; Tyndale, R F; Benowitz, N L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine genetic, pharmacokinetic, and demographic factors that influence sensitivity to nicotine in never-smokers. Sixty never-smokers, balanced for gender and race (white, black, and Asian), wore 7-mg nicotine skin patches for up to 8 h. Serial plasma nicotine concentrations and subjective and cardiovascular effects were measured, and genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene, encoding the primary enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism, was assessed. Nicotine toxicity requiring patch removal developed in nine subjects and was strongly associated with rate of increase and peak concentrations of plasma nicotine. Toxicity and subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine were associated with the presence of reduced-function CYP2A6 alleles, presumably reflecting slow nicotine metabolic inactivation. This study has implications for understanding individual differences in responses to nicotine medications, particularly when they are used for treating medical conditions in nonsmokers, and possibly in vulnerability to developing nicotine dependence.

  6. Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence. A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) between 22 February and 29 April, 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 309 documents relevant the effects of menthol on nicotine dependence. The tobacco industry knows that menthol overrides the harsh taste of tobacco and alleviates nicotine's irritating effects, synergistically interacts with nicotine, stimulates the trigeminal nerve to elicit a 'liking' response for a tobacco product, and makes low tar, low nicotine tobacco products more acceptable to smokers than non-mentholated low delivery products. Menthol is not only used in cigarettes as a flavour additive; tobacco companies know that menthol also has sensory effects and interacts with nicotine to produce tobacco products that are easier to smoke, thereby making it easier to expose smokers, especially those who are new and uninitiated, to the addictive power of nicotine.

  7. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E Plata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question to solve in the present work is: what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  8. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Víctor; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús; Hernández-Martinez, Ricardo; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colín, René; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs) in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA) such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non-specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  9. Neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay S; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-06-01

    Although the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine have been behaviorally and neurophysiologically well-documented, its localized functional effects during selective attention are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in healthy human nonsmokers. We hypothesized to observe significant effects of nicotine in attention-associated brain areas, driven by nicotine-induced increases in activity as a function of increasing task demands. A single-blind, prospective, randomized crossover design was used to examine neuronal response associated with a go/no-go task after 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch administration in 20 individuals who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task design included two levels of difficulty (ordered vs. random stimuli) and two levels of auditory distraction (silence vs. noise). Significant treatment × difficulty × distraction interaction effects on neuronal response were observed in the hippocampus, ventral parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate. In contrast to our hypothesis, U and inverted U-shaped dependencies were observed between the effects of nicotine on response and task demands, depending on the brain area. These results suggest that nicotine may differentially affect neuronal response depending on task conditions. These results have important theoretical implications for understanding how cholinergic tone may influence the neurobiology of selective attention.

  10. Adverse effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael K; Barra, Nicole G; Alfaidy, Nadia; Hardy, Daniel B; Holloway, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy through cigarette smoking, nicotine replacement therapies or e-cigarette use continues to be a widespread public health problem, impacting both fetal and postnatal health. Yet, at this time, there remains limited data regarding the safety and efficacy in using these nicotine products during pregnancy. Notably, reports assessing the effect of nicotine exposure on postnatal health outcomes in humans, including reproductive health, are severely lacking. Our current understanding regarding the consequences of nicotine exposure during pregnancy is limited to a few animal studies, which do not comprehensively address the underlying cellular mechanisms involved. This paper aims to critically review the current knowledge from human and animal studies regarding the direct and indirect effects (e.g. obesity) of maternal nicotine exposure, regardless of its source, on reproductive outcomes in pregnancy and postnatal life. Furthermore, this review highlights several key cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse reproductive deficits including oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. By understanding the interplay of the cellular mechanisms involved, further strategies could be developed to prevent the reproductive abnormalities resulting from exposure to nicotine in utero and influence informed clinical guidelines for pregnant women. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  12. The effect of coniine on presynaptic nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkent, Ulkem; Iskit, Alper B; Onur, Rustu; Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is manifested by characteristic nicotinic clinical signs including excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos via postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. There is limited knowledge about the role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of coniine in the literature. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of coniine. For this purpose, the rat anococcygeus muscle and guinea-pig atria were used in vitro. Nicotine (100 μM) elicited a biphasic response composed of a relaxation followed by contraction through the activation of nitrergic and noradrenergic nerve terminals in the phenylephrine-contracted rat anococcygeus muscle. Coniine inhibited both the nitrergic and noradrenergic response in the muscle (-logIC(50) = 3.79 ± 0.11 and -logIC(50) = 4.57 ± 0.12 M, respectively). The effect of coniine on nicotinic receptor-mediated noradrenergic transmission was also evaluated in the guinea-pig atrium (-logIC(50) = 4.47 ± 0.12 M) and did not differ from the -logIC(50) value obtained in the rat anococcygeus muscle. This study demonstrated that coniine exerts inhibitory effects on nicotinic receptor-mediated nitrergic and noradrenergic transmitter response.

  13. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans , and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  14. Assessment of nicotine concentration in electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) liquids and precision of dosing to aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Skórka, Agnieszka; Abdulafeez, Oluyadi; Koszowski, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Global use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also called electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) has increased dramatically in recent years. However, due to the limited safety studies and growing concerns on the potential toxicity from long term use of ENDS, many national and international governments have employed regulatory measures to curtail its use. One of the most significant challenges regulators of ENDS encounter is the lack of quality standards to assess ENDS, e-liquid (solution used with ENDS which contain nicotine--a highly toxic and addictive substance), and amount of nicotine delivery to aerosol during ENDS use. Aims of the study were to (1) measure and compare nicotine concentration in e-liquids to values reported by manufacturers on packaging labels; (2) assess the precision of nicotine delivery from tank during aerosol formation. Methods: Nine popular Polish e-liquids (based on the market share data from October 2014) were purchased for the study. The labelled nicotine concentration for the selected e-liquids ranged between 11-25 mg/mL. All e-liquids were aerosolized in the laboratory using a smoking simulation machine (Palaczbot). Each e-liquid was aerosolized in a series of 6 consecutive bouts. A single bout consisted of 15 puffs with the following puff topography: 65 mL puff volume, 2.8 sec. puff duration, and 19 sec. interpuff interval. A total of 90 puffs were generated from each e-liquid. Nicotine content in the e-liquids and the aerosol generated were determined by gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). For seven of nine analyzed e-liquids, the difference between measured and manufacturer labeled nicotine concentration was less than 10%. Nicotine dose in aerosol per bout ranged between 0.77-1.49 mg (equivalent to one-half the nicotine a smoker inhales from a single combustible cigarette). Our analysis showed the high consistency between the labeled and measured nicotine concentration for popular on the

  15. A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Derek; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco smokers' homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users' homes. We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas chromatography. Half of the e-cigarette users' homes had detectable levels of nicotine on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers' homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1303±2676 μg/m2; pe-cigarette users and non-users (p>0.05). Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  17. Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, A; Simon, N

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from 1985 to January 2014, using the following terms: electronic cigarette(s), e-cigarette(s), electronic nicotine delivery system, cotinine, and nicotine. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent according to our criteria. References of all relevant articles were also evaluated. Eight studies were included in this review. The following information was extracted from the articles: population size, age of participants, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, concentration of nicotine in refills liquids, study sample design, and observed concentrations. Following design of studies, plasma nicotine Cmax was observed between 0 and 5 ng/mL (no significant changes) or between 13.9 and 16.3 ng/mL (similar to a tobacco cigarette) with a Tmax between 70 and 75 minutes. Cotinine levels after "vaping" an e-cigarette are similar to a tobacco cigarette. This review summarizes e-cigarette studies that contain information on nicotine or cotinine levels. The peak concentration of nicotine appears to be dependent on the use and dose level of e-cigarette cartridge. The value of this peak concentration is similar to the value found with a tobacco cigarette. However, the time corresponding to the peak concentration is delayed compared to a tobacco cigarette. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Nicotine and Cotinine Exposure from Electronic Cigarettes: A Population Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendizábal, Nieves Vélez; Jones, David R.; Jahn, Andy; Bies, Robert R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a recent technology that has gained rapid acceptance. Still, little is known about them in terms of safety and effectiveness. A basic question is how effectively they deliver nicotine, however the literature is surprisingly unclear on this point. Here, a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed for nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine with the aim to provide a reliable framework for the simulation of nicotine and cotinine concentrations over time, based solely on inhalation airflow recordings and individual covariates (i.e. weight and breath carbon monoxide CO levels). Methods This study included 10 adults self-identified as heavy smokers (at least one pack per day). Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured at regular 10-minute intervals for 90 minutes while human subjects inhaled nicotine vapor from a modified e-cigarette. Airflow measurements were recorded every 200 milliseconds throughout the session. A population PK model for nicotine and cotinine was developed based on previously published PK parameters and the airflow recordings. All the analyses were performed with the nonlinear mixed-effect modelling software NONMEM 7.2. Results The results show that e-cigarettes deliver nicotine effectively, although the pharmacokinetic profiles are lower than those achieved with regular cigarettes. Our PK model effectively predicts plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations from the inhalation volume, and initial breath CO. Conclusion E-cigarettes are effective at delivering nicotine. This new PK model of e-cigarette usage might be used for pharmacodynamic analysis where the PK profiles are not available. PMID:25503588

  19. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  20. Pharmacokinetic characterization of three novel 4-mg nicotine lozenges
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhija, Manpreet; Srivastava, Reena; Kaushik, Aditya

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increases the probability of smoking cessation. This study was conducted to determine if three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges produced locally in India were bioequivalent to a globally marketed reference product, Nicorette® 4-mg nicotine lozenge. Healthy adult smokers (N = 39) were treated with three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges in comparison with a reference 4-mg lozenge in this single-center, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 4-way crossover study. Pharmacokinetic sampling was obtained to test for bioequivalence using maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and extent of absorption (AUC0-t). Secondarily, AUC;0-∞, time to maximal plasma concentration (tmax), half-life (T1/2), elimination rate constant (Kel), and safety of the prototype lozenges versus the reference lozenge were compared. Each prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenge was found to be bioequivalent to the reference 4-mg nicotine lozenge based on the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence intervals for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC;0-∞. Although tmax; was significantly longer for prototype III, all four lozenges achieved maximum plasma nicotine concentrations at a median of 1.5 hours. The safety profiles of the three prototype 4-mg lozenges did not differ from that of the 4-mg reference product. Each prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenge was bioequivalent to the reference 4-mg nicotine lozenge and was well tolerated. Furthermore, as these bioequivalent prototypes differed in in-vitro dissolution profiles, these data suggest that performance from the in -vitro method deployed is not a firm predictor of pharmacokinetic behavior.
.

  1. Physical and psychological nicotine dependence in Greeks: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Vasileios; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most widespread addictive behaviour in the world, as it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. The objective of the present study was to discern the prevalence and the relative risks of nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, as this country holds first place in cigarette consumption in the European Union. A random sample of 202 current smokers (82 men and 120 women) was drawn from residents aged v 18 years in Athens, the capital of Greece. A questionnaire on the physical (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) and psychological (American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria of nicotine abuse) nicotine dependence was used. According to the results of the present study, 12.4% of the sample reported null physical nicotine dependence, and 31.7% had low, 25.7% had moderate and 30.2% had high nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger people (aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34, odds ratio [OR] = 0.047, P physical dependence. Women tended to be systematically less dependent than men (25% and 37.8% high dependence, respectively). Furthermore, 75.7% of the sample had psychological nicotine dependence. Binary logistic regression analysis and chi-square test revealed that younger people (18- to 24-year-olds, OR = 0.081, P dependence. In addition, women showed a higher percentage of withdrawal symptoms compared with men (80% and 68%, respectively). The results of the present study provided compelling evidence that physical and, in particular, psychological nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, was significant, and this calls for a course of action that should be taken by public health policy-makers to reduce smoke consumption.

  2. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  3. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, M de; Verbeeten, Jr, B J

    1988-06-04

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs.

  4. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Verbeeten, B.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Results of CT brain examinations in cerebrovascular emergency. [computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinta, Z; Dolansky, J; Sorfova, J; Jerie, T

    1987-07-01

    Experience is briefly reported with CT (computerized tomography) diagnosis of cerebrovascular emergencies. It is pointed out that the introduction of computerized tomography greatly improved and made more accurate the diagnosis of focal ischemias and revealed significant differences in the foci of ischemia in hypertension patients and atherosclerosis patients without hypertension, and showed a higher incidence of intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhages than previously thought. It is believed that knowledge gained thanks to CT (computerized tomography) will be of benefit to the primary and secondary prevention of cerebrovascular ischemias. (L.O.). 1 fig., 5 refs.

  6. Research on accounting transition from computerization to informationization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The application for computer technology, digitalization technology and network technology in the accounting field has promoted the development of accounting informationization. Accounting informationization is a product integrated with traditional accounting theory and modern information technology, which is an inevitable trend of continuous development of modern accounting. This paper discusses the basic concepts and characteristics of accounting computerization and informationization based on the normative research method and literature data method, analyzes the feasibility of accounting transition from computerization to informationization, and finally puts forward the specific approaches and ultimate goals of accounting transition from computerization to informationization.

  7. Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Serban C.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the determination of nicotine in various plant samples with a low content of this compound. Nicotine is found naturally in plants from the Solanaceae family. The plants from Nicotiana genus contain large levels of nicotine. However, only low levels are present in plants from Solanum genus including potato, tomato, eggplant, and from Capsicum genus, which are used as food. Because the levels of nicotine in these materials are in the range of parts per billion, the measurements are difficult and the results are very different from study to study. The present study evaluated the level of nicotine in a number of plants (fruits, roots, leaves, tubers from Solanaceae family (not including Nicotiana genus and from several other vegetables commonly used as food. The analysis consisted of the treatment of plant material with an aqueous solution 5% NaOH at 70°C for 30 min, followed by extraction with TBME containing d3-nicotine as an internal standard. The TBME organic layer was analyzed on a 7890B/7000C GC-MS/MS system with a 30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film CAM column. The MS/MS system worked in MRM positive ionization mode monitoring the transition 162 - 84 for nicotine and 165 - 87 for d3-nicotine. Particular attention was given to the preservation of the intact levels of nicotine in the plant material. The plant material was analyzed as is, without drying and with minimal exposure to contaminations. Separately, the moisture of the plant material was measured in order to report the nicotine level on a dry-basis. Levels of nicotine around 180 ng/g dry material were obtained for tomatoes and eggplant (fruit and lower levels were obtained for green pepper and potato. Similar levels to that in the tomato fruit were detected in tomato leaves. Materials from other plant families also showed traces of nicotine. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016 54-59

  8. Differential Effects of Nicotine on Discrete Components of Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus; Coull, Jennifer T.

    2009-01-01

    or a placebo gum. The experimental paradigm was a letter recognition task with varied stimulus durations terminated by pattern masks. The temporal threshold of conscious perception (t0), visual processing speed (C), storage capacity of visual short-term memory (K), and attentional selectivity (alpha) were...... encoding of information into visual short-term memory is begun, but (b) decreases the rate of encoding and possibly also the attentional selectivity.......Objective: Nicotine is an important cholinergic neurotransmitter that has been linked to various cognitive functions. Several studies have observed attentional modulations after nicotine, but the roles played by nicotine and other cholinergic substances in attention remain unclear. The aim...

  9. A new Brief computerized cognitive screening battery (CompCogs for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Charchat Fichman

    Full Text Available Abstract Screening tests for early diagnosis of dementia are of great clinical relevance. The ideal test set must be brief and reliable, and should probe cognitive components impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objectives: To develop a new Computerized Cognitive Screening test (CompCogs, and to investigate its validity for the early diagnosis of AD, and evaluate its heuristic value in understanding the processing of information in AD. Methods: The computerized neuropsychological performance battery, originally including six tests, was applied in forty seven patients with probable mild AD and 97 controls matched for age and education. This computerized neuropsychological test battery, developed with MEL Professional, allows control of timing and order of stimuli presentation, as well as recording of response type and latency. A brief-screening version, CompCogs, was selected using the most discriminative neuropsychological test variables derived from logistic regression analysis. Full battery administration lasted about 40 minutes, while the CompCogs took only 15 minutes. Results: CompCogs included the Face test (correct response and Word and Forms with Short term memory tests (reaction time. CompCogs presented 91.8% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity for the diagnosis of AD using ROC analyses of AD diagnosis probability derived by logistic regression. Conclusions: CompCogs showed high validity for AD early diagnosis and, therefore, may be a useful alternative screening instrument.

  10. Effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the provision of nicotine dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatric facilities: an implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Paula M; Stockings, Emily A; Bowman, Jenny A; Oldmeadow, Chris; Wiggers, John H

    2017-02-07

    Despite clinical practice guidelines recommending the routine provision of nicotine dependence treatment to smokers in inpatient psychiatric facilities, the prevalence of such treatment provision is low. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment to patients in inpatient psychiatric facilities. We undertook an interrupted time series analysis of nicotine dependence treatment provision before, during and after a clinical practice change intervention to increase clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment for all hospital discharges (aged >18 years, N = 4175) over a 19 month period in two inpatient adult psychiatric facilities in New South Wales, Australia. The clinical practice change intervention comprised six key strategies: leadership and consensus, enabling systems and procedures, training and education, information and resources, audit and feedback and an on-site practice change support officer. Systematic medical record audit and segmented logistic regression was used to determine differences in proportions for each nicotine dependence treatment outcome measure between the 'pre', 'during' and 'post-intervention' periods. The prevalence of all five outcome measures increased significantly between the pre and post-intervention periods, including clinician recorded: assessment of patient smoking status (36.43 to 51.95%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.39, 99% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.23 to 4.66); assessment of patient nicotine dependence status (4.74 to 11.04%; AOR = 109.67, 99% CI: 35.35 to 340.22); provision of brief advice to quit (0.85 to 8.81%; AOR = 97.43, 99% CI: 31.03 to 306.30); provision of nicotine replacement therapy (8.06 to 26.25%; AOR = 19.59, 99% CI: 8.17 to 46.94); and provision of nicotine dependence treatment on discharge (8.82 to 13.45%, AOR = 12.36; 99% CI: 6.08 to 25

  11. Fetal Nicotine Exposure Increases Preference for Nicotine Odor in Early Postnatal and Adolescent, but Not Adult, Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Kent, Paul F.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies demonstrate a four-fold increased possibility of smoking in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Nicotine is the active addictive component in tobacco-related products, crossing the placenta and contaminating the amniotic fluid. It is known that chemosensory experience in the womb can influence postnatal odor-guided preference behaviors for an exposure stimulus. By means of behavioral and neurophysiologic approaches, we examined whether fetal nicotine exposure, using mini-osmotic pumps, altered the response to nicotine odor in early postnatal (P17), adolescent (P35) and adult (P90) progeny. Compared with controls, fetal exposed rats displayed an altered innate response to nicotine odor that was evident at P17, declined in magnitude by P35 and was absent at P90 - these effects were specific to nicotine odor. The behavioral effect in P17 rats occurred in conjunction with a tuned olfactory mucosal response to nicotine odor along with an untoward consequence on the epithelial response to other stimuli – these P17 neural effects were absent in P35 and P90 animals. The absence of an altered neural effect at P35 suggests that central mechanisms, such as nicotine-induced modifications of the olfactory bulb, bring about the altered behavioral response to nicotine odor. Together, these findings provide insights into how fetal nicotine exposure influences the behavioral preference and responsiveness to the drug later in life. Moreover, they add to a growing literature demonstrating chemosensory mechanisms by which patterns of maternal drug use can be conveyed to offspring, thereby enhancing postnatal vulnerability for subsequent use and abuse. PMID:24358374

  12. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  13. Chronic oral nicotine increases brain [3H]epibatidine binding and responsiveness to antidepressant drugs, but not nicotine, in the mouse forced swim test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Redrobe, John P

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among depressed individuals is higher than among healthy subjects, and nicotine alleviates depressive symptoms. Nicotine increases serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. In mice, acute nicotine administration enhances...... the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swim (mFST) and tail suspension tests. Here, we investigated if this action of nicotine is also reflected in a chronic treatment regimen....

  14. Computerized data base of the fundamental constants of nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Hampel, V.E.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-seven fundamental constants of nature were computerized from the up-to-date evaluations of E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor. The constants are annotated with regard to symbol, value, uncertainty, and scaling factor. This computerization is part of the scientific data base project of the Information Research Group at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The MASTER CONTROL data base management system is used. The computerized fundamental constants can be requested from the ERDA Computer Program Exchange and Information Center of the Argonne National Laboratory or from the National Technical Information Service of the U. S. Department of Commerce. This is the first of a series of releases on preparation of computerized scientific and technological data banks. The next release is a data bank of conversion factors for different units of measurements. 3 figures

  15. Cranial computerized tomography in children suffering from acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cranial computerized (axial) tomography permits a more complete neurologic supervision of children with acute leukemia and a better knowledge of the frequency and varieties of cerebral complications in leukemia. Endocranial complications in acute leukemia are essentially infiltrative, hemorrhagic, infectious or iatrogenic. Cranial computerized tomography can demonstrate cerebral changes in meningeal leukemia, hemorrhages, calcifications, brain atrophy or leukencephalopathy. The preliminary results of cranial computerized tomography in childhood leukemia suggest that the iatrogenic main lesion of the brain due to combined radiation-chemotherapy is atrophy whereas that of the intrathecal cytostatic therapy is demyelination. Accurate diagnostics and control of possible cerebral complications in therapy of leukemia is essentially for appropriate therapeutic management. For that cranial computerized tomography is the best method to a effective supervision of the brain. (author)

  16. Computerized Point of Sale = Faster Service + Better Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Dorothy V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes selecting and installing a computerized point of sale for a district food service program; the equipment needed and preferred; and the training of trainers, managers, and cashiers. Also discusses the direct benefits and side benefits of the system. (MLF)

  17. 381 Developing of a Computerized Brain Diagnosing System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ogunsanwo O. D. - Department of Computer Science, Gate way ICT ... computerized brain diagnosing system that would be used in carrying out the ..... This aspect explores the techniques use for the design of interface, menus and databases ...

  18. Computerized Tomography and its Applications : a Guided Tour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1992-01-01

    We present a review of the mathematical principles of computerized tomography. Topics treated include the role of the Radon transform and related transforms, inversion formulas, uniqueness, ill-posedness and stability, practical reconstruction algorithms, and various generalizations such as

  19. Algorithmic fundamentals of computerized tomography and of transverse analogue tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    Computerized tomography and transverse analogue tomography are two different approaches to the same goal, namely, transverse tomography. The algorithm is discussed and compared. Transverse tomography appears capable of further development, judging by this comparison. (orig.) [de

  20. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, P.R.; Kisner, R.A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room

  1. Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of

  2. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  3. Computerized tomographic evaluation of aortic prosthetic graft complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Kalmar, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized tomography has been found to be an accurate and sensitive method of diagnosing complications of synthetic aortic grafts. Complications in this series of four cases included aortoesophageal fistula, aortoduodenal fistula, pseudoaneurysm, and retroperitoneal hematoma. 6 references, 5 figures

  4. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  5. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  6. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Key words: Computer Aided Layout Design,. Construction ... Commonly used software are ... popular improvement-type methods are. Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities .... closeness ratings values are given different numerical.

  7. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity in ... The health implications of cigarette smoking and ..... toxic byproducts of many metabolic processes in ... Male infertility, clinical ... rats: A possible role of cessation.

  8. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done...... of feeling addicted, cost of NRT products and fear of adverse health consequences. Aim of study • To get a thorough understanding of the lived experiences of nicotine dependent long-term NRT users. • To investigate what motivates or discourages quitting NRT. Method Semi-structured interviews with long...

  9. Nicotine dependence, use of illegal drugs and psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortega, José María; Jurado, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of smoking and nicotine dependence with psychiatric morbidity, controlling for the potential confounding effect of smoking on the relationship between the use of other substances and psychiatric morbidity. A sample of 290 adults were interviewed at a primary health centre (patients, 58%; patients' relatives, 34%; staff, 8%) to inquire about their tobacco, caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug consumption. Psychiatric morbidity, defined by a score >6 on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), showed a strong direct association with nicotine dependence. The use of illegal drugs, but not of alcohol, was also strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity, after controlling for smoking. Both smoking and high nicotine dependence were also associated with use of caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine. High nicotine dependence may be considered as an expression of individual psychopathologic vulnerability. Tobacco may have a central facilitating role in the use of caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug.

  10. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  11. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  12. Computerized systems of NPP operators support. (Psychological problems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Operator psychological problems arising in the work with NPP operators support computerized systems (OSCS) are considered. The conclusion is made that the OSCS intellectual application will bring the operator into dangerous dependence on his computerized assistant. To avoid this danger it is necessary by creation of the OSCS to divide specially the tasks areas of the operator and OSCS in order to assure the active role of the operator in the NPP control

  13. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Richard; Leichter, Isaac; Buchbinder, Shalom; Novak, Boris; Bamberger, Philippe; Fields, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A z of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A z of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A z significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  14. Computerized adaptive testing--ready for ambulatory monitoring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Fischer, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have abundant theoretical advantages over established static instruments, which could improve ambulatory monitoring of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). However, an empirical demonstration of their practical benefits is warranted.......Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have abundant theoretical advantages over established static instruments, which could improve ambulatory monitoring of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). However, an empirical demonstration of their practical benefits is warranted....

  15. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which is consisted of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for filed geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  16. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which consists of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for field geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  17. Computerized cost model for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneely, T.K.; Tabata, Hiroaki; Labourey, P.

    1999-01-01

    A computerized cost model has been developed in order to allow utility users to improve their familiarity with pressurized water reactor overnight capital costs and the various factors which influence them. This model organizes its cost data in the standard format of the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB), and encapsulates simplified relationships between physical plant design information and capital cost information in a computer code. Model calculations are initiated from a base case, which was established using traditional cost calculation techniques. The user enters a set of plant design parameters, selected to allow consideration of plant models throughout the typical three- and four-loop PWR power range, and for plant sites in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Calculation of the new capital cost is then performed in a very brief time. The presentation of the program's output allows comparison of various cases with each other or with separately calculated baseline data. The user can start at a high level summary, and by selecting values of interest on a display grid show progressively more and more detailed information, including links to background information such as individual cost driver accounts and physical plant variables for each case. Graphical presentation of the comparison summaries is provided, and the numerical results may be exported to a spreadsheet for further processing. (author)

  18. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality criteria for abdominal computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Kurtz, B.; Metzger, H.O.F.

    1985-01-01

    Quality, not only in obdominal computerized tomography, is determined by the measurable technical parameters and, to an important extent, also bei individual factors, among which the diagnostic skill and experience of the examiner is one of the most decisive. These individual factors and the part they play with regard to the quality of CT-assisted diagnosis may well equal the technical parameters, as they significantly influence the course of examinations, resulting indications for contrast medium application, and the sensitivity of the diagnosis. The authors are convinced that especially for abdominal CT, standardized examination techniques inevitably would bring down the diagnostic quality. The technical parameters are of equal significance to achieving the diagnostic optimum, and to these parameters one has to count equipment characteristics as well as the data given by the examiner. Exposure time, spatial resolution and density differentiation are given by the equipment specifications but have to be adapted to and optimised to the clinical problems involved in every case. Another important task is that of routine imaging of given anatomic structures, for adequate evaluation of individual conditions. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Patient radiation exposure in computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, V [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1980-01-01

    Radiation exposure to patients undergoing axial computerized tomography as a tool of neurological X-ray diagnostics was studied. Doses thereby delivered were compared with those from routine head films at X-ray tube parameters 200 W, 70 kV, and 70 cm target-to-patient distance. Radiation exposures were analyzed with a view to improving shielding and procedural techniques. Comparisons were made using LiF TLD measurements with an Alderson phantom (standard for axial computer tomography). Skin and intracranial space doses were compared using two computers, Siretom I and Siretom 2000, for various positionings: frontal, fronto-lateral, temporal, temporo-occipital, and occipital. In addition, patient body doses with or without shielding and doses to subjects attending sick children or restless adults were examined. Achievable protection was estimated for lead shields of 0.5 mm lead equivalent. It was concluded that radiation doses delivered to neurologic patients undergoing axial computer tomography are smaller than those resulting from conventional X-ray examinations.

  1. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as 123 I and 99 Tc m that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  2. Computerized 50 liter volume calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proffitt, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed for the Savannah River Site that will be used to calibrate product shipping containers. For accountability purposes, it is necessary that these containers be calibrated to a very high precision. The Computerized 50 Liter Volume Calibration System (CVCS), which is based on the Ideal Gas Law (IGL), will use reference volumes with precision of no less ±0.03%, and helium to calibrate the containers to have a total error of no greater than ±0.10%. A statistical interpretation of the system has given a theoretical total calculated error of ±0.08%. Tests with the system will be performed once fabrication is complete to experimentally verify the calculated error. Since the total error was calculated using the worst case scenario, the actual error should be significantly less than the calculated value. The computer controlled, totally automated system is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The design, calibration procedure, and statistical interpretation of the system will be discussed. 1 ref

  3. A Computerized Procedure linked to Virtual Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeon Sub; Song, Tae Young

    2011-01-01

    Digital, information, and communication technologies have change human's behavior. This is because human has limitation to memorize and process information. Human has to access other information and real time information for important decisions. Those technologies are playing important roles. Nuclear power plants cannot be exception. Many accidents in nuclear power plants result from absent or incorrect information. The information for nuclear personnel is context sensitive. They don't have enough time to verify the context sensitive information. Therefore they skip the information, as resulting in incident. Nuclear personnel are usually carrying static paper procedures during local task performance. The procedure guides them steps to follow. There is, however, no dynamic and context sensitive information in the paper. The effect of the work is evaluated once while getting permission of the work. Afterward they are not informed. The static paper is generally simplified, so that it does not show detail of equipment being manipulated. Particularly novice workers feel difficult to understand the procedure due to lack of detail. Pictures of equipment inserted in the procedure are not enough for comprehension. A computerized procedure linked with virtual equipment is one of the best solutions to increase the detail of procedure. Virtual equipment, however, has still limitation not to provide real time information, because the virtual equipment is not synchronized with real plants

  4. Computerized portable microwave hyperthermia quality assurance kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, A.Y.; Neyzari, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computerized quality assurance kit to provide precise measurement and calibration of microwave power and temperature, as well as capabilities to map SAR (Specific absorption rate) distribution in phantoms; and survey of hazardous microwave leakage has been designed. The kit is also capable of performing corelation studies on the relationship between SAR and net microwave power delivered at various anatomical sites. The kit consists of a portable microcomputer, a time-multiplexed A/D converter, a 4-channel dual directional microwave power monitor, a 4-channel thin-wire thermocouple thermometry system, an electronic thermal calibrator, a microwave leakage hazard survey meter, and a dynamic phantom tank for dosimetric analysis. Comparative performance studies were made against NBS-traceable power and temperature standards, non-perturbing optical temperature sensors, and established power and temperature measurement devices. The test results indicate that this instrument is providing its user with measurement accuracy of 0.1 0 C in temperature, 10% accuracy in power. The thin-wire thermocouple, with computer assisted error compensation, performs equally well in a strong microwave field in comparison with non-perturbing optical temperature sensors

  5. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as {sup 123}I and {sup 99}Tc{sup m} that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  6. Study on forefoot by computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Eiichi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) was used to study coronary sections of the forefoot in both normal and abnormal human feet. CT images of the transverse arches at the metatarsal head, middle and base of the shaft were classified into five patterns. In the pattern most commonly found in normal feet, the second metatarsus appeared elevated above the other metatarsal bones at all points, and there was a gradual and even reduction in elevation from the second to the fifth metatarsal. In cases of hallux valgus, however, a variety of deformities were noted in the arc of the second to fifth metatarsals, particularly at the head. The rotation of the first metatarsus and shift of the sesamoids were measured from CT images at the head of the first metatarsus. In hallux valgus, both the rotation and the sesamoid shift appeared to have a wider angle than in the case of normal feet. In normal feet, the differences between the rotation of the first metatarsus and shift of the sesamoids were relatively small, whereas in hallux valgus there was a much greater degree of variation. Furthermore, while normal feet the variation in rotation of the first metatarsus and sesamoid shift both tended to be either great or small, in hallux valgus a large degree of sesamoid shift was sometimes found in combination with a small degree of rotation of the first metatarsus.

  7. Study on forefoot by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Eiichi

    1983-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) was used to study coronary sections of the forefoot in both normal and abnormal human feet. CT images of the transverse arches at the metatarsal head, middle and base of the shaft were classified into five patterns. In the pattern most commonly found in normal feet, the second metatarsus appeared elevated above the other metatarsal bones at all points, and there was a gradual and even reduction in elevation from the second to the fifth metatarsal. In cases of hallux valgus, however, a variety of deformities were noted in the arc of the second to fifth metatarsals, particularly at the head. The rotation of the first metatarsus and shift of the sesamoids were measured from CT images at the head of the first metatarsus. In hallux valgus, both the rotation and the sesamoid shift appeared to have a wider angle than in the case of normal feet. In normal feet, the differences between the rotation of the first metatarsus and shift of the sesamoids were relatively small, whereas in hallux valgus there was a much greater degree of variation. Furthermore, while normal feet the variation in rotation of the first metatarsus and sesamoid shift both tended to be either great or small, in hallux valgus a large degree of sesamoid shift was sometimes found in combination with a small degree of rotatin of the first metatarsus. (author)

  8. E-Cigarette and Liquid Nicotine Exposures Among Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Preethi; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thitphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2018-04-23

    To investigate exposures to liquid nicotine (including electronic cigarette devices and liquids) among children <6 years old in the United States and evaluate the impact of legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for liquid nicotine containers. Liquid nicotine exposure data from the National Poison Data System for January 2012 through April 2017 were analyzed. There were 8269 liquid nicotine exposures among children <6 years old reported to US poison control centers during the study period. Most (92.5%) children were exposed through ingestion and 83.9% were children <3 years old. Among children exposed to liquid nicotine, 35.1% were treated and released from a health care facility, and 1.4% were admitted. The annual exposure rate per 100 000 children increased by 1398.2% from 0.7 in 2012 to 10.4 in 2015, and subsequently decreased by 19.8% from 2015 to 8.3 in 2016. Among states without a preexisting law requiring child-resistant packaging for liquid nicotine containers, there was a significant decrease in the mean number of exposures during the 9 months before compared with the 9 months after the federal child-resistant packaging law went into effect, averaging 4.4 (95% confidence interval: -7.1 to -1.7) fewer exposures per state after implementation of the law. Pediatric exposures to liquid nicotine have decreased since January 2015, which may, in part, be attributable to legislation requiring child-resistant packaging and greater public awareness of risks associated with electronic cigarette products. Liquid nicotine continues to pose a serious risk for young children. Additional regulation of these products is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Differential sensitivity to nicotine among hypothalamic magnocellular neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Jacobsen, Julie; Kiss, Adrian Emil

    2012-01-01

    The magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) either contain vasopressin or oxytocin. Even though both hormones are released after systemic administration of nicotine, the mechanism through which the two populations of neurons are activated...... is not known. This study was carried out in the rat to investigate the effect of increasing doses of nicotine on subsets of magnocellular neurons containing either oxytocin or vasopressin....

  10. Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Havel, Christopher; Dempsey, Delia A; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-03-01

    To measure the systemic retention of nicotine, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, and assess the abuse liability of e-cigarettes by characterizing nicotine pharmacokinetics. E-cigarette users recruited over the internet participated in a 1-day research ward study. Subjects took 15 puffs from their usual brand of e-cigarette. Exhaled breath was trapped in gas-washing bottles and blood was sampled before and several times after use. San Francisco, California, USA. Thirteen healthy, experienced adult e-cigarette users (six females and seven males). Plasma nicotine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and nicotine, VG and PG in e-liquids and gas traps were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Heart rate changes and subjective effects were assessed. E-cigarettes delivered an average of 1.33 (0.87-1.79) mg [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI)] of nicotine, and 93.8% of the inhaled dose, 1.22 (0.80-1.66) was systemically retained. Average maximum plasma nicotine concentration (Cmax ) was 8.4 (5.4-11.5) ng/ml and time of maximal concentration (Tmax ) was 2-5 minutes. One participant had Tmax of 30 minutes. 84.4% and 91.7% of VG and PG, respectively, was systemically retained. Heart rate increased by an average of 8.0 beats per minute after 5 minutes. Withdrawal and urge to smoke decreased and the e-cigarettes were described as satisfying. E-cigarettes can deliver levels of nicotine that are comparable to or higher than typical tobacco cigarettes, with similar systemic retention. Although the average maximum plasma nicotine concentration in experienced e-cigarette users appears to be generally lower than what has been reported from tobacco cigarette use, the shape of the pharmacokinetic curve is similar, suggesting addictive potential. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Emerging nicotine delivery products. Implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-02-01

    The idea of clean nicotine delivery systems that would satisfy nicotine craving and promote smoking cessation has been considered as a possible public health tool for many years. Nicotine medications have been useful for smoking cessation but have not found widespread popularity among smokers, perhaps because of slow nicotine delivery and other sensory characteristics that differ from cigarettes. Traditional smokeless tobacco delivers as much nicotine as cigarettes and has been advocated for harm reduction but contains carcinogenic nitrosamines and has not been proven to promote cessation. Furthermore, there is concern that dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes may inhibit quitting smoking. Newer oral dissolvable tobacco products contain lower levels of toxicants than other smokeless tobacco but also deliver much less nicotine and have not been popular with consumers. Electronic cigarettes that aerosolize nicotine without generating toxic tobacco combustion products have become quite popular and hold promise as a way to attract smokers away from cigarettes, although efficacy in promoting smoking cessation has not yet been demonstrated. There are concerns about safety of long-term use, and there is evidence that youth, including nonsmokers, are taking up e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes are marketed for use when one cannot smoke conventional cigarettes, and such use might result in more persistent cigarette smoking. Although their benefits and risks are being vigorously debated, e-cigarettes or other clean nicotine delivery devices could play an important role as an adjunct to a U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory intervention to make cigarettes less addictive and in this context could contribute to the end of cigarette smoking and smoking-induced disease.

  12. Skin contamination as pathway for nicotine intoxication in vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giovanni; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Ghione, Giordana; Passini, Valter; Adami, Gianpiero; Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo

    2017-06-01

    Growing warnings on health effects related to electronic cigarettes have met inconclusive findings at present. This study analyzed the in vitro percutaneous absorption of nicotine resulting by skin contamination with two e-liquids (refill 1 and 2) containing nicotine at 1.8%. Donor chambers of 6 Franz cells for each refill liquid were filled with 1mL of nicotine e-liquid for 24h; at selected intervals, 1.5mL of the receptor solutions were collected for nicotine concentration analysis by mean gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LOD: 0.01μg/mL). The experiment was repeated removing the nicotine donor solution after 10min from the application and rinsing the skin surface three times with 3.0mL of milliQ water. A total of 12 cells with 24h exposure and 12 cells washed were studied. The mean concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase at the end of the experiment was 54.9±29.5 and 30.2±18.4μg/cm 2 for refill 1 and 2 respectively and significantly lower in washed cells (4.7±2.4 and 3.5±1.3μg/cm 2 ). The skin absorption of nicotine can lead to minor health illness in vapers, while caution must be paid to dermal contamination by e liquids in children. The skin cleaning significantly reduced the transdermal absorption kinetic and intradermal deposition of nicotine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotine dependence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among adult smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D Loprinzi; Jerome F Walker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used....

  14. Probing into the Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Submaxillary Mucin: NMR, Fluorescence, and FTIR Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine, the important component of cigarette products, may have an impact on the oral environment after inhalation. The research of interaction between nicotine and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM contributes to understand the binding mechanism of nicotine and BSM, and the effects of nicotine on the structure and function of the mucin. NMR data demonstrated that the interaction between nicotine and BSM did exist, and it was pyrrolidyl ring of nicotine playing the major role in the binding. The quenching mechanisms of nicotine and BSM in different pH were different: for acidic environment, the quenching was dynamic; while it became static in the alkaline circumstance. Synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that nicotine had effect on the microenvironment of the Trp rather than Tyr residue. Meanwhile, the impact of nicotine on the conformation of BSM was also confirmed by 3D fluorescence and FTIR spectra.

  15. The effect of nicotine on aortic endothelial cell turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Matthew; McGeachie, John

    1985-01-01

    Endothelial injury and increased mitotic activity are early features in the pathogenesis of intimal thickening in arteries. This study examines the effect of systemic nicotine on mitotic activity in endothelial cells. Nine adult mice were given nicotine in their drinking water for 5 weeks. The dose (5 mg/kg body wt/day) was equivalent to a human smoking 50-100 cigarettes/day. A group of 8 similar mice, not exposed to nicotine, was the control. At the end of the exposure period all mice were injected with ( 3 H)thymidine (1uCi/g body wt) and were killed 24 h later. After perfusion fixation, en-face preparations of aortic endothelium were processed for autoradiography. In nicotine-affected endothelium 0.46.+-0.11% (SEM) of cells were labeled, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than in controls (0.14+-0.06). However, there was no difference in cell density between the groups. On this evidence it was concluded that the rate of cell loss, or cell turnover, was greater in nicotine-affected endothelium. Because other studies have shown that increased mitotic acitivity and cell loss are established features of endothelial injury, the present findings provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that nicotine contributes to the pathogenesis of arterial disease in smokers. (author)

  16. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Parashar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Workers represent half the world′s population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1 To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2 To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi.Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91% were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc. 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99, smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36,CI:1.30-4.27 and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16 for illiterate. Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91% among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides, and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to nicotine, a major component of tobacco that transverses the placenta, is largely responsible for the development of asthma in children born of mothers who smoke...

  19. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Longo, Carmelinda; A Fried, Peter; Cameron, Ian; M Smith, Andra

    2014-11-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory were investigated in young adults. Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood. This allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a 2-Back working memory task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants with more prenatal nicotine exposure demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve verbal working memory including the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe and the cingulate gyrus. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure contributes to altered neural functioning during verbal working memory that continues into adulthood. Working memory is critical for a wide range of cognitive skills such as language comprehension, learning and reasoning. Thus, these findings highlight the need for continued educational programs and public awareness campaigns to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eCohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  1. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug.

  2. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline for smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'dianicline' or 'varenicline' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The register is compiled from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science using MeSH terms and free text to identify controlled trials of interventions for smoking cessation and prevention. We contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest update of the specialized register was in December 2011. We also searched online clinical trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we pooled risk ratios (RRs, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Two recent cytisine trials (937 people

  3. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2012-04-18

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'dianicline' or 'varenicline' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The register is compiled from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science using MeSH terms and free text to identify controlled trials of interventions for smoking cessation and prevention. We contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest update of the specialised register was in December 2011. We also searched online clinical trials registers. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow-up.The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we pooled risk ratios (RRs), using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. Two recent cytisine trials (937 people) found that more participants taking cytisine stopped smoking compared with placebo at longest follow-up, with a pooled RR of

  4. Accurately Diagnosing Uric Acid Stones from Conventional Computerized Tomography Imaging: Development and Preliminary Assessment of a Pixel Mapping Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vishnu; De, Shubha; Shkumat, Nicholas; Marchini, Giovanni; Monga, Manoj

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative determination of uric acid stones from computerized tomography imaging would be of tremendous clinical use. We sought to design a software algorithm that could apply data from noncontrast computerized tomography to predict the presence of uric acid stones. Patients with pure uric acid and calcium oxalate stones were identified from our stone registry. Only stones greater than 4 mm which were clearly traceable from initial computerized tomography to final composition were included in analysis. A semiautomated computer algorithm was used to process image data. Average and maximum HU, eccentricity (deviation from a circle) and kurtosis (peakedness vs flatness) were automatically generated. These parameters were examined in several mathematical models to predict the presence of uric acid stones. A total of 100 patients, of whom 52 had calcium oxalate and 48 had uric acid stones, were included in the final analysis. Uric acid stones were significantly larger (12.2 vs 9.0 mm, p = 0.03) but calcium oxalate stones had higher mean attenuation (457 vs 315 HU, p = 0.001) and maximum attenuation (918 vs 553 HU, p uric acid stones. A combination of stone size, attenuation intensity and attenuation pattern from conventional computerized tomography can distinguish uric acid stones from calcium oxalate stones with high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  6. Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine Administration Impairs Contextual Fear Conditioning in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jennifer A.; James, John R.; Siegel, Steven J.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of acute nicotine administration (0.09 mg/kg nicotine), chronic nicotine administration (6.3 mg/kg/d nicotine for 14 d), and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice were examined. Mice were trained using two coterminating conditioned stimulus (30 s; 85 dB white noise)– unconditioned stimulus (2 s; 0.57 mA foot shock) pairings and tested 24 h later for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Acute nicotine administration enhanced contextu...

  7. Computerized tomographic evaluation of primary brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Soon; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Mediacal center, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Deok [Inje Medical College, Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    In a study of primary brain tumors 104 cases having satisfactory clinical, operative and histological proofs were analyzed by computerized tomography at Presbyterian Medical Center from May, 1982 to April 1985. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio of primary brain tumor was 54 : 46. 2. The 2nd decade group (26%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 5th decade (16.3%), 1st decade (14.4%) , 3rd decade (12.5%), 4th decade (11.5%), 6th decade (10.6%), 7th decade (8.7%) in that order. 3. The incidence of primary brain tumors was found to be: glioma 64 cases (61.6%) among the GM, the most frequent 17 cases (16.3%), followed by meningioma 12 cases (11.5%), pituitary adenoma 10 cases (9.6%), craniopharyngioma 6 cases (5.8%), pinealoma and germinoma 3 cases (2.9%) respectively, and dermoid cyst 2 cases (1.9%) in that order. 4. The location of the primary brain tumors were as follows: cb. hemisphere (49%) of these 24.5% in parietal region, 11.9% in temporal region, 9.7% in frontal region, 3.0% in occipital region: juxtasella area (16.3%), cerebellar hemisphere (8.7%), parapineal and intraventricle (7.7%) respectively, cerebello-pontine angle area (5.8%), vermis and 4th ventricular region (4.8%). 5. There were no remarkable differences in the findings of pre- and post-contrast CT scanning of primary brain tumors computed with others.

  8. Neurosurgical operating computerized tomographic scanner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudera, Hiroshi; Sugita, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Kimishima, Sakae; Yoshida, Hisashi.

    1988-01-01

    A neurosurgical operating computerized tomography scanner system is presented. This system has been developed for obtaining intra- and postoperative CT images in the operating room. A TCT-300 scanner (manufactured by the Toshiba Co., Tokyo) is placed in the operating room. The realization of a true intraoperative CT image requires certain improvements in the CT scanner and operating table. To adjust the axis of the co-ordinates of the motor system of the MST-7000 microsurgical operating table (manufactured by the Mizuho Ika Co., Tokyo) to the CT scanner, we have designed an interface and a precise motor system so that the computer of the CT scanner can directly control the movement of the operating table. Furthermore, a new head-fixation system has been designed for producing artifact-free intraoperative CT images. The head-pins of the head-fixation system are made of carbon-fiber bars and titanium tips. A simulation study of the total system in the operating room with the CT scanner, operating table, and head holder using a skull model yielded a degree of error similar to that in the phantom testing of the original scanner. Three patients underwent resection of a glial tumor using this system. Intraoperative CT scans taken after dural opening showed a bulging of the cortex, a shift in the central structure, and a displacement of the cortical subarachnoid spaces under the influence of gravity. With a contrast medium the edge of the surrounding brain after resection was enhanced and the residual tumor mass was demonstrated clearly. This system makes it possible to obtain a noninvasive intraoperative image in a situation where structural shifts are taking place. (author)

  9. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Computerized Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to operating procedures, both computer and paper-based, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed, the models used by the nuclear industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed, and scientist advances are also explored. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for computerized and paper-based procedures are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMLAB.

  10. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T.; Perera, Surangi N.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Perera, Surangi N. [Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States); Svoboda, Kurt R., E-mail: svobodak@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Sex differences in nicotine intravenous self-administration: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rodolfo J; Uribe, Kevin P; Swalve, Natashia; O'Dell, Laura E

    2017-11-21

    This report reflects a meta-analysis that systematically reviewed the literature on intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of nicotine in female and male rats. The goal was to determine if sex differences in nicotine IVSA exist, estimate the magnitude of the effect, and identify potential moderators of the relationship between sex differences and nicotine consumption. Extensive search procedures identified 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria of employing both female and male rats in nicotine IVSA procedures. The meta-analysis was conducted on effect size values that were calculated from mean total intake or nicotine deliveries using the Hedges' unbiased g u statistic. A random effects analysis revealed that overall females self-administered more nicotine than males (weighted g u =0.18, 95% CI [0.003, 0.34]). Subsequent moderator variable analyses revealed that certain procedural conditions influenced the magnitude of sex differences in nicotine IVSA. Specifically, higher reinforcement requirements (>FR1) and extended-access sessions (23h) were associated with greater nicotine IVSA in females versus males. Females also displayed higher nicotine intake than males when the experiment included a light cue that signaled nicotine delivery. Sex differences were not influenced by the diurnal phase of testing, dose of nicotine, or prior operant training. Overall, the results revealed that female rats display higher levels of nicotine IVSA than males, suggesting that the strong reinforcing effects of nicotine promote tobacco use in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stimulation of Na+ -K+ -pump currents by epithelial nicotinic receptors in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Lottig, Lena; Diener, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl - secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data have shown expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl - secretion by nicotine, in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. Here, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport. Ussing chamber experiments were performed, using rat distal colon with intact epithelia. Epithelia were basolaterally depolarized to measure currents across the apical membrane. Apically permeabilized tissue was also used to measure currents across the basolateral membrane in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Nicotine had no effect on currents through Cl - channels in the apical membrane or on currents through K + channels in the apical or the basolateral membrane. Instead, nicotine stimulated the Na + -K + -pump as indicated by Na + -dependency and sensitivity of the nicotine-induced current across the basolateral membrane to cardiac steroids. Effects of nicotine were inhibited by nicotinic receptor antagonists such as hexamethonium and mimicked by dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, a chemically different nicotinic agonist. Simultaneous stimulation of epithelial muscarinic and nicotinic receptors led to a strong potentiation of transepithelial Cl - secretion. These results suggest a novel concept for the cholinergic regulation of transepithelial ion transport by costimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic epithelial receptors and a unique role of nicotinic receptors controlling the activity of the Na + -K + -ATPase. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Oxytocin attenuates aversive response to nicotine and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Jang, Minji; Noh, Jihyun

    2017-02-01

    Initial tobacco use is initiated with rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine and aversive response to nicotine plays a critical role in nicotine dependency. Decrease of nicotine aversion increases the nicotine use that causes behavioral and neuronal changes of animals. Oxytocin influences drug abuse and reciprocally affect vulnerability to drug use. To assess the effect of oxytocin on initial nicotine aversion and anxiety, we examined voluntary oral nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior following oxytocin treatment in adolescent rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats (4 weeks old) were used. For oxytocin administration, rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or oxytocin (0.01, 0.1 and 1mg/kg) according to the assigned groups. Voluntary oral nicotine consumption test was performed by two bottle free-choice paradigm. To examine anxiety-like behavior in rats, we performed a light/dark box test. Oxytocin not only significantly increased the nicotine intake but also alleviated nicotine aversion after acclimation to nicotine solution in a concentration dependent manner. Meanwhile, oxytocin significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior. We suggest that oxytocin itself mitigates aversive response toward initial nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior. These results widen the psychophysiological perspective on oxytocin for better understanding of nicotine addiction related behaviors influenced by diverse social factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the human odor span task: effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, David A; Drobes, David J

    2017-10-01

    Amongst non-smokers, nicotine generally enhances performance on tasks of attention, with limited effect on working memory. In contrast, nicotine has been shown to produce robust enhancements of working memory in non-humans. To address this gap, the present study investigated the effects of nicotine on the performance of non-smokers on a cognitive battery which included a working memory task reverse-translated from use with rodents (the odor span task, OST). Nicotine has been reported to enhance OST performance in rats and the present study assessed whether this effect generalizes to human performance. Thirty non-smokers were tested on three occasions after consuming either placebo, 2 mg, or 4 mg nicotine gum. On each occasion, participants completed a battery of clinical and experimental tasks of working memory and attention. Nicotine was associated with dose-dependent enhancements in sustained attention, as evidenced by increased hit accuracy on the rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task. However, nicotine failed to produce main effects on OST performance or on alternative measures of working memory (digit span, spatial span, letter-number sequencing, 2-back) or attention (digits forward, 0-back). Interestingly, enhancement of RVIP performance occurred concomitant to significant reductions in self-reported attention/concentration. Human OST performance was significantly related to N-back performance, and as in rodents, OST accuracy declined with increasing memory load. Given the similarity of human and rodent OST performance under baseline conditions and the strong association between OST and visual 0-back accuracy, the OST may be particular useful in the study of conditions characterized by inattention.

  16. Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Brockmöller, Thomas; Navarro-Quezada, Aura; Kuhl, Heiner; Gase, Klaus; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Kreitzer, Christoph; Stanke, Mario; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pandey, Priyanka; Pandey, Shree P; Timmermann, Bernd; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-06-06

    Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Nicotiana Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.

  17. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluating the effect of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, Kyle, E-mail: saylor@vt.edu; Zhang, Chenming, E-mail: chzhang2@vt.edu

    2016-09-15

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans. Successful construction of both rat and human models was achieved by fitting model outputs to published nicotine concentration time course data in the blood and in the brain. Key parameters presumed to have the most effect on the ability of these antibodies to prevent nicotine from entering the brain were selected for investigation using the human model. These parameters, which included antibody affinity for nicotine, antibody cross-reactivity with cotinine, and antibody concentration, were broken down into different, clinically-derived in silico treatment levels and fed into the human PBPK model. Model predictions suggested that all three parameters, in addition to smoking status, have a sizable impact on anti-nicotine antibodies' ability to prevent nicotine from entering the brain and that the antibodies elicited by current human vaccines do not have sufficient binding characteristics to reduce brain nicotine concentrations. If the antibody binding characteristics achieved in animal studies can similarly be achieved in human studies, however, nicotine vaccine efficacy in terms of brain nicotine concentration reduction is predicted to meet threshold values for alleviating nicotine dependence. - Highlights: • Modelling of nicotine disposition in the presence of anti-nicotine antibodies • Key vaccine efficacy factors are evaluated in silico in rats and in humans. • Model predicts insufficient antibody binding in past human nicotine vaccines. • Improving immunogenicity and antibody specificity may lead to vaccine success.

  19. A simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluating the effect of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, Kyle; Zhang, Chenming

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans. Successful construction of both rat and human models was achieved by fitting model outputs to published nicotine concentration time course data in the blood and in the brain. Key parameters presumed to have the most effect on the ability of these antibodies to prevent nicotine from entering the brain were selected for investigation using the human model. These parameters, which included antibody affinity for nicotine, antibody cross-reactivity with cotinine, and antibody concentration, were broken down into different, clinically-derived in silico treatment levels and fed into the human PBPK model. Model predictions suggested that all three parameters, in addition to smoking status, have a sizable impact on anti-nicotine antibodies' ability to prevent nicotine from entering the brain and that the antibodies elicited by current human vaccines do not have sufficient binding characteristics to reduce brain nicotine concentrations. If the antibody binding characteristics achieved in animal studies can similarly be achieved in human studies, however, nicotine vaccine efficacy in terms of brain nicotine concentration reduction is predicted to meet threshold values for alleviating nicotine dependence. - Highlights: • Modelling of nicotine disposition in the presence of anti-nicotine antibodies • Key vaccine efficacy factors are evaluated in silico in rats and in humans. • Model predicts insufficient antibody binding in past human nicotine vaccines. • Improving immunogenicity and antibody specificity may lead to vaccine success.

  20. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND NICOTINE DEPENDENCY AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health risk with highest mortality and morbidity among the worldwide preventable diseases. While military period is a risky period for starting smoking, it is also a good opportunity for population based education studies opposed to smoking. At this point of view it is important to know the smoking behaviors of enlisted people. This study was planned as cross-sectional research, and performed on 455 people selected by simple random method in Etimesgut Armed Unities School and Training Center Commandership at 2002. 53.8% of the participants reported that they had been smoking, and 9.9% of the participants reported that they had been smoking some times. The frequency of the symptoms of nicotine dependence was found as 16.2%. It was found that smoking frequency was very high in enlisted people and significant amount of them had had nicotine dependency symptoms. It is considered that educations about the hazards of smoking and activities for smoking cessation were needed during the military service. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 105-117

  2. Computerized photogrammetry used to calculate the brow position index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naif-de-Andrade, Naif Thadeu; Hochman, Bernardo; Naif-de-Andrade, Camila Zirlis; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-10-01

    The orbital region is of vital importance to facial expression. Brow ptosis, besides having an impact on facial harmony, is a sign of aging. Various surgical techniques have been developed to increase the efficacy of brow-lift surgery. However, no consensus method exists for an objective measurement of the eyebrow position due to the curvature of the face. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a method for measuring the eyebrow position using computerized photogrammetry. For this study, 20 orbital regions of 10 volunteers were measured by direct anthropometry using a digital caliper and by indirect anthropometry (computerized photogrammetry) using standardized digital photographs. Lines, points, and distances were defined based on the position of the anthropometric landmarks endocanthion and exocanthion and then used to calculate the brow position index (BPI). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test with a significance level of 5 %. The BPI values obtained by computerized photogrammetric measurements did not differ significantly from those obtained by direct anthropometric measurements (p > 0.05). The mean BPI was 84.89 ± 10.30 for the computerized photogrammetric measurements and 85.27 ± 10.67 for the direct anthropometric measurements. The BPI defined in this study and obtained by computerized photogrammetry is a reproducible and efficient method for measuring the eyebrow position. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article.

  3. Computerized videodefecography versus defecography: do we need radiographs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Sobrado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Defecography has been recognized as a valuable method for evaluating patients with evacuation disorders. It consists of the use of static radiography and fluoroscopy to record different situations within anorectal dynamics. Conventionally, rectal parameters are measured using radiograms. It is rare for fluoroscopy alone to be used. Computer software has been developed with the specific aim of calculating these measurements from digitized videotaped images obtained during fluoroscopy, without the need for radiographic film, thereby developing a computerized videodefecography method. The objective was thus to compare measurements obtained via computerized videodefecography with conventional measurements and to discuss the advantages of the new method. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the radiology service of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHOD: Ten consecutive normal subjects underwent videodefecography. The anorectal angle, anorectal junction, puborectalis muscle length, anal canal length and degree of anal relaxation were obtained via the conventional method (using radiography film and via computerized videodefecography using the ANGDIST software. Measurement and analysis of these parameters was performed by two independent physicians. RESULTS: Statistical analysis confirmed that the measurements obtained through direct radiography film assessment and using digital image analysis (computerized videodefecography were equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Computerized videodefecography is equivalent to the traditional defecography examination. It has the advantage of offering reduced radiation exposure through saving on the use of radiography.

  4. The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

  5. Building the Vocational Phase of the Computerized Motor Skills Testing System for Use in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Group and Hospitality Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chen, Jyun-Chen; Hong, Kunde

    2016-01-01

    Technical and vocational education emphasizes the development and training of hand motor skills. However, some problems exist in the current career and aptitude tests in that they do not truly measure the hand motor skills. This study used the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller as the testing device in developing a set of computerized testing tools to…

  6. Concerns with Computerized Adaptive Oral Proficiency Assessment. A Commentary on "Comparing Examinee Attitudes Toward Computer-Assisted and Other Oral Proficient Assessments" [and] Response to the Norris Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Malabonga, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Responds to an article on computerized adaptive second language (L2) testing, expressing concerns about the appropriateness of such tests for informing language educators about the language skills of L2 learners and users and fulfilling the intended purposes and achieving the desired consequences of language test use.The authors of the original…

  7. Differences in Nicotine Metabolism of Two Nicotiana attenuata Herbivores Render Them Differentially Susceptible to a Common Native Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Rathi, Preeti; Schöttner, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Pandit, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicotine-induced CYP6B46 to efflux midgut-nicotine into the hemolymph, facilitating nicotine exhalation that deters predatory wolf spiders (Camptocosa parallela). S. exigua's nicotine metabolism is uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the ability of these two herbivores to metabolize, tolerate and co-opt ingested nicotine for defense against the wolf spider. In addition, we analyzed the spider's excretion to gain insights into its nicotine metabolism. Contrary to previous reports, we found that M. sexta larvae neither accumulate the common nicotine oxides (cotinine, cotinine N-oxide and nicotine N-oxide) nor excrete them faster than nicotine. In M. sexta larvae, ingestion of nicotine as well as its oxides increases the accumulation of CYP6B46 transcripts. In contrast, S. exigua accumulates nicotine oxides and exhales less (66%) nicotine than does M. sexta. Spiders prefer nicotine-fed S. exigua over M. sexta, a preference reversed by topical or headspace nicotine supplementation, but not ingested or topically-coated nicotine oxides, suggesting that externalized nicotine but not the nicotine detoxification products deter spider predation. The spiders also do not accumulate nicotine oxides. Conclusions Nicotine oxidation reduces S. exigua's headspace-nicotine and renders it more susceptible to predation by spiders than M. sexta, which exhales unmetabolized nicotine. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that generalist herbivores incur costs of

  8. The Effects of Stress on Levels of Nicotine in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    nicotine (Benowitz & Jacob, 1985; Feyerabend & Russell, 1978; Fix, Daughton & Issenberg, 1986; Matsukura, Sakamoto, Takahashi, Matsuyama...circulating levels of nicotine ( Feyerabend & Russell, 1978; Rosenberg, Benowitz, Jacob & Wilson, 1980). These studies suggest that acidification of

  9. Kefir protective effects against nicotine cessation-induced anxiety and cognition impairments in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Noori

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that Kefir had a potential effect on the treatment of nicotine cessation-induced depression, anxiety and cognition impairment in the animal model. Kefir may be useful for adjunct therapy for nicotine abandonment treatment protocols.

  10. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  11. Effect of Nicotine on Cognitive Performance in Non-smokers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine was administered via chewing 4 mg nicotine gum for 15 minutes ... state examination MMSE), working memory (Two-back task, reaction time: 1 sec.) ... of the improvements increased significantly with decrease in baseline PS.

  12. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Donny, Eric C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2017-01-01

    The reduced nicotine content cigarette and the emergence of non-combusted nicotine products like e-cigarettes should be viewed not as alternatives but as complementary components of regulatory interventions that could virtually end combusted tobacco use. PMID:27555354

  13. Coordination Driven Capture of Nicotine Inside a Mesoporous MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Davide; Capucci, Davide; Demitri, Nicola; Bacchi, Alessia; Pelagatti, Paolo

    2017-06-30

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a wide class of crystalline porous polymers studied in many fields, ranging from catalysis to gas storage. In the past few years, MOFs have been studied for the encapsulation of organic or organometallic molecules and for the development of potential drug carriers. Here, we report on the study of two structurally-related mesoporous Cu-MOFs, namely PCN-6 and PCN-6' (PCN stands for Porous Coordination Network), for nicotine trapping. Nicotine is a well-known alkaloid liquid molecule at room temperature, whose crystalline structure is still unknown. In this work, the loading process was monitored by electron ionization mass spectrometry by using a direct insertion probe (DIP-EI/MS), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) analysis. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis showed evidence that nicotine trapping reaches remarkable uptakes up to 40 wt %. In the case of PCN-6@nicotine, X-ray structural resolution revealed that the guest uptake is triggered by coordination of the pyridine ring of nicotine to the copper nuclei of the paddle-wheel units composing the framework of PCN-6.

  14. E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight-West O

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Knight-West, Christopher Bullen The National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: In this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs, a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to three randomized trials (only one compares ECs with nicotine replacement therapy and a growing number of EC user surveys (n=6, case reports (n=4, and cohort studies (n=8. Collectively, these studies suggest modest cessation efficacy and a few adverse effects, at least with the short-term use. On this basis, we provide advice for health care providers on providing balanced information for patients who enquire about ECs. More research, specifically well-conducted large efficacy trials comparing ECs with standard smoking cessation management (eg, nicotine replacement therapy plus behavioral support and long-term prospective studies for adverse events, are urgently needed to fill critical knowledge gaps on these products. Keywords: tobacco, smoking, nicotine, electronic cigarettes, cessation, addiction

  15. Dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    We conducted an Internet survey in 2004-2007 in 526 daily users of the nicotine gum, to assess use of, and dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers. We used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS-G), the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-G) and the Fagerström Test (FTND-G). After 30 days, 155 participants (29%) indicated their gum use. Higher dependence on the gum predicted a lower chance of stopping using it at follow-up (odds ratio=0.36 for each standard deviation unit on CDS-G, p=0.001). More long-term (>3 months) than short-term (dependence on the gum than short-term users, as assessed with NDSS-Gum, CDS-Gum and FTND-Gum (all pdependence on the nicotine gum. Lower levels of dependence on the gum predicted cessation of gum use. However, long term use of the nicotine gum has no known serious adverse consequence, and may be beneficial if it prevents late relapse.

  16. Antibacterial activity of nicotine and its copper complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.I.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cu(II)-nicotine was isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using metal ions following the method of Munir et al., 1994. Their antibacterial activity against ten different species of gram positive and gram negative bacteria were studied. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salts used for complexation; Copper(II) chloride were also subjected to antibacterial tests with the same species of bacteria under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had no effect on all the bacteria tested except Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, which showed 14 mm zone of inhibition at 200 mu g l00 mul/sup -1/ Copper(II) chloride was found to be effective against seven species and ineffective against three species of selected bacteria. On the other hand, Cu(II)-nicotine complex was ineffective against five species of bacteria at lower level while at higher level, only one species of bacteria showed resistance against this complex. The complex was compared with three standard antibiotics. Thus, this complex can be used against a variety of microorganisms at higher level. (author)

  17. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Two Nicotine Patches in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Scott; Horkan, Kathleen Halabuk; Kotler, Mitchell

    2018-02-02

    Smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of early mortality worldwide, and nicotine replacement therapy has been demonstrated to increase rates of abstinence among smokers attempting to quit. Nicotine transdermal systems (also known as nicotine patches) attach to the skin via an adhesive layer composed of a mixture of different-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes (PIBs) in a specific ratio. This randomized, single-dose, 2-treatment, crossover pharmacokinetic (PK) trial assessed the bioequivalence of nicotine patches including a replacement PIB adhesive (test) compared with the PIB adhesive historically used on marketed patches (reference). The test and reference patches were bioequivalent, as determined by the PK parameters of C max and AUC 0-t . In addition, the parameters T max and t 1/2 did not significantly differ between the 2 patches, supporting the bioequivalence finding from the primary analysis. The tolerability profiles of the patches containing the replacement and previously used PIB adhesives were similar; application-site adverse events did not significantly differ between test and reference patches. Overall, these data establish the bioequivalence of the nicotine patch with the replacement PIB adhesive formulation and the previously utilized PIB adhesive formulation. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  19. Coordination Driven Capture of Nicotine Inside a Mesoporous MOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Balestri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic frameworks (MOFs are a wide class of crystalline porous polymers studied in many fields, ranging from catalysis to gas storage. In the past few years, MOFs have been studied for the encapsulation of organic or organometallic molecules and for the development of potential drug carriers. Here, we report on the study of two structurally-related mesoporous Cu-MOFs, namely PCN-6 and PCN-6′ (PCN stands for Porous Coordination Network, for nicotine trapping. Nicotine is a well-known alkaloid liquid molecule at room temperature, whose crystalline structure is still unknown. In this work, the loading process was monitored by electron ionization mass spectrometry by using a direct insertion probe (DIP-EI/MS, infrared (IR, and ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS analysis. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TGA analysis showed evidence that nicotine trapping reaches remarkable uptakes up to 40 wt %. In the case of PCN-6@nicotine, X-ray structural resolution revealed that the guest uptake is triggered by coordination of the pyridine ring of nicotine to the copper nuclei of the paddle-wheel units composing the framework of PCN-6.

  20. The ECO computerized cognitive battery: collection of normative data using elderly New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Paul I; Secker, David I; Fright, Renee; Melding, Pamela

    2004-03-01

    Computerized testing in the elderly has multiple advantages, including increased time-efficiency, a wider range of stimulus options and response forms, and increased psychometric reliability. The French-language ECO (Examen Cognitif par Ordinateur, Ritchie et al., 1993) computerized cognitive battery is investigated in this study. The purpose of the study was to yield normative data for an English-language version of the ECO, test the effects of age and education on test scores, to observe individual subtest sensitivity to cognitive impairment, and to examine participants' receptivity to this form of testing. A sample of 129 community-dwelling elderly with normal cognitive functioning and 56 cognitively impaired older adults living in both independent and supported accommodation were tested using the ECO at either their own residence or an outpatient facility. Standardized scores for three different age bands are given for both impaired and non-impaired groups. Age and education effects varied between subtests. A discriminant analysis of subtest-sensitivity to group prediction is reported using a stepwise regression model. The English version of the ECO appears to be a sensitive and practical cognitive battery that is highly acceptable to older people.

  1. Nicotine dependence and sleep quality in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, E N; Sylvestre, M P; O'Loughlin, E K; Brunet, J; Kakinami, L; Constantin, E; O'Loughlin, J

    2017-02-01

    More cigarette smokers report poor sleep quality than non-smokers, but the association between nicotine dependence (ND) and sleep quality has not been well-characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the associations among frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality in young adults. Data on past-year smoking frequency, number of cigarettes smoked in the past month, five ND indicators (i.e., withdrawal, craving, self-medication symptoms, mFTQ, ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence), and sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were collected in 2011-12 in self-report questionnaires completed by 405 young adult smokers (mean age 24 (0.6) years; 45% male; 45% daily smokers) participating in a longitudinal investigation of the natural course of ND. Associations between indicators of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality were examined in multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, mother's education, and alcohol use. Thirty-six percent of participants reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>5). Higher cigarette consumption (OR(95% CI), 1.03(1.001-1.05)) but not frequency of past-year smoking, more frequent withdrawal symptoms (1.05(1.004-1.10)), more frequent cravings (1.05(1.004-1.10)), higher mFTQ scores (1.14(1.02-1.27)), and endorsing more ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence (1.19(1.04-1.36)) were also associated with poor sleep quality. Cigarette smoking and ND symptoms are associated with poor sleep quality in young adult smokers. Advice from practitioners to cut back on number of cigarettes smoked per day and treatment of ND symptoms may improve sleep quality in young adult smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nicotine in dried boletus mushrooms - Causes for contamination must be determined

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    Recently, nicotine has been detected in samples of dried boletus mushrooms. In large doses, nicotine is a strong neurotoxin and natural component of the tobacco plant. Yet food supply plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, aubergines and cauliflower also contain very small amounts of the substance. The cause of nicotine contamination in dried boletus mushrooms has thus far not been determined since nicotine has not been established as a naturally occurring component in mushrooms. Whether the nico...

  3. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experience feedback of computerized controlled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, F.

    2004-01-01

    The N4 step of French PWR-type nuclear power plants is characterized by an instrumentation and control system entirely computerized (operation procedures including normal and accidental operation). Four power plants of this type (Chooz and Civaux sites) of 1450 MWe each were connected to the power grid between August 1996 and December 1999. The achievement of this program make it possible and necessary to carry out an experience feedback about the development, successes and difficulties encountered in order to draw out some lessons for future realizations. This is the aim of this article: 1 - usefulness and difficulties of such an experience feedback: evolution of instrumentation and control systems, necessary cautions; 2 - a successful computerized control: checking of systems operation, advantages, expectations; 3 - efficiency of computerized systems: demonstration of operation safety, profitability; 4 - conclusions and interrogations: system approach instead of 'micro-software' approach, commercial or 'made to measure' products, contract agreement with a supplier, when and how upgrading. (J.S.)

  5. Quality criteria in computerized tomography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehring, W.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of thoracical computerized tomography (CT) - like any other CT examination - depends from the quality of the equipment used, from the skill of the examinor and the properties of the patient. Concerning computerized chest tomograms, rapid scan equipment should be used only and slow translation - rotation systems should not be used any more. Whereas the quality of computerized tomograms may be influenced by the patient in the scanning process only, the examining physician will decisively influence the possible informative value of the examination also in the reconstruction of the CT value matrix, in single demonstration of CT values and, possibly, in additional measurement value processing as well as in the interpretation of findings. Use of equipment should always consider the technical potential provided by the equipment to be oriented to the clinical issue, and the conditions preset by the patient. (orig.) [de

  6. Cognitive task analysis and the design of computerized operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H.

    1985-01-01

    The new technological possibilities have led to the initiation of many projects for the design and evaluation of computerized operator support systems to be implemented in nuclear power plant control rooms. A typical finding so far has been that operators often have a positive attitude towards such systems but still don't use them very much, mostly because they find almost the same information on the conventional control boards which they are accustomed to use. Still, however, there is a widely shared belief that conventional control rooms have short-comings that make the use of computerized aids necessary. One reason for the limited success so far is that the new systems often are poorly integrated with the existing conventional instrumentation and with the working procedures. The reluctance to use new computer based aids, despite their nice features, is therefore probably caused by an inadequate task analysis made prior to the design of these computerized operator support systems

  7. Computerized access to materials data. A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumble, J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As the effort to build a comprehensive computerized materials data system grows, it becomes more obvious that the benefits will be far-reaching. During this workshop, the enthusiasm of the participants grew steadily until the questions became not''What,'' but ''When?''. The engineering community within the United States has banded together many times to advance progress in engineering capability. The computerized materials data system requires such an effort, and the rewards will be substantial. Chapter 3 identifies changes in the use of materials data in the Nuclear Power Industry. Chapter 4 describes the EPRI experience in building computerized materials databases. In Chapter 5, the National Materials Property Data Network is discussed. The next four chapters present summaries of the workshop discussions and its conclusions. Chapter 6 discusses the content of the proposed system, Chapter 7 its size and the data sources, and Chapter 8 the user interfaces and system capabilities. In Chapter 9, ways of making further progress are outlined

  8. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  9. Pain Perception: Computerized versus Traditional Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, M; Kumar, A; Srivastava, D; Sharma, P; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety- provoking procedure for both children and adult patients in dentistry. A computerized system for slow delivery of local anesthetic has been developed as a possible solution to reduce the pain related to the local anesthetic injection. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare pain perception rates in pediatric patients with computerized system and traditional methods, both objectively and subjectively. It was a randomized controlled study in one hundred children aged 8-12 years in healthy physical and mental state, assessed as being cooperative, requiring extraction of maxillary primary molars. Children were divided into two groups by random sampling - Group A received buccal and palatal infiltration injection using Wand, while Group B received buccal and palatal infiltration using traditional syringe. Visual Analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation of pain perception by patient. Sound, Eye, Motor (SEM) scale was used as an objective method where sound, eye and motor reactions of patient were observed and heart rate measurement using pulse oximeter was used as the physiological parameter for objective evaluation. Patients experienced significantly less pain of injection with the computerized method during palatal infiltration, while less pain was not statistically significant during buccal infiltration. Heart rate increased during both buccal and palatal infiltration in traditional and computerized local anesthesia, but difference between traditional and computerized method was not statistically significant. It was concluded that pain perception was significantly more during traditional palatal infiltration injection as compared to computerized palatal infiltration, while there was no difference in pain perception during buccal infiltration in both the groups.

  10. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  11. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S.; Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Wiklund, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity β2-containing nicotinic receptors (β2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the β2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, β2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via α7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on β2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  12. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation and induces resistance to cisplatin by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor‑mediated activation in Raw264.7 and El4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Yan; Liu, Yao; Ni, Xiao Yan; Bai, Zhen Huan; Chen, Qiong Yun; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Feng Guang

    2014-03-01

    Although nicotine is a risk factor for carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis, epidemiological data indicate that nicotine has therapeutic benefits in treating Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies also showed that nicotine-treated dendritic cells have potential antitumor effects. Hence, the precise effects of nicotine on the biological characterizations of cells are controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the roles of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Erk1/2-p38-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathway in nicotine-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptosis effects. The results firstly showed that nicotine treatment clearly augmented cell viability and upregulated PCNA expression in both Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Meanwhile, nicotine afforded protection against cisplatin-induced toxicity through inhibiting caspase-3 activation and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein expression. Further exploration demonstrated that nicotine efficiently abolished cisplatin-promoted mitochondria translocation of Bax and the release of cytochrome c. The pretreatment of α-bungarotoxin and tubocurarine chloride significantly attenuated nicotine-augmented cell viability, abolished caspase-3 activation and α7 nAChR upregulation. Both Erk-JNK-p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways could be activated by nicotine treatment in Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Notably, when Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt activities were inhibited, nicotine-augmented cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects were abolished accordingly. The results presented here indicate that nicotine could achieve α7 nAChR-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects by activating Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathways respectively, providing potential therapeutic molecules to deal with smoking-associated human diseases.

  13. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Asanagi, Miki [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Sekino, Yuko [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Yasunari, E-mail: kanda@nihs.go.jp [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  14. Emergence of dormant conditioned incentive approach by conditioned withdrawal in nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hiroi, Noboru

    2010-10-15

    Nicotine is one of the determinants for the development of persistent smoking, and this maladaptive behavior is characterized by many symptoms, including withdrawal and nicotine seeking. The process by which withdrawal affects nicotine seeking is poorly understood. The impact of a withdrawal-associated cue on nicotine (.2 mg/kg)-conditioned place preference was assessed in male C57BL/6J mice (n = 8-17/group). To establish a cue selectively associated with withdrawal distinct from those associated with nicotine, a tone was paired with withdrawal in their home cages; mice were chronically exposed to nicotine (200 μg/mL for 15 days) from drinking water in their home cages and received the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (2.5 mg/kg) to precipitate withdrawal in the presence of a tone. The effect of the withdrawal-associated tone on nicotine-conditioned place preference was then evaluated in the place-conditioning apparatus after a delay, when nicotine-conditioned place preference spontaneously disappeared. A cue associated with precipitated withdrawal reactivated the dormant effect of nicotine-associated cues on conditioned place preference. This effect occurred during continuous exposure to nicotine but not during abstinence. A conditioned withdrawal cue could directly amplify the incentive properties of cues associated with nicotine. This observation extends the contemporary incentive account of the role of withdrawal in addiction to cue-cue interaction. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR_Mohsen

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Nicotine is the more abundant component in cigarette smoking. The natural diet contains a variety ... morphometrical methods and study the protective effect of green tea against toxicity of nicotine. Four groups of the male ... nicotine exposure induced oxidative stress and causes histopathological changes ...

  16. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 {+-} 235% (mean {+-} SEM) of basal level vs. 520 {+-} 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 {+-} 83% of basal level vs. 969 {+-} 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine.

  17. effect of nicotine administration on weight and histology of some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    However it is not certain whether this effect is produced entirely by nicotine as cigarettes contain other toxic ... nicotine treatment while weights of the heart and liver increased with 60days treatment with the appearance of .... carried out in ascending grade of alcohol. .... This study showed that chronic nicotine treatment.

  18. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC 50 was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress

  19. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  20. Progressive and Lasting Amplilfication of Accumbal Nicotine-Seeking Neural Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillem, K.; Peoples, L.L.

    2010-01-01

    Although neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are thought to contribute to nicotine addiction, little is known about the chronic effects of nicotine on NAc neuronal activity. In the present experiment, rats were exposed to a 23 d period of nicotine selfadministration (SA), a 30 d

  1. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa, E-mail: ebuszman@sum.edu.pl

    2014-10-15

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC{sub 50} was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress.

  2. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 ± 235% (mean ± SEM) of basal level vs. 520 ± 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 ± 83% of basal level vs. 969 ± 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine

  3. Key issues surrounding the health impacts of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and other sources of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Cahn, Zachary; Kennedy, Rosemary; Liber, Alex C; Stoklosa, Michal; Henson, Rosemarie; Douglas, Clifford E; Drope, Jacqui

    2017-11-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the last decade, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including the electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, has grown rapidly. More youth now use ENDS than any tobacco product. This extensive research review shows that there are scientifically sound, sometimes competing arguments about ENDS that are not immediately and/or completely resolvable. However, the preponderance of the scientific evidence to date suggests that current-generation ENDS products are demonstrably less harmful than combustible tobacco products such as conventional cigarettes in several key ways, including by generating far lower levels of carcinogens and other toxic compounds than combustible products or those that contain tobacco. To place ENDS in context, the authors begin by reviewing the trends in use of major nicotine-containing products. Because nicotine is the common core-and highly addictive-constituent across all tobacco products, its toxicology is examined. With its long history as the only nicotine product widely accepted as being relatively safe, nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) is also examined. A section is also included that examines snus, the most debated potential harm-reduction product before ENDS. Between discussions of NRT and snus, ENDS are extensively examined: what they are, knowledge about their level of "harm," their relationship to smoking cessation, the so-called gateway effect, and dual use/poly-use. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:449-471. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Nicotine pharmacokinetic profiles of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2, cigarettes and nicotine gum in Japanese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf; Poux, Valerie; Lama, Nicola; Haziza, Christelle; Picavet, Patrick; Baker, Gizelle; Lüdicke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Two open-label randomized cross-over studies in Japanese smokers investigated the single-use nicotine pharmacokinetic profile of the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, cigarettes (CC) and nicotine replacement therapy (Gum). In each study, one on the regular and one on the menthol variants of the THS and CC, both using Gum as reference, 62 subjects were randomized to four sequences: Sequence 1: THS - CC (n = 22); Sequence 2: CC - THS (n = 22); Sequence 3: THS - Gum (n = 9); Sequence 4: Gum - THS (n = 9). Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in 16 blood samples collected over 24 h after single use. Maximal nicotine concentration (C max ) and area under the curve from start of product use to time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-last ) were similar between THS and CC in both studies, with ratios varying from 88 to 104% for C max and from 96 to 98% for AUC 0-last . Urge-to-smoke total scores were comparable between THS and CC. The THS nicotine pharmacokinetic profile was close to CC, with similar levels of urge-to-smoke. This suggests that THS can satisfy smokers and be a viable alternative to cigarettes for adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Multidetector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) On The General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)

  6. Recurrent lymph node metastases after craniocervical tumours: Computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Lenz, M.; Kersting-Sommerhoff, B.; Bautz, W.; Kretz, S.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 544 CT examinations of the craniocervical region carried out in 231 patients were analyzed on a retrospective basis in order to assess the clinical value of contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, being carried out either for comparison with or in combination with clinical control examinations, in the post-therapeutic surveillance of patients treated for craniocervical tumours. The diagnostic accuracy attained with computerized tomography in the detection of recurrent lymph node metastases was 95% and thus superior to that determined for clinical control examinations (80%). (orig./GDG) [de

  7. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essenmacher, Carol; Naegle, Madeline; Baird, Carolyn; Vest, Bridgette; Spielmann, Rene; Smith-East, Marie; Powers, Leigh

    Efforts to decrease adverse effects of tobacco use are affected by emergence of new nicotine delivery products. Advertising, product promotion, and social media promote use of these products, yet a lack of evidence regarding safety leaves nurses unprepared to counsel patients. To critically evaluate current research, reviews of literature, expert opinion, and stakeholder policy proposals on use and safety of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). A targeted examination of literature generated by key stakeholders and subject matter experts was conducted using key words, modified by risk factors, and limited to the past 8 years. Current knowledge gaps in research literature and practice implications of the literature are discussed. The safety of ENDS is questionable and unclear. There are clear health risks of nicotine exposure to developing brains. Potential health risks of ENDS secondhand emissions exposure exist. Using ENDS to facilitate total tobacco cessation is not proven.

  8. Consumption and foraging behaviors for common stimulants (nicotine, caffeine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Currie, Jonathan; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-01-01

    Models are needed to understand the emerging capability to track consumers' movements. Therefore, we examined the use of legal and readily available stimulants that vary in their addictive potential (nicotine, caffeine). One hundred sixty-six participants answered the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Severity of Dependence Scale for nicotine and caffeine, and reported the number of times and locations stimulants were purchased and used. On average, nicotine dependent individuals made their purchases from 2 locations, while caffeine dependent individuals consumed caffeine at 2 locations, but some people exhibited a greater range and intensity of use. Stimulant foraging behavior could be described by power laws, and is exacerbated by dependency. The finding has implications for attempts to control substance use.

  9. First trimester nicotine exposure and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background: Although prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been associated with infantile colic (IC), to date no published studies have reported on the relationship between the prenatal use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and IC. Aim: We aimed to assess the relationship between fetal...... exposure to nicotine, coming from both cigarette smoking and use of NRT early in pregnancy, and IC. Methods: The study population consisted of 63,883 pregnancies that resulted in live born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2002. Mother’s smoking habits and use of NRT......: The results indicate that prenatal exposure to nicotine from any source during the first trimester of the pregnancy increases the risk of infantile colic....

  10. Recombination homeostasis of meiosis during spermatogenesis under nicotine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Jingli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking can affect male fertility via the quality of semen. To explore the effects of nicotine, a major component of cigarettes, on meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis, C57BL/6J male mice were injected with nicotine at a dosage of 0.2 mg/100 g body weight daily for 35 days (nicotine-treated group; mice in the control group were injected with isopycnic normal saline. According to previous expression profiles of mouse sperm, a subset of meiosis-related genes was pooled using bioinformatic analysis. Protein expression was compared between the two groups using by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Recombination frequency during the meiosis phase of spermatogenesis was estimated by combined use of chromosome spread and immunofluorescence staining in mouse testes. Data mining analysis indicated that 4 genes that express meiotic topoisomerase-like protein SPO11, MutS protein homolog 4 (MSH4, strand exchange protein RAD51 and MutL protein homologue 1 (MLH1, were associated with the meiosis recombination process. The results of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry further showed that the protein expression of SPO11 (0.73-fold and MSH4 (0.73-fold was downregulated in murine testes after nicotine treatment, whereas the protein expression of both RAD51 (2.06-fold and MLH1 (1.40-fold was upregulated. Unexpectedly, we did not detect a significant difference in recombination frequency in meiosis during spermatogenesis in the nicotine-treated group as compared to the control. Taken together, these results indicate that nicotine can affect the expression profile of restructuring-related genes, but it does not significantly change the recombination frequency during male meiosis. These findings suggest there is a self-regulating mechanism during meiotic chromosome restructuring in male mice that responds to environmental stress.

  11. [Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of nicotine and BSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Kong, Xiang-rong; Shen, Xinag-can; Liang, Hong

    2005-10-01

    The interaction of nicotine and bovine serum albumin(BSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectra and UV-vis spectra. The fluorescence spectrum showed that BSA fluorescence quench regularly with the addition of nicotine.The fluorescence quenching mechanisms were also studied in pH 5.0, pH 7.4 and pH 11.0 by Stern-Volmer equation, indicating dynamic quenching(pH 5.0) and static quenching(pH 7.4 and pH 11.0) respectively. Association constants (k) of nicotine and BSA at pH 7.4 and pH 11.0 at the temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C were given by the Lineweaver-Buck equation, which are: k(20 degrees C) = 140.15 L x mol(-1) and k(37 degrees C) = 131.83 mol x L(-1) (pH 7.4), and k(20 degrees C) = 141.76 mol x L(-1), k(37 degrees C) = 27.79 mol x L(-1) (pH 11.0), suggesting that the association constant is effected by the temperature much more remarkably at pH 7.4 than that at pH 11.0 because of the different states of nicotine at different pHs. The UV-Vis spectra exhibit that the absorbance of BSA(210 nm) shifts to red and decreases gradually with the addition of nicotine, reflecting the transition of secondary structure of BSA, namely, the helix of BSA becomes looser. The UV-Vis second derivative spectra and synchronous spectra (delta wavelength = wavelength(em) - wavelength(ex) = 15 nm and delta wavelength = wavelength(em) - wavelength(ex) = 60 nm) imply the change of the microcircumstance of aromatic amino residues of BSA(Trp, Tyr and Phe) from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity at high concentration of nicotine.

  12. Nicotine as a discriminative stimulus for ethanol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Levy, Simon A; Lamb, R J

    2018-01-01

    Abused drugs reinforce behavior; i.e., they increase the probability of the behavior preceding their administration. Abused drugs can also act as discriminative stimuli; i.e., they can set the occasion for responding reinforced by another event. Thus, one abused drug could come to set the occasion for the use of another and this functional relationship may play a role in polysubstance abuse, where common patterns of use could result in this relationship. Here we establish nicotine (0.4mg/kg, ip 5-min pre-session) as a discriminative stimulus for behavior reinforced by ethanol (0.1ml 8% w/v po, versus food) and determine the ability of nicotine (0.02-0.4mg/kg), varenicline (0.1-3.0mg/kg), and ethanol (250 and 500mg/kg) to control responding for ethanol. We compare these results to those from rats where nicotine signaled food was available (and ethanol was not). Nicotine came to function as a discriminative stimulus. Nicotine and varenicline produced dose-dependent increases in responding on the nicotine-appropriate lever while ethanol produced responding on the vehicle-appropriate lever. Whether this responding occurred on the lever that produced ethanol or food access depended on the training condition. These results demonstrate that a drug can come to set the occasion for use of another and suggest that this behavioral mechanism could play an important role in the maintenance of and recovery from polysubstance abuse, depending on the pattern of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex osteoclastogenic inductive effects of nicotine over hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Rodrigues, Joao; Rocha, Isabel; Fernandes, Maria H

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette smoke is associated to pathological weakening of bone tissue, being considered an important playmaker in conditions such as osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. In addition, it is also associated with an increased risk of failure in bone regeneration strategies. The present work aimed to characterize the effects of nicotine on human osteoclastogenesis over a hydroxyapatite substrate. Osteoclast precursors were maintained in the absence or presence of the osteoclastogenesis enhancers M-CSF and RANKL, and were further treated with nicotine levels representative of the concentrations observed in the plasma and saliva of smokers. It was observed that nicotine at low concentrations elicit an increase in osteoclast differentiation, but only in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL it was also able to significantly increase the resorbing ability of osteoclasts. A slight downregulation of NFkB pathway and an increase in the production of TNF-α and, particularly PGE2, were involved in the observed effects of nicotine. At high concentrations, nicotine revealed cytotoxic effects, causing a decrease in cell density. In conclusion, nicotine at levels found in the plasma of the smokers, has the ability to act directly on osteoclast precursors, inducing its osteoclastogenic differentiation. The stimulatory behavior appears to be dependent on the stage of osteoclastic differentiation of the precursor cells, which means, in the absence of M-CSF and RANKL, it only favors the initial stages of osteoclast differentiation, while in the presence of the growth factors, a significant increase in their resorbing ability is also achieved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Unpacking smokers' beliefs about addiction and nicotine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Synthesis and nicotinic receptor activity of a hydroxylated tropane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner, John B; Godfrey, Colette A; Jensen, Anders A.

    2004-01-01

    (+/-)-3alpha-hydroxy homoepibatidine 4 has been synthesized from the alkaloid scopolamine 5 and its properties as a nicotinic agonist assessed. While still binding strongly, the compound showed reduced agonist potency for the alpha(4)beta(2) nAChR compared with the parent compound epibatidine 1....... Compound 4 also displayed generally similar binding and selectivity profiles at alpha(4)beta(2), alpha(2)beta(4), alpha(3)beta(4), and alpha(4)beta(4) nAChR subtypes to those for nicotine....

  16. Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively.......This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....

  17. Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Kodetthoor B Udupa

    2006-01-01

    Cell proliferation is an important process in life for growth of normal and cancer cells. The signal transduction pathways activated during this process are strictly regulated. This editorial focuses on the role of nicotine,a mitogen, in the induction of signaling pathways resulting in proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells and compares these events with those in normal acinar cells isolated from the rat pancreas. The data shows striking similarities between these two cellular systems.In addition, the editorial reviews very recent literature of the contribution of MAPK signaling in cell lines associated with human diseases. A prospective cellular model of nicotine induced activation of MAPK cascade is presented.

  18. Effect of a nicotine vaccine on nicotine binding to the beta2-nAChRs in vivo in human tobacco smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterlis, Irina; Hannestad, Jonas O.; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; D’Souza, D. Cyril; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Seibyl, John P.; Hatsukami, Dorothy M.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nicotine acts in the brain to promote smoking in part by binding to the beta2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs) and acting in the mesolimbic reward pathway. The effects of nicotine from smoking one tobacco cigarette are significant (80% of β2*-nAChRs occupied for >6h). This likely contributes to the maintenance of smoking dependence and low cessation outcomes. Development of nicotine vaccines provides potential for alternative treatments. We used [123I]5IA-85380 SPECT to evaluate the effect of 3′-AmNic-rEPA on the amount of nicotine that binds to the β2*-nAChRs in the cortical and subcortical regions in smokers. Method Eleven smokers (36years (SD=13); 19cig/day (SD=11) for 10years (SD=7) who were dependent on nicotine (Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence score =5.5 (SD=3); plasma nicotine 9.1 ng/mL (SD=5)) participated in 2 SPECT scan days: before and after immunization with 4–400μg doses of 3′-AmNic-rEPA. On SPECT scan days, 3 30-min baseline emission scans were obtained, followed by administration of IV nicotine (1.5mg/70kg) and up to 9 30-min emission scans. Results β2*-nAChR availability was quantified as VT/fP and nicotine binding was derived using the Lassen plot approach. Immunization led to a 12.5% reduction in nicotine binding (F=5.19, df=1,10, p=0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between nicotine bound to β2*-nAChRs and nicotine injected before but not after vaccination (p=0.05 vs. p=0.98). There was a significant reduction in the daily number of cigarettes and desire for a cigarette (p=.01 and p=.04, respectively). Conclusions This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that immunization with nicotine vaccine can reduce the amount of nicotine binding to β2*-nAChRs and disrupt the relationship between nicotine administered vs. nicotine available to occupy β2*-nAChRs. PMID:23429725

  19. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models

  20. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Holm; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael Linnemann

    2014-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved...... in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7–P15), nicotine induced larger...... intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15–P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells...