WorldWideScience

Sample records for computer music techniques

  1. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  2. How Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval Interface with Music-And-Meaning Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

      Inspired by the interest generated as the result of a panel discussion dealing with cross-disciplinarity and computer music modeling and retrieval (CMMR) at CMMR 2005 - "Play!" - in Pisa, a panel discussion on  current issues of a cross-disciplinary character has been organized for ICMC07/CMMR...... 2007. Eight panelists will be dealing with the two questions: a) What are current issues within music-and-meaning studies, the examination of which mandates development of new techniques within computer music modeling and retrieval?  and b) Do current techniques within computer music modeling...... and retrieval give rise to new questions within music-and-meaning studies?...

  3. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  4. Computational Music Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides an in-depth introduction and overview of current research in computational music analysis. Its seventeen chapters, written by leading researchers, collectively represent the diversity as well as the technical and philosophical sophistication of the work being done today...... on well-established theories in music theory and analysis, such as Forte's pitch-class set theory, Schenkerian analysis, the methods of semiotic analysis developed by Ruwet and Nattiez, and Lerdahl and Jackendoff's Generative Theory of Tonal Music. The book is divided into six parts, covering...... music analysis, the book provides an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers and students in music theory and analysis, computer science, music information retrieval and related disciplines. It also provides a state-of-the-art reference for practitioners in the music technology industry....

  5. Genre-adaptive Semantic Computing and Audio-based Modelling for Music Mood Annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saari, Pasi; Fazekas, György; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether taking genre into account is beneficial for automatic music mood annotation in terms of core affects valence, arousal, and tension, as well as several other mood scales. Novel techniques employing genre-adaptive semantic computing and audio-based modelling are prop......This study investigates whether taking genre into account is beneficial for automatic music mood annotation in terms of core affects valence, arousal, and tension, as well as several other mood scales. Novel techniques employing genre-adaptive semantic computing and audio-based modelling...... related to a set of 600 popular music tracks spanning multiple genres. The results show that ACTwg outperforms a semantic computing technique that does not exploit genre information, and ACTwg-SLPwg outperforms conventional techniques and other genre-adaptive alternatives. In particular, improvements......-based genre representation for genre-adaptive music mood analysis....

  6. MUSICAL-COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova Irina B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with musically-computer technology in the educational system on example of the Educational and Methodical Laboratory Music & Computer Technologies at the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg. Interdisciplinary field of professional activities relates to the creation and application of specialized music software and hardware tools and the knowledges in music and informatics. A realization of the concept of musical-computer education in preparing music teachers is through basic educational programs of vocational training, supplementary education, professional development of teachers and methodical support via Internet. In addition, the laboratory Music & Computer Technologies engaged in scientific activity: it is, above all, specialized researches in the field of pedagogy and international conferences.

  7. Music Learning Based on Computer Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baihui Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better develop and improve students’ music learning, the authors proposed the method of music learning based on computer software. It is still a new field to use computer music software to assist teaching. Hereby, we conducted an in-depth analysis on the computer-enabled music learning and the music learning status in secondary schools, obtaining the specific analytical data. Survey data shows that students have many cognitive problems in the current music classroom, and yet teachers have not found a reasonable countermeasure to them. Against this background, the introduction of computer music software to music learning is a new trial that can not only cultivate the students’ initiatives of music learning, but also enhance their abilities to learn music. Therefore, it is concluded that the computer software based music learning is of great significance to improving the current music learning modes and means.

  8. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  9. Music Learning Based on Computer Software

    OpenAIRE

    Baihui Yan; Qiao Zhou

    2017-01-01

    In order to better develop and improve students’ music learning, the authors proposed the method of music learning based on computer software. It is still a new field to use computer music software to assist teaching. Hereby, we conducted an in-depth analysis on the computer-enabled music learning and the music learning status in secondary schools, obtaining the specific analytical data. Survey data shows that students have many cognitive problems in the current music classroom, and yet teach...

  10. Mathematics and Computation in Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 5th Biennial International Conference for Mathematics and Computation in Music (MCM 2015) took place June 22–25, 2015, at Queen Mary University of London, UK, co-hosted by the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science (Centre for Digital Music) and the School of Mathematical...... Sciences. As the flagship conference of the Society for Mathematics and Computation in Music (SMCM), MCM 2015 provided a dedicated platform for the communication and exchange of ideas among researchers in mathematics, informatics, music theory, composition, musicology, and related disciplines. It brought...... together researchers from around the world who combine mathematics or computation with music theory, music analysis, composition, and performance. This year’s program – full details at http://mcm2015.qmul.ac.uk – featured a number of distinguished keynote speakers, including Andrée Ehresmann (who spoke...

  11. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  12. Melodic pattern extraction in large collections of music recordings using time series mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Sankalp; Serrà, Joan; Ishwar, Vignesh; Serra, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a data-driven unsupervised approach for the discovery of melodic patterns in large collections of Indian art music recordings. The approach first works on single recordings and subsequently searches in the entire music collection. Melodic similarity is based on dynamic time warping. The task being computationally intensive, lower bounding and early abandoning techniques are applied during distance computation. Our dataset comprises 365 hours of music, containing 1,764 audio rec...

  13. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  14. Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It is a pleasure to welcome everyone to the 2007 International Computer Music Conference, hosted in Copenhagen from the 27th to the 31st of August. ICMC2007 is organized by Re:New - Digital arts forum, in collaboration with the International Computer Music Association and Medialogy at Aalborg Uni...... and interactive music and circus. The cross-disciplinary nature of ICMC is well represented by the Medialogy education, a new initiative started in Esbjerg and now well established in Copenhagen.......It is a pleasure to welcome everyone to the 2007 International Computer Music Conference, hosted in Copenhagen from the 27th to the 31st of August. ICMC2007 is organized by Re:New - Digital arts forum, in collaboration with the International Computer Music Association and Medialogy at Aalborg...... efficient in providing feedback and comments on the numerous papers submitted. The response to the call for participation was very positive. We received 290 paper submissions and 554 music submissions. We are extremely grateful for the interest and support from around the world. It is an honor to welcome...

  15. An integrative computational modelling of music structure apprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , the computational model, by virtue of its generality, extensiveness and operationality, is suggested as a blueprint for the establishment of cognitively validated model of music structure apprehension. Available as a Matlab module, it can be used for practical musicological uses.......An objectivization of music analysis requires a detailed formalization of the underlying principles and methods. The formalization of the most elementary structural processes is hindered by the complexity of music, both in terms of profusions of entities (such as notes) and of tight interactions...... between a large number of dimensions. Computational modeling would enable systematic and exhaustive tests on sizeable pieces of music, yet current researches cover particular musical dimensions with limited success. The aim of this research is to conceive a computational modeling of music analysis...

  16. From Musical Grammars to Music Cognition in the 1980s and 1990s: Highlights of the History of Computer-Assisted Music Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schüler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available While approaches that had already established historical precedents – computer-assisted analytical approaches drawing on statistics and information theory – developed further, many research projects conducted during the 1980s aimed at the development of new methods of computer-assisted music analysis. Some projects discovered new possibilities related to using computers to simulate human cognition and perception, drawing on cognitive musicology and Artificial Intelligence, areas that were themselves spurred on by new technical developments and by developments in computer program design. The 1990s ushered in revolutionary methods of music analysis, especially those drawing on Artificial Intelligence research. Some of these approaches started to focus on musical sound, rather than scores. They allowed music analysis to focus on how music is actually perceived. In some approaches, the analysis of music and of music cognition merged. This article provides an overview of computer-assisted music analysis of the 1980s and 1990s, as it relates to music cognition. Selected approaches are being discussed.

  17. Applying Computer-Assisted Musical Instruction to Music Appreciation Course: An Example with Chinese Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Zhu, Yi-Zhen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Dzan, Wei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of computer-assisted musical instruction (CAMI) in the Learning Chinese Musical Instruments (LCMI) course. The CAMI software for Chinese musical instruments was developed and administered to 228 students in a vocational high school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design with three…

  18. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  19. Sculpting 3D worlds with music: advanced texturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuel, Christian; Bolas, Mark T.; Bolas, Niko; McDowall, Ian E.

    1996-04-01

    Sound within the virtual environment is often considered to be secondary to the graphics. In a typical scenario, either audio cues are locally associated with specific 3D objects or a general aural ambiance is supplied in order to alleviate the sterility of an artificial experience. This paper discusses a completely different approach, in which cues are extracted from live or recorded music in order to create geometry and control object behaviors within a computer- generated environment. Advanced texturing techniques used to generate complex stereoscopic images are also discussed. By analyzing music for standard audio characteristics such as rhythm and frequency, information is extracted and repackaged for processing. With the Soundsculpt Toolkit, this data is mapped onto individual objects within the virtual environment, along with one or more predetermined behaviors. Mapping decisions are implemented with a user definable schedule and are based on the aesthetic requirements of directors and designers. This provides for visually active, immersive environments in which virtual objects behave in real-time correlation with the music. The resulting music-driven virtual reality opens up several possibilities for new types of artistic and entertainment experiences, such as fully immersive 3D `music videos' and interactive landscapes for live performance.

  20. Music Information Retrieval Using Biologically Inspired Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bountouridis, D.

    2018-01-01

    The computational modeling of our perception of music similarity is an intricate, unsolved problem with various practical applications. Many of the current approaches aim at solving it by employing heuristics, such as expert intuition or music theory, which limit their application to narrow

  1. Proceedings of the 2007 International Computer Music Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John Chowning, pioneer on digital music, and Barbara Tillmann, researcher in music cognition as our keynote speakers. This years' theme, 'Immersed Music', will be covered by numerous sessions related to perception and cognition, and by Barbara Tillmanns' keynote. In addition, we have planned two......It is a pleasure to welcome everyone to the 2007 International Computer Music Conference, hosted in Copenhagen from the 27th to the 31st of August. ICMC2007 is organized by Re:New - Digital arts forum, in collaboration with the International Computer Music Association and Medialogy at Aalborg...... efficient in providing feedback and comments on the numerous papers submitted. The response to the call for participation was very positive. We received 290 paper submissions and 554 music submissions. We are extremely grateful for the interest and support from around the world. It is an honor to welcome...

  2. Using Music Therapy Techniques To Treat Teacher Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, James R.; Bradley, Loretta J.; Parr, Gerald; Lan, William

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of music therapy techniques as an intervention for teacher burnout. Results of the study indicated that teachers who participated in school-based counseling groups, using music therapy techniques in conjunction with cognitive behavioral interventions, reported lower levels of burnout symptoms…

  3. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought...... that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular systems which use the raw audio signal as input to estimate the corresponding genre. This is in contrast...... to systems which use e.g. a symbolic representation or textual information about the music. The approach to music genre classification systems has here been system-oriented. In other words, all the different aspects of the systems have been considered and it is emphasized that the systems should...

  4. A fast computation method for MUSIC spectrum function based on circular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhengdong; Wei, Ping

    2015-02-01

    The large computation amount of multiple signal classification (MUSIC) spectrum function seriously affects the timeliness of direction finding system using MUSIC algorithm, especially in the two-dimensional directions of arrival (DOA) estimation of azimuth and elevation with a large antenna array. This paper proposes a fast computation method for MUSIC spectrum. It is suitable for any circular array. First, the circular array is transformed into a virtual uniform circular array, in the process of calculating MUSIC spectrum, for the cyclic characteristics of steering vector, the inner product in the calculation of spatial spectrum is realised by cyclic convolution. The computational amount of MUSIC spectrum is obviously less than that of the conventional method. It is a very practical way for MUSIC spectrum computation in circular arrays.

  5. Music Techniques in Therapy, Counseling, and Special Education, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne M.; Jones, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    "Music Techniques in Therapy, Counseling, and Special Education" is the culmination of the first author's research in the skill development of prospective music therapists and music educators during graduate and undergraduate preparation. Standley studied the abilities and progress of students across multiple clinical music therapy and music…

  6. The Application of Computer Music Technology to College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Na

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary music education started late in China on the basis of western teaching theories formed its own unique system, which has a great influence on present computer music technology. This paper explores that contemporary music education is analyzed advantages and disadvantages of the influence on the development of Chinese class music, and the solutions are found out to the existing problems, summed up the reality enlightenment of that the contemporary music on the impact of education.

  7. The Application of Computer Music Technology to College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary music education started late in China on the basis of western teaching theories formed its own unique system, which has a great influence on present computer music technology. This paper explores that contemporary music education is analyzed advantages and disadvantages of the influence on the development of Chinese class music, and the solutions are found out to the existing problems, summed up the reality enlightenment of that the contemporary music on the impact of education.

  8. Computational modelling of expressive music performance in hexaphonic guitar

    OpenAIRE

    Siquier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Computational modelling of expressive music performance has been widely studied in the past. While previous work in this area has been mainly focused on classical piano music, there has been very little work on guitar music, and such work has focused on monophonic guitar playing. In this work, we present a machine learning approach to automatically generate expressive performances from non expressive music scores for polyphonic guitar. We treated guitar as an hexaphonic instrument, obtaining ...

  9. A flexible system for creating music while interacting with the computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Music is a very important part of our lives. People enjoy listening to the music, and many of us find a special pleasure in creating the music. Computers further extended many aspects of our musical experience. Listening to, recording, and creating music is now easier and more accessible to various

  10. A computational study on outliers in world music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetos, Emmanouil; Dixon, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The comparative analysis of world music cultures has been the focus of several ethnomusicological studies in the last century. With the advances of Music Information Retrieval and the increased accessibility of sound archives, large-scale analysis of world music with computational tools is today feasible. We investigate music similarity in a corpus of 8200 recordings of folk and traditional music from 137 countries around the world. In particular, we aim to identify music recordings that are most distinct compared to the rest of our corpus. We refer to these recordings as ‘outliers’. We use signal processing tools to extract music information from audio recordings, data mining to quantify similarity and detect outliers, and spatial statistics to account for geographical correlation. Our findings suggest that Botswana is the country with the most distinct recordings in the corpus and China is the country with the most distinct recordings when considering spatial correlation. Our analysis includes a comparison of musical attributes and styles that contribute to the ‘uniqueness’ of the music of each country. PMID:29253027

  11. A computational study on outliers in world music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Maria; Benetos, Emmanouil; Dixon, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The comparative analysis of world music cultures has been the focus of several ethnomusicological studies in the last century. With the advances of Music Information Retrieval and the increased accessibility of sound archives, large-scale analysis of world music with computational tools is today feasible. We investigate music similarity in a corpus of 8200 recordings of folk and traditional music from 137 countries around the world. In particular, we aim to identify music recordings that are most distinct compared to the rest of our corpus. We refer to these recordings as 'outliers'. We use signal processing tools to extract music information from audio recordings, data mining to quantify similarity and detect outliers, and spatial statistics to account for geographical correlation. Our findings suggest that Botswana is the country with the most distinct recordings in the corpus and China is the country with the most distinct recordings when considering spatial correlation. Our analysis includes a comparison of musical attributes and styles that contribute to the 'uniqueness' of the music of each country.

  12. Play it again with feeling: computer feedback in musical communication of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N; Karlsson, Jessika; Lindström, Erik; Friberg, Anders; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin

    2006-06-01

    Communication of emotions is of crucial importance in music performance. Yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. This article presents and evaluates a computer program that automatically analyzes music performances and provides feedback to musicians in order to enhance their communication of emotions. Thirty-six semi-professional jazz /rock guitar players were randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. Performance measures revealed the greatest improvement in communication accuracy for the computer program, but usability measures indicated that certain aspects of the program could be improved. Implications for music education are discussed.

  13. 77 FR 51571 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers..., portable music and data processing devices, computers, and components thereof. The complaint names as...

  14. Harmonizing the Writing Process with Music Training Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Can music help students become better thinkers and writers? Over the past three years, the author has incorporated some basic music training techniques in her classrooms to help her teach the writing process to students who would otherwise click her off. The students have developed clearer thinking and organizational skills, and have increased…

  15. “… computer music is cool!” Theoretical Implications of Ambivalences in Contemporary Trends in Music Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann-Braun, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Technical innovations in the last years have decisively changed the ways in which we consume music. The use of the internet has led to an heretofore unknown expansion in the access to different kinds of music. Napster is the slogan which popularized the idea of searching the computer files of millions of computer users through a central server and of downloading a host of music titles in fairly good quality. Other “peer-to-peer”– systems (i.g. imesh) followed. This practice has led to an econ...

  16. Improved Techniques for Automatic Chord Recognition from Music Audio Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taemin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of techniques that facilitate the effective implementation of capable automatic chord transcription from music audio signals. Since chord transcriptions can capture many important aspects of music, they are useful for a wide variety of music applications and also useful for people who learn and perform…

  17. Development and efficacy of music therapy techniques within palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Cortés, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Music therapy is increasingly becoming an intervention used in palliative care settings around the globe. While the specialty of palliative care music therapy is relatively young having emerged in the late 1980s, there is a strong and growing body of evidence demonstrating its efficacy in assisting a variety of issues common at end-of-life. There are multiple music therapy techniques that are implemented with clients in palliative care and they can be categorized in four broad areas: receptive, creative, recreative and combined. These techniques will be presented with respect to their development by clinicians as supported by the descriptive and research literature. Information is also provided on the use of music therapy in facilitating the grieving and bereavement process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extended Piano Techniques and Teaching in Music Education Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut Demirci, Sirin; Sungurtekin, Mete; Yilmaz, Nilüfer; Engür, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    The article is composed of the results of the study carried out within the scope of the project entitled "Extended Piano Techniques and Teaching in Music Education Departments." Within the scope of the project, 16 students taking education at Music Education Department, Uludag University, learned six pieces composed for the project via…

  19. THE ISSUE OF FORMING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE BY COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TOOLS IN THE THEORY OF NATIONAL ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Gavrilova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence by computer technology tools. The concept of professional competence has become a major criterion of preparing students for professional activities. The issue of the article is relevant as the competence approach has become a basis of implementing computer technologies into future music teachers’ training. The authors give a detailed analysis of implementing computer technologies into musical education. The special attention is paid to using a computer in musical education and making electronic pedagogical resources. The aim of the article is to outline the directions of national art research in the process of implementing computer tools that is one of the most efficient ways of updating process of future music teachers’ training. The article reveals theoretical aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence by computer technology tools. The authors point out that implementing musical and computer technologies into music art practice is realized in some directions: using a computer as a new musical instrument in composers, sound engineers, and arrangers’ activities; using a computer for studying the quality of music sound, analysing sounds and music compositions, spectral analysis of acoustic characteristics of singers’ voice; studying ancient music manuscripts due to digital technology; developing hardware and software for music education. A distinct direction of research is the pedagogical aspect of using a computer in music education (music and the use of special software for recording and editing music, the use of multimedia to enhance visibility in education, development of e-learning resources, etc.. The authors conclude that implementing computer technologies into future music teachers’ training makes this process more efficient. In the authors’ opinion the widespread introduction of distance learning

  20. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  1. FAST MUSIC SPECTRUM PEAK SEARCH VIA METROPOLIS-HASTINGS SAMPLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qinghua; Liao Guisheng

    2005-01-01

    A fast MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) spectrum peak search algorithm is devised, which regards the power of the MUSIC spectrum function as target distribution up to a constant of proportionality, and uses Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler, one of the most popular Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, to sample from it. The proposed method reduces greatly the tremendous computation and storage costs in conventional MUSIC techniques i.e., about two and four orders of magnitude in computation and storage costs under the conditions of the experiment in the paper respectively.

  2. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  3. Effective music therapy techniques in the treatment of nonfluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2012-04-01

    In music therapy for nonfluent aphasia patients who have difficulty producing meaningful words, phrases, and sentences, various benefits of singing have been identified: strengthened breathing and vocal ability, improved articulation and prosody of speech, and increased verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. This paper will introduce these various techniques used in clinical music therapy, and summarize findings based on our recent study to illustrate the strength of different techniques emphasizing rhythm, pitch, memory, and vocal/oral motor components dealing with different symptoms. The efficacy of each component is enhanced or diminished by the choice of music and the way it is interactively delivered. This indicates that neural mechanisms underlying speech improvement vary greatly with available acoustic and social cues in aphasic brain. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Time-Reversal MUSIC Imaging with Time-Domain Gating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heedong; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Ohgane, Takeo

    A time-reversal (TR) approach with multiple signal classification (MUSIC) provides super-resolution for detection and localization using multistatic data collected from an array antenna system. The theory of TR-MUSIC assumes that the number of antenna elements is greater than that of scatterers (targets). Furthermore, it requires many sets of frequency-domain data (snapshots) in seriously noisy environments. Unfortunately, these conditions are not practical for real environments due to the restriction of a reasonable antenna structure as well as limited measurement time. We propose an approach that treats both noise reduction and relaxation of the transceiver restriction by using a time-domain gating technique accompanied with the Fourier transform before applying the TR-MUSIC imaging algorithm. Instead of utilizing the conventional multistatic data matrix (MDM), we employ a modified MDM obtained from the gating technique. The resulting imaging functions yield more reliable images with only a few snapshots regardless of the limitation of the antenna arrays.

  5. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION OF COMPUTER MUSIC IN THE INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rogozinsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. The paper deals with distributed intelligent multi-agent system for computer music generation. A mathematical model for data extraction from the environment and their application in the music generation process is proposed. Methods. We use Resource Description Framework for representation of timbre data. A special musical programming language Csound is used for subsystem of synthesis and sound processing. Sound generation occurs according to the parameters of compositional model, getting data from the outworld. Results. We propose architecture of a potential distributed system for computer music generation. An example of core sound synthesis is presented. We also propose a method for mapping real world parameters to the plane of compositional model, in an attempt to imitate elements and aspects of creative inspiration. Music generation system has been represented as an artifact in the Central Museum of Communication n.a. A.S. Popov in the framework of «Night of Museums» action. In the course of public experiment it was stated that, in the whole, the system tends to a quick settling of neutral state with no musical events generation. This proves the necessity of algorithms design for active condition support of agents’ network, in the whole. Practical Relevance. Realization of the proposed system will give the possibility for creation of a technological platform for a whole new class of applications, including augmented acoustic reality and algorithmic composition.

  6. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of western operatic singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The operatic singing technique is frequently used in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate, and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer), and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique used. This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation, and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interdisciplinarity and Computer Music Modeling and Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper takes a look at computer music modeling and information retrieval (CMMIR) from the point of view of the humanities with emphasis upon areas relevant to the philosophy of music. The desire for more interdisciplinary research involving CMMIR and the humanities is expressed...... for interdisciplinary work involving CMMIR. The paper concludes with some remarks proffered during a panel discussion which took place near the end of the Pisa conference on September 28, 2006 and in correspondence inspired by this discussion, together with some brief commentary on the same. An earlier, somewhat short...

  8. 77 FR 58576 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and Components Thereof; Institution of... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers, and components thereof by reason... alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The...

  9. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  10. How Computers Are Used in the Teaching of Music and Speculations about How Artificial Intelligence Could Be Applied to Radically Improve the Learning of Compositional Skills. CITE Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Simon

    This paper forms part of a preliminary survey for work on the application of artificial intelligence theories and techniques to the learning of music composition skills. The paper deals with present day applications of computers to the teaching of music and speculations about how artificial intelligence might be used to foster music composition in…

  11. 78 FR 24775 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof; Commission Decision... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... '826 patent''). The complaint further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission's...

  12. 77 FR 38826 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof, Commission Decision... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission's notice of investigation named Apple...

  13. 78 FR 12785 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof; Commission Decision... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission's notice of investigation named Apple...

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2008 Computers in Music Modeling and Retrieval and Network for Cross-Disciplinary Studies of Music and Meaning Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and encouraged studies that linked sound modeling by analysis-synthesis to perception and cognition. CMMR 2008 seeks to enlarge upon the Sense of Sounds-concept by taking into account the musical structure as a whole. More precisely, the workshop will have as its theme Genesis of Meaning in Sound and Music......The field of computer music is interdisciplinary by nature and closely related to a number of areas in computer science and engineering. The first CMMR  gatherings mainly focused on information retrieval, programming, digital libraries, hypermedia, artificial intelligence, acoustics and signal...... processing. In 2005 CMMR started moving towards a more interdisciplinary view of the field by putting increased emphasis on the investigation of the role of human interaction at all levels of musical practice. CMMR 2007 focused on the Sense of Sounds from the synthesis and retrieval point of view...

  15. Has computational creativity successfully made it "Beyond the Fence" in musical theatre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanous, Anna

    2017-10-01

    A significant test for software is to task it with replicating human performance, as done recently with creative software and the commercial project Beyond the Fence (undertaken for a television documentary Computer Says Show). The remit of this project was to use computer software as much as possible to produce "the world's first computer-generated musical". Several creative systems were used to generate this musical, which was performed in London's West End in 2016. This paper considers the challenge of evaluating this project. Current computational creativity evaluation methods are ill-suited to evaluating projects that involve creative input from multiple systems and people. Following recent inspiration within computational creativity research from interaction design, here the DECIDE evaluation framework is applied to evaluate the Beyond the Fence project. Evaluation finds that the project was reasonably successful at achieving the task of using computational generation to produce a credible musical. Lessons have been learned for future computational creativity projects though, particularly for affording creative software more agency and enabling software to interact with other creative partners. Upon reflection, the DECIDE framework emerges as a useful evaluation "checklist" (if not a tangible operational methodology) for evaluating multiple creative systems participating in a creative task.

  16. 77 FR 52759 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof; Notice of... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers and components thereof by reason of... complaint further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission's notice of investigation...

  17. Movement-to-music computer technology: a developmental play experience for children with severe physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cynthia; Schwellnus, Heidi; Eaton, Ceilidh; Hamdani, Yani; Lamont, Andrea; Chau, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Children with severe physical disabilities often lack the physical skills to explore their environment independently, and to play with toys or musical instruments. The movement-to-music (MTM) system is an affordable computer system that allows children with limited movements to play and create music. The present study explored parents' experiences of using the MTM system with their children. A qualitative methodology employing in-depth interview techniques was used with six mothers and their children. The themes extracted from the data were organized under two main concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001) framework. The results showed that the MTM expanded horizons for the child along the ICF health dimensions and the MTM had a positive impact on ICF environmental determinants of health. The small sample size should be noted as a limitation of this study. Further research should be carried out with a larger sample of children with restricted mobility to obtain a better understanding of the impact of MTM technology on children's psychosocial development.

  18. Dynamical computation of constrained flexible systems using a modal Udwadia-Kalaba formulation: Application to musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, J; Debut, V

    2017-02-01

    Most musical instruments consist of dynamical subsystems connected at a number of constraining points through which energy flows. For physical sound synthesis, one important difficulty deals with enforcing these coupling constraints. While standard techniques include the use of Lagrange multipliers or penalty methods, in this paper, a different approach is explored, the Udwadia-Kalaba (U-K) formulation, which is rooted on analytical dynamics but avoids the use of Lagrange multipliers. This general and elegant formulation has been nearly exclusively used for conceptual systems of discrete masses or articulated rigid bodies, namely, in robotics. However its natural extension to deal with continuous flexible systems is surprisingly absent from the literature. Here, such a modeling strategy is developed and the potential of combining the U-K equation for constrained systems with the modal description is shown, in particular, to simulate musical instruments. Objectives are twofold: (1) Develop the U-K equation for constrained flexible systems with subsystems modelled through unconstrained modes; and (2) apply this framework to compute string/body coupled dynamics. This example complements previous work [Debut, Antunes, Marques, and Carvalho, Appl. Acoust. 108, 3-18 (2016)] on guitar modeling using penalty methods. Simulations show that the proposed technique provides similar results with a significant improvement in computational efficiency.

  19. The Music Industry Conference Guide for Music Educators. A Supplement to the Music Educators Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This supplement is a comprehensive guide to the music industry designed for music teachers. Included are tips for contacting music businesses and suggestions on ordering music, robes, instruments, computer software, and other supplies. Includes an annotated directory of Music Industry Conference members. (JDH)

  20. Evaluation of mfcc estimation techniques for music similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Murthi, Manohar

    2006-01-01

    Spectral envelope parameters in the form of mel-frequencycepstral coefficients are often used for capturing timbral information of music signals in connection with genre classification applications. In this paper, we evaluate mel-frequencycepstral coefficient (MFCC) estimation techniques, namely...... independent linear prediction and MVDR spectral estimators did not exhibit any statistically significant improvement over MFCCs based on the simpler FFT....

  1. Evaluation of the Role of Music as a Nonpharmacological Technique in Management of Child Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Gupta, Himanshu; Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi

    2017-03-01

    Behavior management and reducing anxiety and pain are very important for success of treatment. Hence, apart from pharmacological management, such as conscious sedation, nonpharmacological interventions like music play a significant role. This study aims to evaluate the effects of music in reducing anxiety, pain, and behavior management. This study was conducted at the Department of Pedodontics in 2015. It consisted of 60 patients, age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who required dental treatment with local anesthesia. They were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group I consisted of upbeat music distraction group. Group II consisted of relaxing music distraction group. Group III consisted of control group. We scheduled the treatment in two visits. We used Venham picture test, North Carolina behavior rating scale, and visual analog scale test for the study. Baseline heart rate was also recorded. No significant differences were found among the three groups based on three scales used in the study. Management of child patient in dental clinic is a challenge for clinician. Apart from various pharmacological techniques, management of pediatric patients using audio music distraction has been introduced. However, music did not produce a reduction in pain, anxiety, or disruptive behavior. Various pharmacological techniques are present for the management of pediatric patients. Apart from it, there is need of introducing nonpharmacological techniques to reduce pain, anxiety, and to alter behavior of child. By this study, we have tried to evaluate the usefulness of music in child management.

  2. Fast Computation Methods Research for Two Dimensional MUSIC Spectrum Based on Circular Array%圆阵二维 MUSIC 谱快速计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜政东; 魏平; 赵菲; 尹文禄

    2015-01-01

    针对二维波达方向估计时 MUSIC 谱的快速计算问题,研究了均匀圆阵变换到虚拟线阵的 MUSIC 算法(UCA-ULA-MUSIC)、流形分离 MUSIC 算法(MS-MUSIC)、傅立叶域线性求根 MUSIC 算法(FD-Line-Search-MU-SIC)、基于 FFT 的2n 元均匀圆阵 MUSIC 算法(2n-UCA-FFT-MUSIC)与基于 FFT 的任意圆阵 MUSIC 算法(ACA-FFT-MUSIC)。对各种算法快速计算二维 MUSIC 谱的实现步骤进行了总结。在此基础上,给出了各算法计算二维MUSIC 谱的计算复杂度表达式,并以传统方法为参考,对比了各种快速算法相对于传统方法的计算复杂度比值;同时,针对不同的阵列形式,对适用的快速算法的测向性能进行了仿真对比。根据分析和对比的结果,指出 MS-MUSIC 算法与 ACA-FFT-MUSIC 算法具有更高的工程应用价值,由具体的情况单独或分频段联合使用 MS-MUSIC算法与 ACA-FFT-MUSIC 算法,可以使测向系统较好的兼顾测向性能与时效性。%According to the fast computation problem of MUSIC spectrum in two dimensional direction of arrival estimation, the fast algorithms by manifold transformation or spectrum function transformation are studied.The implementation steps of computation method for two dimensional MUSIC spectrum by these algorithms are summarized.Furthermore,expressions for computational complexity of discussed algorithms in computing two dimensional MUSIC spectrum are presented.With refer-ence to the conventional method,the ratio of computational complexity of discussed algorithms is compared.Meanwhile,for different circular arrays,the direction finding performance of applicable algorithms is compared by simulation.It is proved that the MUSIC algorithm based on Manifold Separation (MS-MUSIC)and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)which suits to arbitrary circular array (ACA-FFT-MUSIC)have higher engineering value according to the results of analysis and com-parison.The performance and

  3. A User Assessment of Workspaces in Selected Music Education Computer Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badolato, Michael Jeremy

    A study of 120 students selected from the user populations of four music education computer laboratories was conducted to determine the applicability of current ergonomic and environmental design guidelines in satisfying the needs of users of educational computing workspaces. Eleven categories of workspace factors were organized into a…

  4. Chaotic Music Generation System Using Music Conductor Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuai; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2013-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music, under the recognition of human music conductor's gestures.In this research, the generated music is tuned by the recognized gestures for the parameters of the network of chaotic elements in real time. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded in the algorithm, as a result, the generated music will be ...

  5. Music Conductor Gesture Recognized Interactive Music Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Shuai; MAEDA, Yoichiro; TAKAHASHI, Yasutake

    2012-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music automatically, and then the music will be arranged under the human music conductor's gestures, before it outputs to us. In this research, the generated music is processed from chaotic sound, which is generated from the network of chaotic elements in realtime. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded ...

  6. Musical information processing reflecting its structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraga, Rumi

    1999-01-01

    In pursuit of generating expressive musical rendition with rules, the computer music project Psyche has greatly concerned musical structure. Although described implicitly, musical structure exists innately and absolutely in musical scores. This thesis demonstrates the successful introduction of musical structure to computer music systems that are related to performance synthesis. Two systems, a performance visualization system and a computer-assisted musical analysis system Daphne, are descri...

  7. The Digital Music Lab: A Big Data Infrastructure for Digital Musicology

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, S.; Benetos, E.; Gold, N. E.; Hargreaves, S.; Weyde, T.; Wolff, D.

    2017-01-01

    In musicology and music research generally, the increasing availability of digital music, storage capacities, and computing power enable and require new and intelligent systems. In the transition from traditional to digital musicology, many techniques and tools have been developed for the analysis of individual pieces of music, but large-scale music data that are increasingly becoming available require research methods and systems that work on the collection-level and at scale. Although many ...

  8. The digital music lab: A big data infrastructure for digital musicology

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, S.; Benetos, E.; Gold, N.; Hargreaves, S.; Weyde, T.; Wolff, D.

    2017-01-01

    In musicology and music research generally, the increasing availability of digital music, storage capacities, and computing power enable and require new and intelligent systems. In the transition from traditional to digital musicology, many techniques and tools have been developed for the analysis of individual pieces of music, but large-scale music data that are increasingly becoming available require research methods and systems that work on the collection-level and at scale. Although many ...

  9. Quantifying Shapes: Mathematical Techniques for Analysing Visual Representations of Sound and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve L. Noyce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on auditory-visual correspondences has a long tradition but innovative experimental paradigms and analytic tools are sparse. In this study, we explore different ways of analysing real-time visual representations of sound and music drawn by both musically-trained and untrained individuals. To that end, participants' drawing responses captured by an electronic graphics tablet were analysed using various regression, clustering, and classification techniques. Results revealed that a Gaussian process (GP regression model with a linear plus squared-exponential covariance function was able to model the data sufficiently, whereas a simpler GP was not a good fit. Spectral clustering analysis was the best of a variety of clustering techniques, though no strong groupings are apparent in these data. This was confirmed by variational Bayes analysis, which only fitted one Gaussian over the dataset. Slight trends in the optimised hyperparameters between musically-trained and untrained individuals allowed for the building of a successful GP classifier that differentiated between these two groups. In conclusion, this set of techniques provides useful mathematical tools for analysing real-time visualisations of sound and can be applied to similar datasets as well.

  10. Playing Music, Playing with Music: A Proposal for Music Coding in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratè, Adriano; Ludovico, Luca Andrea; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Rosa, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    In this work we will introduce the concept of "music coding," namely a new discipline that employs basic music activities and simplified languages to teach the computational way of thinking to musically-untrained children who attend the primary school. In this context, music represents both a mean and a goal: in fact, from one side…

  11. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: The role of therapeutic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware about a therapy method's specific strengths......  Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N = 75) were assessed before...

  12. Development of Musical Creativity of Higher Class Pupils Using Musical Computer Technologies (MCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rimkutė-Jankuvienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to find out possibilities of development of musical creativity by using MCT in the music education of senior pupils.Design/methodology/approach – literature review, qualitative survey methodology (interview with music teachers.Findings – implementation of MCT, like any other innovation (as well as ICT in different spheres of education, including pre-school education, bring forth a certain positive effect. The results of the interview showed that in the praxis of music education, MCT is used for different development purposes (to make a lesson original, help pupils memorize music, expand their imagination not only by listening, but also by watching and evaluating performance of music, listen to music recordings, understand music and evaluate its quality, etc.. But for the development of musical creativity, MCT has been used very poorly.Research limitation/implications – musical creativity’s concept has not been uniquely defined so far. The aim of scientific literature review is to show that musical creativity is not meant to be separated from general creativity. Moreover, this is compounded by the search of the possibilities to the development of musical creativity. Analysis of scientific literature shows that the use of MCT can make an influence on musical creativity. However, empirical researches on this subject are still missing.Practical implications – the results of the interviews about using MCT in music lessons in order to develop musical creativity could be significant in formulating strategies of the development of musical creativity, preparing methodological instruments as well as in teacher training programs.Originality/value – the object of the survey in the chosen theme has never been explored in Lithuania, while the comparison of the obtained data with foreign scientists’ discoveries could contribute to a musical creativity’s definition.Research type: literature review, interview review.

  13. An affective music player: Methods and models for physiological computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.H.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2009-01-01

    Affective computing is embraced by many to create more intelligent systems and smart environments. In this thesis, a specific affective application is envisioned: an affective physiological music player (APMP), which should be able to direct its user's mood. In a first study, the relationship

  14. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: the role of therapeutic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2007-12-01

    Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N=75) were assessed before and after participating in individual music therapy with 1 out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware of a therapy method's specific strengths and limitations. More research on the indicated specific ingredients of music therapy intervention is needed.

  15. Music Teachers' Experiences in One-to-One Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing scenarios such as the one-to-one model, in which every student is issued a device that is to be used across all subjects, have increased in popularity and have shown both positive and negative influences on education. Music teachers in schools that adopt one-to-one models may be inadequately equipped to integrate this kind of…

  16. The MUSOS (MUsic SOftware System) Toolkit: A computer-based, open source application for testing memory for melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, M; Palmer, M A; Paine, G

    2018-04-01

    Despite numerous innovative studies, rates of replication in the field of music psychology are extremely low (Frieler et al., 2013). Two key methodological challenges affecting researchers wishing to administer and reproduce studies in music cognition are the difficulty of measuring musical responses, particularly when conducting free-recall studies, and access to a reliable set of novel stimuli unrestricted by copyright or licensing issues. In this article, we propose a solution for these challenges in computer-based administration. We present a computer-based application for testing memory for melodies. Created using the software Max/MSP (Cycling '74, 2014a), the MUSOS (Music Software System) Toolkit uses a simple modular framework configurable for testing common paradigms such as recall, old-new recognition, and stem completion. The program is accompanied by a stimulus set of 156 novel, copyright-free melodies, in audio and Max/MSP file formats. Two pilot tests were conducted to establish the properties of the accompanying stimulus set that are relevant to music cognition and general memory research. By using this software, a researcher without specialist musical training may administer and accurately measure responses from common paradigms used in the study of memory for music.

  17. The Effects of Music on Microsurgical Technique and Performance: A Motion Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Afaaf; Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Paek, Laurence S; McGoldrick, Rory B; Chetta, Matthew D; Hui, Kenneth; Lee, Gordon K

    2017-05-01

    Music is commonly played in operating rooms (ORs) throughout the country. If a preferred genre of music is played, surgeons have been shown to perform surgical tasks quicker and with greater accuracy. However, there are currently no studies investigating the effects of music on microsurgical technique. Motion analysis technology has recently been validated in the objective assessment of plastic surgery trainees' performance of microanastomoses. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of music on microsurgical skills using motion analysis technology as a primary objective assessment tool. Residents and fellows in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery program were recruited to complete a demographic survey and participate in microsurgical tasks. Each participant completed 2 arterial microanastomoses on a chicken foot model, one with music playing, and the other without music playing. Participants were blinded to the study objectives and encouraged to perform their best. The order of music and no music was randomized. Microanastomoses were video recorded using a digitalized S-video system and deidentified. Video segments were analyzed using ProAnalyst motion analysis software for automatic noncontact markerless video tracking of the needle driver tip. Nine residents and 3 plastic surgery fellows were tested. Reported microsurgical experience ranged from 1 to 10 arterial anastomoses performed (n = 2), 11 to 100 anastomoses (n = 9), and 101 to 500 anastomoses (n = 1). Mean age was 33 years (range, 29-36 years), with 11 participants right-handed and 1 ambidextrous. Of the 12 subjects tested, 11 (92%) preferred music in the OR. Composite instrument motion analysis scores significantly improved with playing preferred music during testing versus no music (paired t test, P music was significant even after stratifying scores by order in which variables were tested (music first vs no music first), postgraduate year, and number of anastomoses (analysis of variance, P music in

  18. MUSIC: a mesh-unrestricted simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, R.A.; Rouben, B.; Dastur, A.R.; Dondale, C.S.; Li, H.Y.H.

    1978-01-01

    A general formalism to solve the G-group neutron diffusion equation is described. The G-group flux is represented by complementing an ''asymptotic'' mode with (G-1) ''transient'' modes. A particular reduction-to-one-group technique gives a high computational efficiency. MUSIC, a 2-group code using the above formalism, is presented. MUSIC is demonstrated on a fine-mesh calculation and on 2 coarse-mesh core calculations: a heavy-water reactor (HWR) problem and the 2-D lightwater reactor (LWR) IAEA benchmark. Comparison is made to finite-difference results

  19. TSaT-MUSIC: a novel algorithm for rapid and accurate ultrasonic 3D localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kyohei; Ito, Toshio; Sugimoto, Masanori; Hashizume, Hiromichi

    2011-12-01

    We describe a fast and accurate indoor localization technique using the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. The MUSIC algorithm is known as a high-resolution method for estimating directions of arrival (DOAs) or propagation delays. A critical problem in using the MUSIC algorithm for localization is its computational complexity. Therefore, we devised a novel algorithm called Time Space additional Temporal-MUSIC, which can rapidly and simultaneously identify DOAs and delays of mul-ticarrier ultrasonic waves from transmitters. Computer simulations have proved that the computation time of the proposed algorithm is almost constant in spite of increasing numbers of incoming waves and is faster than that of existing methods based on the MUSIC algorithm. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed through simulations. Experiments in real environments showed that the standard deviation of position estimations in 3D space is less than 10 mm, which is satisfactory for indoor localization.

  20. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  1. "mysterium Cosmographicum", for Orchestra, Narrator/actor, and Computer Music on Tape. (with Original Composition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert Michael

    Mysterium Cosmographicum is a musical chronicle of an astronomy treatise by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum (Tubingen, 1596), or "Secret of the Universe," was a means by which he justified the existence of the six planets discovered during his lifetime. Kepler, through flawless a priori reasoning, goes to great lengths to explain that the reason there are six and only six planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) is because God had placed one of the five regular solids (tetrahedron, cube, octa-, dodeca-, and icosahedron) around each orbiting body. Needless to say, the publication was not very successful, nor did it gain much comment from Kepler's peers, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). But hidden within the Mysterium Cosmographicum, almost like a new planet waiting to be discovered, is one of Kepler's three laws of planetary motion, a law that held true for planets discovered long after Kepler's lifetime. Mysterium Cosmographicum is a monologue with music in three parts for orchestra, narrator/actor, and computer music on tape. All musical data structures are generated via an interactive Pascal computer program that computes latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates for each of the nine planets as seen from a fixed point on Earth for any given time frame. These coordinates are then mapped onto selected musical parameters as determined by the composer. Whenever Kepler reads from his treatise or from a lecture or correspondence, the monologue is supported by orchestral planetary data generated from the exact place, date, and time of the treatise, lecture, or correspondence. To the best of my knowledge, Mysterium Cosmographicum is the first composition ever written that employs planetary data as a supporting chronology to action and monologue.

  2. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Discrete-time modelling of musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelimaeki, Vesa; Pakarinen, Jyri; Erkut, Cumhur; Karjalainen, Matti

    2006-01-01

    This article describes physical modelling techniques that can be used for simulating musical instruments. The methods are closely related to digital signal processing. They discretize the system with respect to time, because the aim is to run the simulation using a computer. The physics-based modelling methods can be classified as mass-spring, modal, wave digital, finite difference, digital waveguide and source-filter models. We present the basic theory and a discussion on possible extensions for each modelling technique. For some methods, a simple model example is chosen from the existing literature demonstrating a typical use of the method. For instance, in the case of the digital waveguide modelling technique a vibrating string model is discussed, and in the case of the wave digital filter technique we present a classical piano hammer model. We tackle some nonlinear and time-varying models and include new results on the digital waveguide modelling of a nonlinear string. Current trends and future directions in physical modelling of musical instruments are discussed

  4. Computer aided composition by means of interactive GP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ando, Daichi; Dahlstedt, Palle; Nordahl, Mats G.

    2006-01-01

    Research on the application of Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) to the field of musical computation has been improved in recent years, marking an interesting parallel to the current trend of applying human characteristics or sensitivities to computer systems. However, past techniques...... developed for IEC-based composition have not necessarily proven very effective for professional use. This is due to the large difference between data representation used by IEC and authored classical music composition. To solve this difficulties, we purpose a new IEC approach to music composition based...... on classical music theory. In this paper, we describe an established system according to the above idea, and detail of making success of composition a piece....

  5. Pain, music creativity and music therapy in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C C

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the music therapy literature yields numerous reports to support the role of music in the alleviation of pain in palliative care. Four theoretical perspectives that support why many patients report reduced pain sensation after music therapy include: the psychological relationship between music and pain; the psychophysiological theory; spinal mechanisms involved in pain modulation; and the role of endorphins. Considerations significant to the use of music in pain relief include how music, used inappropriately, can aggravate pain sensation. Case studies, which include the use of creative music therapy techniques, point to the efficacy of music therapy in alleviating the pain experiences of both palliative care patients and their significant others.

  6. Assessment of Student Music Performances Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashis Pati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance assessment is a highly subjective task often relying on experts to gauge both the technical and aesthetic aspects of the performance from the audio signal. This article explores the task of building computational models for music performance assessment, i.e., analyzing an audio recording of a performance and rating it along several criteria such as musicality, note accuracy, etc. Much of the earlier work in this area has been centered around using hand-crafted features intended to capture relevant aspects of a performance. However, such features are based on our limited understanding of music perception and may not be optimal. In this article, we propose using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs for the task and compare their performance against a baseline model using standard and hand-crafted features. We show that, using input representations at different levels of abstraction, DNNs can outperform the baseline models across all assessment criteria. In addition, we use model analysis techniques to further explain the model predictions in an attempt to gain useful insights into the assessment process. The results demonstrate the potential of using supervised feature learning techniques to better characterize music performances.

  7. Music Communication, Projection and Analogy of Handicapped Children in Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lipský, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    /Abstract Music Communication, Projection and Analogy of Handicapped Children in Music Therapy Presented work takes an interest in music contents produced by handicapped children attending music therapy sessions. The contents of music were gained from the children by the method of improvisation, particularly by "concert technique". In the theoretical part we present philosophical background for the music therapy in a field of special education and research. This background thought we have fou...

  8. Computer generation and manipulation of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2007-01-01

    field of investigation, taking in historical movements like musique concrète and elecktronische musik, and contemporary trends such as electronic dance music. A fascinating array of composers and inventors have contributed to a diverse set of technologies, practices and music. This book brings together......Musicians are always quick to adopt and explore new technologies. The fast-paced changes wrought by electrification, from the microphone via the analogue synthesiser to the laptop computer, have led to a wide diversity of new musical styles and techniques. Electronic music has grown to a broad....... Recent areas of intense activity such as audiovisuals, live electronic music, interactivity and network music are actively promoted....

  9. “Five Minutes of Composers”: A Technique for Evaluating Productivity of Verbal Memory in the System of Basic Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokov D.G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the need for developing criteria-based diagnostic tools for quick individual and group evaluation of musical knowledge in children within the system of basic music education. The proposed technique called “Five Minutes of Composers” allows one to evaluate musical knowledge in a single child, in a whole class or in an educational organisation. The paper provides a full description of the technique and the process of its standartisation: stanines and corresponding normative values are assigned to each age group; the differential validity of the technique is statistically proven for the factors "gender", "stage of education", "age", and "total productivity". The outcomes of the conducted study show the following: the average level of productivity is significantly higher in girls; this level is significantly higher in students of 6th and 7th classes as compared to students of 3rd—5th classes; there is a direct correlation between age and productivity of recall; children with high levels of productivity outscore others in the number of recalled names of composers right from the start. The paper concludes with some remarks concerning the possibilities of using this technique for measuring the progress in children’s musical knowledge, for criteria-based comparative analysis of the quality of teaching, and for evaluating the quality of music education in single classes and educational organisations in general.

  10. At the crossroads of evolutionary computation and music: self-programming synthesizers, swarm orchestras and the origins of melody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces three approaches to using Evolutionary Computation (EC) in Music (namely, engineering, creative and musicological approaches) and discusses examples of representative systems that have been developed within the last decade, with emphasis on more recent and innovative works. We begin by reviewing engineering applications of EC in Music Technology such as Genetic Algorithms and Cellular Automata sound synthesis, followed by an introduction to applications where EC has been used to generate musical compositions. Next, we introduce ongoing research into EC models to study the origins of music and detail our own research work on modelling the evolution of melody. Copryright 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  11. INTRODUCTION TOTHE RUSSIAN MUSIC CULTURE AS A WAY OF CHINESE MUSIC TEACHERS TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Таgiltseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article purpose – to open the ways of introduction of the Chinese students who are trained in Chinese pedagogical higher education institutions to musical culture of Russia.Methods. The paper is based on ideas of extrapolation of the Russian and Chinese teachers about interrelation of arts and types of art activity of children in the process of vocational performing cello training of future music teachers at pedagogical universities of China; the traditional methods and means of music education that proved the efficiency in pedagogics of professional music education in Russia. The research methods involve the analysis, generalization of literature, the analysis of a condition of modern process of professional pedagogical education of future music teachers at universities of China and Russia.Results: The methods and means of introduction of the Chinese students – future music teachers to cello musical culture of Russia are shown on the basis of interrelation of arts and different means of art activities, and mastering at cello fingering techniques. It is noted that such means and ways serve mutual enrichment of national cultures, and strengthening of international relations.Scientific novelty. The most effective methods of vocational training of music teachers are revealed: polyart education that is based on comparison of different types of art (music, poetry, dance, theater, the fine arts and search of their crossing for deeper penetration into plasticity of intonations of a piece of music; the method of a retrospective and prospect consisting in the comparative analysis of the classical, borrowed from an arsenal recognized masters and modern manners of performance and ways of training at fingering and playing the chosen musical instrument; the method of the Russian teacher, musician and composer D. B. Kabalevsky based on perception and reflection about music, expanding ideas of the range of bag, opportunities of interpretation of a piece of

  12. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  13. Reduced-Complexity Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Real-Valued Computation with Arbitrary Array Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Gang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-complexity algorithm is presented to dramatically reduce the complexity of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm for direction of arrival (DOA estimation, in which both tasks of eigenvalue decomposition (EVD and spectral search are implemented with efficient real-valued computations, leading to about 75% complexity reduction as compared to the standard MUSIC. Furthermore, the proposed technique has no dependence on array configurations and is hence suitable for arbitrary array geometries, which shows a significant implementation advantage over most state-of-the-art unitary estimators including unitary MUSIC (U-MUSIC. Numerical simulations over a wide range of scenarios are conducted to show the performance of the new technique, which demonstrates that with a significantly reduced computational complexity, the new approach is able to provide a close accuracy to the standard MUSIC.

  14. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities. ...

  15. 77 FR 65580 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-856] Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International...

  16. Real-time detection of musical onsets with linear prediction and sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.

  17. Mind as Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLloyd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience typically develops hypotheses to explain phenomena that are localized in space and time. Determining functions of brain regions in spatial and temporal isolation is generally regarded as the first step toward understanding the conjoint operation of the whole brain. In other words, if the task of cognitive neuroscience is to interpret the neural code, then the first step has been semantic, searching for the meanings (functions of localized elements, prior to exploring neural syntax, the mutual constraints among elements synchronically and diachronically. Researchers generally assume that neural semantics is a precondition for determining neural syntax. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the syntax of the brain is too complex for our present technology and understanding. A corollary of this view holds that functional MRI lacks the spatial and temporal resolution needed to identify the dynamic syntax of neural computation. This paper examines these assumptions with a novel analysis of fMRI image series, resting on the conjecture that any computational code will exhibit aggregate features that can be detected even if the meaning of the code is unknown. Specifically, computational codes will be sparse or dense in different degrees. A sparse code is one that uses only a few of the many possible patterns of activity (in the brain or symbols (in a human-made code. Considering sparseness at different scales and as measured by different techniques, this approach clearly distinguishes two conventional coding systems, namely, language and music. Considering 99 subjects in three different fMRI protocols, in comparison with 194 musical examples and 700 language passages, it is observed that fMRI activity is more similar to music than it is to language, as measured over single symbols, as well as symbol combinations in pairs and triples. Tools from cognitive musicology may therefore be useful in characterizing the brain as a dynamical

  18. Music therapy in palliative care: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Julian

    2002-03-01

    As the music therapy profession has developed internationally over the last 25 years, so has its role in palliative care. Music is a highly versatile and dynamic therapeutic modality, lending itself to a variety of music therapy techniques used to benefit both those living with life-threatening illnesses and their family members and caregivers. This article will give a broad overview of the historical roots of music therapy and introduce the techniques that are employed in current practice. By combining a review of mainstream music therapy practice involving musical improvisation, song-writing and receptive/recreational techniques with case material from my own experience, this article aims to highlight the potential music therapy holds as an effective holistic practice for palliative care, whatever the care setting.

  19. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  20. Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction and Musical Performance Skills. CITE Report No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael

    This paper is a transcription from memory of a short talk that used overhead projector slides, with musical examples played on an Apple Macintosh computer and a Yamaha CX5 synthesizer. The slides appear in the text as reduced "icons" at the point where they would have been used in the talk. The paper concerns ways in which artificial intelligence…

  1. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  2. Learning Music via Tangible and Corporeal Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    to consider an existing teaching tool from the computer science domain, computational cards, and modify it to cope with the specific problems found in musical education; we re-designed it, simplified and generalized its notation. The new tool, musiCards, also permits corporeal interaction, so children can......Young music learners face a number of challenges, mostly because musical theory and practice are deeply interrelated. Many musical teaching theories and methodologies exist, and music is taught today from primary school, in a variety of ways, and to different degrees of success. We proposal...... design interactive musical machines, implement them physically, then enact the interaction to generate musical performances. MusiCards enables pupils to explore music-related concepts such as rhythm and polyphonic performance; moreover it supports active involvement, imitation, group learning...

  3. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  4. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  5. DOA Estimation of Multiple LFM Sources Using a STFT-based and FBSS-based MUSIC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Direction of arrival (DOA estimation is an important problem in array signal processing. An effective multiple signal classification (MUSIC method based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT and forward/ backward spatial smoothing (FBSS techniques for the DOA estimation problem of multiple time-frequency (t-f joint LFM sources is addressed. Previous work in the area e. g. STFT-MUSIC algorithm cannot resolve the t-f completely or largely joint sources because they can only select the single-source t-f points. The proposed method con¬structs the spatial t-f distributions (STFDs by selecting the multiple-source t-f points and uses the FBSS techniques to solve the problem of rank loss. In this way, the STFT-FBSS-MUSIC algorithm can resolve the t-f largely joint or completely joint LFM sources. In addition, the proposed algorithm also owns pretty low computational complexity when resolving multiple LFM sources because it can reduce the times of the feature decomposition and spectrum search. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the existing t-f based MUSIC algorithms through computer simulations and the results show its good performance.

  6. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic...... organization enables an attractive new class of applications for managing ever-increasing music databases. For these types of applications, extraction of music features as well as subsequent feature processing and music classification have to be performed. However, these are computationally intensive tasks...... and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones...

  7. Facilitation and Coherence Between the Dynamic and Retrospective Perception of Segmentation in Computer-Generated Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Bailes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the impact of listening context (sound duration and prior presentation on the human perception of segmentation in sequences of computer music. This research extends previous work by the authors (Bailes & Dean, 2005, which concluded that context-dependent effects such as the asymmetrical detection of an increase in timbre compared to a decrease of the same magnitude have a significant bearing on the cognition of sound structure. The current study replicated this effect, and demonstrated that listeners (N = 14 are coherent in their detection of segmentation between real-time and retrospective tasks. In addition, response lag was reduced from a first hearing to a second hearing, and following long (7 s rather than short (1 or 3 s segments. These findings point to the role of short-term memory in dynamic structural perception of computer music.

  8. Young Adolescents' Usage of Narrative Functions of Media Music by Manipulation of Musical Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingstedt, Johnny; Brandstrom, Sture; Berg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates usage and knowledge of musical narrative functions in contemporary multimedia. A group of young adolescents were given the task of adapting musical expression, using the non-verbal research tool REMUPP, to fit different visual scenes shown on a computer screen. This was accomplished by manipulating seven musical parameters:…

  9. Music Software and Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. David

    1992-01-01

    Traces the history of instructional computing in music education. Describes the development of music software and hardware. Discusses potential benefits of using the newly developed software in the classroom. Suggests that educators and musicians interact with the publishing community to help define their needs in music education. (DK)

  10. Modeling listeners' emotional response to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2012-10-01

    An overview of the computational prediction of emotional responses to music is presented. Communication of emotions by music has received a great deal of attention during the last years and a large number of empirical studies have described the role of individual features (tempo, mode, articulation, timbre) in predicting the emotions suggested or invoked by the music. However, unlike the present work, relatively few studies have attempted to model continua of expressed emotions using a variety of musical features from audio-based representations in a correlation design. The construction of the computational model is divided into four separate phases, with a different focus for evaluation. These phases include the theoretical selection of relevant features, empirical assessment of feature validity, actual feature selection, and overall evaluation of the model. Existing research on music and emotions and extraction of musical features is reviewed in terms of these criteria. Examples drawn from recent studies of emotions within the context of film soundtracks are used to demonstrate each phase in the construction of the model. These models are able to explain the dominant part of the listeners' self-reports of the emotions expressed by music and the models show potential to generalize over different genres within Western music. Possible applications of the computational models of emotions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. A Comparison of Wavetable and FM Data Reduction Methods for Resynthesis of Musical Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew

    An ideal music-synthesis technique provides both high-level spectral control and efficient computation. Simple playback of recorded samples lacks spectral control, while additive sine-wave synthesis is inefficient. Wavetable and frequencymodulation synthesis, however, are two popular synthesis techniques that are very efficient and use only a few control parameters.

  12. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  13. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  14. Audio Classification in Speech and Music: A Comparison between a Statistical and a Neural Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bugatti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We focus the attention on the problem of audio classification in speech and music for multimedia applications. In particular, we present a comparison between two different techniques for speech/music discrimination. The first method is based on Zero crossing rate and Bayesian classification. It is very simple from a computational point of view, and gives good results in case of pure music or speech. The simulation results show that some performance degradation arises when the music segment contains also some speech superimposed on music, or strong rhythmic components. To overcome these problems, we propose a second method, that uses more features, and is based on neural networks (specifically a multi-layer Perceptron. In this case we obtain better performance, at the expense of a limited growth in the computational complexity. In practice, the proposed neural network is simple to be implemented if a suitable polynomial is used as the activation function, and a real-time implementation is possible even if low-cost embedded systems are used.

  15. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Galińska

    2015-01-01

    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic ...

  16. A music educational environment for preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Retra, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an interactive computer environment that envisions to contribute to young children's musical learning. The intent is to stimulate the child's inherent musical abilities by engaging the child in active musical interaction with the environment. The

  17. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  18. Coleridge: a computer tool for assisting musical reflection and self-explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cook

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, there has been a movement away from knowledge supplied by the teacher and towards talking, reflecting and explaining as ways to learn. An example of this change in focus is provided by the self-explanation work of Chi et al (1994 who describe an approach to talking science rather than hearing science. According to Chi and coworkers, generating explanations to oneself (self-explanations facilitates the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Reflecting about one's own learning is the same as thinking about learning or metacognition. Metacognition can be defined as the understanding of knowledge, an understanding that can be reflected in either effective use or overt description of the knowledge in question (Brown, 1987. This definition of metacognition requires of a learner both internalized thinking about learning (that is, reflection, and externalized communication, through language or action, that indicates an understanding of knowledge (that is, a self-explanation. In the work described in this paper the overall pedagogical goal is to encourage creative reflection in learners. Creative reflection is defined as the ability of a learner to imagine musical opportunities in novel situations, and then to make accurate predictions (verbally about these opportunities. To succeed at creative reflection there should be a correspondence between what a learner predicts will happen and what actually happens. An example would be a learner first writing a musical phrase using musical notation, then predicting verbally how that phrase will sound, playing the phrase back on a piano, and finally evaluating if the prediction was accurate or not. Very little work has been done on how computers can be used to support talking, reflecting and explaining in the creative subject-area of musical composition. The rest of this paper addresses this issue.

  19. Music Therapy for children with special needs - clinical practice and assessment in the light of developmental psychology and communicative musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    continues with practices on basic improvisational techniques related to time, form and emotions: synchronization, turn-taking, theme-with-variations, matching/attunement, vitality forms, simple musical playing rules, etc. The techniques are connected to macro- and micro-regulation of arousal and emotions......). Turn-taking in music therapy with children with communication disorders. British Journal of Music Therapy, 18(2), 45-53. Malloch, S. & Trevarthen, C. (Eds) (2009). Communicative Musicality. Exploring the basis of human companionship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stern, D. N. (2010). Forms...... of Vitality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wigram, T. (2004). Improvisation. Methods and Techniques for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers....

  20. THE BODY IN MUSIC, THE MUSIC IN BODY: A COMMUNITY INTEGRATION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pra da Silva de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of the Artistic and Culture Department extension project “The Body in Music, The Music in Body: a community integration project” that took music to community on Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC in two different ways: buy choir singing group and the music therapy activities on Parkinson Disease Patients Group. The objectives of this project were to integrate choir singing to dance, develop music perception and body expression. Broadcast choir singing, improve facial expression and body movements. To reach these objectives were done body expression workshops, music and vocal technique rehearsals, rhythm exercises and some auditions among UFSC an other public places in Florianópolis.

  1. Efficient spectral estimation by MUSIC and ESPRIT with application to sparse FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePotts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spectral estimation, one has to determine all parameters of an exponential sum for finitely many (noisysampled data of this exponential sum.Frequently used methods for spectral estimation are MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification and ESPRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters viaRotational Invariance Technique.For a trigonometric polynomial of large sparsity, we present a new sparse fast Fourier transform byshifted sampling and using MUSIC resp. ESPRIT, where the ESPRIT based method has lower computational cost.Later this technique is extended to a new reconstruction of a multivariate trigonometric polynomial of large sparsity for given (noisy values sampled on a reconstructing rank-1 lattice. Numerical experiments illustrate thehigh performance of these procedures.

  2. Aprendizaje musical significativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rusinek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the meaningfulness of music learning requires two complementary perspectives. On the one hand, I maintain that the declarative knowledge about music is meaningful when it is related in a non trivial manner to the musical event it denotes, and propose a way of evaluating that meaningfulness through tests that demand the use of different processes of the auditive cognition. On the other hand, given that it is the apprentice who decides to build that relation between musical concept and musical experience, I argue that we need to understand his or her motivations, and propose the use of qualitative research techniques to interpret the meanings attributed to the learning procedures lived in the classroom.

  3. Music Objectives for Choral Festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Anthony L.

    1979-01-01

    Five goals are suggested for making a choral festival benefit participants musically: (1) meet the specific musical needs of the students; (2) expose students to a guest conductor; (3) acquaint students with a challenging repertory; (4) develop performance techniques; and (5) introduce teacher-conductors to rehearsal techniques. (Author/SJL)

  4. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  5. C-cards in Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Music and Computer Science share a dual nature: theory and practice relate in complex ways, and seem to be equally central for learners; for this no standard teaching approach for children has yet emerged in either of these two areas. Computational cards is a tabletop game, where cards act...... of the card; if the action is to generate a sound, then the circuit will effectively became a music machine....

  6. Comparative Analysis of Music Recordings from Western and Non-Western traditions by Automatic Tonal Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Gómez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysis of large musical corpora by means of computational models overcomes some limitations of manual analysis, and the unavailability of scores for most existing music makes necessary to work with audio recordings. Until now, research on this area has focused on music from the Western tradition. Nevertheless, we might ask if the available methods are suitable when analyzing music from other cultures. We present an empirical approach to the comparative analysis of audio recordings, focusing on tonal features and data mining techniques. Tonal features are related to the pitch class distribution, pitch range and employed scale, gamut and tuning system. We provide our initial but promising results obtained when trying to automatically distinguish music from Western and non- Western traditions; we analyze which descriptors are most relevant and study their distribution over 1500 pieces from different traditions and styles. As a result, some feature distributions differ for Western and non-Western music, and the obtained classification accuracy is higher than 80% for different classification algorithms and an independent test set. These results show that automatic description of audio signals together with data mining techniques provide means to characterize huge music collections from different traditions and complement musicological manual analyses.

  7. Interpersonal Theory and Music Techniques: A Case Study for a Family With a Depressed Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2005-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) is a brief, time-limited therapy developed for use with adolescents diagnosed with major depression. IPT-A has been shown to be effective with adolescents in family counseling milieus. Music therapy techniques also have been successfully used to treat adolescent depression. This article provides mental health…

  8. Ever-changing Cycles of Musical Pleasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Line; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    of expectations (prediction errors) in response to “rewards” and “alert/incentive salience signals.” We argue that the human brain treats music as an alert/incentive salience signal, and suggest that the activity of dopamine neurons represents aspects of the phases of musical expectation and musical learning......, but not directly the phase of music liking. Finally, we propose a computational model for understanding musical anticipation and pleasure operationalized through the recent theory of predictive coding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)...

  9. Mood Expression in Real-Time Computer Generated Music using Pure Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Nelson, Mark; Cheong, Yun-Gyung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study that investigated if procedurally generated music based on a set of musical features can elicit a target mood in the music listener. Drawn from the two-dimensional affect model proposed by Russell, the musical features that we have chosen to express moods...... are intensity, timbre, rhythm, and dissonances. The eight types of mood investigated in this study are being bored, content, happy, miserable, tired, fearful, peaceful, and alarmed. We created 8 short music clips using PD (Pure Data) programming language, each of them represents a particular mood. We carried...

  10. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Theoretical Framework and a Computational Case in Mobile Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces individual tariffs at service and content bundle level in mobile communications. It gives a theoretical framework (economic, sociological) as well as a computational game solution method. The user can be an individual or a community. Individual tariffs are decided through interactions between the user and the supplier. A numerical example from mobile music illustrates the concepts.

  11. Music genre classification using temporal domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in the music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. In addition to other features, the temporal domain features of a music signal are exploited so as to increase the classification rate in this research. Three temporal techniques are examined in depth. First, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to emulate the time-varying properties of music signals. Second, to further increase the classification rate, we propose another feature set that focuses on the residual part of music signals. Third, the overall classification rate is enhanced by classifying smaller segments from a test material individually and making decision via majority voting. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques.

  12. Augmenting C-cards with music actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposes a new way of introducing music to classes of 8 to 10 years old pupils, by adopting a recent educational tool for teaching Computer Science. Our proposal builds in fact on computational cards (or c-cards), a playful and intuitive mind-tool, that has been applied to a variety...... of Computer Science concepts. Here a simple extension to c-cards is presented, that enables pupils to build and play with tangible musical machine....

  13. Combining EEG, MIDI, and motion capture techniques for investigating musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidhof, Clemens; Kästner, Torsten; Makkonen, Tommi

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a setup for the simultaneous recording of electrophysiological data (EEG), musical data (MIDI), and three-dimensional movement data. Previously, each of these three different kinds of measurements, conducted sequentially, has been proven to provide important information about different aspects of music performance as an example of a demanding multisensory motor skill. With the method described here, it is possible to record brain-related activity and movement data simultaneously, with accurate timing resolution and at relatively low costs. EEG and MIDI data were synchronized with a modified version of the FTAP software, sending synchronization signals to the EEG recording device simultaneously with keypress events. Similarly, a motion capture system sent synchronization signals simultaneously with each recorded frame. The setup can be used for studies investigating cognitive and motor processes during music performance and music-like tasks--for example, in the domains of motor control, learning, music therapy, or musical emotions. Thus, this setup offers a promising possibility of a more behaviorally driven analysis of brain activity.

  14. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit....... No music was presented during the task. In addition, information about participants' musical background was collected. A variety of analysis techniques was used to determine the key results of our study. The adjective "beautiful" proved to be the core item of the concept under question. Interestingly......, the adjective "touching" was often listed together with "beautiful". In addition, we found music-specific vocabulary as well as adjectives related to emotions and mood states indicating that affective processes are an essential part of aesthetic responses to music. Differences between music experts and laymen...

  15. The relationship between the neural computations for speech and music perception is context-dependent: an activation likelihood estimate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCroix, Arianna N.; Diaz, Alvaro F.; Rogalsky, Corianne

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the neurobiology of speech and music has been investigated for more than a century. There remains no widespread agreement regarding how (or to what extent) music perception utilizes the neural circuitry that is engaged in speech processing, particularly at the cortical level. Prominent models such as Patel's Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH) and Koelsch's neurocognitive model of music perception suggest a high degree of overlap, particularly in the frontal lobe, but also perhaps more distinct representations in the temporal lobe with hemispheric asymmetries. The present meta-analysis study used activation likelihood estimate analyses to identify the brain regions consistently activated for music as compared to speech across the functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) literature. Eighty music and 91 speech neuroimaging studies of healthy adult control subjects were analyzed. Peak activations reported in the music and speech studies were divided into four paradigm categories: passive listening, discrimination tasks, error/anomaly detection tasks and memory-related tasks. We then compared activation likelihood estimates within each category for music vs. speech, and each music condition with passive listening. We found that listening to music and to speech preferentially activate distinct temporo-parietal bilateral cortical networks. We also found music and speech to have shared resources in the left pars opercularis but speech-specific resources in the left pars triangularis. The extent to which music recruited speech-activated frontal resources was modulated by task. While there are certainly limitations to meta-analysis techniques particularly regarding sensitivity, this work suggests that the extent of shared resources between speech and music may be task-dependent and highlights the need to consider how task effects may be affecting conclusions regarding the neurobiology of speech and music. PMID:26321976

  16. The relationship between the neural computations for speech and music perception is context-dependent: an activation likelihood estimate study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna eLaCroix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the neurobiology of speech and music has been investigated for more than a century. There remains no widespread agreement regarding how (or to what extent music perception utilizes the neural circuitry that is engaged in speech processing, particularly at the cortical level. Prominent models such as Patel’s Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH and Koelsch’s neurocognitive model of music perception suggest a high degree of overlap, particularly in the frontal lobe, but also perhaps more distinct representations in the temporal lobe with hemispheric asymmetries. The present meta-analysis study used activation likelihood estimate analyses to identify the brain regions consistently activated for music as compared to speech across the functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET literature. Eighty music and 91 speech neuroimaging studies of healthy adult control subjects were analyzed. Peak activations reported in the music and speech studies were divided into four paradigm categories: passive listening, discrimination tasks, error/anomaly detection tasks and memory-related tasks. We then compared activation likelihood estimates within each category for music versus speech, and each music condition with passive listening. We found that listening to music and to speech preferentially activate distinct temporo-parietal bilateral cortical networks. We also found music and speech to have shared resources in the left pars opercularis but speech-specific resources in the left pars triangularis. The extent to which music recruited speech-activated frontal resources was modulated by task. While there are certainly limitations to meta-analysis techniques particularly regarding sensitivity, this work suggests that the extent of shared resources between speech and music may be task-dependent and highlights the need to consider how task effects may be affecting conclusions regarding the neurobiology of speech and music.

  17. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  18. Music, videos and the risk for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    Do you like listening to music while working? What about watching videos during leisure time? Sure this is fun. Having your colleagues participating in this is even more fun. However, this fun is usually not free. There are music and film companies who earn their living from music and videos. Thus, if you want to listen to music or watch films at CERN, make sure that you own the proper rights to do so (and you have the agreement of your supervisor to do this during working hours). Note that these rights are personal: You usually do not have the right to share this music or these videos with third parties without violating copyrights. Therefore, making copyrighted music and videos public, or sharing music and video files as well as other copyrighted material, is forbidden at CERN --- and also outside CERN. It violates the CERN Computing Rules (http://cern.ch/ComputingRules) and it contradicts CERN's Code of Coduct (https://cern.ch/hr-info/codeofconduct.asp) which expects each of us to behave ethically and be ...

  19. On the Function of Computer Music on the Music Teaching in University%电脑音乐运用在高校音乐专业教学中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正基; 戴浩明

    2011-01-01

    随着现代科技的发展,电脑音乐也随着潮流展现在各个领域,尤其是在高校音乐教学方面更有了新的突破。与传统的音乐教学不同,电脑音乐可以更加突出教学的需要,让学生接触到更多的教学内容,电脑音乐也可以结合传统音乐的特点进行教学。%Along with the development of modern technology science, computer music, also as fashion, appears in various fields, especially music education in primary and secondary schools. Different from the traditional music, music education can highlight teaching

  20. Control Improvisation with Application to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Control Improvisation with Application to Music Alexandre Donze Sophie Libkind Sanjit A. Seshia David Wessel Electrical Engineering and Computer...to Music 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...domain of music . More speci cally, we consider the scenario of generating a monophonic Jazz melody (solo) on a given song harmonization. The music is

  1. Statistical and Computational Techniques in Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, interest in developing statistical and computational techniques for applied manufacturing engineering has been increased. Today, due to the great complexity of manufacturing engineering and the high number of parameters used, conventional approaches are no longer sufficient. Therefore, in manufacturing, statistical and computational techniques have achieved several applications, namely, modelling and simulation manufacturing processes, optimization manufacturing parameters, monitoring and control, computer-aided process planning, etc. The present book aims to provide recent information on statistical and computational techniques applied in manufacturing engineering. The content is suitable for final undergraduate engineering courses or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. This book serves as a useful reference for academics, statistical and computational science researchers, mechanical, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and professionals in industries related to manu...

  2. 'I love Rock 'n' Roll'--music genre preference modulates brain responses to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istók, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas; Ritter, Aileen; Tervaniemi, M

    2013-02-01

    The present study examined the effect of participants' music genre preference on the neural processes underlying evaluative and cognitive judgements of music using the event-related potential technique. To this aim, two participant groups differing in their preference for Latin American and Heavy Metal music performed a liking judgement and a genre classification task on a variety of excerpts of either music genre. A late positive potential (LPP) was elicited in all conditions between 600 and 900 ms after stimulus onset. During the genre classification task, an early negativity was elicited by the preferred compared to the non-preferred music at around 230-370 ms whereas the non-preferred genre was characterized by a larger LPP. The findings suggest that evaluative and cognitive judgements of music are accompanied by affective responses and that the valence of music may spontaneously modulate early processes of music categorization even when no overt liking judgement is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Songwriting in music-caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Valgerdur

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces songwriting as a music therapeutic approach used in a research study in progress.  The title of the research is:  The lived experience of a group of mothers having young children with special-needs, participating ina music therapy group defined as music-caring within the fra......-up session.  The last interveiw was conducted the 4th of January 2007.  Baker, F., & Wigram, T. (Eds,), (2005). Songwriting: Methods, Techniques and Clinical Applications for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students.  London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.......This paper introduces songwriting as a music therapeutic approach used in a research study in progress.  The title of the research is:  The lived experience of a group of mothers having young children with special-needs, participating ina music therapy group defined as music-caring within...... the framework of early intervention.  The paper discusses the rationale for choosing songwriting for providing music-caring, describes its progression, presents few songs, and some perspectives about its meaning. This paper presentation introduces songwriting as a central music therapeutic approach used...

  4. Open and Closed Form in Interactive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can be expan......Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can...

  5. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  6. Can You Feel It?: Evaluation of Affective Expression in Music Generated by MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Eklund, Peter; Togelius, Julian

    2017-01-01

    -piece. Music clips including transitions and with static affective states were produced by MetaCompose and a quantitative user study was performed. Participants were tasked with annotating the perceived mood and moreover were asked to annotate in real-time changes in valence. The data collected confirms......This paper describes an evaluation conducted on the MetaCompose music generator, which is based on evolutionary computation and uses a hybrid evolutionary technique that combines FI-2POP and multi-objective optimization. The main objective of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...... express different mood-states. The experiment presented here aims to evaluate: (i) if the perceived mood experienced by the participants of a music score matches intended mood the system is trying to express and (ii) if participants can identify transitions in the mood expression that occur mid...

  7. Independent component analysis for automatic note extraction from musical trills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith C.; Smaragdis, Paris

    2004-05-01

    The method of principal component analysis, which is based on second-order statistics (or linear independence), has long been used for redundancy reduction of audio data. The more recent technique of independent component analysis, enforcing much stricter statistical criteria based on higher-order statistical independence, is introduced and shown to be far superior in separating independent musical sources. This theory has been applied to piano trills and a database of trill rates was assembled from experiments with a computer-driven piano, recordings of a professional pianist, and commercially available compact disks. The method of independent component analysis has thus been shown to be an outstanding, effective means of automatically extracting interesting musical information from a sea of redundant data.

  8. Advanced Music Therapy Supervision Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    supervision training excerpts live in the workshop will be offered. The workshop will include demonstrating a variety of supervision methods and techniques used in A) post graduate music therapy training programs b) a variety of work contexts such as psychiatry and somatic music psychotherapy. The workshop......The presentation will illustrate training models in supervision for experienced music therapists where transference/counter transference issues are in focus. Musical, verbal and body related tools will be illustrated from supervision practice by the presenters. A possibility to experience small...

  9. An Analogue Interface for Musical Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Jason; Kapur, Ajay; Carnegie, Dale

    2016-01-01

    The majority of musical robotics performances, projects and installations utilise microcontroller hardware to digitally interface the robotic instruments with sequencer software and other musical controllers, often via a personal computer. While in many ways digital interfacing offers considerable power and flexibility, digital protocols, equipment and audio workstations often tend to suggest particular music-making work-flows and have resolution and timing limitations. This paper describes t...

  10. Composing, Songwriting, and Producing: Informing Popular Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    In forwarding comprehensive popular music pedagogies, music educators might acknowledge and address expanded notions of composition in popular music that include processes of recording, engineering, mixing, and producing along with the technologies, techniques, and ways of being musical that encompass these processes. This article advances a…

  11. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  12. ComPLuS Model: A New Insight in Pupils' Collaborative Talk, Actions and Balance during a Computer-Mediated Music Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Georgia N.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory work describes and analyses the collaborative interactions that emerge during computer-based music composition in the primary school. The study draws on socio-cultural theories of learning, originated within Vygotsky's theoretical context, and proposes a new model, namely Computer-mediated Praxis and Logos under Synergy (ComPLuS).…

  13. Analysis of the internal music in Sahifeh Sajjadiyyeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the internal music in Sahifeh Sajjadiyyeh Hasan Khalaf * Marziye Abad ** Seyed Hosseyn Seyedi *** Balasem mohseni **** Abstract Considering the fact that music is not just specific to poetry but it exists in all literary works, whether poetry or prose, this study attempts to examine the inner function of the music in the Sahifah Sajadieh. External music is related to the prosodic rhythms and rhymes, but the internal music relates to the Ayqa and rhythm through the repetition of letters and words, pun, balance and matched sentences in the words. Words of Imam Sajjad in Sahifeh have internal music which is highly excellent and outstanding. This internal music is created through repeated words, sentence repetition, and puns, returning the second hemistich to first hemistich, assonance and rhyme scheme. And literary techniques led to the creation of a musical space that is separate from the meaning of the word and is not part of the meaning of the word. Hence, this paper examines the main sources of local music in the Sahifah Sajadieh. Our approach in this paper is descriptive – analytical. We seek to explain the role of oratory skills in musical prose to explain the aesthetic value and music in Sahifeh Sajadieh. Keywords: Sahifeh Sajadieh, Music, technique of Repeat, Rhetorics.

  14. New musical organology : the audio-games

    OpenAIRE

    Zénouda , Hervé

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This article aims to shed light on a new and emerging creative field: " Audio Games, " a crossroad between video games and computer music. Today, a plethora of tiny applications, which propose entertaining audiovisual experiences with a preponderant sound dimension, are available for game consoles, computers, and mobile phones. These experiences represent a new universe where the gameplay of video games is applied to musical composition, hence creating new links betwee...

  15. Coherent MUSIC technique for range/angle information retrieval: Application to a frequency modulated continuous wave MIMO radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Rossum, W. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2014-01-01

    A coherent two-dimensional (2D) multiple signal classification (MUSIC) processing for the simultaneous estimation of angular and range target positions has been presented. A 2D spatial smoothing technique is also introduced to cope with the coherent behaviour of the received echoes, which may result

  16. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  17. Time reversal and phase coherent music techniques for super-resolution ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin

    2018-05-01

    Systems and methods for super-resolution ultrasound imaging using a windowed and generalized TR-MUSIC algorithm that divides the imaging region into overlapping sub-regions and applies the TR-MUSIC algorithm to the windowed backscattered ultrasound signals corresponding to each sub-region. The algorithm is also structured to account for the ultrasound attenuation in the medium and the finite-size effects of ultrasound transducer elements. A modified TR-MUSIC imaging algorithm is used to account for ultrasound scattering from both density and compressibility contrasts. The phase response of ultrasound transducer elements is accounted for in a PC-MUSIC system.

  18. Loja musical capital of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to find the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This first approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical field, to be considered its capital? This first delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a field of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and specific competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.

  19. Appeal of love themes in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia; Zillmann, Dolf

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between romantic satisfaction versus discontent and a preference for music celebrating versus lamenting love is explored. The satisfaction/discontent was ascertained in 60 college undergraduate women and men who later freely listened to music from a sampling of selections. The duration of their self-determined exposure to love-celebrating versus love-lamenting music was unobtrusively recorded by computer software. Romantically satisfied women and men showed a preference for love-celebrating music, whereas discontented women and men preferred love-lamenting music. Romantically discontent women and men preferred love-lamenting music presented by performers of their own sex. The findings indicate young adults' inclination to match emotions expressed in music about love with the emotions experienced in their own romantic situation.

  20. The Integration of Voice and Dance Techniques in Musical Theatre: Anatomical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennie

    2015-06-01

    Musical theatre performers are required to be proficient in the three artistic disciplines of dancing, singing, and acting, although in today's modern productions, there is often a requirement to incorporate other skills such as acrobatics and the playing of an instrument. This article focuses on the issues faced by performers when dancing and voicing simultaneously, as it is between these two disciplines where we see the greatest pedagogical divide in terms of breath management and muscle recruitment patterns. The traditional teaching methods of dance and voice techniques are examined, areas of conflict highlighted, and solutions proposed through an exploration of the relevant anatomy.

  1. Comparison of Two Music Training Approaches on Music and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Free, Rolien H

    2018-01-01

    In normal-hearing (NH) adults, long-term music training may benefit music and speech perception, even when listening to spectro-temporally degraded signals as experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users. In this study, we compared two different music training approaches in CI users and their effects on speech and music perception, as it remains unclear which approach to music training might be best. The approaches differed in terms of music exercises and social interaction. For the pitch/timbre group, melodic contour identification (MCI) training was performed using computer software. For the music therapy group, training involved face-to-face group exercises (rhythm perception, musical speech perception, music perception, singing, vocal emotion identification, and music improvisation). For the control group, training involved group nonmusic activities (e.g., writing, cooking, and woodworking). Training consisted of weekly 2-hr sessions over a 6-week period. Speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, vocal emotion identification, MCI, and quality of life (QoL) were measured before and after training. The different training approaches appeared to offer different benefits for music and speech perception. Training effects were observed within-domain (better MCI performance for the pitch/timbre group), with little cross-domain transfer of music training (emotion identification significantly improved for the music therapy group). While training had no significant effect on QoL, the music therapy group reported better perceptual skills across training sessions. These results suggest that more extensive and intensive training approaches that combine pitch training with the social aspects of music therapy may further benefit CI users.

  2. Bach in 2014: Music Composition with Recurrent Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, I-Ting; Ramakrishnan, Bhiksha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for computer music composition that uses resilient propagation (RProp) and long short term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network. In this paper, we show that LSTM network learns the structure and characteristics of music pieces properly by demonstrating its ability to recreate music. We also show that predicting existing music using RProp outperforms Back propagation through time (BPTT).

  3. Windowed time-reversal music technique for super-resolution ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin

    2018-05-01

    Systems and methods for super-resolution ultrasound imaging using a windowed and generalized TR-MUSIC algorithm that divides the imaging region into overlapping sub-regions and applies the TR-MUSIC algorithm to the windowed backscattered ultrasound signals corresponding to each sub-region. The algorithm is also structured to account for the ultrasound attenuation in the medium and the finite-size effects of ultrasound transducer elements.

  4. 78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... importing wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  5. Identification of the finishing technique of an early eighteenth century musical instrument using FTIR spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Cohen, Serge X; Sandt, Christophe; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Soulier, Balthazar; Lattuati-Derieux, Agnès; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    The study of varnishes from musical instruments presents the difficulty of analysing very thin layers of heterogeneous materials on samples most of which are generally brittle and difficult to prepare. Such study is crucial to the understanding of historical musical instrument varnishing practices since written sources before 1800 are very rare and not precise. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and imaging methods were applied to identify the major chemical components within the build-up of the varnish layers on a cello made by one of the most prominent French violin-makers of the eighteenth century (Jacques Boquay, ca. 1680-1730). Two types of FTIR imaging methods were used: scanning with a synchrotron-based microscope and full-field imaging using a 2D imager with a conventional source. An interpretation of the results obtained from these studies on the Boquay cello is that the maker first applied a proteinaceous layer, probably gelatine-based animal glue. He later applied a second layer based on a mixture of a drying oil and diterpenic resin from Pinaceae sp. From an historical perspective, the results complement previous studies by describing a second technique used for musical instrument finishes at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Europe.

  6. Perception of Music and Speech in Adolescents with Cochlear Implants – A Pilot Study on Effects of Intensive Musical Ear Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    measures of rehabilitation are important throughout adolescence. Music training may provide a beneficial method of strengthening not only music perception, but also linguistic skills, particularly prosody. The purpose of this study was to examine perception of music and speech and music engagement...... of adolescent CI users and the potential effects of an intensive musical ear training program. METHODS Eleven adolescent CI users participated in a short intensive training program involving music making activities and computer based listening exercises. Ten NH agemates formed a reference group, who followed...... their standard school schedule and received no music training. Before and after the intervention period, both groups completed a set of tests for perception of music, speech and emotional prosody. In addition, the participants filled out a questionnaire which examined music listening habits and enjoyment...

  7. Music analysis and Kolmogorov complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    The goal of music analysis is to find the most satisfying explanations for musical works. It is proposed that this can best be achieved by attempting to write computer programs that are as short as possible and that generate representations that are as detailed as possible of the music...... that the program represents. If such an effective measure of analysis quality can be found, it could be used in a system that automatically finds the optimal analysis for any passage of music. Measuring program length in terms of number of source-code characters is shown to be problematic and an expression...... is proposed that overcomes some but not all of these problems. It is suggested that the solutions to the remaining problems may lie either in the field of concrete Kolmogorov complexity or in the design of languages specialized for expressing musical structure....

  8. Design and trial evaluation of the user interface for MusicReader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoné, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and trial results of MusicReader, a networked application realizing sheet music related services for the support of ensemble and orchestra rehearsals and performances. To this end, MusicReader presents sheet music on computer screens and supports annotations, sheet

  9. Playing new music with old games: The chiptune subculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Márquez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although video games have been studied from a wide range of perspectives, from film to literature, little attention has been given to the role of music and sound in games. Not only to the role of music and sound within games, but also to the many different forms in which video games are influencing the development of popular music. One of these forms is the so-called “chiptune music”. Chiptune (also known as chip music or 8-bit music is electronic music that uses the microchip-based audio hardware of early home computers and gaming consoles and repurposes it for artistic expression. Chiptune artists reinvent the technology found in old computers such as Commodore 64, Amiga and ZX Spectrum as well as in outdated video game consoles such as Nintendo Game Boy or Mega Drive/Genesis in order to create new music. This paper is an attempt to document the chiptune phenomena and the subculture scene that has been created around it during the last years: a subculture that is resuscitating and redefining old and “dead” gaming devices to play new music at the periphery of mainstream culture.

  10. A Decision-Tree-Based Algorithm for Speech/Music Classification and Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavner Yizhar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient algorithm for segmentation of audio signals into speech or music. The central motivation to our study is consumer audio applications, where various real-time enhancements are often applied. The algorithm consists of a learning phase and a classification phase. In the learning phase, predefined training data is used for computing various time-domain and frequency-domain features, for speech and music signals separately, and estimating the optimal speech/music thresholds, based on the probability density functions of the features. An automatic procedure is employed to select the best features for separation. In the test phase, initial classification is performed for each segment of the audio signal, using a three-stage sieve-like approach, applying both Bayesian and rule-based methods. To avoid erroneous rapid alternations in the classification, a smoothing technique is applied, averaging the decision on each segment with past segment decisions. Extensive evaluation of the algorithm, on a database of more than 12 hours of speech and more than 22 hours of music showed correct identification rates of 99.4% and 97.8%, respectively, and quick adjustment to alternating speech/music sections. In addition to its accuracy and robustness, the algorithm can be easily adapted to different audio types, and is suitable for real-time operation.

  11. Measuring social interaction in music ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gualtiero; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Camurri, Antonio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2016-05-05

    Music ensembles are an ideal test-bed for quantitative analysis of social interaction. Music is an inherently social activity, and music ensembles offer a broad variety of scenarios which are particularly suitable for investigation. Small ensembles, such as string quartets, are deemed a significant example of self-managed teams, where all musicians contribute equally to a task. In bigger ensembles, such as orchestras, the relationship between a leader (the conductor) and a group of followers (the musicians) clearly emerges. This paper presents an overview of recent research on social interaction in music ensembles with a particular focus on (i) studies from cognitive neuroscience; and (ii) studies adopting a computational approach for carrying out automatic quantitative analysis of ensemble music performances. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treder, Matthias S.; Purwins, Hendrik; Miklody, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    . Here, we explore polyphonic music as a novel stimulation approach for future use in a brain-computer interface. In a musical oddball experiment, we had participants shift selective attention to one out of three different instruments in music audio clips, with each instrument occasionally playing one...... 11 participants. This is a proof of concept that attention paid to a particular instrument in polyphonic music can be inferred from ongoing EEG, a finding that is potentially relevant for both brain-computer interface and music research....

  13. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  14. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  15. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  16. Brain Signal Analysis Using Different Types of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Ayuni Mohd Nasir; Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Music is able to improve certain functions of human body physiologically and psychologically. Music also can improve attention, memory, and even mental math ability by listening to the music before performing any task. The purpose of this study is to study the relation between types of music and brainwaves signal that is differences in state of relaxation and attention states. The Electroencephalography (EEG) signal was recorded using PowerLab, Dual Bio Amp and computer to observes and record...

  17. The effects of music relaxation and muscle relaxation techniques on sleep quality and emotional measures among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Haimov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, an anxiety disorder with lifetime prevalence of 7.8%, is characterized by symptoms that develop following exposure to traumatic life events and that cause an immediate experience of intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD is marked by recurrent nightmares typified by the recall of intrusive experiences and by extended disturbance throughout sleep. Individuals with PTSD respond poorly to drug treatments for insomnia. The disadvantages of drug treatment for insomnia underline the importance of non-pharmacological alternatives. Thus, the present study had three aims: first, to compare the efficiency of two relaxation techniques (muscular relaxation and progressive music relaxation in alleviating insomnia among individuals with PTSD using both objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine whether these two techniques have different effects on psychological indicators of PTSD, such as depression and anxiety; and finally, to examine how initial PTSD symptom severity and baseline emotional measures are related to the efficiency of these two relaxation methods. Thirteen PTSD patients with no other major psychiatric or neurological disorders participated in the study. The study comprised one seven-day running-in, no-treatment period, followed by two seven-day experimental periods. The treatments constituted either music relaxation or muscle relaxation techniques at desired bedtime. These treatments were randomly assigned. During each of these three experimental periods, subjects’ sleep was continuously monitored with a wrist actigraph (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., and subjects were asked to fill out several questionnaires concerned with a wide spectrum of issues, such as sleep, depression, and anxiety. Analyses revealed a significant increase in objective and subjective sleep efficiency and a significant reduction in depression level following music relaxation. Moreover, following music

  18. Design and development of a semantic music discovery engine

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Douglas Ross

    2008-01-01

    Technology is changing the way in which music is produced, distributed and consumed. An aspiring musician in West Africa with a basic desktop computer, an inexpensive microphone, and free audio editing software can record and produce reasonably high-quality music. She can post her songs on any number of musically-oriented social networks (e.g., MySpace, Last.fm, eMusic) making them accessible to the public. A music consumer in San Diego can then rapidly download her songs over a high-bandwidt...

  19. Preference for Popular and World Music: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Reviews of literature on music preference may provide music educators with a variety of research on information, techniques, and methods to implement in the music classroom. Calls to widen the types of music used in curricula seem to underscore the importance of research exploring preference using music other than, and in addition to, Western art…

  20. 75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ..., Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... music players, and computers, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,714,091... importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, or computers that...

  1. Teaching Musical Expression: Effects of Production and Delivery of Feedback by Teacher vs. Computer on Rated Feedback Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jessika; Liljestrom, Simon; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a computer program may improve performers' abilities to express emotions through their performance. Yet, performers seem reluctant to embrace this novel technology. In this study we explored possible reasons for these negative impressions. Eighty guitarists performed a piece of music to express various emotions,…

  2. Fusion of Electroencephalogram dynamics and musical contents for estimating emotional responses in music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pin eLin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI, neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications, the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61% to 67% in valence classification and from around 58% to 67% in arousal classification. The musical timbre appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling.

  3. Fusion of electroencephalographic dynamics and musical contents for estimating emotional responses in music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI), neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications), the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61-67% in valence classification and from around 58-67% in arousal classification. The musical timber appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling.

  4. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  5. [Use of music in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbina, Dijana; Simunović, Dubravka; Santek, Vjerocka; Njegovan-Zvonarević, Tatjana

    2011-12-01

    Man is mortal, which means that as the earthly body perishes being, final. Disease and death will always be an inevitable and integral part of human experience. The way in which we try to identify and respond to the unique and individual needs of the dying is an indication of our maturity as a society. The number of people requiring palliative care is growing. Palliative care does not intend to either accelerate or postpone death she emphasizes the life and looks at dying as a normal process. It is an active form of care for patients with advanced, progressive illness, with the aim of suppressing pain and other symptoms in addition to providing psychological, social and spiritual support which ensures the best possible quality of life for patients and their families. Therefore requires a coordinated and interdisciplinary contribution team. The variety of professions in a team, and determine the needs of patients should be ready to provide physical, psychological, social and spiritual support using methods that result from an interdisciplinary, collaborative team approach. Development of a holistic approach and awareness in the medical and allied professions has led to a renewal of interest in the inclusion of music and other expressive media in contemporary concepts of palliative care, which are consistent with problem areas, clinical manifestations and the needs of patients. Music offers a direct and uncomplicated medium of intimacy, living in a man who listens to her, has a place where words lose their power. Music is like our existence, constantly polarizing and emotionally stimulating, as it touches the medium of the earliest layers of our becoming. The use of music in palliative care has proved very effective for a variety of effects that music creates in patients. These effects are achieved through the use of various musical techniques, such as musical improvisation, songwriting, receiving creative techniques, guided by imagination and music. These techniques

  6. Game of Life Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  7. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  8. The use of music on Barney & Friends: implications for music therapy practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire , K M

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the music content of 88 episodes from the PBS television show Barney & Friends, which aired from September 1992 to September 1998, in an attempt to quantify musical examples and presentations that may be considered introductory music experiences for preschoolers. Using many of the procedures identified by Wolfe and Stambaugh (1993) in their study on the music of Sesame Street, 25% of Barney & Friends' 88 episodes were analyzed by using the computer observation program SCRIBE in determining: (a) the temporal use of music; (b) performance medium; and (c) intention of music use. Furthermore, each structural prompt presentation (n = 749) from all 88 episodes was examined for: (a) tempo; (b) vocal range; (c) music style; (d) word clarity; (e) repetition; (f) vocal modeling; and (g) movement. Results revealed that the show contained more music (92.2%) than nonmusic (7.8%), with the majority of this music containing instrumental sounds (61%). The function of this music was distributed equally between structural prompt music (48%) and background music (48%). The majority of the structural prompt music contained newly composed material (52%), while 33% consisted of previously composed material. Fifteen percent contained a combination of newly composed and previously composed material. The most common tempo range for presentations on the show was 80-100 bpm, while vocal ranges of a 9th, 8th, 6th, and 7th were predominant and most often sung by children's voices. The adult male voice was also common, with 84% of all adult vocals being male. The tessitura category with the greatest number of appearances was middle C to C above (n = 133), with the majority of the presentations (n = 435, 73%) extending singers' voices over the register lift of B above middle C. Children's music and music of the American heritage were the most common style categories observed, and these two categories combined on 260 (35%) presentations. The use of choreographed

  9. A Fast DOA Estimation Algorithm Based on Polarization MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast DOA estimation algorithm developed from MUSIC, which also benefits from the processing of the signals' polarization information, is presented. Besides performance enhancement in precision and resolution, the proposed algorithm can be exerted on various forms of polarization sensitive arrays, without specific requirement on the array's pattern. Depending on the continuity property of the space spectrum, a huge amount of computation incurred in the calculation of 4-D space spectrum is averted. Performance and computation complexity analysis of the proposed algorithm is discussed and the simulation results are presented. Compared with conventional MUSIC, it is indicated that the proposed algorithm has considerable advantage in aspects of precision and resolution, with a low computation complexity proportional to a conventional 2-D MUSIC.

  10. Musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belenkaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify theoretically the need for musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical supervision. Results: the main directions of musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports were reviewed. It was discovered that in these types of sports coaches must have specific musical and rhythmic motor skills involving the use of musical accompaniment as a methodological technique for training sessions. The means of music and rhythmic education, which facilitate effective musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports, were determined. Conclusions: the necessity of improving the teaching methods of the subject "music and rhythmic education" as part of the musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports, was theoretically justified.

  11. Root-MUSIC Based Angle Estimation for MIMO Radar with Unknown Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direction of arrival (DOA estimation problem for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with unknown mutual coupling is studied, and an algorithm for the DOA estimation based on root multiple signal classification (MUSIC is proposed. Firstly, according to the Toeplitz structure of the mutual coupling matrix, output data of some specified sensors are selected to eliminate the influence of the mutual coupling. Then the reduced-dimension transformation is applied to make the computation burden lower as well as obtain a Vandermonde structure of the direction matrix. Finally, Root-MUSIC can be adopted for the angle estimation. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT-like algorithm and MUSIC-like algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has lower complexity than them. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, and the theoretical estimation error of the algorithm is also derived.

  12. An investigation of the role of background music in IVWs for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Richards

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence is needed to corroborate the intuitions of gamers and game developers in understanding the benefits of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs as a learning environment and the role that music plays within these environments. We report an investigation to determine if background music of the genre typically found in computer-based role-playing games has an effect on learning in a computer-animated history lesson about the Macquarie Lighthouse within an IVW. In Experiment 1, music stimuli were created from four different computer game soundtracks. Seventy-two undergraduate students watched the presentation and completed a survey including biographical details, questions on the historical material presented and questions relating to their perceived level of immersion. While the tempo and pitch of the music was unrelated to learning, music conditions resulted in a higher number of accurately remembered facts than the no music condition. One soundtrack showed a statistically significant improvement in memorisation of facts over other music conditions. Also an interaction between the levels of perceived immersion and ability to accurately remember facts was observed. Experiment 2, involving 48 undergraduate students, further investigated the effect of music, sense of immersion and how different display systems affect memory for facts.

  13. Biomechanical Modelling of Musical Performance: A Case Study of the Guitar

    OpenAIRE

    Costalonga, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/2517 on 07.20.2017 by CS (TIS) Computer-generated musical performances are often criticised for being unable to match the expressivity found in performances by humans. Much research has been conducted in the past two decades in order to create computer technology able to perform a given piece music as expressively as humans, largely without success. Two approaches have been often adopted to research into modelling expressive music perform...

  14. Relative Effect of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music and Computer Animation on Senior Secondary School Students' Retention in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' retention in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…

  15. Do women prefer more complex music around ovulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Filippi, Piera; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of music are much debated. One theory holds that the ability to produce complex musical sounds might reflect qualities that are relevant in mate choice contexts and hence, that music is functionally analogous to the sexually-selected acoustic displays of some animals. If so, women may be expected to show heightened preferences for more complex music when they are most fertile. Here, we used computer-generated musical pieces and ovulation predictor kits to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that women prefer more complex music in general; however, we found no evidence that their preference for more complex music increased around ovulation. Consequently, our findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that a heightened preference/bias in women for more complex music around ovulation could have played a role in the evolution of music. We go on to suggest future studies that could further investigate whether sexual selection played a role in the evolution of this universal aspect of human culture.

  16. Do women prefer more complex music around ovulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origins of music are much debated. One theory holds that the ability to produce complex musical sounds might reflect qualities that are relevant in mate choice contexts and hence, that music is functionally analogous to the sexually-selected acoustic displays of some animals. If so, women may be expected to show heightened preferences for more complex music when they are most fertile. Here, we used computer-generated musical pieces and ovulation predictor kits to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that women prefer more complex music in general; however, we found no evidence that their preference for more complex music increased around ovulation. Consequently, our findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that a heightened preference/bias in women for more complex music around ovulation could have played a role in the evolution of music. We go on to suggest future studies that could further investigate whether sexual selection played a role in the evolution of this universal aspect of human culture.

  17. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed. They make use of the executive peculiarity of musical instruments and musical structures to prime, cue and coordinate movements. Among musical components, a repetitive rhythm plays a significant role. It regulates physiologic and behavioural functions through the mechanism of entrainment (synchronization of biological rhythms with musical rhythm based on acoustic resonance). It is especially relevant for patients with a deficient internal timing system in the brain. Additionally, regular rhythmic patterns facilitate memory encoding and decoding of non-musical information hence music is an efficient mnemonic tool. The music as a hierarchical, compound language of time, with its unique ability to access affective/motivational systems in the brain, provides time structures enhancing perception processes, mainly in the range of cognition, language and motor learning. It allows for emotional expression and improvement of the motivation for rehabilitation activities. The new technologies of rhythmic sensory stimulation (i.e. Binaural Beat Stimulation) or rhythmic music in combination with rhythmic light therapy appear. This multimodal forms of stimulation are used in the treatment of stroke, brain injury, dementia and other cognitive deficits. Clinical outcome studies provide evidence of the significant superiority of rehabilitation with music over the one without music.

  18. On Common Techniques of Music Instrument Perfor-mance and the References%乐器演奏的通用技法和借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨元

    2014-01-01

    The performance techniques of a lot of music instru-ments are extremely similar and interlinked, especially hand styles, fingering, tone tuning, and so on. Therefore, common per-formance techniques of some music instruments were summa-rized to help learners draw inferences from what they've learned, instead of being restricted by the concept of "different instru-ments with different techniques", and in this way they can get more access to the learning of music instrument types with limited energies in limited time. The references to the interlink and and intercommunication of the performance techniques will give im-petus to a better understanding, inheritance, breakthrough and flexible use of the music instruments.%很多乐器的演奏方法都有着极其相似之处,尤其是手型、指法、调音等,相通之处更多。因此,总结出部分乐器演奏的通用技法,让乐器学习者可以举一反三、触类旁通,而不是拘泥于“术业有专攻”的限制,这样就可以在有限的时间内、用有限的精力对乐器种类有更为广泛的接触和学习,从而借鉴演奏方法上的相通之处和相互联系,进一步推动对这些乐器更好地了解、传承、突破及灵活运用。

  19. {SW}ARMED: Captive Portals, Mobile Devices, and Audience Participation in Multi-User Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Abram

    2013-01-01

    Audience participation in computer music has long been limited byresources such as sensor technology or the material goods necessary toshare such an instrument. A recent paradigm is to take advantageof the incredible popularity of the smart-phone, a pocket sizedcomputer, and other mobile devices, to provide the audience aninterface into a computer music instrument. In this paper we discuss amethod of sharing a computer music instrument's interface with anaudience to allow them to interact via...

  20. FEATURES OF MINIMALIST MUSIC FUNCTIONING IN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikheeva Julia V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of musical minimalism in aesthetic perception and theoretical interpretation of cinematographic works. The film music of Philip Glass, Michael Nyman, Alfred Schnittke, Arvo Pärt, Alexei Aigui is analysed. Author specifies the analysis of the principles of musical minimalism in films in two basic phenomenons. The first one is a transcending of art space through the self-worth of a single sound (sound pattern. The second one is a change the meaning of film-time through the repetitive music technique.

  1. Narrating the origin of the universe through music: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannone Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our project is about the synthesis of a musical piece, based on the timeline of the Universe. We can understand music through visual and gestural analogies. In a similar way, popular descriptions of scientific concepts also use external metaphors and visual support to help comprehension. We will use music to describe a topic from astrophysics, the birth and evolution of the Universe. We describe the compositional technique used to create the composition 'Origin,' referring to recent techniques to derive music from tridimensional images and from gestures, under the light of the mathematical theory of music in the context of a narrative.

  2. Effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music and Computer Animation on Senior Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' academic achievement in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…

  3. Wavelets in music analysis and synthesis: timbre analysis and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Faria, Regis R.; Ruschioni, Ruggero A.; Zuffo, Joao A.

    1996-10-01

    Music is a vital element in the process of comprehending the world where we live and interact with. Frequency it exerts a subtle but expressive influence over a society's evolution line. Analysis and synthesis of music and musical instruments has always been associated with forefront technologies available at each period of human history, and there is no surprise in witnessing now the use of digital technologies and sophisticated mathematical tools supporting its development. Fourier techniques have been employed for years as a tool to analyze timbres' spectral characteristics, and re-synthesize them from these extracted parameters. Recently many modern implementations, based on spectral modeling techniques, have been leading to the development of new generations of music synthesizers, capable of reproducing natural sounds with high fidelity, and producing novel timbres as well. Wavelets are a promising tool on the development of new generations of music synthesizers, counting on its advantages over the Fourier techniques in representing non-periodic and transient signals, with complex fine textures, as found in music. In this paper we propose and introduce the use of wavelets addressing its perspectives towards musical applications. The central idea is to investigate the capacities of wavelets in analyzing, extracting features and altering fine timbre components in a multiresolution time- scale, so as to produce high quality synthesized musical sounds.

  4. Music Teachers' Everyday Conceptions of Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture

    1999-01-01

    Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…

  5. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  6. Brain Musics: History, Precedents, and Commentary on Whalley, Mavros and Furniss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ortiz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whalley, Mavros and Furniss explore questions of agency, control and interaction, as well as the embodied nature of musical performance in relation to the use of human-computer interaction through the work Clasp Together (beta for small ensemble and live electronics. The underlying concept of the piece focuses on direct mapping of a human neural network (embodied by a performer within the ensemble to an artificial neural network running on a computer. With our commentary, we contextualize the work within the field of Music Neuroscience. Specifically, we point at precedents in EEG-based musical practice as well as ongoing research in the field. We hope to more clearly situate Clasp Together (beta in the broad area of Brain Computer Musical Interfaces and discuss the challenges and opportunities that these technologies offer for composers.

  7. Music Education in the United States: Schools and Departments of Music. Bulletin, 1908, No. 4. Whole Number 387

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Arthur L.

    1908-01-01

    To define the status of music education in the United States has been practically impossible. The utter lack of systematic courses of instruction, the widely varying standards of merit, and the absence of cooperation upon the part of those engaged in music teaching not only have made impossible any accurate computation of the results which have…

  8. Studies in musical acoustics and psychoacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises twelve articles which cover a range of topics from musical instrument acoustics to issues in psychoacoustics and sound perception as well as neuromusicology. In addition to experimental methods and data acquisition, modeling (such as FEM or wave field synthesis) and numerical simulation plays a central role in studies addressing sound production in musical instruments as well as interaction of radiated sound with the environment. Some of the studies have a focus on psychoacoustic aspects in regard to virtual pitch and timbre as well as apparent source width (for techniques such as stereo or ambisonics) in music production. Since musical acoustics imply subjects playing instruments or singing in order to produce sound according to musical structures, this area is also covered including a study that presents an artifical intelligent agent capable to interact with a real ('analog') player in musical genres such as traditional and free jazz. .

  9. Computational techniques of the simplex method

    CERN Document Server

    Maros, István

    2003-01-01

    Computational Techniques of the Simplex Method is a systematic treatment focused on the computational issues of the simplex method. It provides a comprehensive coverage of the most important and successful algorithmic and implementation techniques of the simplex method. It is a unique source of essential, never discussed details of algorithmic elements and their implementation. On the basis of the book the reader will be able to create a highly advanced implementation of the simplex method which, in turn, can be used directly or as a building block in other solution algorithms.

  10. Psychoacoustic cues to emotion in speech prosody and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Dibben, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence of shared acoustic profiles common to the expression of emotions in music and speech, yet relatively limited understanding of the specific psychoacoustic features involved. This study combined a controlled experiment and computational modelling to investigate the perceptual codes associated with the expression of emotion in the acoustic domain. The empirical stage of the study provided continuous human ratings of emotions perceived in excerpts of film music and natural speech samples. The computational stage created a computer model that retrieves the relevant information from the acoustic stimuli and makes predictions about the emotional expressiveness of speech and music close to the responses of human subjects. We show that a significant part of the listeners' second-by-second reported emotions to music and speech prosody can be predicted from a set of seven psychoacoustic features: loudness, tempo/speech rate, melody/prosody contour, spectral centroid, spectral flux, sharpness, and roughness. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of cross-modal similarities in the communication of emotion in the acoustic domain.

  11. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, G., E-mail: giulia.festa@roma2.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Tardino, G. [BauArt Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pontecorvo, L. [Conservatorio di Cosenza – Cosenza Conservatory (Italy); Mannes, D.C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Senesi, R. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Gorini, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Andreani, C. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process.

  12. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D. C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the 'Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento' in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments' restoration process.

  13. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D.C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-01-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process

  14. Visualizing the semantic structure in classical music works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-Yi; Qu, Huamin; Mak, Wai-Ho

    2010-01-01

    A major obstacle in the appreciation of classical music is that extensive training is required to understand musical structure and compositional techniques toward comprehending the thoughts behind the musical work. In this paper, we propose an innovative visualization solution to reveal the semantic structure in classical orchestral works such that users can gain insights into musical structure and appreciate the beauty of music. We formulate the semantic structure into macrolevel layer interactions, microlevel theme variations, and macro-micro relationships between themes and layers to abstract the complicated construction of a musical composition. The visualization has been applied with success in understanding some classical music works as supported by highly promising user study results with the general audience and very positive feedback from music students and experts, demonstrating its effectiveness in conveying the sophistication and beauty of classical music to novice users with informative and intuitive displays.

  15. Some Remarks on my Composition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knittel Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Krzysztof Knittel’s text about his own composition techniques, also looking at such topics as: the influence of painting on his music (e.g. the works of Piet Mondrian and Paul Klee; truth in the musical work; the application of recycling ad re-use techniques to the form of the musical work; methods of constructing the sound of the composition; links between music and historical events; rollage - a technique borrowed from the painter Jiří Kolář for the needs of St. Matthew Passion; sound installations created by Knittel with sounds of nature and civilisation; Theodor Lipps’ theory of empathy (Einfuhlung, as well as intuitive and improvised music.

  16. The role of music in music education research : reflections on musical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Varkøy, Øivind

    2009-01-01

    First in this article the role of theories of musicology in music education research is considered. Second, the case in point is examined where the focus of music education research is brought bo bear directly on music education, to wit music. By concentrating on music in music education research, the focus remains firmly on musical experience as a basis of reflection in music education research. The author has chosen to focus in particular on a specific kind of musical experience - more p...

  17. Acoustics and the Performance of Music Manual for Acousticians, Audio Engineers, Musicians, Architects and Musical Instrument Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Acoustics and the Performance of Music connects scientific understandings of acoustics with practical applications to musical performance. Of central importance are the tonal characteristics of musical instruments and the singing voice including detailed representations of directional characteristics. Furthermore, room acoustical concerns related to concert halls and opera houses are considered. Based on this, suggestions are made for musical performance. Included are seating arrangements within the orchestra and adaptations of performance techniques to the performance environment. In the presentation we dispense with complicated mathematical connections and deliberately aim for conceptual explanations accessible to musicians, particularly for conductors. The graphical representations of the directional dependence of sound radiation by musical instruments and the singing voice are unique. Since the first edition was published in 1978, this book has been completely revised and rewritten to include current rese...

  18. Interactive music composition driven by feature evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsos-Papakostas, Maximos A; Floros, Andreas; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary music composition is a prominent technique for automatic music generation. The immense adaptation potential of evolutionary algorithms has allowed the realisation of systems that automatically produce music through feature and interactive-based composition approaches. Feature-based composition employs qualitatively descriptive music features as fitness landmarks. Interactive composition systems on the other hand, derive fitness directly from human ratings and/or selection. The paper at hand introduces a methodological framework that combines the merits of both evolutionary composition methodologies. To this end, a system is presented that is organised in two levels: the higher level of interaction and the lower level of composition. The higher level incorporates the particle swarm optimisation algorithm, along with a proposed variant and evolves musical features according to user ratings. The lower level realizes feature-based music composition with a genetic algorithm, according to the top level features. The aim of this work is not to validate the efficiency of the currently utilised setup in each level, but to examine the convergence behaviour of such a two-level technique in an objective manner. Therefore, an additional novelty in this work concerns the utilisation of artificial raters that guide the system through the space of musical features, allowing the exploration of its convergence characteristics: does the system converge to optimal melodies, is this convergence fast enough for potential human listeners and is the trajectory to convergence "interesting' and "creative" enough? The experimental results reveal that the proposed methodological framework represents a fruitful and robust, novel approach to interactive music composition.

  19. An investigation of the role of background music in IVWs for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Debbie; Fassbender, Eric; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde

    2008-01-01

    Empirical evidence is needed to corroborate the intuitions of gamers and game developers in understanding the benefits of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs) as a learning environment and the role that music plays within these environments. We report an investigation to determine if background music of the genre typically found in computer-based role-playing games has an effect on learning in a computer-animated history lesson about the Macquarie Lighthouse within an IVW. In Experiment 1, music s...

  20. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  1. Fast Estimation of Optimal Sparseness of Music Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We want to use a variety of sparseness measured applied to ‘the minimal L1 norm representation' of a music signal in an overcomplete dictionary as features for automatic classification of music. Unfortunately, the process of computing the optimal L1 norm representation is rather slow, and we...

  2. "Music Therapy Helped Me Get Back Doing": Perspectives of Music Therapy Participants in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Tríona; Edwards, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Mental health service development internationally is increasingly informed by the collaborative ethos of recovery. Service user evaluation of experiences within music therapy programs allows new phenomena about participation in services to be revealed that might otherwise remain unnoticed. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how asking service users about their experience of music therapy can generate useful information, and to reflect upon the feedback elicited from such processes in order to gain a deeper understanding of how music therapy is received among service users in mental health. Six mental health service users described their experiences of music therapy in one or two individual interviews. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed using the procedures and techniques of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Interviews with mental health service users provided rich, in-depth accounts reflecting the complex nature of music therapy participation. Super-ordinate themes refer to the context in which music therapy was offered, the rich sound world of music in music therapy, the humanity of music therapy, and the strengths enhancing opportunities experienced by service users. Participants indicated that they each experienced music therapy in unique ways. Opinions about the value of music therapy were revealed through an interview process in which the researcher holds an open attitude, welcoming all narrative contributions respectfully. These findings can remind practitioners of the importance of closely tuning into the perspectives and understandings of those who have valuable expertise to share about their experience of music therapy services in mental health. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Computed Radiography: An Innovative Inspection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, William A.; Councill, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Florida Power and Light Company's (FPL) Nuclear Division combined two diverse technologies to create an innovative inspection technique, Computed Radiography, that improves personnel safety and unit reliability while reducing inspection costs. This technique was pioneered in the medical field and applied in the Nuclear Division initially to detect piping degradation due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Component degradation can be detected by this additional technique. This approach permits FPL to reduce inspection costs, perform on line examinations (no generation curtailment), and to maintain or improve both personnel safety and unit reliability. Computed Radiography is a very versatile tool capable of other uses: - improving the external corrosion program by permitting inspections underneath insulation, and - diagnosing system and component problems such as valve positions, without the need to shutdown or disassemble the component. (authors)

  4. Developing Musicality: Formal and Informal Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffurs, Sheri E.

    2004-01-01

    Musicality is a loosely used term with many meanings. It can be applied to a small child who chants a nursery rhyme, or to a harmonica player who plays by ear, or to a conductor like Toscanini. Some educators and philosophers believe that musicality is manifested in the technical achievements of musicians. Others believe that technique is…

  5. Music, videos and the risk for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you like listening to music while you work? What about watching videos during your leisure time? Sure this is fun. Having your colleagues participate in this is even more fun. However, this fun is usually not free. There are artists and the music and film companies who earn their living from music and videos.   Thus, if you want to listen to music or watch films at CERN, make sure that you own the proper rights to do so (and that you have the agreement of your supervisor to do this during working hours). Note that these rights are personal: you usually do not have the right to share music or videos with third parties without violating copyrights. Therefore, making copyrighted music and videos public, or sharing music and videos as well as other copyrighted material, is forbidden at CERN and outside CERN. It violates the CERN Computing Rules and it contradicts CERN's Code of Conduct, which expects each of us to behave ethically and honestly, and to credit others for their c...

  6. Music analysis and point-set compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2015-01-01

    COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm are point-set compression algorithms developed for discovering repeated patterns in music, such as themes and motives that would be of interest to a music analyst. To investigate their effectiveness and versatility, these algorithms were evaluated...... on three analytical tasks that depend on the discovery of repeated patterns: classifying folk song melodies into tune families, discovering themes and sections in polyphonic music, and discovering subject and countersubject entries in fugues. Each algorithm computes a compressed encoding of a point......-set representation of a musical object in the form of a list of compact patterns, each pattern being given with a set of vectors indicating its occurrences. However, the algorithms adopt different strategies in their attempts to discover encodings that maximize compression.The best-performing algorithm on the folk...

  7. A Music-Related Quality of Life Measure to Guide Music Rehabilitation for Adult Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakis, Giorgos; van Besouw, Rachel M; Kitterick, Pádraig; Verschuur, Carl A

    2017-09-18

    A music-related quality of life (MuRQoL) questionnaire was developed for the evaluation of music rehabilitation for adult cochlear implant (CI) users. The present studies were aimed at refinement and validation. Twenty-four experts reviewed the MuRQoL items for face validity. A refined version was completed by 147 adult CI users, and psychometric techniques were used for item selection, assessment of reliability, and definition of the factor structure. The same participants completed the Short Form Health Survey for construct validation. MuRQoL responses from 68 CI users were compared with those of a matched group of adults with normal hearing. Eighteen items measuring music perception and engagement and 18 items measuring their importance were selected; they grouped together into 2 domains. The final questionnaire has high internal consistency and repeatability. Significant differences between CI users and adults with normal hearing and a correlation between music engagement and quality of life support construct validity. Scores of music perception and engagement and importance for the 18 items can be combined to assess the impact of music on the quality of life. The MuRQoL questionnaire is a reliable and valid measure of self-reported music perception, engagement, and their importance for adult CI users with potential to guide music aural rehabilitation.

  8. [Self-relaxation techniques for glaucoma patients. Significance of autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelmann, T; Strempel, I

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is currently the second most common cause of severe visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Standard pharmaceutical and surgical interventions often fail to prevent progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To evaluate whether adjuvantly applied self-relaxation techniques can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and the overall mental state of affected patients. A search of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive overview of currently available data is presented. Autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and overall mental state of patients suffering from glaucoma. As all of these adjuvant therapeutic options are cost-effective, available almost everywhere and at anytime as well as without any known side effects, they can be useful additional techniques in the overall concept for treating glaucoma patients. Regular ocular examinations by an ophthalmologist are, however, mandatory.

  9. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR), music imagery information retrieval (MIIR) aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition-such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  10. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stober

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR, music imagery information retrieval (MIIR aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition–such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  11. IMIRSEL: a secure music retrieval testing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John S.

    2004-10-01

    The Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and Music Digital Library (MDL) research communities have long noted the need for formal evaluation mechanisms. Issues concerning the unavailability of freely-available music materials have greatly hindered the creation of standardized test collections with which these communities could scientifically assess the strengths and weaknesses of their various music retrieval techniques. The International Music Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Laboratory (IMIRSEL) is being developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) specifically to overcome this hindrance to the scientific evaluation of MIR/MDL systems. Together with its subsidiary Human Use of Music Information Retrieval Systems (HUMIRS) project, IMIRSEL will allow MIR/MDL researchers access to the standardized large-scale collection of copyright-sensitive music materials and standardized test queries being housed at UIUC's National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Virtual Research Labs (VRL), based upon NCSA's Data-to-Knowledge (D2K) tool set, are being developed through which MIR/MDL researchers will interact with the music materials under a "trusted code" security model.

  12. Acoustic Analysis and Mood Classification of Pain- Relieving Music

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, D; Beveridge, S; Mitchell, Laura; MacDonald, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Listening to preferred music (that which is chosen by the participant) has been shown to be effective in mitigating the effects of pain when compared to silence and a variety of distraction techniques. The wide range of genre, tempo, and structure in music chosen by participants in studies utilizing experimentally induced pain has led to the assertion that structure does not play a significant role, rather listening to preferred music renders the music “functionally equivalent” as regards its...

  13. School Music and Society: A Content Analysis of the Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music, 1946-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the session content presented in the first fifty years (1946-1996) of the (Michigan) state music education conference," The Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music." The purpose of this study was to examine instructional techniques, technology, social/societal, and multicultural…

  14. 77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by reason...

  15. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of popular…

  16. Music therapy for children with severe burn injury

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jane

    1998-01-01

    peer-reviewed Music therapy for children with severe burns is a developing field of practice and research interest in pediatric music therapy. The following article presents an overview of the nature of severe burn injury and provides a rationale for the use of music therapy in the Burn Unit. The application of song writing techniques to address needs of children receiving care for severe burns in a hospital setting is presented.

  17. MUSIC-CONTENT-ADAPTIVE ROBUST PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS FOR A SEMANTICALLY CONSISTENT SEPARATION OF FOREGROUND AND BACKGROUND IN MUSIC AUDIO SIGNALS

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos , Hélène; Ellis , Daniel P.W.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) is a technique to decompose signals into sparse and low rank components, and has recently drawn the attention of the MIR field for the problem of separating leading vocals from accompaniment, with appealing re-sults obtained on small excerpts of music. However, the perfor-mance of the method drops when processing entire music tracks. We present an adaptive formulation of RPCA that incorporates music content information to guid...

  18. Immersion Music: a Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nakra, Teresa M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the artistic projects undertaken at ImmersionMusic, Inc. (www.immersionmusic.org) during its three-yearexistence. We detail work in interactive performance systems,computer-based training systems, and concert production.

  19. Specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of primary headache disorders in adolescents: a randomized attention-placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Lenzen, Christoph; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Resch, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Migraine and tension-type headache have a high prevalence in children and adolescents. In addition to common pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, music therapy has been shown to be efficient in the prophylaxis of pediatric migraine. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of adolescents with primary headache (tension-type headache and migraine). A prospective, randomized, attention-placebo-controlled parallel group trial was conducted. Following an 8-week baseline, patients were randomized to either music therapy (n = 40) or a rhythm pedagogic program (n = 38) designed as an "attention placebo" over 6 sessions within 8 weeks. Reduction of both headache frequency and intensity after treatment (8-week postline) as well as 6 months after treatment were taken as the efficacy variables. Treatments were delivered in equal dose and frequency by the same group of therapists. Data analysis of subjects completing the protocol showed that neither treatment was superior to the other at any point of measurement (posttreatment and follow-up). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no impact of drop-out on these results. Both groups showed a moderate mean reduction of headache frequency posttreatment of about 20%, but only small numbers of responders (50% frequency reduction). Follow-up data showed no significant deteriorations or improvements. This article presents a randomized placebo-controlled trial on music therapy in the treatment of adolescents with frequent primary headache. Music therapy is not superior to an attention placebo within this study. These results draw attention to the need of providing adequate controls within therapeutic trials in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, imported by Apple Inc...

  1. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  2. GRAVTool, a Package to Compute Geoid Model by Remove-Compute-Restore Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, G. S.; Blitzkow, D.; Vidotti, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, there are several methods to determine geoid models. They can be based on terrestrial gravity data, geopotential coefficients, astro-geodetic data or a combination of them. Among the techniques to compute a precise geoid model, the Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR) has been widely applied. It considers short, medium and long wavelengths derived from altitude data provided by Digital Terrain Models (DTM), terrestrial gravity data and global geopotential coefficients, respectively. In order to apply this technique, it is necessary to create procedures that compute gravity anomalies and geoid models, by the integration of different wavelengths, and that adjust these models to one local vertical datum. This research presents a developed package called GRAVTool based on MATLAB software to compute local geoid models by RCR technique and its application in a study area. The studied area comprehends the federal district of Brazil, with ~6000 km², wavy relief, heights varying from 600 m to 1340 m, located between the coordinates 48.25ºW, 15.45ºS and 47.33ºW, 16.06ºS. The results of the numerical example on the studied area show the local geoid model computed by the GRAVTool package (Figure), using 1377 terrestrial gravity data, SRTM data with 3 arc second of resolution, and geopotential coefficients of the EIGEN-6C4 model to degree 360. The accuracy of the computed model (σ = ± 0.071 m, RMS = 0.069 m, maximum = 0.178 m and minimum = -0.123 m) matches the uncertainty (σ =± 0.073) of 21 points randomly spaced where the geoid was computed by geometrical leveling technique supported by positioning GNSS. The results were also better than those achieved by Brazilian official regional geoid model (σ = ± 0.099 m, RMS = 0.208 m, maximum = 0.419 m and minimum = -0.040 m).

  3. Instruments for documentation of music therapy sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    It is an important part of the clinical music therapy work to document the daily sessions. For the clinician it is necessary to have a brief overview of each session in order to assess the methods and the process, and not least to be able to give clear reports of these issues to other health care...... professionals at staff meetings, conferences, etc. For music therapists with many clients there is not time enough during a working day to provide comprehensive process descriptions in the music therapy log. Therefore instruments that help the clinician in reducing and structuring this information are needed....... Danish and Norwegian music therapist have collaborated on developing a one page sheet with a structured form where they after each music therapy session document their use of methods and techniques in individual music therapy with persons with dementia. With this instrument therapists have easy access...

  4. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  5. Effect of listening to music and essential oil inhalation on patients undergoing screening CT colonography: A randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Koichi, E-mail: Nagata7@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center, 929 Higashi-cho, Kamogawa, Chiba 296-8602 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Cancer Screening Technology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iida, Nao, E-mail: n.iida-xray@kameda.jp [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Kanazawa, Hidenori, E-mail: r0713hk@jichi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masanori, E-mail: m_fujiwara@kameda.jp [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Mogi, Tomohiro, E-mail: mogi-xray@kameda.jp [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Mitsushima, Toru, E-mail: mitsushima@kameda.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Lefor, Alan T., E-mail: alefor@jichi.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Sugimoto, Hideharu, E-mail: sugimoto@jichi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Music does not decrease patients’ perceived pain or acceptance during CTC. • Aromatherapy does not affect patients’ perceived pain or experience during CTC. • Music and aroma had little effect on vital signs during CTC. • More participants who listened to music requested music during the next CTC. • More participants who inhaled aroma requested aroma during the next CTC. - Abstract: Objective: To prospectively evaluate the effect of listening to music and inhaling aroma oil on patients undergoing screening computed tomography colonography. Materials and methods: Two hundred and twenty four participants were randomly allocated to one of the four groups including: (1) combined music and aroma, (2) music alone, (3) aroma alone, and (4) control. The visual analog scale for pain and a questionnaire were used for subjective outcomes. We also used a pre-test–post-test design to compare the differences in blood pressure and heart rate as objective outcomes. Results: There were no statistical differences between the control group and other groups in the visual analog scale or changes in heart rate. Changes in blood pressure were similar. Participants reported good overall experiences. There were no differences in terms of overall satisfaction, pain rating, willingness to repeat the computed tomography colonography procedure in the future, or preference between colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography. More participants using music and/or aroma requested music and/or aroma during the next computed tomography colonography (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although audio and olfactory intervention had little effect on perceived pain or discomfort and vital signs, participants who listened to music and inhaled aroma during the computed tomography colonography preferred music and aroma during the next computed tomography colonography.

  6. Effect of listening to music and essential oil inhalation on patients undergoing screening CT colonography: A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Koichi; Iida, Nao; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Fujiwara, Masanori; Mogi, Tomohiro; Mitsushima, Toru; Lefor, Alan T.; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Music does not decrease patients’ perceived pain or acceptance during CTC. • Aromatherapy does not affect patients’ perceived pain or experience during CTC. • Music and aroma had little effect on vital signs during CTC. • More participants who listened to music requested music during the next CTC. • More participants who inhaled aroma requested aroma during the next CTC. - Abstract: Objective: To prospectively evaluate the effect of listening to music and inhaling aroma oil on patients undergoing screening computed tomography colonography. Materials and methods: Two hundred and twenty four participants were randomly allocated to one of the four groups including: (1) combined music and aroma, (2) music alone, (3) aroma alone, and (4) control. The visual analog scale for pain and a questionnaire were used for subjective outcomes. We also used a pre-test–post-test design to compare the differences in blood pressure and heart rate as objective outcomes. Results: There were no statistical differences between the control group and other groups in the visual analog scale or changes in heart rate. Changes in blood pressure were similar. Participants reported good overall experiences. There were no differences in terms of overall satisfaction, pain rating, willingness to repeat the computed tomography colonography procedure in the future, or preference between colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography. More participants using music and/or aroma requested music and/or aroma during the next computed tomography colonography (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although audio and olfactory intervention had little effect on perceived pain or discomfort and vital signs, participants who listened to music and inhaled aroma during the computed tomography colonography preferred music and aroma during the next computed tomography colonography

  7. Machine Learning of Musical Gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Caramiaux, Baptiste; Tanaka, Atau

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of machine learning (ML) techniques and theirapplication in interactive music and new digital instruments design. We firstgive to the non-specialist reader an introduction to two ML tasks,classification and regression, that are particularly relevant for gesturalinteraction. We then present a review of the literature in current NIMEresearch that uses ML in musical gesture analysis and gestural sound control.We describe the ways in which machine learning is useful for cre...

  8. Aesthetics in Young Children's Lives: From Music Technology Curriculum Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Hui; Chou, Mei-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Music technology is a term commonly used to refer to electronic form of the musical arts, particularly devices and computer software that enable the facilitation, playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance of various musical compositions. There has been a growing awareness of the importance of aesthetics in early childhood…

  9. The Self-Regulated Learning Model and Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Marijan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation and self-regulated learning (SRL are important features in music education. In this research self-regulated learning model is presented as a complex, multidimensional structure. SRL starts with the self-regulation. Self-regulation is formed through interaction with the environment, thus self-learning, self-analysis, self-judgment, self-instruction, and self-monitoring are the main functions in self-regulatory structure. Co-regulation is needed, and helps self-regulation to be activated and monitored. In music education, co-regulation refers to the instructions that teacher introduces in the lessons. These instructions have to enhance learning and develop regulation over emotions, cognitive, auditor, and motor skills in students. Learning techniques and learning strategies are core components in music education. Adapting those, students become aware of their learning processes, actions, thoughts, feelings and behaviors that are involved in learning. It is suggested that every teaching methodology has to develop learning techniques, as well as metamemory and metacognition in students, in order to gain expertise. The author has emphasized her attention to every aspect that is believed to belong to SRL. There are not many articles on the SRL in music education, written by musicians, in compare with those written by psychologists and neurologists,. Therefore, the author has suggested that this paper would encourage music teachers and performers to take an advantage in the research of SRL. These researches would help music educational systems and teachers to develop and promote learning techniques and strategies. The results would show improvement in student’s learning and self-regulation.

  10. Statistical learning and probabilistic prediction in music cognition: mechanisms of stylistic enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus T

    2018-05-11

    Music perception depends on internal psychological models derived through exposure to a musical culture. It is hypothesized that this musical enculturation depends on two cognitive processes: (1) statistical learning, in which listeners acquire internal cognitive models of statistical regularities present in the music to which they are exposed; and (2) probabilistic prediction based on these learned models that enables listeners to organize and process their mental representations of music. To corroborate these hypotheses, I review research that uses a computational model of probabilistic prediction based on statistical learning (the information dynamics of music (IDyOM) model) to simulate data from empirical studies of human listeners. The results show that a broad range of psychological processes involved in music perception-expectation, emotion, memory, similarity, segmentation, and meter-can be understood in terms of a single, underlying process of probabilistic prediction using learned statistical models. Furthermore, IDyOM simulations of listeners from different musical cultures demonstrate that statistical learning can plausibly predict causal effects of differential cultural exposure to musical styles, providing a quantitative model of cultural distance. Understanding the neural basis of musical enculturation will benefit from close coordination between empirical neuroimaging and computational modeling of underlying mechanisms, as outlined here. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Music and Dance Instruction in Basic Schools in Ghana: v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors militating against the girl – child's music and dance education in basic schools in Ghana. The Population were music and dance teachers in Ghanaian pre-tertiary institutions, while purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample that covered all the 2005 of the 400 level music ...

  12. Music and communication in music psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ian Ralph

    2014-01-01

    There is a general consensus that music is both universal and communicative, and musical dialogue is a key element in much music-therapeutic practice. However, the idea that music is a communicative medium has, to date, received little attention within the cognitive sciences, and the limited amount of research that addresses how and what music communicates has resulted in findings that appear to be of limited relevance to music therapy. This paper will draw on ethnomusicological evidence and ...

  13. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  14. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON WORK PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUSIC , *HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING), (*ATTENTION, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), REFLEXES, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), QUESTIONNAIRES, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES

  15. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Folk Music Analysis, 15-17 June, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Beauguitte, Pierre; Duggan, Bryan; Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    The Folk Music Analysis Workshop brings together computational music analysis and ethnomusicology. Both symbolic and audio representations of music are considered, with a broad range of scientific approaches being applied (signal processing, graph theory, deep learning). The workshop features a range of interesting talks from international researchers in areas such as Indian classical music, Iranian singing, Ottoman-Turkish Makam music scores, Flamenco singing, Irish traditional music, Georgi...

  16. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  17. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior.

  18. Application of Musical Information Retrieval (MIR Techniques to Seismic Facies Classification. Examples in Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dell’Aversana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for automatic pattern recognition and classification of geophysical data based on digital music technology. We import and apply in the geophysical domain the same approaches commonly used for Musical Information Retrieval (MIR. After accurate conversion from geophysical formats (example: SEG-Y to musical formats (example: Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or briefly MIDI, we extract musical features from the converted data. These can be single-valued attributes, such as pitch and sound intensity, or multi-valued attributes, such as pitch histograms, melodic, harmonic and rhythmic paths. Using a real data set, we show that these musical features can be diagnostic for seismic facies classification in a complex exploration area. They can be complementary with respect to “conventional” seismic attributes. Using a supervised machine learning approach based on the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm and on Automatic Neural Networks, we classify three gas-bearing channels. The good performance of our classification approach is confirmed by borehole data available in the same area.

  19. Extraction Of Audio Features For Emotion Recognition System Based On Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Moe Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Music is the combination of melody linguistic information and the vocalists emotion. Since music is a work of art analyzing emotion in music by computer is a difficult task. Many approaches have been developed to detect the emotions included in music but the results are not satisfactory because emotion is very complex. In this paper the evaluations of audio features from the music files are presented. The extracted features are used to classify the different emotion classes of the vocalists. Musical features extraction is done by using Music Information Retrieval MIR tool box in this paper. The database of 100 music clips are used to classify the emotions perceived in music clips. Music may contain many emotions according to the vocalists mood such as happy sad nervous bored peace etc. In this paper the audio features related to the emotions of the vocalists are extracted to use in emotion recognition system based on music.

  20. Popular Music Genres, Music Producers, and Song Creation in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Shane

    2018-01-01

    In secondary general music classes, music educators have the opportunity to bridge the gap between the music students' experiences in school and the music they engage with outside of school. According to Williams, nontraditional music students have musical lives outside of school but choose not to participate in traditional ensembles. In this…

  1. Organizing Mass-Interaction Physical Models: the CORDIS-ANIMA Musical Instrumentarium

    OpenAIRE

    Tache , Olivier; Cadoz , Claude

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Practicing physical modeling leads to reconsider the relationship with the musical computer, at a conceptual and practical level. This calls for specific learning tools, which fully take into account the specificities of this activity and go further than the traditional concepts of libraries of models and tutorials used in computer music environments. This paper presents a framework, called the Instrumentarium, which addresses this issue in the context of the CORDIS-AN...

  2. Learn with the Classics: Using Music To Study Smart at Any Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ole; Marsh, Marcy; Harvey, Arthur

    This book, accompanied by a musical CD-ROM, provides information on how to enhance learning through music at any age. Sections include: (1) "Let Music Prime Your Brain For Learning," which teaches how important it is to prime the brain for learning through music; (2) "Study Smart," which demonstrates highly effective studying techniques devised by…

  3. The Effect of Music on Acquiring Vocabulary with Technically Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Ulrike

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of music in acquiring foreign language vocabulary using suggestopedia techniques with 40 technically gifted students. The study found that the effectiveness of different types of music depended on student characteristics including gender, musical ability, foreign language learning ability, and feeling states. (DB)

  4. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and...

  5. Future trends in power plant process computer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettloff, K.

    1975-01-01

    The development of new concepts of the process computer technique has advanced in great steps. The steps are in the three sections: hardware, software, application concept. New computers with a new periphery such as, e.g., colour layer equipment, have been developed in hardware. In software, a decisive step in the sector 'automation software' has been made. Through these components, a step forwards has also been made in the question of incorporating the process computer in the structure of the whole power plant control technique. (orig./LH) [de

  6. BLUES from Music: BLind Underdetermined Extraction of Sources from Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use an instantaneous ICA method (BLUES) to separate the instruments in a real music stereo recording. We combine two strong separation techniques to segregate instruments from a mixture: ICA and binary time-frequency masking. By combining the methods, we are able to make...

  7. Music genre classification via likelihood fusion from multiple feature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in a music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. A new two-stage scheme for music genre classification is proposed in this work. At the first stage, we examine a couple of different features, construct their corresponding parametric models (e.g. GMM and HMM) and compute their likelihood functions to yield soft classification results. In particular, the timbre, rhythm and temporal variation features are considered. Then, at the second stage, these soft classification results are integrated to result in a hard decision for final music genre classification. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  8. Exploring different approaches for music genre classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose Homsi Goulart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we present different approaches for music genre classification. The proposed techniques, which are composed of a feature extraction stage followed by a classification procedure, explore both the variations of parameters used as input and the classifier architecture. Tests were carried out with three styles of music, namely blues, classical, and lounge, which are considered informally by some musicians as being “big dividers” among music genres, showing the efficacy of the proposed algorithms and establishing a relationship between the relevance of each set of parameters for each music style and each classifier. In contrast to other works, entropies and fractal dimensions are the features adopted for the classifications.

  9. Redundancy control in music performance : towards an understanding of the role of constraint satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heijink, H.J.I.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated two redundancy control problems related to music performance, one in computer science and one in motor control research, viz., score-performance matching and guitar fingering. In score-performance matching, a score and a performance have to be compared note by note to find the optimal correspondence between the two. There are exponentially many possible correspondences, but we found that a general algorithmic technique that uses structural information in the score performs wel...

  10. Training Software in Artificial-Intelligence Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ayanna; Rogstad, Eric; Chalfant, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Toolkit is a computer program for training scientists, engineers, and university students in three soft-computing techniques (fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms) used in artificial-intelligence applications. The program promotes an easily understandable tutorial interface, including an interactive graphical component through which the user can gain hands-on experience in soft-computing techniques applied to realistic example problems. The tutorial provides step-by-step instructions on the workings of soft-computing technology, whereas the hands-on examples allow interaction and reinforcement of the techniques explained throughout the tutorial. In the fuzzy-logic example, a user can interact with a robot and an obstacle course to verify how fuzzy logic is used to command a rover traverse from an arbitrary start to the goal location. For the genetic algorithm example, the problem is to determine the minimum-length path for visiting a user-chosen set of planets in the solar system. For the neural-network example, the problem is to decide, on the basis of input data on physical characteristics, whether a person is a man, woman, or child. The AI Toolkit is compatible with the Windows 95,98, ME, NT 4.0, 2000, and XP operating systems. A computer having a processor speed of at least 300 MHz, and random-access memory of at least 56MB is recommended for optimal performance. The program can be run on a slower computer having less memory, but some functions may not be executed properly.

  11. The Impact of New Age Music as Treatment to Reduce Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Salve, Henny Regina

    2007-01-01

    New Age music is the same as Alternative music. The term New Age take various forms and directions. This music draws on some of the flow of the music on this list, temasuk Ambient, Minimalism, Native American, Drum and Percussion, World, Electronic, Celtic, and Alternative. In music also use this technique entrainment and binaural beats. Entrainment is a principle in physics and is defined as the synchronization of two or more rounds rhythm (synchronization of two or more cycles rhytmic). The...

  12. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  13. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  14. Cross-cultural perspectives on music and musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Becker, Judith; Morley, Iain

    2015-03-19

    Musical behaviours are universal across human populations and, at the same time, highly diverse in their structures, roles and cultural interpretations. Although laboratory studies of isolated listeners and music-makers have yielded important insights into sensorimotor and cognitive skills and their neural underpinnings, they have revealed little about the broader significance of music for individuals, peer groups and communities. This review presents a sampling of musical forms and coordinated musical activity across cultures, with the aim of highlighting key similarities and differences. The focus is on scholarly and everyday ideas about music--what it is and where it originates--as well the antiquity of music and the contribution of musical behaviour to ritual activity, social organization, caregiving and group cohesion. Synchronous arousal, action synchrony and imitative behaviours are among the means by which music facilitates social bonding. The commonalities and differences in musical forms and functions across cultures suggest new directions for ethnomusicology, music cognition and neuroscience, and a pivot away from the predominant scientific focus on instrumental music in the Western European tradition. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational intelligence techniques in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wengang; Satheesh, P

    2016-01-01

    This book presents research on emerging computational intelligence techniques and tools, with a particular focus on new trends and applications in health care. Healthcare is a multi-faceted domain, which incorporates advanced decision-making, remote monitoring, healthcare logistics, operational excellence and modern information systems. In recent years, the use of computational intelligence methods to address the scale and the complexity of the problems in healthcare has been investigated. This book discusses various computational intelligence methods that are implemented in applications in different areas of healthcare. It includes contributions by practitioners, technology developers and solution providers.

  16. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  17. Interactive Technologies in Musical and Arts Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Glazyrina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the introduction of interactive techniques in music and arts education, and analyzes the definitions of interactivity – a key term of the modern educational paradigm. Various interpretationsof interactivity and its components – interaction, communication, dia logue, polylogue, interpretation, reinterpretation, intonation, feelings, comprehension, generalization (reflection, and experience – are given. In the methodology context, the author traces out the similarity of interactive concepts in general didactics and the humanities knowledge (M. M. Bakhtin, V. S. Bibler, and maintains that the main components of interactive teaching include the basic categories of culture, art, music, and psychology of artistic perception and creativity. Therefore, similarity of the content and approach to interpreting the conceptual terminological apparatus of interactive education makes it possible to implement the interactive techniques in teaching the cycle of music and arts disciplines.

  18. Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques in Arterial Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Adler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional imaging has become a critical aspect in the evaluation of arterial injuries. In particular, angiography using computed tomography (CT is the imaging of choice. A variety of techniques and options are available when evaluating for arterial injuries. Techniques involve contrast bolus, various phases of contrast enhancement, multiplanar reconstruction, volume rendering, and maximum intensity projection. After the images are rendered, a variety of features may be seen that diagnose the injury. This article provides a general overview of the techniques, important findings, and pitfalls in cross sectional imaging of arterial imaging, particularly in relation to computed tomography. In addition, the future directions of computed tomography, including a few techniques in the process of development, is also discussed.

  19. A Constructivist Application for Online Learning in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Dan A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the published knowledge and practices of distance learning in music to include constructivism. Dan Keast describes his techniques for the implementation of constructivism to an online two-course series of Music History. The courses' structure, activities, assessments, and other key functionality components…

  20. Acoustic analysis and mood classification of pain-relieving music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Don; Beveridge, Scott; Mitchell, Laura A; MacDonald, Raymond A R

    2011-09-01

    Listening to preferred music (that which is chosen by the participant) has been shown to be effective in mitigating the effects of pain when compared to silence and a variety of distraction techniques. The wide range of genre, tempo, and structure in music chosen by participants in studies utilizing experimentally induced pain has led to the assertion that structure does not play a significant role, rather listening to preferred music renders the music "functionally equivalent" as regards its effect upon pain perception. This study addresses this assumption and performs detailed analysis of a selection of music chosen from three pain studies. Music analysis showed significant correlation between timbral and tonal aspects of music and measurements of pain tolerance and perceived pain intensity. Mood classification was performed using a hierarchical Gaussian Mixture Model, which indicated the majority of the chosen music expressed contentment. The results suggest that in addition to personal preference, associations with music and the listening context, emotion expressed by music, as defined by its acoustical content, is important to enhancing emotional engagement with music and therefore enhances the level of pain reduction and tolerance. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  1. Joint Sparse Recovery With Semisupervised MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zaidao; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2017-05-01

    Discrete multiple signal classification (MUSIC) with its low computational cost and mild condition requirement becomes a significant noniterative algorithm for joint sparse recovery (JSR). However, it fails in rank defective problem caused by coherent or limited amount of multiple measurement vectors (MMVs). In this letter, we provide a novel sight to address this problem by interpreting JSR as a binary classification problem with respect to atoms. Meanwhile, MUSIC essentially constructs a supervised classifier based on the labeled MMVs so that its performance will heavily depend on the quality and quantity of these training samples. From this viewpoint, we develop a semisupervised MUSIC (SS-MUSIC) in the spirit of machine learning, which declares that the insufficient supervised information in the training samples can be compensated from those unlabeled atoms. Instead of constructing a classifier in a fully supervised manner, we iteratively refine a semisupervised classifier by exploiting the labeled MMVs and some reliable unlabeled atoms simultaneously. Through this way, the required conditions and iterations can be greatly relaxed and reduced. Numerical experimental results demonstrate that SS-MUSIC can achieve much better recovery performances than other MUSIC extended algorithms as well as some typical greedy algorithms for JSR in terms of iterations and recovery probability.

  2. Can Music and Animation Improve the Flow and Attainment in Online Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Sue; Hughes, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide use of music in various areas of society to influence listeners in different ways, one area often neglected is the use of music within online learning environments. This paper describes a study of the effects of music and animation upon learners in a computer mediated environment. A test was developed in which each learner was…

  3. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Benítez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and their structure may vary from one person to another, depending on their musical experience. Throughout this review, we will present the background related to the benefits of musical training in cognitive development of children during early childhood, emphasizing differences that involves receptive training compared to active, extending the effects to the field of music therapy and the use of techniques with therapeutic purposes.

  4. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  5. Harmonic Structure Predicts the Enjoyment of Uplifting Trance Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell

    2016-01-01

    An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord

  6. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  7. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  8. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  9. A Mobile Music Museum Experience for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel Helleberg; Knudsen, Aske Sønderby; Wilmot, Thomas Michael

    2015-01-01

    An interactive music instrument museum experience for children of 10-12 years is presented. Equipped with tablet devices, the children are sent on a treasure hunt where participants have to identify musical instruments by listening to samples; when the right instrument is located, a challenge...... of playing an application on the tablet is initiated. This application is an interactive digital representation of the found instrument, mimicking some of its key playing techniques, using a simplified scrolling-on-screen musical notation. A qualitative evaluation of the application using observations while...... interacting with the application and a focus group interview with school children revealed that the children were more engaged when playing with the interactive application than when only watching a music video....

  10. Operator support system using computational intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Computational Intelligence Systems have been widely applied in Monitoring and Fault Detection Systems in several processes and in different kinds of applications. These systems use interdependent components ordered in modules. It is a typical behavior of such systems to ensure early detection and diagnosis of faults. Monitoring and Fault Detection Techniques can be divided into two categories: estimative and pattern recognition methods. The estimative methods use a mathematical model, which describes the process behavior. The pattern recognition methods use a database to describe the process. In this work, an operator support system using Computational Intelligence Techniques was developed. This system will show the information obtained by different CI techniques in order to help operators to take decision in real time and guide them in the fault diagnosis before the normal alarm limits are reached. (author)

  11. Operator support system using computational intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio, E-mail: ebueno@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Computational Intelligence Systems have been widely applied in Monitoring and Fault Detection Systems in several processes and in different kinds of applications. These systems use interdependent components ordered in modules. It is a typical behavior of such systems to ensure early detection and diagnosis of faults. Monitoring and Fault Detection Techniques can be divided into two categories: estimative and pattern recognition methods. The estimative methods use a mathematical model, which describes the process behavior. The pattern recognition methods use a database to describe the process. In this work, an operator support system using Computational Intelligence Techniques was developed. This system will show the information obtained by different CI techniques in order to help operators to take decision in real time and guide them in the fault diagnosis before the normal alarm limits are reached. (author)

  12. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and music intervention for therapeutic purposes and to describe the perspective of gamelan music used in nursing interventionMethods: Using five bibliography databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, Interscience, and Proquest were searched from 1999-2010 for original clinical reports or reviews that evaluated the use of complementary therapy for therapeutic intervention in patients with ventilator support. The term of complementary therapy, anxiety, and pain were used in a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Articles were screened and excluded based on the title and abstract information.Results: Music brings about helpful changes in the emotional and physical health of patients, and has the ability to provide an altered state of physical arousal and subsequent mood improvement by processing a progression of musical notes of varying tone, rhythm, and instrumentation for a pleasing effect.Conclusion: Music can be used for therapeutic purposes, for instance to reduce anxiety, to decrease pain sensation, and some effects of psychological impact. Include, the gamelan music can be offer for patients for Javanese people in Indonesia.Key words: Music, music intervention, therapeutic purposes

  13. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  14. Pop and World Music in Dutch Music Education: Two Cases of Authentic Learning in Music Teacher Education and Secondary Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelein, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Popular and world music play an important role in Dutch music education. This article examines two case studies that illustrate authentic music learning environments in which these types of music are prominently used. The first case follows a student during her training at the Rotterdam Academy for Music Education, in which her own musical and…

  15. Musical Instrument Identification using Multiscale Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Morvidone, Marcela; Daudet, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the benefits of evaluating Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) over several time scales in the context of automatic musical instrument identification for signals that are monophonic but derived from real musical settings. We define several sets of features derived from MFCC...... multiscale decompositions perform significantly better than features computed using a single time-resolution....

  16. Musical training software for children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, W; Schinaia, L; Anzivino, R; De Corso, E; Ciacciarelli, A; Paludetti, G

    2015-10-01

    Although the voice in a free field has an excellent recruitment by a cochlear implant (CI), the situation is different for music because it is a much more complex process, where perceiving the pitch discrimination becomes important to appreciate it. The aim of this study is to determine the music perception abilities among children with Cis and to verify the benefit of a training period for specific musical frequency discrimination. Our main goals were to prepare a computer tool for pitch discrimination training and to assess musical improvements. Ten children, aged between 5 and 12 years, with optimal phoneme recognition in quiet and with no disabilities associated with deafness, were selected to join the training. Each patient received, before training period, two types of exams: a pitch discrimination test, consisting of discovering if two notes were different or not; and a music test consisting of two identification tasks (melodic and full version) of one music-item among 5 popular childhood songs. After assessment, a music training software was designed and utilised individually at home for a period of six months. The results following complete training showed significantly higher performance in the task of frequency discrimination. After a proper musical training identification, frequency discrimination performance was significantly higher (p musical enhancement and to achieve improvements in frequency discrimination, following pitch discrimination training.

  17. Computational creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Mántaras Badia, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies, and in particular artificial intelligence, are drastically changing the nature of creative processes. Computers are playing very significant roles in creative activities such as music, architecture, fine arts, and science. Indeed, the computer is already a canvas, a brush, a musical instrument, and so on. However, we believe that we must aim at more ambitious relations between computers and creativity. Rather than just seeing the computer as a tool to help human creators, we could see it as a creative entity in its own right. This view has triggered a new subfield of Artificial Intelligence called Computational Creativity. This article addresses the question of the possibility of achieving computational creativity through some examples of computer programs capable of replicating some aspects of creative behavior in the fields of music and science.Las nuevas tecnologías y en particular la Inteligencia Artificial están cambiando de forma importante la naturaleza del proceso creativo. Los ordenadores están jugando un papel muy significativo en actividades artísticas tales como la música, la arquitectura, las bellas artes y la ciencia. Efectivamente, el ordenador ya es el lienzo, el pincel, el instrumento musical, etc. Sin embargo creemos que debemos aspirar a relaciones más ambiciosas entre los ordenadores y la creatividad. En lugar de verlos solamente como herramientas de ayuda a la creación, los ordenadores podrían ser considerados agentes creativos. Este punto de vista ha dado lugar a un nuevo subcampo de la Inteligencia Artificial denominado Creatividad Computacional. En este artículo abordamos la cuestión de la posibilidad de alcanzar dicha creatividad computacional mediante algunos ejemplos de programas de ordenador capaces de replicar algunos aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento creativo en los ámbitos de la música y la ciencia.

  18. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  19. Approximate Computing Techniques for Iterative Graph Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panyala, Ajay R.; Subasi, Omer; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chavarria Miranda, Daniel G.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2017-12-18

    Approximate computing enables processing of large-scale graphs by trading off quality for performance. Approximate computing techniques have become critical not only due to the emergence of parallel architectures but also the availability of large scale datasets enabling data-driven discovery. Using two prototypical graph algorithms, PageRank and community detection, we present several approximate computing heuristics to scale the performance with minimal loss of accuracy. We present several heuristics including loop perforation, data caching, incomplete graph coloring and synchronization, and evaluate their efficiency. We demonstrate performance improvements of up to 83% for PageRank and up to 450x for community detection, with low impact of accuracy for both the algorithms. We expect the proposed approximate techniques will enable scalable graph analytics on data of importance to several applications in science and their subsequent adoption to scale similar graph algorithms.

  20. Instrumental Techniques: Guitar, Course Number: Music: 5631.3-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennitt, Barth; Thum, Marie-Jo

    A course which is an introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is outlined. Objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody from a list provided; (2) The student will identify by ear the performing medium from the following choices: violin, voice, piano, guitar, clarinet, trombone, organ, string bass,…

  1. Review: Music analysis and retrieval systems for audio signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of four years of the authors’ research on music information retrieval (MIR), omitting technical details. An overview of terminology, music analysis techniques, and research done in the last five years is also provided. Some of the results achieved by the authors are

  2. Musical Applications and Design Techniques for the Gametrak Tethered Spatial Position Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freed, Adrian; Overholt, Daniel; Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Gametrak spatial position controller has been saved from the fate of so many discontinued gaming controllers to become an attractive and increasingly popular platform for experimental musical controllers, math and science manipulatives, large scale interactive installations and as a playful...... tangible gaming interface that promotes inter-generational creative play and discovery . After introducing the peculiarities of the GameTrak and comparing it to related spatial position sensing systems we survey musical applications of the device. The short paper format cannot do justice to the depth...

  3. Numerical Computational Technique for Scattering from Underwater Objects

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ratna Mani; Raj Kumar; Odamapally Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational technique for mono-static and bi-static scattering from underwater objects of different shape such as submarines. The scatter has been computed using finite element time domain (FETD) method, based on the superposition of reflections, from the different elements reaching the receiver at a particular instant in time. The results calculated by this method has been verified with the published results based on ramp response technique. An in-depth parametric s...

  4. Music Teachers and Music Therapists: Helping Children Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allyson

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on music therapy. Discusses how music therapy works in the public school setting and offers advice to music teachers. Explores music therapy and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addressing the benefits of having access to music therapists. (CMK)

  5. Non-Gaussian distributions of melodic intervals in music: The Lévy-stable approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Niklasson, Maria H.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of structural patterns in music is of interest in order to increase our fundamental understanding of music, as well as for devising algorithms for computer-generated music, so called algorithmic composition. Musical melodies can be analyzed in terms of a “music walk” between the pitches of successive tones in a notescript, in analogy with the “random walk” model commonly used in physics. We find that the distribution of melodic intervals between tones can be approximated with a Lévy-stable distribution. Since music also exibits self-affine scaling, we propose that the “music walk” should be modelled as a Lévy motion. We find that the Lévy motion model captures basic structural patterns in classical as well as in folk music.

  6. From tacit to verbalized knowledge. Towards a culturally informed musical analysis of Central Javanese karawitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Grupe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the music cultures of the world we encounter both tacit and verbalized musical knowledge to various degrees. In order to reconstruct emic views on musical concepts and practices which are a prerequisite of any seriously culturally informed musical analysis we need to disclose local knowledge by appropriate means even if it is not directly open to verbal discourse. Current computer technology enables us to set up interactive experiments where local experts can verbally address relevant musical features in discussing audio examples which have been prepared by the researcher. The performance of virtual musicians can be evaluated by the local experts and various relevant parameters may be investigated individually if suitable versions of customary pieces are available. Thus aspects which seem to be tacit knowledge because they usually elude verbal discourse can be made accessible and transformed into verbalized, declarative knowledge. The paper presents preliminary results of a case study on Central Javanese gamelan music (karawitan where renowned Javanese musicians commented on computer-generated versions of traditional compositions regarding the idiomatically appropriate performance practice of the virtual ensemble as well as the tuning and sound of various virtual gamelan sets emulated by the computer.

  7. Multidisciplinary perspectives of music therapy in adult palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Koffman, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    Music therapy aims to provide holistic support to individuals through the sensitive use of music by trained clinicians. A recent growth in music therapy posts in UK palliative care units has occurred despite a paucity of rigorous research. To explore the role of music therapy within multidisciplinary palliative care teams, and guide the future development of the discipline. In-depth qualitative interviews with 20 multidisciplinary colleagues of music therapists, based in five UK hospices. Analysis of interview material revealed a number of themes relevant to the study aims. Music therapy was valued by most interviewees; however there exists some lack of understanding of the role of the music therapist, particularly amongst nurses. Emotional, physical, social, environmental, creative and spiritual benefits of music therapy were described, with some benefits perceived as synergistic, arising from collaborations with other disciplines. Interviewees found experiencing or witnessing music therapy is effective in developing an understanding of the discipline. Music therapy is an appropriate therapeutic intervention for meeting the holistic needs of palliative care service users. More understanding and integration of music therapy could be encouraged with collaborative work, educational workshops, and the utilization of environmentally focused techniques. The study merits further research to explore and develop these findings.

  8. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  9. Music, music therapy and dementia: a review of literature and the recommendations of the Italian Psychogeriatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, A; Bellelli, G; Mazzola, P; Bellandi, D; Giovagnoli, A R; Farina, E; Stramba-Badiale, M; Gentile, S; Gianelli, M V; Ubezio, M C; Zanetti, O; Trabucchi, M

    2012-08-01

    This study reviews the most recent (from 2000 to 2011) Clinical Controlled Trials (CCT) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) concerning the use of music and music-therapy (MT) in the context of dementia and related issues. Studies which explored the efficacy of music and MT on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent, while those aiming at assessing a potential effect of these approaches on cognitive and physiological aspects are scant. Although with some limitations, the results of these studies are consistent with the efficacy of MT approach on BPSD. In this context, the ability of the music therapist to directly interact with the patients appears to be crucial for the success of the intervention. This review was endorsed by the Italian Psychogeriatric Association (AIP) and represents its view about the criteria to select appropriate music and MT approaches in the field of dementia. Accordingly, we have developed a list of recommendations to facilitate the current use of these techniques in the context of non-pharmacological treatments for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suse ePetersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  11. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  12. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337

  13. Genre Complexes in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Daniel; Lee, Monica; Childress, C Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical "complexes," which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured-i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered.

  14. On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwardys, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

  15. Emotion-based Music Rretrieval on a Well-reduced Audio Feature Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Chua, Bee Yong; Nanopoulos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    -emotion. However, the real-time systems that retrieve music over large music databases, can achieve order of magnitude performance increase, if applying multidimensional indexing over a dimensionally reduced audio feature space. To meet this performance achievement, in this paper, extensive studies are conducted......Music expresses emotion. A number of audio extracted features have influence on the perceived emotional expression of music. These audio features generate a high-dimensional space, on which music similarity retrieval can be performed effectively, with respect to human perception of the music...... on a number of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including both classic and novel approaches. The paper clearly envisages which dimensionality reduction techniques on the considered audio feature space, can preserve in average the accuracy of the emotion-based music retrieval....

  16. Quantum information, cognition, and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria L.; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines.possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems.parallelism in music. PMID:26539139

  17. Perceptual basis of evolving Western musical styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Shifres, Favio; Cecchi, Guillermo A

    2013-06-11

    The brain processes temporal statistics to predict future events and to categorize perceptual objects. These statistics, called expectancies, are found in music perception, and they span a variety of different features and time scales. Specifically, there is evidence that music perception involves strong expectancies regarding the distribution of a melodic interval, namely, the distance between two consecutive notes within the context of another. The recent availability of a large Western music dataset, consisting of the historical record condensed as melodic interval counts, has opened new possibilities for data-driven analysis of musical perception. In this context, we present an analytical approach that, based on cognitive theories of music expectation and machine learning techniques, recovers a set of factors that accurately identifies historical trends and stylistic transitions between the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Post-Romantic periods. We also offer a plausible musicological and cognitive interpretation of these factors, allowing us to propose them as data-driven principles of melodic expectation.

  18. Nonlinearities and synchronization in musical acoustics and music psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinearities are a crucial and founding principle in nearly all musical systems, may they be musical instruments, timbre or rhythm perception and production, or neural networks of music perception. This volume gives an overview about present and past research in these fields. In Musical Acoustics, on the one hand the nonlinearities in musical instruments often produce the musically interesting features. On the other, musical instruments are nonlinear by nature, and tone production is the result of synchronization and self-organization within the instruments. Furthermore, as nearly all musical instruments are driven by impulses an Impulse Pattern Formulation (IPF) is suggested, an iterative framework holding for all musical instruments. It appears that this framework is able to reproduce the complex and perceptionally most salient initial transients of musical instruments. In Music Psychology, nonlinearities are present in all areas of musical features, like pitch, timbre, or rhythm perception. In terms of r...

  19. Multicultural Choral Music Pedagogy Based on the Facets Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo

    2017-01-01

    Multicultural choral music has distinct characteristics in that indigenous folk elements are frequently incorporated into a Western European tonal system. Because of this, multicultural choral music is often taught using Western styles (e.g., "bel canto") rather than through traditional singing techniques from their cultures of origin.…

  20. Music, Mechanism, and the "Sonic Turn" in Physical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The sonic diagnostic techniques of percussion and mediate auscultation advocated by Leopold von Auenbrugger and R. T. H. Laennec developed within larger musical contexts of practice, notation, and epistemology. Earlier, François-Nicolas Marquet proposed a musical notation of pulse that connected felt pulsation with heard music. Though contemporary vitalists rejected Marquet's work, mechanists such as Albrecht von Haller included it into the larger discourse about the physiological manifestations of bodily fluids and fibers. Educated in that mechanistic physiology, Auenbrugger used musical vocabulary to present his work on thoracic percussion; Laennec's musical experience shaped his exploration of the new timbres involved in mediate auscultation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  2. Real-Time Analysis of Beats in Music for Entertainment Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Der Lin; Ting-Tsao Wu; Yu-Ren Chen; Yen-Ting Lin; Wen-Hsiu Chen; Shih-Fan Wang; Jinghom Chakhap

    2012-01-01

    The dancing actions for entertainment robots are usually designed in advance and saved in a database according to the beats and rhythm of the given music. This research is devoted to developing a real-time algorithm that can detect the primary information of the music needed for the actions of entertainment robots. The computation of the proposed algorithm is very efficient and can satisfy the requirement of real-time processing by a digital signal controller. The digitized music signal is fi...

  3. Development of computer-aided auto-ranging technique for a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Shimura, K.; Nakajima, N.; Kato, H.

    1988-01-01

    For a computed radiography system, the authors developed a computer-aided autoranging technique in which the clinically useful image data are automatically mapped to the available display range. The preread image data are inspected to determine the location of collimation. A histogram of the pixels inside the collimation is evaluated regarding characteristic values such as maxima and minima, and then the optimal density and contrast are derived for the display image. The effect of the autoranging technique was investigated at several hospitals in Japan. The average rate of films lost due to undesirable density or contrast was about 0.5%

  4. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic sy...

  5. Practical techniques for pediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, C.R.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Kirks, D.R.; Kaufman, R.A.; Berger, P.E.; Kuhn, J.P.; Siegel, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Dr. Donald Kirks has assembled this section on Practical Techniques for Pediatric Computed Tomography. The material is based on a presentation in the Special Interest session at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Society for Pediatric Radiology in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA in 1982. Meticulous attention to detail and technique is required to ensure an optimal CT examination. CT techniques specifically applicable to infants and children have not been disseminated in the radiology literature and in this respect it may rightly be observed that ''the child is not a small adult''. What follows is a ''cookbook'' prepared by seven participants and it is printed in Pediatric Radiology, in outline form, as a statement of individual preferences for pediatric CT techniques. This outline gives concise explanation of techniques and permits prompt dissemination of information. (orig.)

  6. Play along: effects of music and social interaction on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Learning new words is an increasingly common necessity in everyday life. External factors, among which music and social interaction are particularly debated, are claimed to facilitate this task. Due to their influence on the learner's temporal behavior, these stimuli are able to drive the learner's attention to the correct referent of new words at the correct point in time. However, do music and social interaction impact learning behavior in the same way? The current study aims to answer this question. Native German speakers (N = 80) were requested to learn new words (pseudo-words) during a contextual learning game. This learning task was performed alone with a computer or with a partner, with or without music. Results showed that music and social interaction had a different impact on the learner's behavior: Participants tended to temporally coordinate their behavior more with a partner than with music, and in both cases more than with a computer. However, when both music and social interaction were present, this temporal coordination was hindered. These results suggest that while music and social interaction do influence participants' learning behavior, they have a different impact. Moreover, impaired behavior when both music and a partner are present suggests that different mechanisms are employed to coordinate with the two types of stimuli. Whether one or the other approach is more efficient for word learning, however, is a question still requiring further investigation, as no differences were observed between conditions in a retrieval phase, which took place immediately after the learning session. This study contributes to the literature on word learning in adults by investigating two possible facilitating factors, and has important implications for situations such as music therapy, in which music and social interaction are present at the same time.

  7. Play along: Effects of music and social interaction on word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVerga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning new words is an increasingly common necessity in everyday life. External factors, among which music and social interaction are particularly debated, are claimed to facilitate this task. Due to their influence on the learner’s temporal behavior, these stimuli are able to drive the learner's attention to the correct referent of new words at the correct point in time. However, do music and social interaction impact learning behavior in the same way? The current study aims to answer this question. Native German speakers (N = 80 were requested to learn new words (pseudo-words during a contextual learning game. This learning task was performed alone with a computer or with a partner, with or without music. Results showed that music and social interaction had a different impact on the learner’s behavior: Participants tended to temporally coordinate their behavior more with a partner than with music, and in both cases more than with a computer. However, when both music and social interaction were present, this temporal coordination was hindered. These results suggest that while music and social interaction do influence participants’ learning behavior, they have a different impact. Moreover, impaired behavior when both music and a partner are present suggests that different mechanisms are employed to coordinate with the two types of stimuli. Whether one or the other approach is more efficient for word learning, however, is a question still requiring further investigation, as no differences were observed between conditions in a retrieval phase which took place immediately after the learning session. This study contributes to the literature on word learning in adults by investigating two possible facilitating factors, and has important implications for situations such as music therapy, in which music and social interaction are present at the same time.

  8. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  9. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. E-Learning Software for Improving Student's Music Performance Using Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M.; Fajardo, W.; Molina-Solana, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades there have been several attempts to use computers in Music Education. New pedagogical trends encourage incorporating technology tools in the process of learning music. Between them, those systems based on Artificial Intelligence are the most promising ones, as they can derive new information from the inputs and visualize them…

  11. Understanding music’s therapeutic efficacy: Implications for music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Thram

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of electronic domination of human experience, be it via cell phone and/or computer addiction, or the ubiquitous television, actual participation in music- making is less and less common for the average person, child or adult. Passive participation through listening is most often cited by people as their major experience with music in their lives. When asked if listening has therapeutic effects, it is rare for anyone to respond in the negative. Likewise, for performers/active participants in music- making, be it solitary or as part of a group, invariably an enhanced sense of well-being from the act of making music is reported. This paper addresses therapeutic aspects of musical participation (singing, clapping, playing an instrument, dancing, listening by providing a historical overview (12th c to present of attitudes toward music’s therapeutic effects. It argues that music exists through the interaction of our biological capacity to make music with our cultural circumstances. How individuals benefit in all aspects their being – physical, mental and emotional – from engaging in the act of making music is illustrated with examples from field research in southern Africa. Finally implications for Music Education are explored which emphasize how more comprehensive integration of music into the curriculum can serve as an antidote to the increasing isolation and alienation of modern life.

  12. It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got Musicality: A Music-First Method for Teaching Historically Rooted Jazz Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Erinn

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for teaching jazz dance technique according to music concepts and prioritizing deep embodiment of music. This method addresses what can be seen as a disconnect between current practices and historical understanding in jazz dance today, a gap that can be bridged with education empowering students to make innovative…

  13. Analyzing Music Services Positioning Through Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuadrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have produced new ways of distributing and consuming music, mainly by youth, in relation to both goods and services. In the case of goods, there has been a dramatic shift from traditional ways of buying and listening to music to new digital platforms. There has also been an evolution in relation to music services. In this sense, live music concerts have been losing their audiences over the past few years, as have music radio stations, in favor of streaming platforms. Curious about this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory research in order to analyze how all these services, both traditional and new ones were perceived. Specifically, we aimed to study youth´s assessment of the three most relevant music service categories: music radio stations, digital streaming platforms, and pop-rock music festivals. To do so, we used the projective technique of image association to gather information. The population of the study consisted of individuals between 18 and 25 years of age. Our results, after using content analysis, were poor due to spontaneous recall. Therefore, we duplicated the study, but in a more focus-oriented way. Information gathered this time allowed us not only to better know how all these organizations are positioned but also to obtain a list of descriptors to be used in a subsequent descriptive research study.

  14. [Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H-J

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that music not only may improve quality of life (QoL) but also have different effects on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases. A greater modulation of HR, HRV and modulations in cardiac autonomic nerve activity was revealed with a greater effect for music performance than music perception. Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make preoperative relaxing music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery. Music intervention should be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to the patients that have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in under conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine. However, careful selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most benefit on health is visible in classic music, meditation music whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are even ineffective or dangerous and will lead to stress and/or life threatening arrhythmias. There are many composers most

  15. Comparative Analysis Between Computed and Conventional Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Gabriela Madeira; Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; Dias, Tasiana Guedes de Souza; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Vasconcellos, Ricardo José de Holanda; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to compare the computed and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in symmetrically positioned inferior third molars. Both computed and conventional anesthetic techniques were performed in 29 healthy patients (58 surgeries) aged between 18 and 40 years. The anesthetic of choice was 2% lidocaine with 1: 200,000 epinephrine. The Visual Analogue Scale assessed the pain variable after anesthetic infiltration. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the Likert Scale. Heart and respiratory rates, mean time to perform technique, and the need for additional anesthesia were also evaluated. Pain variable means were higher for the conventional technique as compared with computed, 3.45 ± 2.73 and 2.86 ± 1.96, respectively, but no statistically significant differences were found (P > 0.05). Patient satisfaction showed no statistically significant differences. The average computed technique runtime and the conventional were 3.85 and 1.61 minutes, respectively, showing statistically significant differences (P <0.001). The computed anesthetic technique showed lower mean pain perception, but did not show statistically significant differences when contrasted to the conventional technique.

  16. Music critic Gustav Michel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar N.

    2004-01-01

    oppose the National Theatre administrations when they decided to add operettas to its repertoire. Here he also differs from expert critics, for example Miloje Milojević or Petar Krstić - who led a real crusade against operetta. Michel paid scrupulous attention to correct diction, as an important part of the vocal technique. As a critic, Gustav Michel was inclined to relatively modern music. He was not strict in his judgments of Serbian performers’ and composers’ achievements; he always took account of very difficult conditions under which the Serbian people, after many centuries of the Turkish occupation, started its cultural and musical emancipation in the 19th century. (He was especially considerate towards novice musicians However his critical assessment of the genre status of the overture to the first Serbian opera, "Na uranku" ("At Dawn" by Stanislav Binički, revealed an incisive critic. The weak side of his critic lies in too general language not exact enough for characteristics of musical interpretations. However Gustav Michel was a witty and ironic writer, and his few articles marked the beginning of an expert and modern music critic in Serbia.

  17. Application of computer technique in SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Deming

    2001-01-01

    A series of applications of computer technique in SMCAMS physics design and magnetic field measurement is described, including digital calculation of electric-magnetic field, beam dynamics, calculation of beam injection and extraction, and mapping and shaping of the magnetic field

  18. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  19. Using music as a therapy tool to motivate troubled adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Alexander W

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with emotional disorders may often be characterized by having problems in peer and adult relations and in display of inappropriate behaviours. These include suicide attempts, anger, withdrawal from family, social isolation from peers, aggression, school failure, running away, and alcohol and/or drug abuse. A lack of self-concept and self-esteem is often central to these difficulties. Traditional treatment methods with young people usually includes cognitive- behavioural approaches with psychotherapy. Unfortunately these children often lack a solid communication base, creating a block to successful treatment. In my private clinical practice, I have endeavoured to break through these communication barriers by using music as a therapy tool. This paper describes and discusses my use of music as a therapy tool with troubled adolescents. Pre- and post-testing of the effectiveness of this intervention technique by using the Psychosocial Functioning Inventory for Primary School Children (PFI-PSC) has yielded positive initial results, lending support to its continued use. Music has often been successful in helping these adolescents engage in the therapeutic process with minimised resistance as they relate to the music and the therapist becomes a safe and trusted adult. Various techniques such as song discussion, listening, writing lyrics, composing music, and performing music.

  20. Music in our ears: the biological bases of musical timbre perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Patil

    Full Text Available Timbre is the attribute of sound that allows humans and other animals to distinguish among different sound sources. Studies based on psychophysical judgments of musical timbre, ecological analyses of sound's physical characteristics as well as machine learning approaches have all suggested that timbre is a multifaceted attribute that invokes both spectral and temporal sound features. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of musical timbre. We used a neuro-computational framework based on spectro-temporal receptive fields, recorded from over a thousand neurons in the mammalian primary auditory cortex as well as from simulated cortical neurons, augmented with a nonlinear classifier. The model was able to perform robust instrument classification irrespective of pitch and playing style, with an accuracy of 98.7%. Using the same front end, the model was also able to reproduce perceptual distance judgments between timbres as perceived by human listeners. The study demonstrates that joint spectro-temporal features, such as those observed in the mammalian primary auditory cortex, are critical to provide the rich-enough representation necessary to account for perceptual judgments of timbre by human listeners, as well as recognition of musical instruments.

  1. Music and natural sounds in an auditory steady-state response based brain-computer interface to increase user acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeong; Baek, Hyun Jae; Hong, Seunghyeok; Chang, Min Hye; Lee, Jeong Su; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-05-01

    Patients with total locked-in syndrome are conscious; however, they cannot express themselves because most of their voluntary muscles are paralyzed, and many of these patients have lost their eyesight. To improve the quality of life of these patients, there is an increasing need for communication-supporting technologies that leverage the remaining senses of the patient along with physiological signals. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an electro-physiologic response to auditory stimulation that is amplitude-modulated by a specific frequency. By leveraging the phenomenon whereby ASSR is modulated by mind concentration, a brain-computer interface paradigm was proposed to classify the selective attention of the patient. In this paper, we propose an auditory stimulation method to minimize auditory stress by replacing the monotone carrier with familiar music and natural sounds for an ergonomic system. Piano and violin instrumentals were employed in the music sessions; the sounds of water streaming and cicadas singing were used in the natural sound sessions. Six healthy subjects participated in the experiment. Electroencephalograms were recorded using four electrodes (Cz, Oz, T7 and T8). Seven sessions were performed using different stimuli. The spectral power at 38 and 42Hz and their ratio for each electrode were extracted as features. Linear discriminant analysis was utilized to classify the selections for each subject. In offline analysis, the average classification accuracies with a modulation index of 1.0 were 89.67% and 87.67% using music and natural sounds, respectively. In online experiments, the average classification accuracies were 88.3% and 80.0% using music and natural sounds, respectively. Using the proposed method, we obtained significantly higher user-acceptance scores, while maintaining a high average classification accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CONCEPT OF MUSIC AND LISTENED SOME GENRES OF MUSIC IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Eda Angi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the definition and development of music and music’s types from the first period to the present day is analysed briefly. According to the research, the music types which will be searched, are arabesque music, blues music/jazz music, hiphop/rap music, classical music, pop music, rock/metal music, sufi music, Turkish folk music, Turkish art music. The research is a descriptive workout due to its purpose and method used. This research is important by means of being a source for the researchers and explaining various music types.

  3. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural) reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses...

  4. Discovering the Theorist in Tupac: How to Engage Your Students with Popular Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenning, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces creative pedagogical techniques for exploring theory in the undergraduate classroom. Using criminal justice and criminological theories as a primary example, it describes a technique that professors from any theory-driven discipline can use to engage students through popular music, from hip-hop to musical theater in order to…

  5. Music and the Mind: Music's Healing Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroilyn S. Ticker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Music makes you smarter: or at least that is what the "experts" are saying. CDs are sold of Mozart's Sonatas for babies, and parents are urged to give their children music lessons in the belief that music does something to our brains which in turn makes us more intelligent. But is this really true? Does music really affect the brain in the powerful way that scientists are suggesting, or is it hearsay? In this paper I investigate the effects of music on our brain's plasticity and cognition by looking at several different experimental studies. Specifically I will address how music affects brain plasticity, emotion, physical health and linguistic processing, and how these effects in turn make music a beneficial tool for therapy, particularly in patients with Traumatic-Brain Injury (TBI and Autism-Spectrum Disorder.

  6. Investigating country-specific music preferences and music recommendation algorithms with the LFM-1b dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the LFM-1b dataset has been proposed to foster research and evaluation in music retrieval and music recommender systems, Schedl (Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR). New York, 2016). It contains more than one billion music listening events created by more than 120,000 users of Last.fm. Each listening event is characterized by artist, album, and track name, and further includes a timestamp. Basic demographic information and a selection of more elaborate listener-specific descriptors are included as well, for anonymized users. In this article, we reveal information about LFM-1b's acquisition and content and we compare it to existing datasets. We furthermore provide an extensive statistical analysis of the dataset, including basic properties of the item sets, demographic coverage, distribution of listening events (e.g., over artists and users), and aspects related to music preference and consumption behavior (e.g., temporal features and mainstreaminess of listeners). Exploiting country information of users and genre tags of artists, we also create taste profiles for populations and determine similar and dissimilar countries in terms of their populations' music preferences. Finally, we illustrate the dataset's usage in a simple artist recommendation task, whose results are intended to serve as baseline against which more elaborate techniques can be assessed.

  7. Quantum information, cognition and music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eDalla Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions:1 a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines;2 possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems;3 parallelism in music.

  8. LISTENING TO MUSIC AND MUSIC PREFERENCES IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Ina Reić; Dobrota, Snježana; Surić, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the life of adolescents. Dealing with music represents a very important free-time activity during adolescence, while by listening to music or performing music adolescents can satisfy a range of needs, both personal and those of social nature. Therefore, this paper presents the results of research on musical taste and listening to music habits in early adolescence. We hypothesized that students generally like listening to music and that they mostly prefer do...

  9. CONCEPT OF MUSIC AND LISTENED SOME GENRES OF MUSIC IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Cigdem Eda Angi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the definition and development of music and music’s types from the first period to the present day is analysed briefly. According to the research, the music types which will be searched, are arabesque music, blues music/jazz music, hiphop/rap music, classical music, pop music, rock/metal music, sufi music, Turkish folk music, Turkish art music. The research is a descriptive workout due to its purpose and method used. This research is important by means of being a source for ...

  10. From the Functions of Music to Music Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…

  11. Application of computer technique in the reconstruction of Chinese ancient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deren; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yixuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction of computer assemble and simulation of ancient building. A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators of surveying and mapping describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs with computers. But users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of these buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with computer. This can be implemented by computer simulation technique. This technique display the raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combining technologies from computer graphics and image processing, multi-media technology, artificial intelligence, highly parallel real-time computation technique and human behavior science. This paper presents the implement procedure of simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembly of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment. The results of computer simulation are also shown in the paper.

  12. Genre Complexes in Popular Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, C. Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical “complexes,” which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured—i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered. PMID:27203852

  13. Music and the brain: the neuroscience of music and musical appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Michael; Hesdorffer, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Through music we can learn much about our human origins and the human brain. Music is a potential method of therapy and a means of accessing and stimulating specific cerebral circuits. There is also an association between musical creativity and psychopathology. This paper provides a brief review.

  14. TABLET (MOBILE TECHNOLOGY FOR PROFESSIONAL MUSIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova Irina B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights issues associated with the introduction of cloud-centric and tablet (mobile devices in music education, use of which confronts the teacher-musician fundamentally new challenges. So, it's a development of practical teaching skills with the assistance of modern technology, a search of approaches to the organization of educational process, a creation of conditions for the continuity between traditional music learning and information technologies in educational process. Authors give the characteristics of cloud computing and the perspective of its use in music schools (distance learning, sharing, cloud services, etc.. Also you can see in this article the overview of some mobile applications (for OS Android and iOS and their use in the educational process.

  15. Detection of independent functional networks during music listening using electroencephalogram and sLORETA-ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-04-13

    The measurement of brain activation during music listening is a topic that is attracting increased attention from many researchers. Because of their high spatial accuracy, functional MRI measurements are often used for measuring brain activation in the context of music listening. However, this technique faces the issues of contaminating scanner noise and an uncomfortable experimental environment. Electroencephalogram (EEG), however, is a neural registration technique that allows the measurement of neurophysiological activation in silent and more comfortable experimental environments. Thus, it is optimal for recording brain activations during pleasant music stimulation. Using a new mathematical approach to calculate intracortical independent components (sLORETA-IC) on the basis of scalp-recorded EEG, we identified specific intracortical independent components during listening of a musical piece and scales, which differ substantially from intracortical independent components calculated from the resting state EEG. Most intracortical independent components are located bilaterally in perisylvian brain areas known to be involved in auditory processing and specifically in music perception. Some intracortical independent components differ between the music and scale listening conditions. The most prominent difference is found in the anterior part of the perisylvian brain region, with stronger activations seen in the left-sided anterior perisylvian regions during music listening, most likely indicating semantic processing during music listening. A further finding is that the intracortical independent components obtained for the music and scale listening are most prominent in higher frequency bands (e.g. beta-2 and beta-3), whereas the resting state intracortical independent components are active in lower frequency bands (alpha-1 and theta). This new technique for calculating intracortical independent components is able to differentiate independent neural networks associated

  16. A comparative phylogenetic study of genetics and folk music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.

  17. Music or Musics? An Important Matter at Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers of music education presently find themselves suspended between modernism's universalist convictions and post-modernism's cultural relativist insights. In "Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education" (1995), David Elliott challenged longstanding conceptions of "music education as aesthetic education" to…

  18. Influence of musical expertise and musical training on pitch processing in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Mireille; Schön, Daniele; Moreno, Sylvain; Santos, Andréia; Magne, Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    We review a series of experiments aimed at studying pitch processing in music and speech. These studies were conducted with musician and non musician adults and children. We found that musical expertise improved pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Demonstrating transfer of training between music and language has interesting applications for second language learning. We also addressed the issue of whether the positive effects of musical expertise are linked with specific predispositions for music or with extensive musical practice. Results of longitudinal studies argue for the later. Finally, we also examined pitch processing in dyslexic children and found that they had difficulties discriminating strong pitch changes that are easily discriminate by normal readers. These results argue for a strong link between basic auditory perception abilities and reading abilities. We used conjointly the behavioral method (Reaction Times and error rates) and the electrophysiological method (recording of the changes in brain electrical activity time-locked to stimulus presentation, Event-Related brain Potentials or ERPs). A set of common processes may be responsible for pitch processing in music and in speech and these processes are shaped by musical practice. These data add evidence in favor of brain plasticity and open interesting perspectives for the remediation of dyslexia using musical training.

  19. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  20. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  1. Developing Communication with the Autistic Child Through Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxill, Edith Hillman

    The author's use of music therapy is illustrated in her account of therapy sessions with two autistic children. Music is seen to be particularly useful with the autistic child because it can make use of the child's rhythmic stereotypical actions to increase the child's self awareness. Techniques such as reflection (mimicking, through song and…

  2. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  3. Modeling emotional content of music using system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Mark D; Clausi, David A; Jernigan, M Ed

    2006-06-01

    Research was conducted to develop a methodology to model the emotional content of music as a function of time and musical features. Emotion is quantified using the dimensions valence and arousal, and system-identification techniques are used to create the models. Results demonstrate that system identification provides a means to generalize the emotional content for a genre of music. The average R2 statistic of a valid linear model structure is 21.9% for valence and 78.4% for arousal. The proposed method of constructing models of emotional content generalizes previous time-series models and removes ambiguity from classifiers of emotion.

  4. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 21% of music therapists report working in the mental health field, more so than another other specific client population category (AMTA, 2005). The purpose of this study was to descriptively evaluate psychiatric music therapists and their institutions, philosophies, interventions, and clinical objectives. A survey was designed and posted online or mailed to music therapists who did not have email addresses in the 2005 Member Sourcebook (AMTA, 2005). A total of 176 psychiatric music therapists completed various parts of the survey for an overall response rate of 42.9%. Respondents reported working a mean of 11.3 years in the psychiatric setting, being Board-Certified Music Therapists for 13.3 years, and working at their institution for 8.4 years. Most respondents (90.6%) indicated they did not have a music therapist as a supervisor. Group music therapy was the dominant modality in psychiatric institutions for music therapists. Respondents indicated they read music therapy journals (80%) and other types of psychiatric periodicals (57.1%), presented educational sessions at conferences (44.6%), conducted in-services for hospital staff (64.8%), worked with an interdisciplinary treatment team (77.9%), and trained practica students (43.5%) and interns (37.4%). Respondents also indicated that although most were not bilingual (85.7%), they still worked with non-English speaking consumers (58.2%). Participants noted that they enjoyed working with the psychiatric population and felt they had a positive influence on treatment as indicated by Likert-type scales. Respondents reported using primarily behavioral or psychodynamic approaches but considered their primary psychological philosophy as eclectic. Participants predominantly indicated they addressed goal areas such as socialization, communication, self-esteem, coping skills, and stress reduction/management. Participants noted they employed a variety of music therapy techniques such as music assisted relaxation

  5. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilde, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  6. Musical style of reception – a musical interpretant – musical form in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with reception strategies where interdisciplinary competencies are connected to musical expectations towards a text, which – i.a. because of metatextual suggestions – needs a musical explanation – “musical supplement”. The objective of the article is the musical and literary dialog, which belongs to intermediality (definition by W. Wolf, and intertextuality in the large sense as well. Although the penetration of musical and literary correspondence does not threaten “scientist hysteria”, it also does not promise fruitful strategies and satisfactory conclusions. The paper includes terminological proposals which are an attempt at universal, semiotic transposition into musical and literary borderland, which in the practice of interpretation has too eclectic, and mostly one-time solutions.

  7. The musical identities of Danish music therapy students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    In the music therapy masters program at Aalborg University (Denmark) Music and Identity is a short, intensive course, based on a musical autobiography written by each participating student. Since 1999 almost 100 students have written a narrative of their musical life story. This article will focus...... on contributions from students participating from 2010-12 (n=21). Musical autobiographies have been analyzed (a) using the theoretical model of Even Ruud (1997, 1998), (b) as thematic analysis (Braun & Clark 2006), (c) using RepGrid, a qualitative research methodology based on George Kelly’s Personal Construct...... Theory (Abrams & Meadows 2005). Patterns of identity construction are presented, and the roles and functions of music in different stages of life discussed, including the self-reported influence of music on the students' health....

  8. Markov source model for printed music decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Gary E.; Chou, Philip A.; Maltz, David A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a Markov source model for a simple subset of printed music notation. The model is based on the Adobe Sonata music symbol set and a message language of our own design. Chord imaging is the most complex part of the model. Much of the complexity follows from a rule of music typography that requires the noteheads for adjacent pitches to be placed on opposite sides of the chord stem. This rule leads to a proliferation of cases for other typographic details such as dot placement. We describe the language of message strings accepted by the model and discuss some of the imaging issues associated with various aspects of the message language. We also point out some aspects of music notation that appear problematic for a finite-state representation. Development of the model was greatly facilitated by the duality between image synthesis and image decoding. Although our ultimate objective was a music image model for use in decoding, most of the development proceeded by using the evolving model for image synthesis, since it is computationally far less costly to image a message than to decode an image.

  9. Music Consumption and Publishing in Todays Music Industry : Music publishing for an independent record label

    OpenAIRE

    Pienimäki, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    For the last two decades the changes in music technology and music consumption have affected music publishing as well as its viability. Much due to music digitalization and the overall decline in physical sales, the music industry has been forced to re-evaluate the means of publishing. The topic of the thesis is of current interest since the music industry is still in the state of change and new research is important. The thesis was assigned by an independent record label called Meiän Mu...

  10. Caractérisation de l'environnement musical dans les documents audiovisuels

    OpenAIRE

    Lachambre , Hélène

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the amount of music available, notably via the Internet, is growing daily. The collections are too huge for a user to navigate into without help from a computer. Our work takes place in the general context of music indexation. In order to detail the context of our work, we present a brief overview of the work currently made in music indexation for indexation : instrument recognition, tonality and tempo estimation, genre and mood classification, singer identification, melody, score, c...

  11. Music and language: musical alexia and agraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J C

    1980-06-01

    Two aphasic right-handed professional musicians with left hemispheric lesions had disturbed musical function, especially musical alexia and agraphia. In Case 1 aphasia was of transcortical sensory type, with severe agraphia and decreased comprehension of written words, although she could match them with pictures. Except for reading and writing, musical ability was normal; she could sing in five languages. Musical alexia and agraphia affected pitch symbols more than rhythm. Case 2 had conduction aphasia and severe expressive amusia, especially for rhythm. Although his language alexia and agraphia were milder than Case 1's, his musical alexia and agraphia were more severe, affecting rhythm as much as pitch. In neither patient were those aspects of musical notation either closest to verbal language or most dependent upon temporal (sequential) processing maximally impaired. These cases are consistent with the literature in suggesting that the presence or absence of aphasia or of right or left hemispheric damage fails to predict the presence, type, or severity of amusia, including musical alexia and agraphia. The popular notion that receptive amusia follows lesions of the language-dominant temporal lobe, whereas expressive amusia follows non-dominant frontal lobe damage, is an over-simplification, as is the view that increasing musical sophistication causes a shift of musical processing from the right hemisphere to the left.

  12. Music Therapy as Psychotherapy in Psychiatry at all Levels of the GAF Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    Presentation and disussion on how to apply different music therapy methods and techniques in psychiatry at different levels of the GAF (Global Functioning Scoring system) scale described in combination with McGlashan's relational process levels and other therapeutic principles as illustrated in 5...... books on 'relational treatment in psychiatry' by Lars Thorgaard (DK) and Ejvind Haga (N). Is music therapy as psychotherapy applicable also at the lower GAF scorings? Which methods/techniques?......Presentation and disussion on how to apply different music therapy methods and techniques in psychiatry at different levels of the GAF (Global Functioning Scoring system) scale described in combination with McGlashan's relational process levels and other therapeutic principles as illustrated in 5...

  13. Library Resources in Special Areas of Music: Film Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. Stephen

    Intended as an orientation for music librarians unfamiliar with the film music field, this presentation addresses the most common film music questions received from library patrons, including queries about composers, soundtrack albums, the subject of the music, and scores, and describes the basic film music reference sources to consult for…

  14. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  15. Music preference in degus (Octodon degus: Analysis with Chilean folk music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most nonhuman animals do not show selective preference for types of music, but researchers have typically employed only Western classical music in such studies. Thus, there has been bias in music choice. Degus (Octodon degus, originally from the mountain areas of Chile, have highly developed vocal communication. Here, we examined music preference of degus using not only Western classical music (music composed by Bach and Stravinsky, but also South American folk music (Chilean and Peruvian. The degus preferred the South American music to the Western classical music but did not show selective preference between the two Western classical music choices. Furthermore, the degus preferred the Chilean to the Peruvian music to some extent. In the second experiment, we examined preference for music vs. silence. Degus overall showed a preference for Chilean music over silence, but preferred silence over Western music. The present results indicate that the previous negative data for musical preference in nonhuman animals may be due to biased music selection (Krause, 2012. Our results suggest the possibility that the soundscape of an environment influences folk music created by native peoples living there and the auditory preference of other resident animals there.

  16. The Effect of Dynamic Acoustical Features on Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajda, John M.

    Timbre has been an important concept for scientific exploration of music at least since the time of Helmholtz ([1877] 1954). Since Helmholtz's time, a number of studies have defined and investigated acoustical features of musical instrument tones to determine their perceptual importance, or salience (e.g., Grey, 1975, 1977; Kendall, 1986; Kendall et al., 1999; Luce and Clark, 1965; McAdams et al., 1995, 1999; Saldanha and Corso, 1964; Wedin and Goude, 1972). Most of these studies have considered only nonpercussive, or continuant, tones of Western orchestral instruments (or emulations thereof). In the past few years, advances in computing power and programming have made possible and affordable the definition and control of new acoustical variables. This chapter gives an overview of past and current research, with a special emphasis on the time-variant aspects of musical timbre. According to common observation, "music is made of tones in time" (Spaeth, 1933). We will also consider the fact that music is made of "time in tones."

  17. Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…

  18. Musical Preference and Music Education: Musical Preferences of Turkish University Students and Their Levels in Genre Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, Elif Tekin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is any relationship between musical preference, genre identification and frequency of listening to music genres, and whether musical training and gender played a role in these factors. A total of 205 college music and non-music majors recorded their preference for 13 music excerpts in popular,…

  19. THE COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES FOR PREDICTIONS - ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Violeta Bar

    2014-01-01

    The computational intelligence techniques are used in problems which can not be solved by traditional techniques when there is insufficient data to develop a model problem or when they have errors.Computational intelligence, as he called Bezdek (Bezdek, 1992) aims at modeling of biological intelligence. Artificial Neural Networks( ANNs) have been applied to an increasing number of real world problems of considerable complexity. Their most important advantage is solving problems that are too c...

  20. Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Misje, René

    2013-01-01

    Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents. This qualitative study explores the usefulness of music technology in music therapeutic practice with youth and adolescents. Four music therapist`s reflections on their use of music technologies and on the possibilities, potential and problems of this use are explored through semi-structured intervi...

  1. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore

  3. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses of examples taken from the opus of Serbian film composer Zoran Simjanović.

  4. Becoming Music-Making Music Teachers: Connecting Music Making, Identity, Wellbeing, and Teaching for Four Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to examine the developing music teacher identity of four student music teachers by exploring the meanings of music making and the intersections of music making and teaching. Participants all had dual student teaching placements: elementary general music and secondary band. Data were generated through…

  5. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore these, we investigated the influence of music characteristics on 32 participants who listened to 16 songs, testing effects of tempo (slow/high), mode (minor/major), and percussiveness (low/high). Subjec...

  6. Music publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  7. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  8. New computing techniques in physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becks, Karl-Heinz; Perret-Gallix, Denis

    1994-01-01

    New techniques were highlighted by the ''Third International Workshop on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems for High Energy and Nuclear Physics'' in Oberammergau, Bavaria, Germany, from October 4 to 8. It was the third workshop in the series; the first was held in Lyon in 1990 and the second at France-Telecom site near La Londe les Maures in 1992. This series of workshops covers a broad spectrum of problems. New, highly sophisticated experiments demand new techniques in computing, in hardware as well as in software. Software Engineering Techniques could in principle satisfy the needs for forthcoming accelerator experiments. The growing complexity of detector systems demands new techniques in experimental error diagnosis and repair suggestions; Expert Systems seem to offer a way of assisting the experimental crew during data-taking

  9. Control and Chance in Music and Art a Survey of Philosophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a survey and review of several writings on the philosophies and compositional techniques involving control and chance in the creation of modern art and music. The purpose of discussing and comparing these writings is to trace different understandings, reactions, and interpretations of these philosophies in order to offer a more informed perspective on these oft misunderstood techniques. The first article analyzed is Robert Charles Clark’s “Total Control and Chance in Musics: A Philosophical Analysis,” which discusses fundamental issues regarding both total control and chance music. The second article, Stephanie Ross’ “Chance, Constraint, and Creativity: The Awfulness of Modern Music,” presents some of the adverse reactions to these methods of composition. The third and fourth articles, Roland Barthes’ “The Death of the Author” and “From Work to Text,” offer a broader philosophical viewpoint on the different roles of the author and their product when creating art. The final article, Jeongwon Joe and S. Hoon Song’s “Roland Barthes’ ‘Text’ and Aleatoric Music: Is the ‘Birth of the Reader’ the Birth of the Listener?” concludes this survey by tying Barthes’ concepts back to music.

  10. Benefits of Music Training in Mandarin-Speaking Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…

  11. Ecoacoustic Music for Geoscience: Sonic Physiographies and Sound Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The author describes specific ecoacoustic applications in his original compositions, Sonic Physiography of a Time-Stretched Glacier (2015), Catalog of Roughness (2017), Sound Cast of Matanuska Glacier (2016) and Ecoacoustic Concerto (Eagle Rock) (2014). Ecoacoustic music uses technology to map systems from nature into music through techniques such as sonification, material amplification, and field recording. The author aspires for this music to be descriptive of the data (as one would expect from a visualization) and also to function as engaging and expressive music/sound art on its own. In this way, ecoacoustic music might provide a fitting accompaniment to a scientific presentation (such as music for a science video) while also offering an exemplary concert hall presentation for a dedicated listening public. The music can at once support the communication of scientific research, and help science make inroads into culture. The author discusses how music created using the data, sounds and methods derived from earth science can recast this research into a sonic art modality. Such music can amplify the communication and dissemination of scientific knowledge by broadening the diversity of methods and formats we use to bring excellent scientific research to the public. Music can also open the public's imagination to science, inspiring curiosity and emotional resonance. Hearing geoscience as music may help a non-scientist access scientific knowledge in new ways, and it can greatly expand the types of venues in which this work can appear. Anywhere music is played - concert halls, festivals, galleries, radio, etc - become a venue for scientific discovery.

  12. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L.; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool, 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as “low” or “middle” had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as “high” were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978

  13. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2015-05-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music.

  14. Analysing Music with Point-Set Compression Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    Several point-set pattern-discovery and compression algorithms designed for analysing music are reviewed and evaluated. Each algorithm takes as input a point-set representation of a score in which each note is represented as a point in pitch-time space. Each algorithm computes the maximal...... and sections in pieces of classical music. On the first task, the best-performing algorithms achieved success rates of around 84%. In the second task, the best algorithms achieved mean F1 scores of around 0.49, with scores for individual pieces rising as high as 0.71....

  15. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D; Shivers, Carolyn M; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia.

  16. The Music Industry Council Guide for Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The Music Industry Council serves as a liaison between the music educators of the United States and the manufacturing and publishing firms that supply the materials and equipment used in music education. Here are specific suggestions for the guidance of music educators in the business contacts essential to their teaching programs. (Editor/RK)

  17. Music and Music Education: Theory and Praxis for "Making a Difference"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    The "music appreciation as contemplation" paradigm of traditional aesthetics and music education assumes that music exists to be contemplated for itself. The resulting distantiation of music and music education from life creates a legitimation crisis for music education. Failing to make a noteworthy musical difference for society, a politics of…

  18. FTRA 4th International Conference on Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Adeli, Hojjat; Park, Namje; Woungang, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    MUSIC 2013 will be the most comprehensive text focused on the various aspects of Mobile, Ubiquitous and Intelligent computing. MUSIC 2013 provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of intelligent technologies in mobile and ubiquitous computing environment. MUSIC 2013 is the next edition of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing (MUSIC-12, Vancouver, Canada, 2012) which was the next event in a series of highly successful International Workshop on Multimedia, Communication and Convergence technologies MCC-11 (Crete, Greece, June 2011), MCC-10 (Cebu, Philippines, August 2010).

  19. Music enhances verbal episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisson, Juliette; Roussel-Baclet, Caroline; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine; Ankri, Joël; Narme, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggest that music may facilitate verbal learning in a healthy population, such a mnemonic effect has seldom been investigated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, memorization of texts was generally compared when either sung or spoken. In the present study, it was examined whether the benefit observed on verbal learning was specific to music or whether an associative context binding items together led to similar benefits, regardless of the nature of the association. Twelve patients with mild AD and 15 healthy controls learned texts presented with either a musical (sung) or a nonmusical association (spoken associated to a silent movie sequence) or without association (spoken alone). Immediate and delayed (after a 5-min delay) recall was measured. Main results showed that (a) sung texts were better remembered than spoken texts, both immediately and after a retention delay, for both groups; (b) the musical benefit was robust, being observed in most AD patients; (c) the nonmusical association may also facilitate verbal learning but to a lesser extent. A musical association during the encoding stage facilitates learning and retention in AD. Furthermore, this advantage seemed quite specific to music. The results are discussed with respect to the clinical applications in AD; theoretical implications are highlighted to explain the power of music as a mnemonic technique.

  20. Music, Music Education, and Institutional Ideology: A Praxial Philosophy of Musical Sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Music is a human action (praxis), guided by intentionality, that embodies sociality. The many significant "social" values of music, however, get lost in high-minded but faulty claims that music's essential value is to promote aesthetic experience. A survey of some basic aesthetic premises demonstrates that claims for "proper"…

  1. An Analysis of Music Fan towards Music Streaming Purchase Intention of Thailand's Music Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitnarathorn, Pannawit

    2018-01-01

    Digital music streaming are climbing but overall music revenue is declining with digital music piracy being blamed as the culprit. In a 10 year period from 2003 to 2013, global music sales dropped from $US23.3 to $US15 billion dollars with Thailand's music industry following the trend dropping from $US 304 million in 2010 to $US 279 million in…

  2. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  3. Cosmos in Concert: Combining astronomy and classical music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos in Concert is an outreach initiative designed to combine astronomy education with classical music. Over the past several years, this program has presented large-scale multimedia shows for symphony orchestras, educational programs at K-12 schools, and research-oriented university collaborations designed to develop techniques for the sonification of data. Cosmos in Concert has collaborated with institutions including Fermi National Lab, the Adler Planetarium, the Bienen School of Music, and the Colburn School of Music. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of some of the main Cosmos in Concert initiatives and discuss ways these initiatives may be implemented at other institutions.

  4. Music and the Meeting of Human Minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Harvey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over tens of thousands of years of human genetic and cultural evolution, many types and varieties of music and language have emerged; however, the fundamental components of each of these modes of communication seem to be common to all human cultures and social groups. In this brief review, rather than focusing on the development of different musical techniques and practices over time, the main issues addressed here concern: (i when, and speculations as to why, modern Homo sapiens evolved musical behaviors, (ii the evolutionary relationship between music and language, and (iii why humans, perhaps unique among all living species, universally continue to possess two complementary but distinct communication streams. Did music exist before language, or vice versa, or was there a common precursor that in some way separated into two distinct yet still overlapping systems when cognitively modern H. sapiens evolved? A number of theories put forward to explain the origin and persistent universality of music are considered, but emphasis is given, supported by recent neuroimaging, physiological, and psychological findings, to the role that music can play in promoting trust, altruistic behavior, social bonding, and cooperation within groups of culturally compatible but not necessarily genetically related humans. It is argued that, early in our history, the unique socializing and harmonizing power of music acted as an essential counterweight to the new and evolving sense of self, to an emerging sense of individuality and mortality that was linked to the development of an advanced cognitive capacity and articulate language capability.

  5. Music and the Meeting of Human Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan R

    2018-01-01

    Over tens of thousands of years of human genetic and cultural evolution, many types and varieties of music and language have emerged; however, the fundamental components of each of these modes of communication seem to be common to all human cultures and social groups. In this brief review, rather than focusing on the development of different musical techniques and practices over time, the main issues addressed here concern: (i) when, and speculations as to why, modern Homo sapiens evolved musical behaviors, (ii) the evolutionary relationship between music and language, and (iii) why humans, perhaps unique among all living species, universally continue to possess two complementary but distinct communication streams. Did music exist before language, or vice versa, or was there a common precursor that in some way separated into two distinct yet still overlapping systems when cognitively modern H. sapiens evolved? A number of theories put forward to explain the origin and persistent universality of music are considered, but emphasis is given, supported by recent neuroimaging, physiological, and psychological findings, to the role that music can play in promoting trust, altruistic behavior, social bonding, and cooperation within groups of culturally compatible but not necessarily genetically related humans. It is argued that, early in our history, the unique socializing and harmonizing power of music acted as an essential counterweight to the new and evolving sense of self, to an emerging sense of individuality and mortality that was linked to the development of an advanced cognitive capacity and articulate language capability.

  6. Using Music to Communicate Geoscience in Films, Videos and Interactive Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, I.

    2017-12-01

    Music is a powerful storytelling device and an essential component in today's movies and interactive games. Communicating Earth science can be enhanced and focused with the proper use of a musical score, particularly in the context of documentary films, television programs, interactive games and museum installations. This presentation presents five simple professional techniques to integrate music, visuals and voice-over narration into a single cohesive story that is emotionally engaging. It also presents five practical tips to improve the success of a musical collaboration. The concepts in question are illustrated with practical audio and video examples from real science projects.

  7. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  8. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia. PMID:23966965

  9. The LGBTQ Component of 21st-Century Music Teacher Training: Strategies for Inclusion from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Music is important to the development of multidimensional future adults. Students have self-reported the value of music in their lives. Music educators, therefore, have a unique opportunity to create inclusive learning environments. Music learning objectives are often rooted in development of rehearsal techniques and performance skills. However,…

  10. Music matters: preattentive musicality of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Schroger, Erich; Gunter, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    During listening to a musical piece, unexpected harmonies may evoke brain responses that are reflected electrically as an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and a late frontal negativity (N5). In the present study we demonstrate that these components of the event-related potential can be evoked preattentively, that is, even when a musical stimulus is ignored. Both ERAN and N5 differed in amplitude as a function of music-theoretical principles. Participants had no special musical expertise; results thus provide evidence for an automatic processing of musical information in onmusicians."

  11. Music Making, Transcendence, Flow, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between flow, transcendent music making experiences, transcendent religious experiences, and music education. As a teacher-researcher, I studied my graduate students' autobiographical accounts of their experiences making music. Across these narrative writings produced over the past four years, a pattern…

  12. A comparative analysis of soft computing techniques for gene prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; Aseri, Trilok Chand

    2013-07-01

    The rapid growth of genomic sequence data for both human and nonhuman species has made analyzing these sequences, especially predicting genes in them, very important and is currently the focus of many research efforts. Beside its scientific interest in the molecular biology and genomics community, gene prediction is of considerable importance in human health and medicine. A variety of gene prediction techniques have been developed for eukaryotes over the past few years. This article reviews and analyzes the application of certain soft computing techniques in gene prediction. First, the problem of gene prediction and its challenges are described. These are followed by different soft computing techniques along with their application to gene prediction. In addition, a comparative analysis of different soft computing techniques for gene prediction is given. Finally some limitations of the current research activities and future research directions are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Upbeat and quirky with a bit of a build: Interpretive repertories in creative music search

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, A.; Inskip, C.; Rafferty, P.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-existing commercial music is widely used to accom-pany moving images in films, TV commercials and com-puter games. This process is known as music synchronisa-tion. Professionals are employed by rights holders and film makers to perform creative music searches on large catalogues to find appropriate pieces of music for syn-chronisation. This paper discusses a Discourse Analysis of thirty interview texts related to the process. Coded ex-amples are presented and discussed. Four interpretive ...

  14. Effects of music therapy on intravitreal injections: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejing; Seth, Rajeev K; Rao, Veena S; Huang, John J; Adelman, Ron A

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effects of music therapy on anxiety, perceived pain, and satisfaction in patients undergoing intravitreal injections in the outpatient setting. This is a randomized clinical trial. Seventy-three patients were recruited from the retina clinic at 1 institution and randomized into a music therapy (n=37) or control (n=36) group. Prior to injection, patients completed the state portion of the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). The music therapy group listened to classical music through computer speakers while waiting for and during the injection. The control group underwent the injection in the same setting without music. Afterward, all patients completed another STAI-S and a satisfaction and pain questionnaire. The main outcome measures were objective anxiety derived from STAI-S scores and subjective pain and anxiety from the post procedure questionnaire. The music therapy group had a greater decrease in anxiety than the control group (P=0.0480). Overall, 73% of all patients requested music for future injections (P=0.0001). The music therapy group (84%) requested music in future injections more frequently than the control group (61%) (P=0.0377). Both groups reported similar levels of pain (P=0.5879). Classical music before and during intravitreal injections decreases anxiety in patients without decreasing pain. Most patients desire to have music during future injections. Music therapy is a low-cost, easy, safe intervention that reduces anxiety during intravitreal injections in the outpatient setting.

  15. Axé music: mitos, verdades e world music Axé music: myths, truths and world music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alexandre Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a Axé music, oferecendo elementos na tentativa de desconstrução de três mitos nela evidenciados: monocultura, baixa qualidade técnica e sua decadência. A metodologia utilizada privilegia a análise de conteúdo, tendo como meios de verificação e coleta de dados entrevistas semi-estruturadas com músicos, técnicos, produtores e empresários musicais de Salvador, além de pesquisa documental relacionada ao campo musical baiano atual.The article discusses Axé music providing elements in an attempt to deconstruc three myths related to it: monoculture, low technical quality and its decadence. The method used focuses on content analysis, departing from verification of data collected through semi- structured interviews with musicians, technical staff, producers and music business executives from Salvador (Brazil, along with documental research related to the musical scene of Bahia today.

  16. New coding technique for computer generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, R. E.; Culver, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    A coding technique is developed for recording computer generated holograms on a computer controlled CRT in which each resolution cell contains two beam spots of equal size and equal intensity. This provides a binary hologram in which only the position of the two dots is varied from cell to cell. The amplitude associated with each resolution cell is controlled by selectively diffracting unwanted light into a higher diffraction order. The recording of the holograms is fast and simple.

  17. Techniques involving extreme environment, nondestructive techniques, computer methods in metals research, and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of different techniques which range over several different aspects of materials research are covered in this volume. They are concerned with property evaluation of 4 0 K and below, surface characterization, coating techniques, techniques for the fabrication of composite materials, computer methods, data evaluation and analysis, statistical design of experiments and non-destructive test techniques. Topics covered in this part include internal friction measurements; nondestructive testing techniques; statistical design of experiments and regression analysis in metallurgical research; and measurement of surfaces of engineering materials

  18. [Development of computer aided forming techniques in manufacturing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuelei; Dong, Fuhui

    2011-12-01

    To review recent advance in the research and application of computer aided forming techniques for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The literature concerning computer aided forming techniques for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds in recent years was reviewed extensively and summarized. Several studies over last decade have focused on computer aided forming techniques for bone scaffold construction using various scaffold materials, which is based on computer aided design (CAD) and bone scaffold rapid prototyping (RP). CAD include medical CAD, STL, and reverse design. Reverse design can fully simulate normal bone tissue and could be very useful for the CAD. RP techniques include fused deposition modeling, three dimensional printing, selected laser sintering, three dimensional bioplotting, and low-temperature deposition manufacturing. These techniques provide a new way to construct bone tissue engineering scaffolds with complex internal structures. With rapid development of molding and forming techniques, computer aided forming techniques are expected to provide ideal bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  19. 'Rhythmic Music' in Danish Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    In Danish state schools from elementary to upper secondary school music is part of curricula at all levels. It is widely accepted that both individuals and culture benefit from art subjects, creative activities etc. This type of motivation was sufficient support for maintaining music as a subject...... and to avoid what was associated with jazz, especially by its opponents. This paper aims at taking stock of the situation in Danish music education during the last decade and at specifying the situation of ‘rhythmic music’ within this context....... at all levels of the educational system from around 1960 to around 2000. This tradition dates back to the 1920s, when the first Social Democratic government in Danish history (1924-26), with Nina Bang as minister of education (probably the first female minister worldwide), in the field of music made...... genre of music, and in Denmark this interest manifested itself in attempts to integrate jazz in the musical education of the youth. A unique genre, the so-called ‘jazz oratorios’, was created by the composer Bernhard Christensen (1906-2004) and the librettist Sven Møller Kristensen (1909- 91...

  20. Music Education and Music Therapy. Introduction to Plenary Session 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2002-01-01

    Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics......Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics...

  1. An Investigation of the Role of Background Music in IVWs for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Debbie; Fassbender, Eric; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde

    2008-01-01

    Empirical evidence is needed to corroborate the intuitions of gamers and game developers in understanding the benefits of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs) as a learning environment and the role that music plays within these environments. We report an investigation to determine if background music of the genre typically found in computer-based…

  2. Psychophysics of Musical Consonance

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, H G; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    Musical consonance and dissonance can, to a large extent, be traced back to basic, non-musical principles of auditory perception. The underlying physical, physiological and psychological phenomena appear to co-operate in two rather independent ways. One, first investigated by H. v. Helmholtz, is related to the perception of roughness (fast unresolved beats) among the partials of complex tones. The other one is related to the unique role of harmonic partials as a basic element of pitch perception (pattern recognition). We introduce the most important phenomena in a series of experiments and discuss their present theoretical understanding; we also include new psycho-acoustical data with high statistics obtained recently in Heidelberg. Besides using modern techniques, the experiments contain some demonstrations of original Helmholtz apparatus.

  3. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  4. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  5. [Cardiac computed tomography: new applications of an evolving technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María; Corros, Cecilia; Calvo, Juan; Mesa, Alicia; García-Campos, Ana; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Barreiro, Manuel; Rozado, José; Colunga, Santiago; de la Hera, Jesús M; Morís, César; Luyando, Luis H

    2015-01-01

    During the last years we have witnessed an increasing development of imaging techniques applied in Cardiology. Among them, cardiac computed tomography is an emerging and evolving technique. With the current possibility of very low radiation studies, the applications have expanded and go further coronariography In the present article we review the technical developments of cardiac computed tomography and its new applications. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Danish music education and the 'rhythmic music' concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    2014-01-01

    ' was avoided and the Danish phrase 'rytmisk musik' (rhythmic music) was created to emphasize the educational and pedagogical content. The aim was also to prevent the prejudicious idea associated with jazz, especially by opponents. The article intends to evaluate the situation of 'rhythmic music' in the context......The article reflects on Danish music education and the concept of 'rhythmic music'. It highligths the so-called "jazz-oratorio", a unique genre, created by the composer Bernhard Christensen (1906-2004) and the librettist Sven Møller Kristensen (1909-91). The article shows that the term 'jazz...... of Danish music education....

  7. Adolescents' perceptions of music therapy following spinal fusion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Charmaine; Adamek, Mary S

    2013-02-01

    To explore adolescents' memories about music therapy after spinal fusion surgery and their recommendations for future patients. Spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most painful surgeries performed. Music therapy is shown to decrease postoperative pain in children after minor surgery. In preparation for developing a preoperative information program, we interviewed adolescents who had spinal fusion and postoperative music therapy to find out what they remembered and what they recommended for future patients. Eight adolescents who had spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were interviewed about their experiences. For this qualitative study, the investigators independently used thematic analysis techniques to formulate interpretive themes. Together they discussed their ideas and assigned overall meanings to the information. The eight participants were 13-17 years of age and had surgery between 2-24 months previously. The overarching themes identified from the interviews were relaxation and pain perception, choice and control, therapist interaction and preoperative information. Participants stated that music therapy helped with mental relaxation and distraction from pain. It was important to be able to choose the type of music for the therapy and to use self-control to focus on the positive. Their recommendation was that future patients should be provided with information preoperatively about music therapy and pain management. Participants recommended a combination of auditory and visual information, especially the experiences of previous patients who had spinal fusion and music therapy. Music provided live at the bedside by a music therapist was remembered vividly and positively by most of the participants. The presence of a music therapist providing patient-selected music at the bedside is important. Methods to introduce adolescents to music therapy and how to use music for relaxation should be developed and tested. © 2012

  8. Music preference in degus (Octodon degus): Analysis with Chilean folk music.

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Watanabe; Katharina Braun; Maria Mensch; Henning Scheich

    2018-01-01

    Most nonhuman animals do not show selective preference for types of music, but researchers have typically employed only Western classical music in such studies. Thus, there has been bias in music choice. Degus (Octodon degus), originally from the mountain areas of Chile, have highly developed vocal communication. Here, we examined music preference of degus using not only Western classical music (music composed by Bach and Stravinsky), but also South American folk music (Chilean and Peruvian)....

  9. Without it no music: cognition, biology and evolution of musicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel; Peretz, Isabelle; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Musicality can be defined as a natural, spontaneously developing trait based on and constrained by biology and cognition. Music, by contrast, can be defined as a social and cultural construct based on that very musicality. One critical challenge is to delineate the constituent elements of musicality. What biological and cognitive mechanisms are essential for perceiving, appreciating and making music? Progress in understanding the evolution of music cognition depends upon adequate characterization of the constituent mechanisms of musicality and the extent to which they are present in non-human species. We argue for the importance of identifying these mechanisms and delineating their functions and developmental course, as well as suggesting effective means of studying them in human and non-human animals. It is virtually impossible to underpin the evolutionary role of musicality as a whole, but a multicomponent perspective on musicality that emphasizes its constituent capacities, development and neural cognitive specificity is an excellent starting point for a research programme aimed at illuminating the origins and evolution of musical behaviour as an autonomous trait. PMID:25646511

  10. Truncated RAP-MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC) for MEG and EEG source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Niko; Stenroos, Matti; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    2018-02-15

    Electrically active brain regions can be located applying MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) on magneto- or electroencephalographic (MEG; EEG) data. We introduce a new MUSIC method, called truncated recursively-applied-and-projected MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC). It corrects a hidden deficiency of the conventional RAP-MUSIC algorithm, which prevents estimation of the true number of brain-signal sources accurately. The correction is done by applying a sequential dimension reduction to the signal-subspace projection. We show that TRAP-MUSIC significantly improves the performance of MUSIC-type localization; in particular, it successfully and robustly locates active brain regions and estimates their number. We compare TRAP-MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC in simulations with varying key parameters, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, correlation between source time-courses, and initial estimate for the dimension of the signal space. In addition, we validate TRAP-MUSIC with measured MEG data. We suggest that with the proposed TRAP-MUSIC method, MUSIC-type localization could become more reliable and suitable for various online and offline MEG and EEG applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Music Aggregators and Intermediation of the Digital Music Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gałuszka, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, the advent of the Internet has not made intermediaries in the music market obsolete. Individual artists and independent record labels who want to sell their music in digital music stores must deliver their records via third-party companies called music aggregators. Drawing on the concepts of new institutional economics, the article demonstrates that the emergence of music aggregators is a market response to the high level of transact...

  12. Prediction of Software Reliability using Bio Inspired Soft Computing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwaker, Chander; Tomar, Pradeep; Poonia, Ramesh C; Singh, Vijander

    2018-04-10

    A lot of models have been made for predicting software reliability. The reliability models are restricted to using particular types of methodologies and restricted number of parameters. There are a number of techniques and methodologies that may be used for reliability prediction. There is need to focus on parameters consideration while estimating reliability. The reliability of a system may increase or decreases depending on the selection of different parameters used. Thus there is need to identify factors that heavily affecting the reliability of the system. In present days, reusability is mostly used in the various area of research. Reusability is the basis of Component-Based System (CBS). The cost, time and human skill can be saved using Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) concepts. CBSE metrics may be used to assess those techniques which are more suitable for estimating system reliability. Soft computing is used for small as well as large-scale problems where it is difficult to find accurate results due to uncertainty or randomness. Several possibilities are available to apply soft computing techniques in medicine related problems. Clinical science of medicine using fuzzy-logic, neural network methodology significantly while basic science of medicine using neural-networks-genetic algorithm most frequently and preferably. There is unavoidable interest shown by medical scientists to use the various soft computing methodologies in genetics, physiology, radiology, cardiology and neurology discipline. CBSE boost users to reuse the past and existing software for making new products to provide quality with a saving of time, memory space, and money. This paper focused on assessment of commonly used soft computing technique like Genetic Algorithm (GA), Neural-Network (NN), Fuzzy Logic, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). This paper presents working of soft computing

  13. Health music(k)ing - Music therapy or Music and health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2011-01-01

    The field of music therapy is expanding rapidly into new areas, practices and interdisciplinary fields, as well as redefining its goals and values. Increasingly "music and health" is used to describe the field when it comes to naming new training programs, new interdisciplinary fields of theory...... by Ken Wilber and Gary Ansdell, is presented and illustrated by empirical examples and references from the literature. Metatheoretical reflections include the relevance of interpersonal or relational psychology and vitality dynamics for the theory and practice of health musicing....

  14. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount of passive exposure to music. Furthermore, infants assigned to the active musical experience showed superior development of prelinguistic communicative gestures and social behaviour compared to infants assigned to the passive musical experience. These results indicate that (1) infants can engage in meaningful musical training when appropriate pedagogical approaches are used, (2) active musical participation in infancy enhances culture-specific musical acquisition, and (3) active musical participation in infancy impacts social and communication development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Music Preferences with Regard to Music Education, Informal Infuences and Familiarity of Music Amongst Young People in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrota, Snježana; Ercegovac, Ina Reic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between music preference and music education, informal influences (attending classical music concerts and musical theatre productions) and familiarity of music. The research included students of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Split (N = 341). The results…

  16. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  17. Temporal feature integration for music genre classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    , but they capture neither the temporal dynamics nor dependencies among the individual feature dimensions. Here, a multivariate autoregressive feature model is proposed to solve this problem for music genre classification. This model gives two different feature sets, the diagonal autoregressive (DAR......) and multivariate autoregressive (MAR) features which are compared against the baseline mean-variance as well as two other temporal feature integration techniques. Reproducibility in performance ranking of temporal feature integration methods were demonstrated using two data sets with five and eleven music genres...

  18. Music and astronomy. II. Unitedsoundofcosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; Machuca, J. J.; Morente, S.

    2017-03-01

    We have been congratulated on the stage by a Nobel laureate (he was our curtain raiser), shocked audiences in rock concerts, written monthly on Musica Universalis , made the second concert in 3D in Spain after Kraftwerk and broadcasted it live in Radio 3, mixed our music with poetry read aloud by scientists, composed the soundtracks of CARMENES, QUIJOTE, ESTRACK and the Gaia first data release, made a videoclip on how computer simulates the formation of stars, played our music in planetariums, museums, observatories throughout Spain and at the end of the meeting of the ESO telescopes time allocation committee... All those moments will not be lost in time like tears in rain, but put together in Bilbao during the 2016 meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

  19. MUSIC TEACHERS’ EDUCATIONAL IMPROVISATION AS AN IMPORTANT INDICATOR OF THEIR PROFESSIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Smyrenskyi

    2017-04-01

    communication and aimed at correcting the purpose, content, and methodological techniques. The music teacher’s mastering special vocal, instrumental, conductor and other isolated and combined methods of guiding the pupils’ musical activity is considered to be a precondition for implementation of pedagogical improvisation. Thus, a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is defined as an objective part of the educational process which acts as an intuitive search for an operative solution of the contradictions between traditional methods of musical performance and lecture activity and the unexpected situation of interaction between the teacher and students, which requires using these techniques creatively.

  20. Teaching Popular Music: Investigating Music Educators' Perceptions and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in-service music teachers' perceptions of popular music in the classroom and to examine their own preparation to teach popular music. A sample of music teachers, drawn from two regional chapters of the American Orff-Schulwerk Association, completed a researcher-designed survey instrument. Results…

  1. The aesthetic discourse space of popular music: 1985-86 and 2004-05

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of the aesthetic classification system of popular music, as employed by newspaper critics in the Los Angeles Times during 1985-86 and 2004-05. Through a relational discourse analysis of popular music album reviews, which applies the ecological technique of

  2. The effects of sedative music, arousal music, and silence on electrocardiography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Mehdy; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Haghjoo, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that music can affect heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance. Music can stimulate central emotions in the brain and release biochemical materials that change the physiologic state. We sought to compare changes in the electrical function of the heart in response to music. Subjects were asked to listen to 2 types of music, namely, sedative and arousal music, in conjunction with two 30-second periods of complete silence. The experiment was conducted in 4 segments: the first and third parts were silence, and the second and fourth parts were music. First, the response to each type of music was compared with that to the preceding period of silence. Next, the responses to both types of music were compared. Finally, the response to music regardless of the type was compared with that to silence. The amplitude of polarization and depolarization changed in response to different kinds of music. The electrical function of the heart in response to music, irrespective of the music type, differed from that in response to silence. The 2 types of music impacted the electrical function of the heart in different ways: the arousal music influenced T-wave maximum amplitude, whereas no such change was recorded in response to the sedative music. The bandwidth of the polarization and depolarization of the heart rate and R-wave amplitude increased in response to music by comparison with silence. In addition, the heart did not seem to try to synchronize with music. The mean R-wave amplitude in sedative music is higher than the arousal music, so our heart works differently when different types of music are heard. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on Improvisation in a Musical performance using Multifractal Detrended Cross Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-11-01

    MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx ​whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.

  4. Music goes social! : music startups' viewpoints on marketing communications, social media and music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vermasheinä, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Finnish music industry startups’ viewpoints on marketing communica-tions and social media, as well as their views on the future of the music business. Four Finland based music industry startups were interviewed for the study. Separate chapters deal with the framework of the study: marketing communications, social media and music industry. During the past few years a number of startup companies have been established in Finland with the aim of providing online and digit...

  5. Recorded Music and Graphic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of art as an element of music-recording packaging. Describes a project in which students design a jacket for either cassette or CD using a combination of computerized and traditional rendering techniques. Reports that students have been inspired to look into careers in graphic design. (DSK)

  6. Music and Health Promotion - In the Life of Music Therapy and Music Psychology Researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    on music and identity and more specifically to the author’s study of health themes in the musical autobiographies of music therapy students at Aalborg University (DK). The analysis shows that there are some specific themes in the professional’s narratives, however, the researchers are very much in line......In August 2013 Center for Music and Health published its first anthology in English on ‘Musical Life Stories’. 17 authors from 6 countries present their research on the influence of music in a lifelong health perspective. A unique feature in the book is a collection of “personal narratives......” by the authors. In a free form each author wrote a short narrative of music’s influence on their identity and health in a life span perspective. The present article is a thematic analysis of these 13 narratives. The themes identified are briefly related more generally to the international research literature...

  7. Visualizing Music: The Archaeology of Music-Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Charles M.

    Music videos, with their characteristic visual energy and frenetic music-and-dance numbers, have caught on rapidly since their introduction in 1981, bringing prosperity to a slumping record industry. Creating images to accompany existing music is, however, hardly a new idea. The concept can be traced back to 1877 and Thomas Edison's invention of…

  8. A Socratic Dialogue with Libby Larsen on Music, Musical Experience in American Culture, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Katherine; Larsen, Libby

    2011-01-01

    This article represents conversations with the American composer Libby Larsen in which she described her beliefs about music, music education, and the dilemmas that our current system faces as we seek to provide relevant and meaningful music education to our students. Our conversation explores such topics as cognitive psychology, music theory,…

  9. Music Education through Popular Music Festivals: A Study of the "OM Music Festival" in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Most people think of the teaching and learning of music as taking place in formal, institutional contexts like schools and universities. This study looks at the transmission of music teaching and learning that takes place in a more informal, musical environment, namely at a "popular music festival." In particular, it discusses the OM…

  10. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  11. Loud music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  12. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  13. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O F

    2010-01-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  14. Toward A Better Understanding of Perceived Complexity in Music: A Commentary on Eerola (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eerola (2016 evaluates models of musical complexity based on expectancy violation and information theory. This commentary notes the deep relationship between these two phenomena, and argues for a more active partnership between computational and psychological approaches in understanding perceptions of musical complexity.

  15. Musical Empathy, Emotional Co-Constitution, and the “Musical Other”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Musical experience can confront us with emotions that are not currently ours. We might remain unaffected by them, or be affected: retreat from them in avoidance, or embrace them and experience them as ours. This suggests that they are another's. Whose are they? Do we arrive at them through empathy, turning our interest to the music as we do to others in an interpersonal encounter? In addressing these questions, I differentiate between musical and social empathy, rejecting the idea that the emotions arise as a direct consequence of empathizing with composers or performers. I argue that musical perception is doubly active: bodily knowledge can extend auditory perception cross-modally, which, in turn, can orient a bodily hermeneutic. Musical passages thus acquire adverbial expressivity, an expressivity which, as I discuss, is co-constituted, and engenders a "musical other." This leads me to a reinterpretation of the musical persona and to consider a dialectic between social and musical empathy that I think plays a central role in the individuation of shared emotion in musical experience. Musical empathy, then, occurs via a combination of self-involvement and self-effacement—leading us first into, and then perhaps beyond, ourselves.

  16. Without it no music: cognition, biology and evolution of musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel; Peretz, Isabelle; Trehub, Sandra E

    2015-03-19

    Musicality can be defined as a natural, spontaneously developing trait based on and constrained by biology and cognition. Music, by contrast, can be defined as a social and cultural construct based on that very musicality. One critical challenge is to delineate the constituent elements of musicality. What biological and cognitive mechanisms are essential for perceiving, appreciating and making music? Progress in understanding the evolution of music cognition depends upon adequate characterization of the constituent mechanisms of musicality and the extent to which they are present in non-human species. We argue for the importance of identifying these mechanisms and delineating their functions and developmental course, as well as suggesting effective means of studying them in human and non-human animals. It is virtually impossible to underpin the evolutionary role of musicality as a whole, but a multicomponent perspective on musicality that emphasizes its constituent capacities, development and neural cognitive specificity is an excellent starting point for a research programme aimed at illuminating the origins and evolution of musical behaviour as an autonomous trait. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. We "Are" Musical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge for music education is to nurture and develop each individual's basic musicality. Assuming normal neurological functioning and development, we are all musical. Our musical development begins pre-birth, with musical behaviours in one form or another being evident across the lifespan. Nevertheless, early enculturation can both foster…

  18. RHYTHMIC MUSIC PEDAGOGY: A SCANDINAVIAN APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauge Torunn Bakken

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic music pedagogy is a relatively new Scandinavian approach to classroom music education that offers a variety of methods and strategies for teaching and learning music, especially within the performance of improvised and rhythmic music. This article is based on two earlier projects published in Norwegian, in which the concept of rytmisk musikkpedagogikk (or “rhythmic music pedagogy” as well as its applications and implications were thoroughly described. This research confirms that rhythmic music pedagogy may be an effective strategy for learning music in general, but most especially for learning skills associated with ensemble musicianship and playing by ear. In a multicultural and fluid society in which there are tendencies toward passivity and fragmentation, it may be more important than ever to maintain the idea of music as a collaborative creative process that extends across borders; in this context, rhythmic music pedagogy can play a central role in children’s social development. As a social medium, ensemble playing requires the participant to decentralize socially, since the perspectives of the other participants are necessary for a successful performance. The activity’s general potential for re-structuring social settings and moving boundaries in a positive way should not be underestimated.

  19. The musical identities of Danish music therapy students : a study based on musical autobiographies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists need both advanced musical and therapeutic skills to work as ‘health musicians’ in the vast area of ‘health musicking’ (Trondalen & Bonde, 2012), which ranges from working with groups in the community to individual sessions with mental health patients in hospital clinics. The balance between musical and therapeutic skills in this training is the subject of continuous discussion in the training program at Aalborg University, as are the ways in which the musical identity of a m...

  20. Musical identity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Shirlene Vianna; França, Cecília Cavalieri; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio

    2009-03-01

    Musical autobiographies consist of a powerful therapeutic tool by which individuals define themselves. The use of this technique may help (re)construction personal identities and improve quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Eight adult patients on treatment at CIEM Multiple Sclerosis Investigation Center after selecting 10 to 15 pieces of music most significant in their lives were interviewed. The data collected were classified according to Even Rudd categories, which reveal how a person expresses his personal, social, temporal and transpersonal identities. We observed that recall of musical history makes MS patients get better perception both of their feelings and body awareness, as well as provide them with an alternative way to express themselves, activate and contextualize affective memories, and achieving a sense of life continuity in spite of the disease.

  1. Design and Realization of Music Retrieval System Based on Feature Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As computer technology develops rapidly, retrieval systems have also undergone great changes. People are no longer contented with singular retrieval means, but are trying many other ways to retrieve feature content. When it comes to music, however, the complexity of sound is still preventing its retrieval from moving further forward. To solve this problem, systematic analysis and study is carried out on music retrieval system based on feature content. A music retrieval system model based on feature content consisting of technical approaches for processing and retrieving of extraction symbols of music feature content is built and realized. An SML model is proposed and tested on two different types of song sets. The result shows good performance of the system. Besides, the shortfalls of the model are also noted and the future prospects of the music retrieval system based on feature content are outlined.

  2. The Imaginary Friend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical knowledge on how the interactive music techniques usually associated with computer game music could benefit the classical music composers and performers (and vice versa). We will focuse on techniques used in procedural music. Certain interactive...... computer game scores and sound installations represent this genre, as well as electronic real-time-based compositions that may or may not require a human performer. In the context of interactive computer games, dynamic music systems directly react to the gamers´ actions. The authors´ aim was to find out...

  3. Music Radio as a Format Remediated for the Stream-Based Music Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ægidius, Andreas Lenander

    What do music radio and music streaming have in common? The curated flow of music. Radio is featured in the main section of the Spotify user interface. Apple employs radio host for their streaming service, Apple Music. Music streaming and music radio seem closely related. Even in their use...... this theoretical contribution with reference to several empirical studies of everyday music streaming use and the fact that radio holds a significant position as both a stand-alone medium and as a contributing format within streaming music use. Why else does Spotify provide radio(s) and Apple Music likewise employ...

  4. Evolutionary computation techniques a comparative perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book compares the performance of various evolutionary computation (EC) techniques when they are faced with complex optimization problems extracted from different engineering domains. Particularly focusing on recently developed algorithms, it is designed so that each chapter can be read independently. Several comparisons among EC techniques have been reported in the literature, however, they all suffer from one limitation: their conclusions are based on the performance of popular evolutionary approaches over a set of synthetic functions with exact solutions and well-known behaviors, without considering the application context or including recent developments. In each chapter, a complex engineering optimization problem is posed, and then a particular EC technique is presented as the best choice, according to its search characteristics. Lastly, a set of experiments is conducted in order to compare its performance to other popular EC methods.

  5. Computational techniques in tribology and material science at the atomic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.; Bozzolo, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computations in tribology and material science at the atomic level present considerable difficulties. Computational techniques ranging from first-principles to semi-empirical and their limitations are discussed. Example calculations of metallic surface energies using semi-empirical techniques are presented. Finally, application of the methods to calculation of adhesion and friction are presented.

  6. Face Recognition, Musical Appraisal, and Emotional Crossmodal Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitto, Sara; Calcagnì, Antonio; Mignozzi, Arianna; Scardino, Rosanna; Piraino, Giulia; Turchi, Daniele; De Feudis, Irio; Brunetti, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; de Tommaso, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on the crossmodal integration of visual and auditory perception suggests that evaluations of emotional information in one sensory modality may tend toward the emotional value generated in another sensory modality. This implies that the emotions elicited by musical stimuli can influence the perception of emotional stimuli presented in other sensory modalities, through a top-down process. The aim of this work was to investigate how crossmodal perceptual processing influences emotional face recognition and how potential modulation of this processing induced by music could be influenced by the subject's musical competence. We investigated how emotional face recognition processing could be modulated by listening to music and how this modulation varies according to the subjective emotional salience of the music and the listener's musical competence. The sample consisted of 24 participants: 12 professional musicians and 12 university students (non-musicians). Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task whilst listening to music by Albeniz, Chopin, or Mozart. The target stimuli were emotionally neutral facial expressions. We examined the N170 Event-Related Potential (ERP) and behavioral responses (i.e., motor reaction time to target recognition and musical emotional judgment). A linear mixed-effects model and a decision-tree learning technique were applied to N170 amplitudes and latencies. The main findings of the study were that musicians' behavioral responses and N170 is more affected by the emotional value of music administered in the emotional go/no-go task and this bias is also apparent in responses to the non-target emotional face. This suggests that emotional information, coming from multiple sensory channels, activates a crossmodal integration process that depends upon the stimuli emotional salience and the listener's appraisal.

  7. White Matter Correlates of Musical Anhedonia: Implications for Evolution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche Loui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music. We show for the first time that structural connectivity within the reward system can predict individual differences in musical reward in a large population, but specific patterns in connectivity between auditory and reward systems are special in an extreme case of specific musical anhedonia. Results support and extend the Mixed Origins of Music theory by identifying multiple neural pathways through which music might operate as an affective signaling system.

  8. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  9. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  10. A pilot study: the effects of music therapy interventions on middle school students' ESL skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Roy; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy techniques on the story retelling and speaking skills of English as a Second Language (ESL) middle school students. Thirty-four middle school students of Hispanic heritage, ages 10-12, in high and low-functioning groups participated in the study for 12 weeks. Pretest to posttest data yielded significant differences on the story retelling skills between the experimental and control groups. Chi Square comparisons on English speaking skills also yielded significant results over 3 months of music therapy intervention. A variety of music therapy techniques were used including music and movement, active music listening, group chanting and singing, musical games, rhythmic training, music and sign language, and lyric analysis and rewrite activities as supplemental activities to the ESL goals and objectives. Comparisons of individual subjects' scores indicated that all of the students in the experimental groups scored higher than the control groups on story retelling skills (with the exception of 1 pair of identical scores), regardless of high and low functioning placement. Monthly comparisons of the high and low functioning experimental groups indicated significant improvements in English speaking skills as well.

  11. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  12. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ivan Giraldo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1 quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2 analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3 discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4 assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules’ performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the

  13. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  14. Comparison of radiographic technique by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochi, M.A.C.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    A computational algorithm to compare radiographic techniques (KVp, mAs and filters) is developed based in the fixation of parameters that defines the images, such as optical density and constrast. Before the experience, the results were used in a radiography of thorax. (author) [pt

  15. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  16. Re-Appraising Ideas of Musicality in Intercultural Contexts of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, John

    2005-01-01

    This article examines ideas of musicality as they may apply to local, national and intercultural contexts of music education. Conceptions of multicultural music education are explored in the light of alternative approaches to musicality adapted from ethnomusicological perspectives. It is argued that while recently published music curricula in many…

  17. Exploring the Benefits of Music-Making as Professional Development for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been written about professional development in general education and music education literature, little has addressed the benefits of music-making as meaningful professional development for music teachers. For music teachers, music-making and meanings of music-making have been connected with teachers' identity, well-being,…

  18. General Music Teachers' Attitudes and Practices Regarding Multicultural Music Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Yie; Pan, Kok Chang; Shah, Shahanum Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utilisation of multicultural music education by Malaysian music teachers, with an emphasis on the relationship between music teachers' attitudes and their subsequent degree of effort in developing and implementing multicultural music education in their music classes. Respondents for the study were 456 music teachers;…

  19. Music, Brain, and Rehabilitation: Emerging Therapeutic Applications and Potential Neural Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Särkamö, Teppo; Altenmueller, Eckart; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Music is an important source of enjoyment, learning, and well-being in life as well as a rich, powerful, and versatile stimulus for the brain. With the advance of modern neuroimaging techniques during the past decades, we are now beginning to understand better what goes on in the healthy brain when we listen, play, think, and feel music and how the structure and function of the brain can change as a result of musical training and expertise. In the healthy brain, there is already mounting evid...

  20. Review of music: Forgotten musical magazine of inter-war Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly magazine Review of Music was published six times in Belgrade from January to June 1940. Each edition comprised thirty-two pages, half of which were devoted to a sheet-music supplement, popular compositions of the time for voice and piano. Review of Music published 222 articles and scores in total. The aim of the magazine was to popularise classical music, but it also encompassed jazz, films and film music, theatre, literature, fashion, and even sport. Review of Music was different from all other Serbian inter-war music magazines, not only because of its wide range of topics, but also because it published anonymous articles, probably taken from other sources, but it is not known from where. This study analyses the articles about classical music in Review of Music. In several short chapters the author presents the concept of the magazine, its genre structure, themes addressed, and the style of its music writers. Selected examples show that article authors tended to exploit elements of narrative (with an emphasis on impressive details, humour, and moral teaching. The authors also especially emphasized the neutral attitude of Review of Music towards contemporary music, although the magazine published different views of contemporary composers concerning the aesthetics of modern music. Review of Music started four months after Germany invaded Poland. However, in the journal references to social and political events are non-existant. The journal seems to have been interested only in culture and the arts. However, the author of this study presents examples in which the political circumstances of the time can be perceived. One of these examples is the visit of the Frankfurt Opera House to Belgrade in 1940. That extraordinary cultural event was attended by Prince Paul Karađorđević and Princess Olga, the Yugoslav Prime Minister, and almost all other government ministers. In this news, any authority on the political situation of the time

  1. Phase synchronization of instrumental music signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Signal analysis is one of the finest scientific techniques in communication theory. Some quantitative and qualitative measures describe the pattern of a music signal, vary from one to another. Same musical recital, when played by different instrumentalists, generates different types of music patterns. The reason behind various patterns is the psycho-acoustic measures - Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm, varies in each time. However, the psycho-acoustic study of the music signals does not reveal any idea about the similarity between the signals. For such cases, study of synchronization of long-term nonlinear dynamics may provide effective results. In this context, phase synchronization (PS) is one of the measures to show synchronization between two non-identical signals. In fact, it is very critical to investigate any other kind of synchronization for experimental condition, because those are completely non identical signals. Also, there exists equivalence between the phases and the distances of the diagonal line in Recurrence plot (RP) of the signals, which is quantifiable by the recurrence quantification measure τ-recurrence rate. This paper considers two nonlinear music signals based on same raga played by two eminent sitar instrumentalists as two non-identical sources. The psycho-acoustic study shows how the Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm vary for the two music signals. Then, long term analysis in the form of phase space reconstruction is performed, which reveals the chaotic phase spaces for both the signals. From the RP of both the phase spaces, τ-recurrence rate is calculated. Finally by the correlation of normalized tau-recurrence rate of their 3D phase spaces and the PS of the two music signals has been established. The numerical results well support the analysis.

  2. How to Think Music with Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Steen

    Humanities for discussing how to apply quantitative techniques within a qualitative field. I examine ACA methods’ practical and epistemological value for musicologists in three case studies: In case 1, I examine machine-learned metrics that allows the creation of features that estimate intuitive qualities...... hard to find. Musicologists can apply data techniques for posing new questions, for example about many pieces of music, or about musical aspects adhering to a subset of a corpus. They can apply them for a “second” empirical opinion on the corpus. With modern software, digital methods allow swift......-called features from audio files, such as tempo or tonality. However, the vast majority of musicologists do not yet use ACA tools for analyses, although they can be a means to deal with these abundances of audio files. I illuminate my research question by seeking inspiration in the broader field of the Digital...

  3. An economic analysis of online streaming: How the music industry can generate revenues from cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomes, Tim Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the upcoming business model of online streaming services allowing music consumers either to subscribe to a service which provides free-of-charge access to streaming music and which is funded by advertising, or to pay a monthly flat fee in order to get ad-free access to the content of the service accompanied with additional benefits. Both businesses will be launched by a single provider of streaming music. By imposing a two-sided market model on the one hand combined wi...

  4. The Band Effect – physically strenuous music making increases aesthetic appreciation of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal aesthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed aesthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants aesthetically assessed similar music. Data are reported from two experiments where different patient groups performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments aesthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more aesthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived aesthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal aesthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e

  5. The Independent Music Teacher: Practice and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszler, Marienne

    1996-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of the working conditions and challenges faced by independent music teachers (IMT). Most IMTs function in a number of capacities, as performer, teacher, and entrepreneur. Discusses changing trends in employment, including computer technology and the move for national certification. (MJP)

  6. Randomized Controlled Trials in Music Therapy: Guidelines for Design and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) plays a powerful role in today's healthcare industry. At the same time, it is important that multiple types of evidence contribute to music therapy's knowledge base and that the dialogue of clinical effectiveness in music therapy is not dominated by the biomedical hierarchical model of evidence-based practice. Whether or not one agrees with the hierarchical model of evidence in the current healthcare climate, RCTs can contribute important knowledge to our field. Therefore, it is important that music therapists are prepared to design trials that meet current methodological standards and, equally important, are able to respond appropriately to those design aspects that may not be feasible in music therapy research. To provide practical guidelines to music therapy researchers for the design and implementation of RCTs as well as to enable music therapists to be well-informed consumers of RCT evidence. This article reviews key design aspects of RCTs and discusses how to best implement these standards in music therapy trials. A systematic presentation of basic randomization methods, allocation concealment strategies, issues related to blinding in music therapy trials and strategies for implementation, the use of treatment manuals, types of control groups, outcome selection, and sample size computation is provided. Despite the challenges of meeting all key design demands typical of an RCT, it is possible to design rigorous music therapy RCTs that accurately estimate music therapy treatment benefits.

  7. Music makes a difference?! : The values of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karolien Dons

    2013-01-01

    Music and culture play a significant role in the political and societal development of a peaceful and integrative Europe. Music and its diverse expressions are extremely relevant for social cohesion, wellbeing and economic growth. What kind of an impact can music have? And how can we combine

  8. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  9. The Meaning of Musical Instruments and Music Technologies in Children's Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2014-01-01

    with a musical instrument. The more so when what is practiced by the instrument is classical music. This gap between music as consumed (listening to) and music as practiced (playing) is interesting from a developmental perspective: what does it mean for a child to play a musical instrument? And in which ways may...

  10. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  11. Genomics studies on musical aptitude, music perception, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Irma

    2018-03-23

    When searching for genetic markers inherited together with musical aptitude, genes affecting inner ear development and brain function were identified. The alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA), located in the most significant linkage region of musical aptitude, was overexpressed when listening and performing music. The GATA-binding protein 2 gene (GATA2) was located in the best associated region of musical aptitude and regulates SNCA in dopaminergic neurons, thus linking DNA- and RNA-based studies of music-related traits together. In addition to SNCA, several other genes were linked to dopamine metabolism. Mutations in SNCA predispose to Lewy-body dementia and cause Parkinson disease in humans and affect song production in songbirds. Several other birdsong genes were found in transcriptome analysis, suggesting a common evolutionary background of sound perception and production in humans and songbirds. Regions of positive selection with musical aptitude contained genes affecting auditory perception, cognitive performance, memory, human language development, and song perception and production of songbirds. The data support the role of dopaminergic pathway and their link to the reward mechanism as a molecular determinant in positive selection of music. Integration of gene-level data from the literature across multiple species prioritized activity-dependent immediate early genes as candidate genes in musical aptitude and listening to and performing music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Music and speech distractors disrupt sensorimotor synchronization: effects of musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białuńska, Anita; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2017-12-01

    Humans display a natural tendency to move to the beat of music, more than to the rhythm of any other auditory stimulus. We typically move with music, but rarely with speech. This proclivity is apparent early during development and can be further developed over the years via joint dancing, singing, or instrument playing. Synchronization of movement to the beat can thus improve with age, but also with musical experience. In a previous study, we found that music perturbed synchronization with a metronome more than speech fragments; music superiority disappeared when distractors shared isochrony and the same meter (Dalla Bella et al., PLoS One 8(8):e71945, 2013). Here, we examined if the interfering effect of music and speech distractors in a synchronization task is influenced by musical training. Musicians and non-musicians synchronized by producing finger force pulses to the sounds of a metronome while music and speech distractors were presented at one of various phase relationships with respect to the target. Distractors were familiar musical excerpts and fragments of children poetry comparable in terms of beat/stress isochrony. Music perturbed synchronization with the metronome more than speech did in both groups. However, the difference in synchronization error between music and speech distractors was smaller for musicians than for non-musicians, especially when the peak force of movement is reached. These findings point to a link between musical training and timing of sensorimotor synchronization when reacting to music and speech distractors.

  13. Music Links--A Music Ensemble Outreach Programme for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Professional music communities have realized that if they do not promote their art forms among the youth of today, the future of their music may be in question. Many local ethnic music groups have recognized the need to make the first move and go out to the audiences of the future and bring their brand of music to these audiences. Their task is to…

  14. Achievement Identification and Evaluation of Musically Gifted Children in Lower Music School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Anica

    2016-01-01

    Music schools are specific educational institutions which teach children to understand musical language, the rules of musical writing and how to play an instrument. It is assumed that children who enroll in music school have a certain level of "musicality," i.e. possess musical ability. Starting from this premise, in this paper we wanted…

  15. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Ikeda, Yoshitomo

    2007-01-01

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99m Tc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  16. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  17. Pedagogical Techniques of Improvisation Instructors without Academic Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The importance of music improvisation can be seen in its inclusion in the National Standards for Music Education and the accreditation standards for the National Association of Schools of Music. The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical techniques and materials of improvisation instructors who do not hold academic credentials. The…

  18. Satire in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys the scope of satire and suggests its range. It is divided into six sections. The introductory comment (The semantics of music briefly outlines the fact that music has always been a part of communicative endeavors. The historical background of the semantic issues in music is described (Historical surmises, which is necessary to define satire in music as a specific genre combining features from different musical forms. The third section discusses six areas as the most common contexts of musical satire: 1 satirical music theater works, such as the opera Il Girello by Jacopo Melani, the famous Coff ee Cantata (Schweigt Still, plaudert nicht, BWV 211 by Johann Sebastian Bach, Der Schulmeister by Georg Philipp Telemann, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay, and so on; 2 musical genres associated with satire, either a within vocal-instrumental music; for instance, opera buffa, Singspiel, operetta, cabaret, vaudeville, and so on, or b in instrumental pieces, such as capriccios, grotesques, scherzos, burlesques, and so on; 3 individual features or compositional parts related to satire; for example, in a vocal music, the Satiro in Orfeo by Luigi Rossi, the range of the Orlando character in eighteenth-century opera, who “may be satire, a fool or hero, but never all together” (Harris, 1986, 106, the satirical antihero Matěj Brouček in Leoš Janáček’s work, and also Lady Macbeth, and in b instrumental music, such as the sermon of St. Anthony in Gustav Mahler’s Second Symphony, his marches, and “low-brow tunes,” a number of episodes in Dmitri Shostakovich’s works, and so on; 4 works variously related to criticism, such as the work of Eric Satie, Kurt Weill, Luigi Nono, Maurizio Kagel, and Vinko Globokar, as well as Fran Milčinski (a.k.a. Ježek, Laibach, or Bob Dylan; 5 music journalism, from Johann Beer and Louis-Abel Beffroy de Reigny and his popular pieces de circonstance, to nineteenth-century music journalism, George

  19. Computational Intelligence Techniques for New Product Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kit Yan; Dillon, Tharam S

    2012-01-01

    Applying computational intelligence for product design is a fast-growing and promising research area in computer sciences and industrial engineering. However, there is currently a lack of books, which discuss this research area. This book discusses a wide range of computational intelligence techniques for implementation on product design. It covers common issues on product design from identification of customer requirements in product design, determination of importance of customer requirements, determination of optimal design attributes, relating design attributes and customer satisfaction, integration of marketing aspects into product design, affective product design, to quality control of new products. Approaches for refinement of computational intelligence are discussed, in order to address different issues on product design. Cases studies of product design in terms of development of real-world new products are included, in order to illustrate the design procedures, as well as the effectiveness of the com...

  20. Is music a language? : towards a more accurate description of music education

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Martin W

    1994-01-01

    Today there are many approaches to music education reflecting many different beliefs about what is its goal. Most music educators would agree that their goal is to help students understand music and the practice of making music. The differences arise out of a confusion about what it means to understand music, and in what is significant about the practice of making music. The central problem impeding progress toward a universally applicable, yet logically derived,music curriculum is the lac...