WorldWideScience

Sample records for computer aided diagnosis

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis in routine mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittek, H.; Perlet, C.; Helmberger, R.; Linsmeier, E.; Kessler, M.; Reiser, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Computer-aided diagnosis in mammography is a topic many study groups have been concerned with since the first presentation of a system for computer-aided interpretation in 1967. Currently, there is only one system avilable for clinical use in mammography, the CAD-System Image Checker (R2 Technology). The purpose of our prospective study was to evaluate whether the integration of the CAD-system into the routine of a radiological breast diagnosis unit is feasible. Results: After the installation of the CAD-system, 300 patients with 1110 mammograms were included for evaluation in the present study. In 54 of these cases histological examination was indicated due to suspect criteria on conventional mammography. In 39 of 54 cases (72,2%) malignancy could be proven histologically. The CAD-system marked 82,1% of the histologically verified carcinomas correctly 94,3% of all 1797 marks made by the CAD-system indicated normal or benign structures. Routinely performed CAD analysis prolonged patients waiting time by about 15 min because the marks of the CAD system had to be interpreted in addition to the routine diagnostic investigations. Conclusion: Our experience with the use of the CAD-system in daily routine showed that CAD analysis can easily be integrated into a preexisting mammography unit. However, the diagnostic benefit is not yet clearly established. Since the rate of false negative marks by the CAD-system Image Checker is still high, the results of CAD analysis must be checked and corrected by an observer well experienced in mammography reading. (orig.) [de

  2. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, H; Doi, K; Chan, H P; Giger, M L; Katsuragawa, S; Nakamori, N

    1990-01-01

    Digital radiography offers several important advantages over conventional systems, including abilities for image manipulation, transmission, and storage. In the long term, however, the unique ability to apply artificial intelligence techniques for automated detection and quantitation of disease may have an even greater impact on radiologic practice. Although CAD is still in its infancy, the results of several recent studies clearly indicate a major potential for the future. The concept of using computers to analyze medical images is not new, but recent advances in computer technology together with progress in implementing practical digital radiography systems have stimulated research efforts in this exciting field. Several facets of CAD are presently being developed at the University of Chicago and elsewhere for application in chest radiology as well as in mammography and vascular imaging. To date, investigators have focused on a limited number of subjects that have been, by their nature, particularly suitable for computer analysis. There is no aspect of radiologic diagnosis that could not potentially benefit from this approach, however. The ultimate goal of these endeavors is to provide a system for comprehensive automated image analysis, the results of which could be accepted or modified at the discretion of the radiologist.

  4. A study on NMI report generation with computer aid diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaona; Li Zhimin; Zhao Xiangjun; Qiu Jinping

    1994-01-01

    An expert system of intelligent diagnosis, computer aid diagnosis and computerized report generation and management for an nuclear medicine imaging (NMI) was performed. The mathematic model with finite set mapping for the diagnosis was evaluated. The clinical application shows, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of it was 85.7% ∼ 93.4% and 92% ∼ 95.6% respectively. Therefore, its application may be extended

  5. Pulmonary lobar volumetry using novel volumetric computer-aided diagnosis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, Shingo; Kitano, Mariko; Matsuo, Keiji; Kawakami, Kenichi; Koike, Wataru; Kishimoto, Mariko; Inoue, Tsutomu; Li, Yuanzhong; Naganawa, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the accuracy of pulmonary lobar volumetry using the conventional number of segments method and novel volumetric computer-aided diagnosis using 3D computed tomography images. METHODS We acquired 50 consecutive preoperative 3D computed tomography examinations for lung tumours reconstructed at 1-mm slice thicknesses. We calculated the lobar volume and the emphysematous lobar volume volumetry computer-aided diagnosis system could more precisely measure lobar volumes than the conventional number of segments method. Because semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis and automatic computer-aided diagnosis were complementary, in clinical use, it would be more practical to first measure volumes by automatic computer-aided diagnosis, and then use semi-automatic measurements if automatic computer-aided diagnosis failed. PMID:23526418

  6. Computer-Aided Methodology for Syndromic Strabismus Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa de Almeida, João Dallyson; Silva, Aristófanes Corrêa; Teixeira, Jorge Antonio Meireles; Paiva, Anselmo Cardoso; Gattass, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Strabismus is a pathology that affects approximately 4 % of the population, causing aesthetic problems reversible at any age and irreversible sensory alterations that modify the vision mechanism. The Hirschberg test is one type of examination for detecting this pathology. Computer-aided detection/diagnosis is being used with relative success to aid health professionals. Nevertheless, the routine use of high-tech devices for aiding ophthalmological diagnosis and therapy is not a reality within the subspecialty of strabismus. Thus, this work presents a methodology to aid in diagnosis of syndromic strabismus through digital imaging. Two hundred images belonging to 40 patients previously diagnosed by an specialist were tested. The method was demonstrated to be 88 % accurate in esotropias identification (ET), 100 % for exotropias (XT), 80.33 % for hypertropias (HT), and 83.33 % for hypotropias (HoT). The overall average error was 5.6Δ and 3.83Δ for horizontal and vertical deviations, respectively, against the measures presented by the specialist.

  7. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  8. [A computer-aided image diagnosis and study system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangyong; Xie, Zhengxiang

    2004-08-01

    The revolution in information processing, particularly the digitizing of medicine, has changed the medical study, work and management. This paper reports a method to design a system for computer-aided image diagnosis and study. Combined with some good idea of graph-text system and picture archives communicate system (PACS), the system was realized and used for "prescription through computer", "managing images" and "reading images under computer and helping the diagnosis". Also typical examples were constructed in a database and used to teach the beginners. The system was developed by the visual developing tools based on object oriented programming (OOP) and was carried into operation on the Windows 9X platform. The system possesses friendly man-machine interface.

  9. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic microcalcification clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallergi, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis techniques in medical imaging are developed for the automated differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and go beyond computer-aided detection by providing cancer likelihood for a detected lesion given image and/or patient characteristics. The goal of this study was the development and evaluation of a computer-aided detection and diagnosis algorithm for mammographic calcification clusters. The emphasis was on the diagnostic component, although the algorithm included automated detection, segmentation, and classification steps based on wavelet filters and artificial neural networks. Classification features were selected primarily from descriptors of the morphology of the individual calcifications and the distribution of the cluster. Thirteen such descriptors were selected and, combined with patient's age, were given as inputs to the network. The features were ranked and evaluated for the classification of 100 high-resolution, digitized mammograms containing biopsy-proven, benign and malignant calcification clusters. The classification performance of the algorithm reached a 100% sensitivity for a specificity of 85% (receiver operating characteristic area index A z =0.98±0.01). Tests of the algorithm under various conditions showed that the selected features were robust morphological and distributional descriptors, relatively insensitive to segmentation and detection errors such as false positive signals. The algorithm could exceed the performance of a similar visual analysis system that was used as basis for development and, combined with a simple image standardization process, could be applied to images from different imaging systems and film digitizers with similar sensitivity and specificity rates

  11. [Computer-aided Diagnosis and New Electronic Stethoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Pi, Xitian; Ao, Yilu; Wang, Zi

    2017-05-30

    Auscultation is an important method in early-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and respiratory system disease. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis of new electronic auscultation system. It has developed an electronic stethoscope based on condenser microphone and the relevant intelligent analysis software. It has implemented many functions that combined with Bluetooth, OLED, SD card storage technologies, such as real-time heart and lung sounds auscultation in three modes, recording and playback, auscultation volume control, wireless transmission. The intelligent analysis software based on PC computer utilizes C# programming language and adopts SQL Server as the background database. It has realized play and waveform display of the auscultation sound. By calculating the heart rate, extracting the characteristic parameters of T1, T2, T12, T11, it can analyze whether the heart sound is normal, and then generate diagnosis report. Finally the auscultation sound and diagnosis report can be sent to mailbox of other doctors, which can carry out remote diagnosis. The whole system has features of fully function, high portability, good user experience, and it is beneficial to promote the use of electronic stethoscope in the hospital, at the same time, the system can also be applied to auscultate teaching and other occasions.

  12. Computed tomography for diagnosis of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Schonlau, R.; Moedder, U.

    1994-01-01

    To check the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the intestine, CT findings in ten patients with coloscopically proven CMV infection were reviewed. All patients were chronically ill men with AIDS. In nine of the ten cases CT scans of the small intestine and/or colon disclosed abnormalities. The predominant alteration (9/9) was a symmetric wall thickening in the bowel segments involved (10-30 mm). The location and extent showed good agreement with the inflammatory areas seen on coloscopy. The cecum and terminal ileum were the regions most frequently affected. In seven of the nine patients with CT abnormalities CT revealed pericolonic inflammation, particularly around the cecum. Lymph nodes were increased but not enlarged. Comparison of the findings in intestinal CMV infection with those in other AIDS-related diseases suggests that CT may be to limit the differential diagnosis. Abdominal CT serves as suitable primary imaging modality for the initial evaluation of patients with AIDS and abdominal symptoms of unknow etiology. (orig.)

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  14. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2017-03-08

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners. ©Amos Cahan, James J Cimino. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 08.03.2017.

  15. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  16. Present state of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Topics of computer-aided detection (CAD) are reviewed. Commercially available, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CAD systems are for fields of breast cancer (mammography), chest (flat X-ray and CT imaging) and colon (polyp detection). In Japan, only mammography CAD is approved. Efficacy of CAD is controversial, for which reliable database is important, and its construction is under development in various medical fields. Digitalized image is now popularized, which conceivably leads to improve the cost-effectiveness of diagnosis with CAD. For incentive, approval for health insurance would be the case as seen in the increased CAD sale by R2 Technology Co., and MHLW actually assists facilities to introduce the reading-aid system of mammography by sharing a half of its cost. There are 2 big projects for CAD study supported by MECSST, which the author concerns. One is the development of diagnostic aid for the multi-dimensional medical images where the multi-organ, multi-disease CAD system is considered. The other involves the CAD in brain MRI, in breast US and in eyeground picture. It is not in so far future for patients and doctors to fully enjoy the benefit of CAD. (R.T.)

  17. ICADx: interpretable computer aided diagnosis of breast masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Lee, Hakmin; Kim, Hak Gu; Ro, Yong Man

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a novel computer aided diagnosis (CADx) framework is devised to investigate interpretability for classifying breast masses. Recently, a deep learning technology has been successfully applied to medical image analysis including CADx. Existing deep learning based CADx approaches, however, have a limitation in explaining the diagnostic decision. In real clinical practice, clinical decisions could be made with reasonable explanation. So current deep learning approaches in CADx are limited in real world deployment. In this paper, we investigate interpretability in CADx with the proposed interpretable CADx (ICADx) framework. The proposed framework is devised with a generative adversarial network, which consists of interpretable diagnosis network and synthetic lesion generative network to learn the relationship between malignancy and a standardized description (BI-RADS). The lesion generative network and the interpretable diagnosis network compete in an adversarial learning so that the two networks are improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated on public mammogram database. Experimental results showed that the proposed ICADx framework could provide the interpretability of mass as well as mass classification. It was mainly attributed to the fact that the proposed method was effectively trained to find the relationship between malignancy and interpretations via the adversarial learning. These results imply that the proposed ICADx framework could be a promising approach to develop the CADx system.

  18. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  19. Development of computer-aided diagnosis systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu; Arimura, Hidetaka; Kumazawa, Seiji; Morishita, Junji; Sakai, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is a practice done by medical doctors based on computer image analysis as the second opinion, and CAD studies have been government-adopted projects. CAD is already on popular practice in the cancers of the breast by mammography, lung by flat plate and CT images, and large bowel by CT colonoscopy. This paper describes four examples of authors' actual CAD investigations. First, the temporal subtraction image analysis by CAD is for the detection of abnormality in the chest by radiographs taken at different times. Examples are shown in cases of interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer out of 34 patients with diffuse lung diseases. Second, development of CAD system is recorded for detection of aneurysm by the brain MR angiography (MRA). Third is the CAD detection of fascicles in cerebral white matters by the diffuse tensor MRI, which will help the surgery for brain tumors. Final is an automated patient recognition based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication systems. This is on the radiograph giving biological fingerprints of the patients. CAD will be applied in a wider field of medicare not only in imaging technology. (T.I)

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of colonic polyp by CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of National CT Colonography Trial, by American College of Radiology Imaging Network, 2006 (www.acrin.org/6664 protocol), possibly leads to the introduction of colorectal cancer screening in the US because CT colonography (CTCG) has been approved in the health insurance system. This paper describes the outline of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of colonic polyp by CTCG, its polyp detectability and future aspects. CTCG essentially derives from the virtual, abdominal 3D CT images and gives as many as about 500 images/patient, in the reading of which CAD support the expert. CAD technology in CTCG is said to have been essentially established in the first half of 2000s, which involves the cleansing of fecal tagging effect, extraction of the colonal wall from the image, detection of suspicious polyp, reduction of false-positive findings and displaying of the detected polyp. The detectability is thought to be at comparable level to expert's. The last displaying is done on the user-interface like Colon CAD Workstation. More efficient expert's reading with CAD, imaging without previous gut cleansing, detection of the flat lesion and further reduction of false-positive are the forthcoming tasks in clinical practice. Significance of CTCG is becoming in realization and its usage with CAD is thought to be more popular in Japan. (R.T.)

  1. Improved mammographic interpretation of masses using computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leichter, I.; Fields, S.; Novak, B.; Nirel, R.; Bamberger, P.; Lederman, R.; Buchbinder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computerized image enhancement, to investigate criteria for discriminating benign from malignant mammographic findings by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and to test the role of quantitative analysis in improving the accuracy of interpretation of mass lesions. Forty sequential mammographically detected mass lesions referred for biopsy were digitized at high resolution for computerized evaluation. A prototype CAD system which included image enhancement algorithms was used for a better visualization of the lesions. Quantitative features which characterize the spiculation were automatically extracted by the CAD system for a user-defined region of interest (ROI). Reference ranges for malignant and benign cases were acquired from data generated by 214 known retrospective cases. The extracted parameters together with the reference ranges were presented to the radiologist for the analysis of 40 prospective cases. A pattern recognition scheme based on discriminant analysis was trained on the 214 retrospective cases, and applied to the prospective cases. Accuracy of interpretation with and without the CAD system, as well as the performance of the pattern recognition scheme, were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. A significant difference (p z ) increased significantly (p z for the results of the pattern recognition scheme was higher (0.95). The results indicate that there is an improved accuracy of diagnosis with the use of the mammographic CAD system above that of the unassisted radiologist. Our findings suggest that objective quantitative features extracted from digitized mammographic findings may help in differentiating between benign and malignant masses, and can assist the radiologist in the interpretation of mass lesions. (orig.)

  2. Improved mammographic interpretation of masses using computer-aided diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichter, I. [Dept. of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology (Israel); Fields, S.; Novak, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus Jerusalem (Israel); Nirel, R. [Dept. of Statistics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel); Bamberger, P. [Dept. of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, Jerusalem (Israel); Lederman, R. [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, S. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computerized image enhancement, to investigate criteria for discriminating benign from malignant mammographic findings by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and to test the role of quantitative analysis in improving the accuracy of interpretation of mass lesions. Forty sequential mammographically detected mass lesions referred for biopsy were digitized at high resolution for computerized evaluation. A prototype CAD system which included image enhancement algorithms was used for a better visualization of the lesions. Quantitative features which characterize the spiculation were automatically extracted by the CAD system for a user-defined region of interest (ROI). Reference ranges for malignant and benign cases were acquired from data generated by 214 known retrospective cases. The extracted parameters together with the reference ranges were presented to the radiologist for the analysis of 40 prospective cases. A pattern recognition scheme based on discriminant analysis was trained on the 214 retrospective cases, and applied to the prospective cases. Accuracy of interpretation with and without the CAD system, as well as the performance of the pattern recognition scheme, were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. A significant difference (p < 0.005) was found between features extracted by the CAD system for benign and malignant cases. Specificity of the CAD-assisted diagnosis improved significantly (p < 0.02) from 14 % for the conventional assessment to 50 %, and the positive predictive value increased from 0.47 to 0.62 (p < 0.04). The area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 0.66 for the conventional assessment to 0.81 for the CAD-assisted analysis. The A{sub z} for the results of the pattern recognition scheme was higher (0.95). The results indicate that there is an improved accuracy of diagnosis with the use of the mammographic CAD system above that

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  4. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Combining Digital Mammography and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Huang, "Breast cancer diagnosis using self-organizing map for sonography." Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 405 (2000). 20 K. Horsch, M.L. Giger, L.A. Venta ...L.A. Venta , "Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography." Acad Radiol 11, 272 (2004). 22 W. Chen...418. 27. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer: A Multi-Center Demonstrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Floyd, Carey

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus has been to gather data from multiple sites in order to verify and whether the artificial neural network computer aid to the diagnosis of breast cancer can be translated between locations...

  6. Use of computer-aided x-ray diagnosis in oncology. [60 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, K H [Forschungsinstitut fuer Lungenkrankheiten und Tuberkulose, Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-01-01

    The introduction of computer-aided diagnostic reveals new perspectives for diagnostic decisions. The results of the hitherto used mathematical diagnostic models are represented. The Bayes's theorem as the most used model exhibited very different, in part unsatisfactory results. More convenient seem to be multivariate models, like discriminant analysis. Hitherto the computer-aided diagnosis was used in a relative small number of problems concerning differential diagnosis. It is necessary to compare the efficiency of the different mathematical-statistical methods.

  7. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of pancreatic and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Luis Lancho Tofé

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about cancer diagnosis the most important thing is early diagnosis to prevent cancer cells from spreading. We may also consider the high cost of diagnostic tests. Our approach seeks to address both problems. It uses a software based on Bayesian networks that simulates the causeeffect relationships and gets the chance of suffering a pancreatic cancer or lung cancer. This software would support doctors and save a lot of time and resources.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis of pneumoconiosis abnormalities extracted from chest radiographs scanned with a CCD scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Koji; Minami, Masahide; Nakamura, Munehiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis for pneumoconiosis radiographs obtained with a common charge-coupled devices (CCD) scanner. Since the current computer-aided diagnosis systems of pneumoconiosis are not practical for medical doctors due to high costs of usage for a special scanner, we propose a novel system which measures abnormalities of pneumoconiosis from lung images obtained with a common CCD scanner. Experimental results of discriminations between normal and abnormal cases for 56 right-lung images including 6 standard pneumoconiosis images have shown that the proposed abnormalities are well extracted according to the standards of pneumoconiosis categories. (author)

  10. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Combining Mammography and Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    for sonography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 405-411 2000. 20K. Horsch, M. L. Giger, L. A. Venta , and C. J. Vyborny, “Computerized diagnosis of breast...lesions on ultrasound,” Med. Phys. 29, 157-164 2002. 21K. Horsch, M. L. Giger, C. J. Vyborny, and L. A. Venta , “Performance of computer-aided...Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography. Acad Radiol

  11. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Solid Breast Lesions Using an Ultrasonic Multi-Feature Analysis Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ultrasound. 1. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION Breast cancer affects one of every eight women, it kills one of 29 women in the United States, and is the leading...feature analysis procedure for computer-aided diagnosis of solid breast lesions,” Ultrason Imag, 2010 (In Press). 22. C. B. Shakespeare , personal

  12. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis.

  13. Computed tomography in diagnosis of lung pneumocystosis in hiv-infected and aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramnyij, Yi.O.; Limarjev, S.V.; Voron'zhev, Yi.O.; Sorochan, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issue concerning epidemiology of pneumocystosis, clinical and radiological features of changes in the lungs in treatment of opportunistic infections. Indications for the use of computed tomography in HIV-infected and AIDS patients, radiation CT semiotics of changes in lung pneumocystosis, the possibility of establishing of exacted diagnosis in pneumocysosis of the lungs when using CT, differential diagnosis issues have been considered in the paper

  14. Computer-Aided Characterization and Diagnosis of Diffuse Liver Diseases Based on Ultrasound Imaging: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Puja; Mittal, Deepti; Ananthasivan, Rupa

    2016-04-19

    Diffuse liver diseases, such as hepatitis, fatty liver, and cirrhosis, are becoming a leading cause of fatality and disability all over the world. Early detection and diagnosis of these diseases is extremely important to save lives and improve effectiveness of treatment. Ultrasound imaging, a noninvasive diagnostic technique, is the most commonly used modality for examining liver abnormalities. However, the accuracy of ultrasound-based diagnosis depends highly on expertise of radiologists. Computer-aided diagnosis systems based on ultrasound imaging assist in fast diagnosis, provide a reliable "second opinion" for experts, and act as an effective tool to measure response of treatment on patients undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we first describe appearance of liver abnormalities in ultrasound images and state the practical issues encountered in characterization of diffuse liver diseases that can be addressed by software algorithms. We then discuss computer-aided diagnosis in general with features and classifiers relevant to diffuse liver diseases. In later sections of this paper, we review the published studies and describe the key findings of those studies. A concise tabular summary comparing image database, features extraction, feature selection, and classification algorithms presented in the published studies is also exhibited. Finally, we conclude with a summary of key findings and directions for further improvements in the areas of accuracy and objectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Diagnosis by computer-aided tomography in patients with carcinomas in the rectum-sigma area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnann, H.; Huebener, K.H.; Ahlemann, L.M.; Harms, S.

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective study on the patients at Tuebingen between 1977 and 1980, the diagnostic value of computer-aided tomography was investigated in 232 cases of carcinomas in the rectum-sigma area. 192 examinations were post-operative. Whether computer-aided tomography will catch on as a staging measure in the pre-operative phase must for now remain unanswered until prospective studies on a large number of patients have been carried through. However, it is useful as a decision-taking aid as regards the choice of the operation method and to clarify whether the carcinoma is operable. Far more important in view of the known high rate of recurvency and metastatic spread seems to be the role of computer-aided tomography in the aftercare especially of those patients who had their rectum removed: the diagnosis of the recidivation permits direct therapeutic action (a second operation, radiation therapy) at an early date. The search for clinically not previously known recidivations revealed that computer-aided tomography had in 124 patients with operated rectal carcinoma a high sensitivity of 98 per cent, a specificity of 87 per cent and an accuracy of 91.9 percent. How long after the operation CAT checks should be carried through is quite as uncertain at present as the role of CAT in the staging of those tumors. The authors recommend intervals of 2-3 months within the first two post-operative years. (orig.) [de

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of early knee osteoarthritis based on MRI T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yixiao; Yang, Ran; Jia, Sen; Li, Zhanjun; Zhou, Zhiyang; Lou, Ting

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the method of computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA (OA: osteoarthritis). Based on the technique of MRI (MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging) T2 Mapping, through computer image processing, feature extraction, calculation and analysis via constructing a classifier, an effective computer-aided diagnosis method for knee OA was created to assist doctors in their accurate, timely and convenient detection of potential risk of OA. In order to evaluate this method, a total of 1380 data from the MRI images of 46 samples of knee joints were collected. These data were then modeled through linear regression on an offline general platform by the use of the ImageJ software, and a map of the physical parameter T2 was reconstructed. After the image processing, the T2 values of ten regions in the WORMS (WORMS: Whole-organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score) areas of the articular cartilage were extracted to be used as the eigenvalues in data mining. Then,a RBF (RBF: Radical Basis Function) network classifier was built to classify and identify the collected data. The classifier exhibited a final identification accuracy of 75%, indicating a good result of assisting diagnosis. Since the knee OA classifier constituted by a weights-directly-determined RBF neural network didn't require any iteration, our results demonstrated that the optimal weights, appropriate center and variance could be yielded through simple procedures. Furthermore, the accuracy for both the training samples and the testing samples from the normal group could reach 100%. Finally, the classifier was superior both in time efficiency and classification performance to the frequently used classifiers based on iterative learning. Thus it was suitable to be used as an aid to computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of liver tumors on computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Chen, Hong-Hao; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Yang, Ming-Yang; Lo, Chung-Ming; Ko, Wei-Chun; Lee, Yee-Fan; Liu, Kao-Lang; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Liver cancer is the tenth most common cancer in the USA, and its incidence has been increasing for several decades. Early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease are very important. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most common and robust imaging techniques for the detection of liver cancer. CT scanners can provide multiple-phase sequential scans of the whole liver. In this study, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to diagnose liver cancer using the features of tumors obtained from multiphase CT images. A total of 71 histologically-proven liver tumors including 49 benign and 22 malignant lesions were evaluated with the proposed CAD system to evaluate its performance. Tumors were identified by the user and then segmented using a region growing algorithm. After tumor segmentation, three kinds of features were obtained for each tumor, including texture, shape, and kinetic curve. The texture was quantified using 3 dimensional (3-D) texture data of the tumor based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Compactness, margin, and an elliptic model were used to describe the 3-D shape of the tumor. The kinetic curve was established from each phase of tumor and represented as variations in density between each phase. Backward elimination was used to select the best combination of features, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to classify the tumors with leave-one-out cross validation. The accuracy and sensitivity for the texture were 71.82% and 68.18%, respectively, which were better than for the shape and kinetic curve under closed specificity. Combining all of the features achieved the highest accuracy (58/71, 81.69%), sensitivity (18/22, 81.82%), and specificity (40/49, 81.63%). The Az value of combining all features was 0.8713. Combining texture, shape, and kinetic curve features may be able to differentiate benign from malignant tumors in the liver using our proposed CAD system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of periapical cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, E; Kayikcioglu, T; Kayipmaz, S

    2017-07-01

    the new dataset selected for this study. The studies mentioned in this article, along with the selected 3D dataset, 3D statistics calculated from the dataset, and performance results of the different classifiers, comprise an important contribution to the field of computer-aided diagnosis of dental apical lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep learning for cardiac computer-aided diagnosis: benefits, issues & solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Brian C S; Then, Patrick H H

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the top causes of deaths worldwide. In developing nations and rural areas, difficulties with diagnosis and treatment are made worse due to the deficiency of healthcare facilities. A viable solution to this issue is telemedicine, which involves delivering health care and sharing medical knowledge at a distance. Additionally, mHealth, the utilization of mobile devices for medical care, has also proven to be a feasible choice. The integration of telemedicine, mHealth and computer-aided diagnosis systems with the fields of machine and deep learning has enabled the creation of effective services that are adaptable to a multitude of scenarios. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of heart disease diagnosis and management, especially within the context of rural healthcare, as well as discuss the benefits, issues and solutions of implementing deep learning algorithms to improve the efficacy of relevant medical applications.

  20. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ştefănescu, Daniela; Streba, Costin; Cârţână, Elena Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose...... the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues. RESULTS: Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD.......14, validation: 17.42, testing: 15.48. The diagnosis accuracy error was 15.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Computed aided diagnosis via fractal analysis of glandular structures can complement the traditional histological and minimally invasive imaging methods. A larger dataset from colorectal and other pathologies should...

  1. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ştefănescu

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is becoming a popular method for optical biopsy of digestive mucosa for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Computer aided diagnosis of CLE images, using image processing and fractal analysis can be used to quantify the histological structures in the CLE generated images. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic diagnosis algorithm of colorectal cancer (CRC, based on fractal analysis and neural network modeling of the CLE-generated colon mucosa images.We retrospectively analyzed a series of 1035 artifact-free endomicroscopy images, obtained during CLE examinations from normal mucosa (356 images and tumor regions (679 images. The images were processed using a computer aided diagnosis (CAD medical imaging system in order to obtain an automatic diagnosis. The CAD application includes image reading and processing functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues.Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD. For this purpose, seven geometric parameters were defined for each image: fractal dimension, lacunarity, contrast correlation, energy, homogeneity, and feature number. Of the seven parameters only contrast, homogeneity and feature number were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Next, a two-layer feed forward neural network was used to train and automatically diagnose the malignant samples, based on the seven parameters tested. The neural network operations were cross

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis for screening of breast cancer on mammograms. Current status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Described are the history, current status and future potential of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) with particular emphasis on screening mammography for breast cancer. The systematic basic and clinical studies on CAD started around 20 years before and the significance of CAD has been well recognized to be evident because of human errors occurring in the visual check by doctors of so numerous screening images. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy by CAD has been demonstrated by statistical analysis of ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves. In mammography, reviewed is detection of the early stage breast cancer like microcalcifications by computer alone, by CAD plus one or more doctors' reading, and by practical clinical CAD diagnosis. For differential diagnosis for malignancy, microcalcifications and masses are given their characteristic image properties and the results are that the Az-value (area under ROC curve) is higher in CAD than in doctor's (0.80 vs 0.61) in the former and, doctor's (0.93) is improved by CAD to 0.96 in the latter masses. In this diagnosis, similar images in the digital database are useful and the database can learn by repeated input of individual data by neural network. Detection of the lesion and especially, its differential diagnosis will be more important in parallel to database development and CAD will be also useful for doctor' carrier as an educational mean. (R.T.)

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and data base system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Niki, N.; Eguchi, K.; Masuda, H.; Machida, S.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information. (author)

  4. Computer-aided tomographic diagnosis of lymphadenopathies in malignant nonhodgkin's lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremisin, V.M.; Mazurov, V.K.; Anosov, N.A.; Savello, V.E.; Belov, A.F.; Novikov, A.A.; Mel'nichenko, V.Ya.; Nikolaevich, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The potentialities of computer-aided tomography (CAT) in the diagnosis of lymphomas were studied. A total of 223 patients with disseminated lymphadenopathy were examined (78 with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 48 with Hodgkin'sn disease, 54 with metastatic involvement of the lymph nodes, 18 with HIV infection, and 25 with reactive and inflammatory lymphadenopathy). CAT helped precisely assess the dissemination of the pathological process and disease stage in patients with malignant lymphomas, permitted follow up the time course of the disease, and facilitated differentiation of the condition from other diseases manifesting by disseminated lymphadenopathies

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Brain Diseases in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Yamashita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basics and recent researches of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems for assisting neuroradiologists in detection of brain diseases, e.g., asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and multiple sclerosis (MS, in magnetic resonance (MR images. The CAD systems consist of image feature extraction based on image processing techniques and machine learning classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines. We introduce useful examples of the CAD systems in the neuroradiology, and conclude with possibilities in the future of the CAD systems for brain diseases in MR images.

  6. [Computer aided diagnosis model for lung tumor based on ensemble convolutional neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Huiling; Wu, Cuiying; Yang, Pengfei

    2017-08-01

    The convolutional neural network (CNN) could be used on computer-aided diagnosis of lung tumor with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), which can provide accurate quantitative analysis to compensate for visual inertia and defects in gray-scale sensitivity, and help doctors diagnose accurately. Firstly, parameter migration method is used to build three CNNs (CT-CNN, PET-CNN, and PET/CT-CNN) for lung tumor recognition in CT, PET, and PET/CT image, respectively. Then, we aimed at CT-CNN to obtain the appropriate model parameters for CNN training through analysis the influence of model parameters such as epochs, batchsize and image scale on recognition rate and training time. Finally, three single CNNs are used to construct ensemble CNN, and then lung tumor PET/CT recognition was completed through relative majority vote method and the performance between ensemble CNN and single CNN was compared. The experiment results show that the ensemble CNN is better than single CNN on computer-aided diagnosis of lung tumor.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  8. Standardized evaluation of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bron, Esther E.; Smits, Marion; van der Flier, Wiesje M.

    2015-01-01

    algorithms based on a clinically representative multi-center data set. Using clinical practice as the starting point, the goal was to reproduce the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated algorithms for multi-class classification of three diagnostic groups: patients with probable Alzheimer's disease...... of aging). The best performing algorithm yielded an accuracy of 63.0% and an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) of 78.8%. In general, the best performances were achieved using feature extraction based on voxel-based morphometry or a combination of features that included volume......Abstract Algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI have demonstrated high performance in the literature, but are difficult to compare as different data sets and methodology were used for evaluation. In addition, it is unclear how the algorithms would perform...

  9. Image processing algorithm of computer-aided diagnosis in lung cancer screening by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an image processing algorithm for computer-aided diagnosis of lung cancer by X-ray CT is described, which has been developed by my research group for these 10 years or so. CT lung images gathered at the mass screening stage are almost all normal, and lung cancer nodules will be found as the rate of less than 10%. To pick up such a very rare nodules with the high accuracy, a very sensitive detection algorithm is requested which is detectable local and very slight variation of the image. On the contrary, such a sensitive detection algorithm introduces a bad effect that a lot of normal shadows will be detected as abnormal shadows. In this paper I describe how to compromise this complicated subject and realize a practical computer-aided diagnosis tool by the image processing algorithm developed by my research group. Especially, I will mainly focus my description to the principle and characteristics of the Quoit filter which is newly developed as a high sensitive filter by my group. (author)

  10. Diagnóstico auxiliado por computador na radiologia Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo-Marques

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Vários desenvolvimentos tecnológicos estão convergindo de forma a aumentar a influência da área de imagens nas pesquisas biomédicas e na medicina clínica. Muitos pesquisadores têm trabalhado no desenvolvimento de sistemas computadorizados para detecção automatizada e quantificação de anormalidades em imagens radiológicas. Estes sistemas são dedicados ao diagnóstico auxiliado por computador. Este artigo discute os conceitos básicos relacionados ao diagnóstico auxiliado por computador e apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o assunto.Several technological developments are contributing to increase the use of imaging techniques in biomedical research and clinical medicine. Many investigators have attempted to develop computerized routines for automated detection and quantitative analysis of abnormalities in radiological images. These routines have been referred to as computer-aided diagnosis. In this paper we discuss the basic concepts of computer-aided diagnosis and review the literature.

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging: historical review, current status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. In this article, the motivation and philosophy for early development of CAD schemes are presented together with the current status and future potential of CAD in a PACS environment. With CAD, radiologists use the computer output as a "second opinion" and make the final decisions. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and computers, whereas automated computer diagnosis is a concept based on computer algorithms only. With CAD, the performance by computers does not have to be comparable to or better than that by physicians, but needs to be complementary to that by physicians. In fact, a large number of CAD systems have been employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers on mammograms. A CAD scheme that makes use of lateral chest images has the potential to improve the overall performance in the detection of lung nodules when combined with another CAD scheme for PA chest images. Because vertebral fractures can be detected reliably by computer on lateral chest radiographs, radiologists' accuracy in the detection of vertebral fractures would be improved by the use of CAD, and thus early diagnosis of osteoporosis would become possible. In MRA, a CAD system has been developed for assisting radiologists in the detection of intracranial aneurysms. On successive bone scan images, a CAD scheme for detection of interval changes has been developed by use of temporal subtraction images. In the future, many CAD schemes could be assembled as packages and implemented as a part of PACS. For example, the package for chest CAD may include the computerized detection of lung nodules, interstitial opacities, cardiomegaly, vertebral fractures, and interval changes in chest radiographs as well as the computerized classification of benign and malignant nodules and the differential diagnosis of

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  13. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  14. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis

  15. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoitsis, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece)]. E-mail: stoitsis@biosim.ntua.gr; Valavanis, Ioannis [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Mougiakakou, Stavroula G. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Golemati, Spyretta [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Nikita, Alexandra [University of Athens, Medical School 152 28 Athens (Greece); Nikita, Konstantina S. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  16. Computer- Aided diagnosis system for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Hosseini M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the most prevalent pulmonary diseases. Use of an automatic system for the detection and diagnosis of the disease will be beneficial to the patients' treatment decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD of the disease and determination of its severity axial CT scan images."n"nMethods: In this study, 24 lung CT scans in full inspiratory and expiratory states were performed. Variations in the normalized pattern of the lungs' external parenchyma were exploited as a feature for COPD diagnosis. Subsequently, a Bayesian classifier was used to classify variations into two normal and abnormal patterns for the discrimination of patients and healthy individuals. Finally, the accuracy of the classification was assessed statistically. "n"nResults: With the proposed method, the lungs parenchymal elasticity and air-trapping were determined quantitatively. The more this feature tended to zero, the more severe air-trapping and obstructive pulmonary disease is. By analyzing CT images in the healthy and patient groups, we calculated the hard threshold for the diagnosis of the disease. Clinical results

  17. Development of a computer aided diagnosis model for prostate cancer classification on multi-parametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, R.; Soetemans, D.; Bauman, G. S.; Gibson, E.; Gaed, M.; Moussa, M.; Gomez, J. A.; Chin, J. L.; Pautler, S.; Ward, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-parametric MRI (mp-MRI) is becoming a standard in contemporary prostate cancer screening and diagnosis, and has shown to aid physicians in cancer detection. It offers many advantages over traditional systematic biopsy, which has shown to have very high clinical false-negative rates of up to 23% at all stages of the disease. However beneficial, mp-MRI is relatively complex to interpret and suffers from inter-observer variability in lesion localization and grading. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed as a solution as they have the power to perform deterministic quantitative image analysis. We measured the accuracy of such a system validated using accurately co-registered whole-mount digitized histology. We trained a logistic linear classifier (LOGLC), support vector machine (SVC), k-nearest neighbour (KNN) and random forest classifier (RFC) in a four part ROI based experiment against: 1) cancer vs. non-cancer, 2) high-grade (Gleason score ≥4+3) vs. low-grade cancer (Gleason score work will form the basis for a tool that enhances the radiologist's ability to detect malignancies, potentially improving biopsy guidance, treatment selection, and focal therapy for prostate cancer patients, maximizing the potential for cure and increasing quality of life.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John O.; Li, Chin-Shang; Helton, Kathleen J.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative MR imaging methods to develop a computer-aided diagnosis tool to differentiate white matter (WM) hyperintensities as either leukoencephalopathy (LE) or normal maturational processes in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with intravenous high dose methotrexate. A combined imaging set consisting of T1, T2, PD, and FLAIR MR images and WM, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid a priori maps from a spatially normalized atlas were analyzed with a neural network segmentation based on a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map. Segmented regions were manually classified to identify the most hyperintense WM region and the normal appearing genu region. Signal intensity differences normalized to the genu within each examination were generated for two time points in 203 children. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithm with the agglomeration method of McQuitty was used to divide data from the first examination into normal appearing or LE groups. A C-support vector machine (C-SVM) was then trained on the first examination data and used to classify the data from the second examination. The overall accuracy of the computer-aided detection tool was 83.5% (299/358) with sensitivity to normal WM of 86.9% (199/229) and specificity to LE of 77.5% (100/129) when compared to the readings of two expert observers. These results suggest that subtle therapy-induced leukoencephalopathy can be objectively and reproducibly detected in children treated for cancer using this computer-aided detection approach based on relative differences in quantitative signal intensity measures normalized within each examination.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  20. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverso, A; Lopez Torres, E; Cerello, P; Fantacci, M E

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists. (paper)

  1. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using x-ray darkfield radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for classification of pulmonary disease for grating-based x-ray radiography. In addition to conventional transmission radiography, the grating-based technique provides a dark-field imaging modality, which utilizes the scattering...... properties of the x-rays. This modality has shown great potential for diagnosing early stage emphysema and fibrosis in mouse lungs in vivo. The CAD scheme is developed to assist radiologists and other medical experts to develop new diagnostic methods when evaluating grating-based images. The scheme consists...... of three stages: (i) automatic lung segmentation; (ii) feature extraction from lung shape and dark-field image intensities; (iii) classification between healthy, emphysema and fibrosis lungs. A study of 102 mice was conducted with 34 healthy, 52 emphysema and 16 fibrosis subjects. Each image was manually...

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa

    2012-01-01

    higher performance than the corresponding CAD software trained with a European database for the analysis of bone scans from Japanese patients. These results could at least partly be caused by the physical differences between Japanese and European patients resulting in less influence of attenuation......Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...... scans from Japanese patients.The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from...

  4. Detection Efficiency of Microcalcification using Computer Aided Diagnosis in the Breast Ultrasonography Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Soo; Ko, Seong Jin; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Seok Yoon; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Hyung Hu

    2012-01-01

    Digital Mammography makes it possible to reproduce the entire breast image. And it is used to detect microcalcification and mass which are the most important point of view of nonpalpable early breast cancer, so it has been used as the primary screening test of breast disease. It is reported that microcalcification of breast lesion is important in diagnosis of early breast cancer. In this study, six types of texture features algorithms are used to detect microcalcification on breast US images and the study has analyzed recognition rate of lesion between normal US images and other US images which microcalification is seen. As a result of the experiment, Computer aided diagnosis recognition rate that distinguishes mammography and breast US disease was considerably high 70-98%. The average contrast and entropy parameters were low in ROC analysis, but sensitivity and specificity of four types parameters were over 90%. Therefore it is possible to detect microcalcification on US images. If not only six types of texture features algorithms but also the research of additional parameter algorithm is being continually proceeded and basis of practical use on CAD is being prepared, it can be a important meaning as pre-reading. Also, it is considered very useful things for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  5. EEG-Based Computer Aided Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Wavelet, Entropy, and ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Djemal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder with core impairments in the social relationships, communication, imagination, or flexibility of thought and restricted repertoire of activity and interest. In this work, a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD of autism ‎based on electroencephalography (EEG signal analysis is investigated. The proposed method is based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT, entropy (En, and artificial neural network (ANN. DWT is used to decompose EEG signals into approximation and details coefficients to obtain EEG subbands. The feature vector is constructed by computing Shannon entropy values from each EEG subband. ANN classifies the corresponding EEG signal into normal or autistic based on the extracted features. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for assisting autism diagnosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve metric is used to quantify the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method obtained promising results tested using real dataset provided by King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

  6. Does positron emission tomography/computed tomography aid the diagnosis of prosthetic valve infective endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, Damian; Chacko, Jacob; Uppal, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) aids the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE)? A total of 107 publications were found using the reported search, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. The reported outcome of all studies was a final diagnosis of confirmed endocarditis on follow-up. All the six studies were non-randomized, single-centre, observational studies and thus represented level 3 evidence. The diagnostic capability of PET/CT for PVE was compared with that of the modified Duke Criteria and echocardiography, and reported in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. All studies demonstrated an increased sensitivity for the diagnosis of PVE when PET/CT was combined with the modified Duke Criteria on admission. A higher SUVmax on PET was found to be significantly associated with a confirmed diagnosis of endocarditis and an additional diagnostic benefit of PET/CT angiography over conventional PET/non-enhanced CT is reported due to improved anatomical resolution. However, PET/CT was found to be unreliable in the early postoperative period due to its inability to distinguish between infection and residual postoperative inflammatory changes. PET/CT was also found to be poor at diagnosing cases of native valve endocarditis. We conclude that PET/CT aids in the diagnosis of PVE when combined with the modified Duke Criteria on admission by increasing the diagnostic sensitivity. The diagnostic ability of PET/CT can be potentiated by the use of PET/CTA; however, its use may be unreliable in the early postoperative period or in native valve endocarditis. © The Author 2016. Published by

  7. Comparison of image features calculated in different dimensions for computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; Lee, Michael C.; Boroczky, Lilla; Cann, Aaron D.; Borczuk, Alain C.; Kawut, Steven M.; Powell, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Features calculated from different dimensions of images capture quantitative information of the lung nodules through one or multiple image slices. Previously published computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have used either twodimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) features, though there has been little systematic analysis of the relevance of the different dimensions and of the impact of combining different dimensions. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of combining features calculated in different dimensions. We have performed CADx experiments on 125 pulmonary nodules imaged using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). The CADx system computed 192 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image features of the lesions. Leave-one-out experiments were performed using five different combinations of features from different dimensions: 2D, 3D, 2.5D, 2D+3D, and 2D+3D+2.5D. The experiments were performed ten times for each group. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the performance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare the classification results from these five different combinations of features. Our results showed that 3D image features generate the best result compared with other combinations of features. This suggests one approach to potentially reducing the dimensionality of the CADx data space and the computational complexity of the system while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Based on Convolutional Neural Network System for Colorectal Polyp Classification: Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Yoriaki; Handa, Hisashi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Nomura, Takanobu; Kitahashi, Misaki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Okamoto, Ayana; Minami, Tomohiro; Kono, Masashi; Arizumi, Tadaaki; Takenaka, Mamoru; Hagiwara, Satoru; Matsui, Shigenaga; Nishida, Naoshi; Kashida, Hiroshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is becoming a next-generation tool for the diagnosis of human disease. CAD for colon polyps has been suggested as a particularly useful tool for trainee colonoscopists, as the use of a CAD system avoids the complications associated with endoscopic resections. In addition to conventional CAD, a convolutional neural network (CNN) system utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) has been developing rapidly over the past 5 years. We attempted to generate a unique CNN-CAD system with an AI function that studied endoscopic images extracted from movies obtained with colonoscopes used in routine examinations. Here, we report our preliminary results of this novel CNN-CAD system for the diagnosis of colon polyps. A total of 1,200 images from cases of colonoscopy performed between January 2010 and December 2016 at Kindai University Hospital were used. These images were extracted from the video of actual endoscopic examinations. Additional video images from 10 cases of unlearned processes were retrospectively assessed in a pilot study. They were simply diagnosed as either an adenomatous or nonadenomatous polyp. The number of images used by AI to learn to distinguish adenomatous from nonadenomatous was 1,200:600. These images were extracted from the videos of actual endoscopic examinations. The size of each image was adjusted to 256 × 256 pixels. A 10-hold cross-validation was carried out. The accuracy of the 10-hold cross-validation is 0.751, where the accuracy is the ratio of the number of correct answers over the number of all the answers produced by the CNN. The decisions by the CNN were correct in 7 of 10 cases. A CNN-CAD system using routine colonoscopy might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of colorectal polyp classification. Further prospective studies in an in vivo setting are required to confirm the effectiveness of a CNN-CAD system in routine colonoscopy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis scheme for histological classification of clustered microcalcifications on magnification mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryohei; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Ryoji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Namba, Kiyoshi; Doi, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    The histological classification of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms can be difficult, and thus often require biopsy or follow-up. Our purpose in this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnosis schemefor identifying the histological classification of clustered microcalcifications on magnification mammograms in order to assist the radiologists' interpretation as a 'second opinion'. Our database consisted of 58 magnification mammograms, which included 35 malignant clustered microcalcifications (9 invasive carcinomas, 12 noninvasive carcinomas of the comedo type, and 14 noninvasive carcinomas of the noncomedo type) and 23 benign clustered microcalcifications (17 mastopathies and 6 fibroadenomas). The histological classifications of all clustered microcalcifications were proved by pathologic diagnosis. The clustered microcalcifications were first segmented by use of a novel filter bank and a thresholding technique. Five objective features on clustered microcalcifications were determined by taking into account subjective features that experienced the radiologists commonly use to identify possible histological classifications. The Bayes decision rule with five objective features was employed for distinguishing between five histological classifications. The classification accuracies for distinguishing between three malignant histological classifications were 77.8% (7/9) for invasive carcinoma, 75.0% (9/12) for noninvasive carcinoma of the comedo type, and 92.9% (13/14) for noninvasive carcinoma of the noncomedo type. The classification accuracies for distinguishing between two benign histological classifications were 94.1% (16/17) for mastopathy, and 100.0% (6/6) for fibroadenoma. This computerized method would be useful in assisting radiologists in their assessments of clustered microcalcifications

  10. Optical coherence tomography and computer-aided diagnosis of a murine model of chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bohan; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Tang, Qinggong; Wu, Tongtong; Falola, Reuben; Smith, Tikina; Andrews, Peter M.; Chen, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function over time. Histopathological analysis of the condition of glomeruli and the proximal convolutional tubules over time can provide valuable insights into the progression of CKD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technology that can analyze the microscopic structures of a kidney in a nondestructive manner. Recently, we have shown that OCT can provide real-time imaging of kidney microstructures in vivo without administering exogenous contrast agents. A murine model of CKD induced by intravenous Adriamycin (ADR) injection is evaluated by OCT. OCT images of the rat kidneys have been captured every week up to eight weeks. Tubular diameter and hypertrophic tubule population of the kidneys at multiple time points after ADR injection have been evaluated through a fully automated computer-vision system. Results revealed that mean tubular diameter and hypertrophic tubule population increase with time in post-ADR injection period. The results suggest that OCT images of the kidney contain abundant information about kidney histopathology. Fully automated computer-aided diagnosis based on OCT has the potential for clinical evaluation of CKD conditions.

  11. Progress in computer aided diagnosis for medical images by information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekada, Yoshito

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the history, present state and future view of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) based on processing, recognition and visualization of chest and abdominal images. A primitive feature of CAD is seen as early as in 1960's for lung cancer detection. Contemporarily, advances in medical imaging by CT, MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in multi-dimensions require doctors to read those vast information, where necessity of CAD is evident. At present, simultaneous CAD for multi-organs and multi-diseases is in progress, the interaction between images and medical doctors is leading to developing a newer system like virtual endoscopy, objective evaluation of CAD systems is necessary for its approval to authorities like fluorescein diacetate (FDA) with use of receiver operating characteristics analysis, and thus cooperation of medical and technological fields is more and more important. In future, CAD should be responsible for individual difference and for change in disease state, usable simultaneously for time and space, more recognized of its importance by doctors, and more useful in participation to therapeutic practice. (R.T.)

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer using a deep convolutional neural network from multiparametric MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yu-Dong; Yan, Xu; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Minxiong; Hu, Bingwen; Yang, Guang

    2018-04-16

    Deep learning is the most promising methodology for automatic computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) with multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI). To develop an automatic approach based on deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to classify PCa and noncancerous tissues (NC) with mp-MRI. Retrospective. In all, 195 patients with localized PCa were collected from a PROSTATEx database. In total, 159/17/19 patients with 444/48/55 observations (215/23/23 PCas and 229/25/32 NCs) were randomly selected for training/validation/testing, respectively. T 2 -weighted, diffusion-weighted, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. A radiologist manually labeled the regions of interest of PCas and NCs and estimated the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scores for each region. Inspired by VGG-Net, we designed a patch-based DCNN model to distinguish between PCa and NCs based on a combination of mp-MRI data. Additionally, an enhanced prediction method was used to improve the prediction accuracy. The performance of DCNN prediction was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Moreover, the predicted result was compared with the PI-RADS score to evaluate its clinical value using decision curve analysis. Two-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test with statistical significance set at 0.05. The DCNN produced excellent diagnostic performance in distinguishing between PCa and NC for testing datasets with an AUC of 0.944 (95% confidence interval: 0.876-0.994), sensitivity of 87.0%, specificity of 90.6%, PPV of 87.0%, and NPV of 90.6%. The decision curve analysis revealed that the joint model of PI-RADS and DCNN provided additional net benefits compared with the DCNN model and the PI-RADS scheme. The proposed DCNN-based model with enhanced prediction yielded high performance in statistical analysis, suggesting

  13. Imperceptible watermarking for security of fundus images in tele-ophthalmology applications and computer-aided diagnosis of retina diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2017-12-01

    The authentication and integrity verification of medical images is a critical and growing issue for patients in e-health services. Accurate identification of medical images and patient verification is an essential requirement to prevent error in medical diagnosis. The proposed work presents an imperceptible watermarking system to address the security issue of medical fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and computer aided automated diagnosis of retinal diseases. In the proposed work, patient identity is embedded in fundus image in singular value decomposition domain with adaptive quantization parameter to maintain perceptual transparency for variety of fundus images like healthy fundus or disease affected image. In the proposed method insertion of watermark in fundus image does not affect the automatic image processing diagnosis of retinal objects & pathologies which ensure uncompromised computer-based diagnosis associated with fundus image. Patient ID is correctly recovered from watermarked fundus image for integrity verification of fundus image at the diagnosis centre. The proposed watermarking system is tested in a comprehensive database of fundus images and results are convincing. results indicate that proposed watermarking method is imperceptible and it does not affect computer vision based automated diagnosis of retinal diseases. Correct recovery of patient ID from watermarked fundus image makes the proposed watermarking system applicable for authentication of fundus images for computer aided diagnosis and Tele-ophthalmology applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on computer-aided diagnosis systems for chest radiographs and mammograms (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for chest radiographs and mammograms. Preprocessing and imaging processing methods for each CAD system include dynamic range compression and region segmentation technique. A new pattern recognition technique combines genetic algorithms with template matching methods to detect lung nodules. A genetic algorithm was employed to select the optimal shape of simulated nodular shadows to be compared with real lesions on digitized chest images. Detection performance was evaluated using 332 chest radiographs from the database of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. Our average true-positive rate was 72.8% with an average of 11 false-positive findings per image. A new detection method using high resolution digital images with 0.05 mm sampling is also proposed for the mammogram CAD system to detect very small microcalcifications. An automated classification method uses feature extraction based on fractal dimension analysis of masses. Using over 200 cases to evaluate the detection of mammographic masses and calcifications, the detection rate of masses and microcalcifications were 87% and 96% with 1.5 and 1.8 false-positive findings, respectively. The classification performance on benign vs malignant lesions, the Az values that were defined by the areas under the ROC curves derived from classification schemes of masses and microcalcifications were 0.84 and 0.89. To demonstrate the practicality of these CAD systems in a computer-network environment, we propose to use the mammogram CAD system via the Internet and WWW. A common gateway interface and server-client approach for the CAD system via the Internet will permit display of the CAD results on ordinary computers

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using x-ray darkfield radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einarsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hellbach, Katharina; Auweter, Sigrid; Meinel, Felix G; Reiser, Maximilian; Yildirim, Önder; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for classification of pulmonary disease for grating-based x-ray radiography. In addition to conventional transmission radiography, the grating-based technique provides a dark-field imaging modality, which utilizes the scattering properties of the x-rays. This modality has shown great potential for diagnosing early stage emphysema and fibrosis in mouse lungs in vivo. The CAD scheme is developed to assist radiologists and other medical experts to develop new diagnostic methods when evaluating grating-based images. The scheme consists of three stages: (i) automatic lung segmentation; (ii) feature extraction from lung shape and dark-field image intensities; (iii) classification between healthy, emphysema and fibrosis lungs. A study of 102 mice was conducted with 34 healthy, 52 emphysema and 16 fibrosis subjects. Each image was manually annotated to build an experimental dataset. System performance was assessed by: (i) determining the quality of the segmentations; (ii) validating emphysema and fibrosis recognition by a linear support vector machine using leave-one-out cross-validation. In terms of segmentation quality, we obtained an overlap percentage (Ω) 92.63  ±  3.65%, Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) 89.74  ±  8.84% and Jaccard Similarity Coefficient 82.39  ±  12.62%. For classification, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of diseased lung recognition was 100%. Classification between emphysema and fibrosis resulted in an accuracy of 93%, whilst the sensitivity was 94% and specificity 88%. In addition to the automatic classification of lungs, deviation maps created by the CAD scheme provide a visual aid for medical experts to further assess the severity of pulmonary disease in the lung, and highlights regions affected. (paper)

  16. Machine learning techniques for breast cancer computer aided diagnosis using different image modalities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Nisreen I R; Omran, Shaimaa; El Houby, Enas M F; Allam, Hemat

    2018-03-01

    The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the recent years. Physician experience of diagnosing and detecting breast cancer can be assisted by using some computerized features extraction and classification algorithms. This paper presents the conduction and results of a systematic review (SR) that aims to investigate the state of the art regarding the computer aided diagnosis/detection (CAD) systems for breast cancer. The SR was conducted using a comprehensive selection of scientific databases as reference sources, allowing access to diverse publications in the field. The scientific databases used are Springer Link (SL), Science Direct (SD), IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and applied to each retrieved work to select those of interest. From 320 studies retrieved, 154 studies were included. However, the scope of this research is limited to scientific and academic works and excludes commercial interests. This survey provides a general analysis of the current status of CAD systems according to the used image modalities and the machine learning based classifiers. Potential research studies have been discussed to create a more objective and efficient CAD systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Web-based computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system for bone age assessment (BAA) of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Uyeda, Joshua; Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Kevin; Vachon, Linda A.; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on a left hand and wrist radiograph. The most commonly used standard: Greulich and Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas was developed 50 years ago and exclusively based on Caucasian population. Moreover, inter- & intra-observer discrepancies using this method create a need of an objective and automatic BAA method. A digital hand atlas (DHA) has been collected with 1,400 hand images of normal children from Asian, African American, Caucasian and Hispanic descends. Based on DHA, a fully automatic, objective computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method was developed and it was adapted to specific population. To bring DHA and CAD method to the clinical environment as a useful tool in assisting radiologist to achieve higher accuracy in BAA, a web-based system with direct connection to a clinical site is designed as a novel clinical implementation approach for online and real time BAA. The core of the system, a CAD server receives the image from clinical site, processes it by the CAD method and finally, generates report. A web service publishes the results and radiologists at the clinical site can review it online within minutes. This prototype can be easily extended to multiple clinical sites and will provide the foundation for broader use of the CAD system for BAA.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic masses using geometric verification-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingliang; Shi, Weili; Yang, Huamin; Zhang, Huimao; Li, Guoxin; Chen, Tao; Mori, Kensaku; Jiang, Zhengang

    2017-03-01

    Computer-Aided Diagnosis of masses in mammograms is an important indicator of breast cancer. The use of retrieval systems in breast examination is increasing gradually. In this respect, the method of exploiting the vocabulary tree framework and the inverted file in the mammographic masse retrieval have been proved high accuracy and excellent scalability. However it just considered the features in each image as a visual word and had ignored the spatial configurations of features. It greatly affect the retrieval performance. To overcome this drawback, we introduce the geometric verification method to retrieval in mammographic masses. First of all, we obtain corresponding match features based on the vocabulary tree framework and the inverted file. After that, we grasps the main point of local similarity characteristic of deformations in the local regions by constructing the circle regions of corresponding pairs. Meanwhile we segment the circle to express the geometric relationship of local matches in the area and generate the spatial encoding strictly. Finally we judge whether the matched features are correct or not, based on verifying the all spatial encoding are whether satisfied the geometric consistency. Experiments show the promising results of our approach.

  19. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis with textural features for breast lesions in sonograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2011-04-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems provided second beneficial support reference and enhance the diagnostic accuracy. This paper was aimed to develop and evaluate a CAD with texture analysis in the classification of breast tumors for ultrasound images. The ultrasound (US) dataset evaluated in this study composed of 1020 sonograms of region of interest (ROI) subimages from 255 patients. Two-view sonogram (longitudinal and transverse views) and four different rectangular regions were utilized to analyze each tumor. Six practical textural features from the US images were performed to classify breast tumors as benign or malignant. However, the textural features always perform as a high dimensional vector; high dimensional vector is unfavorable to differentiate breast tumors in practice. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimension of textural feature vector and then the image retrieval technique was performed to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. In the experiments, all the cases were sampled with k-fold cross-validation (k=10) to evaluate the performance with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The area (A(Z)) under the ROC curve for the proposed CAD system with the specific textural features was 0.925±0.019. The classification ability for breast tumor with textural information is satisfactory. This system differentiates benign from malignant breast tumors with a good result and is therefore clinically useful to provide a second opinion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Different Rotator Cuff Lesions Using Shoulder Musculoskeletal Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Lee, Chung-Chien; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The lifetime prevalence of shoulder pain approaches 70%, which is mostly attributable to rotator cuff lesions such as inflammation, calcific tendinitis and tears. On clinical examination, shoulder ultrasound is recommended for the detection of lesions. However, there exists inter-operator variability in diagnostic accuracy because of differences in the experience and expertise of operators. In this study, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system was developed to assist ultrasound operators in diagnosing rotator cuff lesions and to improve the practicality of ultrasound examination. The collected cases included 43 cases of inflammation, 30 cases of calcific tendinitis and 26 tears. For each case, the lesion area and texture features were extracted from the entire lesions and combined in a multinomial logistic regression classifier for lesion classification. The proposed CAD achieved an accuracy of 87.9%. The individual accuracy of this CAD system was 88.4% for inflammation, 83.3% for calcific tendinitis and 92.3% for tears. Cohen's k was 0.798. On the basis of its diagnostic performance, clinical use of this CAD technique has promise. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-class classification in computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer by support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuejun; Qian, Wei; Song, Dansheng

    2004-05-01

    Design of classifier in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of breast cancer plays important role to its overall performance in sensitivity and specificity. Classification of a detected object as malignant lesion, benign lesion, or normal tissue on mammogram is a typical three-class pattern recognition problem. This paper presents a three-class classification approach by using two-stage classifier combined with support vector machine (SVM) learning algorithm for classification of breast cancer on mammograms. The first classification stage is used to detect abnormal areas and normal breast tissues, and the second stage is for classification of malignant or benign in detected abnormal objects. A series of spatial, morphology and texture features have been extracted on detected objects areas. By using genetic algorithm (GA), different feature groups for different stage classification have been investigated. Computerized free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses have been employed in different classification stages. Results have shown that obvious performance improvement in both sensitivity and specificity was observed through proposed classification approach compared with conventional two-class classification approaches, indicating its effectiveness in classification of breast cancer on mammograms.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis with morphological features for breast lesion on sonograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yu-Len; Jiang Yu-Ru; Shiu Jia-Jia; Chen Dar-Ren; Moon Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Information about shape, provided by a breast tumor contour is important to physicians in making diagnostic decisions. To avoid needless biopsy and enhance the diagnostic accuracy, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can provide a second beneficial support reference. This paper aimed to evaluate the potential role of the CAD with automatic contouring and morphologic analysis in the differential of breast tumors for ultrasound (US) images. This study evaluated 118 breast lesions. The suspicious tumor contour in the digitized US image was automatically extracted by the proposed contouring algorithm. Then 20 practical morphologic features from the extracted contour were calculated and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier identified the breast tumor as benign or malignant. The area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the proposed CAD system was 0.91 ± 0.03. This system differentiates benign from malignant breast tumors with relative high accuracy and is therefore clinically useful to reduce patients needed for dispensable breast biopsy. (orig.)

  4. A ROC-based feature selection method for computer-aided detection and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyuan; Zhang, Guopeng; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Junying; Jiao, Chun; Lu, Hongbing

    2014-03-01

    Image-based computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) has been a very active research topic aiming to assist physicians to detect lesions and distinguish them from benign to malignant. However, the datasets fed into a classifier usually suffer from small number of samples, as well as significantly less samples available in one class (have a disease) than the other, resulting in the classifier's suboptimal performance. How to identifying the most characterizing features of the observed data for lesion detection is critical to improve the sensitivity and minimize false positives of a CAD system. In this study, we propose a novel feature selection method mR-FAST that combines the minimal-redundancymaximal relevance (mRMR) framework with a selection metric FAST (feature assessment by sliding thresholds) based on the area under a ROC curve (AUC) generated on optimal simple linear discriminants. With three feature datasets extracted from CAD systems for colon polyps and bladder cancer, we show that the space of candidate features selected by mR-FAST is more characterizing for lesion detection with higher AUC, enabling to find a compact subset of superior features at low cost.

  5. Academic consortium for the evaluation of computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seong K.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Wu, Chris Y.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Datong; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Kallergi, Maria; Clark, Bob; Kim, Yongmin

    1995-04-01

    Computer aided diagnosis (CADx) is a promising technology for the detection of breast cancer in screening mammography. A number of different approaches have been developed for CADx research that have achieved significant levels of performance. Research teams now recognize the need for a careful and detailed evaluation study of approaches to accelerate the development of CADx, to make CADx more clinically relevant and to optimize the CADx algorithms based on unbiased evaluations. The results of such a comparative study may provide each of the participating teams with new insights into the optimization of their individual CADx algorithms. This consortium of experienced CADx researchers is working as a group to compare results of the algorithms and to optimize the performance of CADx algorithms by learning from each other. Each institution will be contributing an equal number of cases that will be collected under a standard protocol for case selection, truth determination, and data acquisition to establish a common and unbiased database for the evaluation study. An evaluation procedure for the comparison studies are being developed to analyze the results of individual algorithms for each of the test cases in the common database. Optimization of individual CADx algorithms can be made based on the comparison studies. The consortium effort is expected to accelerate the eventual clinical implementation of CADx algorithms at participating institutions.

  6. Ratsnake: A Versatile Image Annotation Tool with Application to Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Iakovidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation and annotation are key components of image-based medical computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems. In this paper we present Ratsnake, a publicly available generic image annotation tool providing annotation efficiency, semantic awareness, versatility, and extensibility, features that can be exploited to transform it into an effective CAD system. In order to demonstrate this unique capability, we present its novel application for the evaluation and quantification of salient objects and structures of interest in kidney biopsy images. Accurate annotation identifying and quantifying such structures in microscopy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy, which is a rather common disease with severe implication in children and infants. However a tool for detecting and quantifying the disease is not yet available. A machine learning-based approach, which utilizes prior domain knowledge and textural image features, is considered for the generation of an image force field customizing the presented tool for automatic evaluation of kidney biopsy images. The experimental evaluation of the proposed application of Ratsnake demonstrates its efficiency and effectiveness and promises its wide applicability across a variety of medical imaging domains.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis based on enhancement of degraded fundus photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kai; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Shaoze; Lou, Lixia; Xu, Yufeng; Ye, Juan; Qian, Dahong

    2018-05-01

    Retinal imaging is an important and effective tool for detecting retinal diseases. However, degraded images caused by the aberrations of the eye can disguise lesions, so that a diseased eye can be mistakenly diagnosed as normal. In this work, we propose a new image enhancement method to improve the quality of degraded images. A new method is used to enhance degraded-quality fundus images. In this method, the image is converted from the input RGB colour space to LAB colour space and then each normalized component is enhanced using contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Human visual system (HVS)-based fundus image quality assessment, combined with diagnosis by experts, is used to evaluate the enhancement. The study included 191 degraded-quality fundus photographs of 143 subjects with optic media opacity. Objective quality assessment of image enhancement (range: 0-1) indicated that our method improved colour retinal image quality from an average of 0.0773 (variance 0.0801) to an average of 0.3973 (variance 0.0756). Following enhancement, area under curves (AUC) were 0.996 for the glaucoma classifier, 0.989 for the diabetic retinopathy (DR) classifier, 0.975 for the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) classifier and 0.979 for the other retinal diseases classifier. The relatively simple method for enhancing degraded-quality fundus images achieves superior image enhancement, as demonstrated in a qualitative HVS-based image quality assessment. This retinal image enhancement may, therefore, be employed to assist ophthalmologists in more efficient screening of retinal diseases and the development of computer-aided diagnosis. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%±4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%±5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF

  9. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) prototype for the detection of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Sonja; Herzog, Peter; Liang, Jin; Wolf, Mathias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Reiser, Maximilian; Becker, Christoph H

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a prototype computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool using artificial intelligence techniques for the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) and the possible benefit for general radiologists. Forty multidetector row computed tomography datasets (16/64- channel scanner) using 100 kVp, 100 mAs effective/slice, and 1-mm axial reformats in a low-frequency reconstruction kernel were evaluated. A total of 80 mL iodinated contrast material was injected at a flow rate of 5 mL/seconds. Primarily, six general radiologists marked any PE using a commercially available lung evaluation software with simultaneous, automatic processing by CAD in the background. An expert panel consisting of two chest radiologists analyzed all PE marks from the readers and CAD, also searching for additional finding primarily missed by both, forming the ground truth. The ground truth consisted of 212 emboli. Of these, 65 (31%) were centrally and 147 (69%) were peripherally located. The readers detected 157/212 emboli (74%) leading to a sensitivity of 97% (63/65) for central and 70% (103/147) for peripheral emboli with 9 false-positive findings. CAD detected 168/212 emboli (79%), reaching a sensitivity of 74% for central (48/65) and 82%(120/147) for peripheral emboli. A total of 154 CAD candidates were considered as false positives, yielding an average of 3.85 false positives/case. The CAD software showed a sensitivity comparable to that of the general radiologists, but with more false positives. CAD detection of findings incremental to the radiologists suggests benefit when used as a second reader. Future versions of CAD have the potential to further increase clinical benefit by improving sensitivity and reducing false marks.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika K; Ranjbar, Sara; Wu, Teresa; Pockaj, Barbara A; Li, Jing; Zhang, Nan; Lobbes, Mark; Zhang, Bin; Mitchell, J Ross

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of a computer-aided diagnosis-contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CAD-CESM) tool can further increase the diagnostic performance of CESM compared with that of experienced radiologists. This IRB-approved retrospective study analyzed 50 lesions described on CESM from August 2014 to December 2015. Histopathologic analyses, used as the criterion standard, revealed 24 benign and 26 malignant lesions. An expert breast radiologist manually outlined lesion boundaries on the different views. A set of morphologic and textural features were then extracted from the low-energy and recombined images. Machine-learning algorithms with feature selection were used along with statistical analysis to reduce, select, and combine features. Selected features were then used to construct a predictive model using a support vector machine (SVM) classification method in a leave-one-out-cross-validation approach. The classification performance was compared against the diagnostic predictions of 2 breast radiologists with access to the same CESM cases. Based on the SVM classification, CAD-CESM correctly identified 45 of 50 lesions in the cohort, resulting in an overall accuracy of 90%. The detection rate for the malignant group was 88% (3 false-negative cases) and 92% for the benign group (2 false-positive cases). Compared with the model, radiologist 1 had an overall accuracy of 78% and a detection rate of 92% (2 false-negative cases) for the malignant group and 62% (10 false-positive cases) for the benign group. Radiologist 2 had an overall accuracy of 86% and a detection rate of 100% for the malignant group and 71% (8 false-positive cases) for the benign group. The results of our feasibility study suggest that a CAD-CESM tool can provide complementary information to radiologists, mainly by reducing the number of false-positive findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Can computed tomography aid in diagnosis of intramural hematomas of the intestinal wall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusan, Serife; Pekoz, Burcak; Sariturk, Cagla

    2015-12-01

    We sought to use computed tomography (CT) data to support the correct differential diagnosis of patients with spontaneous intramural hematomas of the gastrointestinal tract, to aid in the clinical management of those using oral anticoagulants. Patient data were retrospectively analyzed and patients were divided into two groups. The first group contained 10 patients (5 females, 5 males, median age 65 years [range 35-79 years]) who had been diagnosed with spontaneous intramural hematomas of the gastrointestinal tract. The second group contained nine patients (5 females, 4 males, median age 41 years [range 24-56 years]) who exhibited intestinal wall thickening on CT, and who had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, ameboma, and lymphoma. The enhancement patterns in the CT images of the two groups were compared by an experienced and inexperienced radiologist. The differences in values were subjected to ROC analysis. Inter-observer variability was excellent (0.84) when post-contrast CT images were evaluated, as were the subtraction values (0.89). The subtracted values differed significantly between the two groups (p=0.0001). A cutoff of +31.5 HU was optimal in determining whether a hematoma was or was not present. Contrast enhancement of an intestinal wall hematoma is less than that of other intestinal wall pathologies associated with increased wall thickness. If the post-contrast enhancement of a thickened intestinal wall is less than +31.5 HU, a wall hematoma is possible. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  12. Ideal observer estimation and generalized ROC analysis for computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Darrin C.

    2004-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation represents an innovative application of computer-aided diagnosis and signal detection theory to the specific task of early detection of breast cancer in the context of screening mammography. A number of automated schemes have been developed in our laboratory to detect masses and clustered microcalcifications in digitized mammograms, on the one hand, and to classify known lesions as malignant or benign, on the other. The development of fully automated classification schemes is difficult, because the output of a detection scheme will contain false-positive detections in addition to detected malignant and benign lesions, resulting in a three-class classification task. Researchers have so far been unable to extend successful tools for analyzing two-class classification tasks, such as receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, to three-class classification tasks. The goals of our research were to use Bayesian artificial neural networks to estimate ideal observer decision variables to both detect and classify clustered microcalcifications and mass lesions in mammograms, and to derive substantial theoretical results indicating potential avenues of approach toward the three-class classification task. Specifically, we have shown that an ideal observer in an N-class classification task achieves an optimal ROC hypersurface, just as the two-class ideal observer achieves an optimal ROC curve; and that an obvious generalization of a well-known two-class performance metric, the area under the ROC curve, is not useful as a performance metric in classification tasks with more than two classes. This work is significant for three reasons. First, it involves the explicit estimation of feature-based (as opposed to image-based) ideal observer decision variables in the tasks of detecting and classifying mammographic lesions. Second, it directly addresses the three-class classification task of distinguishing malignant lesions, benign

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis and volumetry of pulmonary nodules: current concepts and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engelke, C.

    2005-01-01

    For computer-aided detection (CAD) and volumetry of small pulmonary nodules, a number of algorithms have been developed for multislice CT data sets in recent years, with the goal of improving the diagnostic work-up and the follow-up of findings. Recent data show that the detection of small lesions may improve with CAD, suggesting that especially experienced readers may benefit from using CAD systems. This has lead to the recommendation of CAD as a replacement of the second reader in clinical practice. Furthermore, computer-aided volumetry of pulmonary nodules allows a precise determination of nodular growth rates as a prerequisite for a better classification of nodules as benign or malignant. In this article, we review recent developments of CAD and volumetry tools for pulmonary nodules, and address open questions regarding the use of these software tools in clinical routine. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for lung cancer screening using photofluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Doi, Kunio; Kano, Akiko.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in lung cancer screenings using photofluorographic films, we performed an observer test with 12 radiologists. We used 60 photofluorographic films obtained from a lung cancer screening program in Yamaguchi Prefecture (30 contained cancerous nodules and 30 had no nodules). In these cases, our current automated detection scheme achieved a sensitivity of 80%, but yielded an average of 11 false-positives per image. The observer study consisted of three viewing conditions: 1) only the original image (single reading), 2) the original image and computer output obtained from the current CAD scheme (CAD 1), 3) the original image and computer output obtained from a simulated improved CAD scheme with the same 80% true-positive rate, but with an average of one false-positive per image (CAD 2). Compared with double reading using independent interpretations, which is based on a higher score between two single readings, CAD 2 was more sensitive in subtle cases. The specificity of CAD was superior to that of double reading. Although CAD 1 (Az=0.805) was inferior to double reading (Az=0.837) in terms of the ROC curve, CAD 2 (Az=0.872) significantly improved the ROC curve and also significantly reduced observation time (p<0.05). If the number of false positives can be reduced, computer-aided diagnosis may play an important role in lung cancer screening programs. (author)

  15. Computer Aided Medical Diagnosis for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Disease (Gonorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu M. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO report on the circumstances of clinical facilities in developing countries indicates that, there is considerable efficient delivery of medical services to the rural inhabitants where the services are available, these services are very expensive and not affordable to the average citizen. This has risen inadequacies such as prolonged suffering and even death. The slow process of diagnosis trial and error of diseases can be disastrous when a patient is at the advanced stage of a disease. Here we propose an automated system that can aid the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and suggest adequate drug prescriptions and treatment. To achieve this, an extensive review on related diseases were reevaluated and a common type (gonorrhea was used as an exemplary study. This is based on the Structure Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM. The paper as shown a system that is most effective and have a fast way of diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted diseases, which serves as a great relief for the doctors and even non-experts in the field.

  16. Automatic detection of pulmonary nodules at spiral CT: clinical application of a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Fiebich, Martin; Saidi, Mustafa; Diederich, Stefan; Heindel, Walter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) workstation with automatic detection of pulmonary nodules at low-dose spiral CT in a clinical setting for early detection of lung cancer. Eighty-eight consecutive spiral-CT examinations were reported by two radiologists in consensus. All examinations were reviewed using a CAD workstation with a self-developed algorithm for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules. The algorithm is designed to detect nodules with diameters of at least 5 mm. A total of 153 nodules were detected with at least one modality (radiologists in consensus, CAD, 85 nodules with diameter <5 mm, 68 with diameter ≥5 mm). The results of automatic nodule detection were compared to nodules detected with any modality as gold standard. Computer-aided diagnosis correctly identified 26 of 59 (38%) nodules with diameters ≥5 mm detected by visual assessment by the radiologists; of these, CAD detected 44% (24 of 54) nodules without pleural contact. In addition, 12 nodules ≥5 mm were detected which were not mentioned in the radiologist's report but represented real nodules. Sensitivity for detection of nodules ≥5 mm was 85% (58 of 68) for radiologists and 38% (26 of 68) for CAD. There were 5.8±3.6 false-positive results of CAD per CT study. Computer-aided diagnosis improves detection of pulmonary nodules at spiral CT and is a valuable second opinion in a clinical setting for lung cancer screening despite of its still limited sensitivity. (orig.)

  17. A tool for computer-aided diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheen; Wallace, David K.; Freedman, Sharon F.; Aylward, Stephen R.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present improvements to a software application, named ROPtool, that aids in the timely and accurate detection and diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP occurs in 68% of infants less than 1251 grams at birth, and it is a leading cause of blindness for prematurely born infants. The standard of care for its diagnosis is the subjective assessment of retinal vessel dilation and tortuosity. There is significant inter-observer variation in those assessments. ROPtool analyzes retinal images, extracts user-selected blood vessels from those images, and quantifies the tortuosity of those vessels. The presence of ROP is then gauged by comparing the tortuosity of an infant's retinal vessels with measures made from a clinical-standard image of severely tortuous retinal vessels. The presence of such tortuous retinal vessels is referred to as 'plus disease'. In this paper, a novel metric of tortuosity is proposed. From the ophthalmologist's point of view, the new metric is an improvement from our previously published algorithm, since it uses smooth curves instead of straight lines to simulate 'normal vessels'. Another advantage of the new ROPtool is that minimal user interactions are required. ROPtool utilizes a ridge traversal algorithm to extract retinal vessels. The algorithm reconstructs connectivity along a vessel automatically. This paper supports its claims by reporting ROC curves from a pilot study involving 20 retinal images. The areas under two ROC curves, from two experts in ROP, using the new metric to diagnose 'tortuosity sufficient for plus disease', varied from 0.86 to 0.91.

  18. Multiparametric computer-aided differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia using structural and advanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Smits, Marion; Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna; Papma, Janne M.; Swieten, John C. van; Groot, Marius de; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to structural MRI for computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and controls. This retrospective study used MRI data from 24 early-onset AD and 33 early-onset FTD patients and 34 controls (CN). Classification was based on voxel-wise feature maps derived from structural MRI, ASL, and DTI. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained to classify AD versus CN (AD-CN), FTD-CN, AD-FTD, and AD-FTD-CN (multi-class). Classification performance was assessed by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and accuracy. Using SVM significance maps, we analysed contributions of brain regions. Combining ASL and DTI with structural MRI resulted in higher classification performance for differential diagnosis of AD and FTD (AUC = 84%; p = 0.05) than using structural MRI by itself (AUC = 72%). The performance of ASL and DTI themselves did not improve over structural MRI. The classifications were driven by different brain regions for ASL and DTI than for structural MRI, suggesting complementary information. ASL and DTI are promising additions to structural MRI for classification of early-onset AD, early-onset FTD, and controls, and may improve the computer-aided differential diagnosis on a single-subject level. (orig.)

  19. Multiparametric computer-aided differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia using structural and advanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Office Na2502, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Smits, Marion; Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna [Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Papma, Janne M.; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Marius de [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Office Na2502, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Office Na2502, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Imaging Physics, Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to structural MRI for computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and controls. This retrospective study used MRI data from 24 early-onset AD and 33 early-onset FTD patients and 34 controls (CN). Classification was based on voxel-wise feature maps derived from structural MRI, ASL, and DTI. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained to classify AD versus CN (AD-CN), FTD-CN, AD-FTD, and AD-FTD-CN (multi-class). Classification performance was assessed by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and accuracy. Using SVM significance maps, we analysed contributions of brain regions. Combining ASL and DTI with structural MRI resulted in higher classification performance for differential diagnosis of AD and FTD (AUC = 84%; p = 0.05) than using structural MRI by itself (AUC = 72%). The performance of ASL and DTI themselves did not improve over structural MRI. The classifications were driven by different brain regions for ASL and DTI than for structural MRI, suggesting complementary information. ASL and DTI are promising additions to structural MRI for classification of early-onset AD, early-onset FTD, and controls, and may improve the computer-aided differential diagnosis on a single-subject level. (orig.)

  20. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Micro-Malignant Melanoma Lesions Applying Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the fatal disorders causing death is malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The aim of the modern dermatology is the early detection of skin cancer, which usually results in reducing the mortality rate and less extensive treatment. This paper presents a study on classification of melanoma in the early stage of development using SVMs as a useful technique for data classification. Method. In this paper an automatic algorithm for the classification of melanomas in their early stage, with a diameter under 5 mm, has been presented. The system contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and classification stage using SVMs. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 200 images including 70 melanomas and 130 benign lesions. The SVM classifier achieved sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96%. The results indicate that the proposed approach captured most of the malignant cases and could provide reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Conclusions. Micro-melanomas due to the small size and low advancement of development create enormous difficulties during the diagnosis even for experts. The use of advanced equipment and sophisticated computer systems can help in the early diagnosis of skin lesions.

  1. Analysis and minimization of overtraining effect in rule-based classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Doi Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes have been developed to assist radiologists detect various lesions in medical images. In CAD schemes, classifiers play a key role in achieving a high lesion detection rate and a low false-positive rate. Although many popular classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks have been employed in CAD schemes for reduction of false positives, a rule-based classifier has probably been the simplest and most frequently used one since the early days of development of various CAD schemes. However, with existing rule-based classifiers, there are major disadvantages that significantly reduce their practicality and credibility. The disadvantages include manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as resubstitution, and a large overtraining effect. An automated rule-based classifier with a minimized overtraining effect can overcome or significantly reduce the extent of the above-mentioned disadvantages. In this study, we developed an 'optimal' method for the selection of cutoff thresholds and a fully automated rule-based classifier. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT data set demonstrated that the automated threshold selection method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the constructed rule-based classifier. We believe that this threshold selection method is very useful in the construction of automated rule-based classifiers with minimized overtraining effect

  2. New computer-aided diagnosis of dementia using positron emission tomography: brain regional sensitivity-mapping method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Kakimoto

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We devised a new computer-aided diagnosis method to segregate dementia using one estimated index (Total Z score derived from the Brodmann area (BA sensitivity map on the stereotaxic brain atlas. The purpose of this study is to investigate its accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI from normal adults (NL. METHODS: We studied 101 adults (NL: 40, AD: 37, MCI: 24 who underwent (18FDG positron emission tomography (PET measurement. We divided NL and AD groups into two categories: a training group with (Category A and a test group without (Category B clinical information. In Category A, we estimated sensitivity by comparing the standard uptake value per BA (SUVR between NL and AD groups. Then, we calculated a summated index (Total Z score by utilizing the sensitivity-distribution maps and each BA z-score to segregate AD patterns. To confirm the validity of this method, we examined the accuracy in Category B. Finally, we applied this method to MCI patients. RESULTS: In Category A, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of differentiation between NL and AD were all 100%. In Category B, those were 100% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, we found this method attained 88% to differentiate AD-converters from non-converters in MCI group. CONCLUSIONS: The present automated computer-aided evaluation method based on a single estimated index provided good accuracy for differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. This good differentiation power suggests its usefulness not only for dementia diagnosis but also in a longitudinal study.

  3. New Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Dementia Using Positron Emission Tomography: Brain Regional Sensitivity-Mapping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Akihiro; Kamekawa, Yuichi; Ito, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We devised a new computer-aided diagnosis method to segregate dementia using one estimated index (Total Z score) derived from the Brodmann area (BA) sensitivity map on the stereotaxic brain atlas. The purpose of this study is to investigate its accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal adults (NL). Methods We studied 101 adults (NL: 40, AD: 37, MCI: 24) who underwent 18FDG positron emission tomography (PET) measurement. We divided NL and AD groups into two categories: a training group with (Category A) and a test group without (Category B) clinical information. In Category A, we estimated sensitivity by comparing the standard uptake value per BA (SUVR) between NL and AD groups. Then, we calculated a summated index (Total Z score) by utilizing the sensitivity-distribution maps and each BA z-score to segregate AD patterns. To confirm the validity of this method, we examined the accuracy in Category B. Finally, we applied this method to MCI patients. Results In Category A, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of differentiation between NL and AD were all 100%. In Category B, those were 100% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, we found this method attained 88% to differentiate AD-converters from non-converters in MCI group. Conclusions The present automated computer-aided evaluation method based on a single estimated index provided good accuracy for differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. This good differentiation power suggests its usefulness not only for dementia diagnosis but also in a longitudinal study. PMID:21966405

  4. Computer aided diagnosis and localization of lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy using interictal FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Thomas Kerr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interictal FDG-PET (iPET is a core tool for localizing the epileptogenic focus, potentially before structural MRI, that does not require rare and transient epileptiform discharges or seizures on EEG. The visual interpretation of iPET is challenging and requires years of epilepsy-specific expertise. We have developed an automated computer-aided diagnostic (CAD tool that has the potential to work both independent of and synergistically with expert analysis. Our tool operates on distributed metabolic changes across the whole brain measured by iPET to both diagnose and lateralize temporal lobe epilepsy. When diagnosing left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE or right TLE (RTLE versus non-epileptic seizures (NES, our accuracy in reproducing the results of the gold standard long term video-EEG monitoring was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 69-90% or 88% (95% CI 76-94%, respectively. The classifier that both diagnosed and lateralized the disease had overall accuracy of 76% (95% CI 66-84%, where 89% (95% CI 77-96% of patients correctly identified with epilepsy were correctly lateralized. When identifying LTLE, our CAD tool utilized metabolic changes across the entire brain. By contrast, only temporal regions and the right frontal lobe cortex, were needed to identify RTLE accurately, a finding consistent with clinical observations and indicative of a potential pathophysiological difference between RTLE and LTLE. The goal of CADs is to complement—not replace—expert analysis. In our dataset, the accuracy of manual analysis of iPET (~80% was similar to CAD. The square correlation between our CAD tool and manual analysis, however, was only 30%, indicating that our CAD tool does not recreate manual analysis. The addition of clinical information to our CAD, however, did not substantively change performance. These results suggest that automated analysis might provide clinically valuable information to focus treatment more effectively.

  5. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  6. Interstitial lung disease associated with collagen vascular disorders: disease quantification using a computer-aided diagnosis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Engelke, C.; Dicken, V.; Kneitz, C.; Hoehmann, M.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool compared to human observers in quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with collagen-vascular disorders. A total of 52 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=24), scleroderma (n=14) and systemic lupus erythematosus (n=14) underwent thin-section CT. Two independent observers assessed the extent of ILD (EoILD), reticulation (EoRet) and ground-glass opacity (EoGGO). CAD assessed EoILD twice. Pulmonary function tests were obtained. Statistical evaluation used 95% limits of agreement and linear regression analysis. CAD correlated well with diffusing capacity (DL CO ) (R=-0.531, P CO (R=-0.705, P CO and moderately with FVC (DL CO : R=-0.663; FVC: R=-0.436; P≤0.005). The CAD system is a promising tool for ILD quantification, showing close correlation with human observers and physiologic impairment. (orig.)

  7. Incorporating Colour Information for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Melanoma from Dermoscopy Images: A Retrospective Survey and Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Madooei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening form of skin cancer. Although advanced melanoma is often considered as incurable, if detected and excised early, the prognosis is promising. Today, clinicians use computer vision in an increasing number of applications to aid early detection of melanoma through dermatological image analysis (dermoscopy images, in particular. Colour assessment is essential for the clinical diagnosis of skin cancers. Due to this diagnostic importance, many studies have either focused on or employed colour features as a constituent part of their skin lesion analysis systems. These studies range from using low-level colour features, such as simple statistical measures of colours occurring in the lesion, to availing themselves of high-level semantic features such as the presence of blue-white veil, globules, or colour variegation in the lesion. This paper provides a retrospective survey and critical analysis of contributions in this research direction.

  8. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Evaluating Lung Nodules on Chest CT: the Current Status and Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    As the detection and characterization of lung nodules are of paramount importance in thoracic radiology, various tools for making a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) have been developed to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in clinical practice. Numerous studies over the years have shown that the CAD system can effectively help readers identify more nodules. Moreover, nodule malignancy and the response of malignant lung tumors to treatment can also be assessed using nodule volumetry. CAD also has the potential to objectively analyze the morphology of nodules and enhance the work flow during the assessment of follow-up studies. Therefore, understanding the current status and limitations of CAD for evaluating lung nodules is essential to effectively apply CAD in clinical practice

  9. Investigation of computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans: a retrospective analysis in 406 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Osamu; Harada, Yuko; Ohishi, Yona; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of a completely automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to detect metastases in bone scans by two patterns: one was per region, and the other was per patient. This study included 406 patients with suspected metastatic bone tumors who underwent whole-body bone scans that were analyzed by the automated CAD system. The patients were divided into four groups: a group with prostatic cancer (N = 71), breast cancer (N = 109), males with other cancers (N = 153), and females with other cancers (N = 73). We investigated the bone scan index and artificial neural network (ANN), which are parameters that can be used to classify bone scans to determine whether there are metastases. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracies for the four groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of region-based ANN were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of the automated CAD system. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, or NPV between the four groups. The PPVs of the group with prostatic cancer (51.0 %) were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of the group with prostatic cancer (81.5 %) was significantly higher than that of the group with breast cancer (68.6 %) and the females with other cancers (65.9 %) (P < 0.01). For the evaluation of the ROC analysis of region-based ANN, the highest Az values for the groups with prostatic cancer, breast cancer, males with other cancers, and females with other cancers were 0.82 (ANN = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8), 0.83 (ANN = 0.7), 0.81 (ANN = 0.5), and 0.81 (ANN = 0.6), respectively. The special CAD system "BONENAVI" trained with a Japanese database appears to have significant potential in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. However, an improved CAD system depending on the primary lesion

  10. Investigation of computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans. A retrospective analysis in 406 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Osamu; Harada, Yuko; Ohishi, Yona; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Edenbrandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of a completely automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to detect metastases in bone scans by two patterns: one was per region, and the other was per patient. This study included 406 patients with suspected metastatic bone tumors who underwent whole-body bone scans that were analyzed by the automated CAD system. The patients were divided into four groups: a group with prostatic cancer (N=71), breast cancer (N=109), males with other cancers (N=153), and females with other cancers (N=73). We investigated the bone scan index and artificial neural network (ANN), which are parameters that can be used to classify bone scans to determine whether there are metastases. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracies for the four groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of region-based ANN were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of the automated CAD system. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, or NPV between the four groups. The Pps of the group with prostatic cancer (51.0%) were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of the group with prostatic cancer (81.5%) was significantly higher than that of the group with breast cancer (68.6%) and the females with other cancers (65.9%) (P < 0.01). For the evaluation of the Roc analysis of region-based Ann, the highest Az values for the groups with prostatic cancer, breast cancer, males with other cancers, and females with other cancers were 0.82 (Ann=0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8), 0.83 (Ann=0.7), 0.81 (Ann=0.5), and 0.81 (Ann=0.6), respectively. The special CAD system 'Bovine' trained with a Japanese database appears to have significant potential in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. However, an improved CAD system depending on the primary lesion of the cancer is

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer in the peripheral zone using multiparametric MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaf, Emilie; Rouvière, Olivier; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Bratan, Flavie; Lartizien, Carole

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) system for determining a likelihood measure of prostate cancer presence in the peripheral zone (PZ) based on multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 1.5 T. Based on a feature set derived from grey-level images, including first-order statistics, Haralick features, gradient features, semi-quantitative and quantitative (pharmacokinetic modelling) dynamic parameters, four kinds of classifiers were trained and compared : nonlinear support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbours and naïve Bayes classifiers. A set of feature selection methods based on t-test, mutual information and minimum-redundancy–maximum-relevancy criteria were also compared. The aim was to discriminate between the relevant features as well as to create an efficient classifier using these features. The diagnostic performances of these different CADx schemes were evaluated based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The evaluation database consisted of 30 sets of multiparametric MR images acquired from radical prostatectomy patients. Using histologic sections as the gold standard, both cancer and nonmalignant (but suspicious) tissues were annotated in consensus on all MR images by two radiologists, a histopathologist and a researcher. Benign tissue regions of interest (ROIs) were also delineated in the remaining prostate PZ. This resulted in a series of 42 cancer ROIs, 49 benign but suspicious ROIs and 124 nonsuspicious benign ROIs. From the outputs of all evaluated feature selection methods on the test bench, a restrictive set of about 15 highly informative features coming from all MR sequences was discriminated, thus confirming the validity of the multiparametric approach. Quantitative evaluation of the diagnostic performance yielded a maximal area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89 (0.81–0.94) for

  12. Computerized nipple identification for multiple image analysis in computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chuan; Chan Heangping; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Labomir M.; Petrick, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Correlation of information from multiple-view mammograms (e.g., MLO and CC views, bilateral views, or current and prior mammograms) can improve the performance of breast cancer diagnosis by radiologists or by computer. The nipple is a reliable and stable landmark on mammograms for the registration of multiple mammograms. However, accurate identification of nipple location on mammograms is challenging because of the variations in image quality and in the nipple projections, resulting in some nipples being nearly invisible on the mammograms. In this study, we developed a computerized method to automatically identify the nipple location on digitized mammograms. First, the breast boundary was obtained using a gradient-based boundary tracking algorithm, and then the gray level profiles along the inside and outside of the boundary were identified. A geometric convergence analysis was used to limit the nipple search to a region of the breast boundary. A two-stage nipple detection method was developed to identify the nipple location using the gray level information around the nipple, the geometric characteristics of nipple shapes, and the texture features of glandular tissue or ducts which converge toward the nipple. At the first stage, a rule-based method was designed to identify the nipple location by detecting significant changes of intensity along the gray level profiles inside and outside the breast boundary and the changes in the boundary direction. At the second stage, a texture orientation-field analysis was developed to estimate the nipple location based on the convergence of the texture pattern of glandular tissue or ducts towards the nipple. The nipple location was finally determined from the detected nipple candidates by a rule-based confidence analysis. In this study, 377 and 367 randomly selected digitized mammograms were used for training and testing the nipple detection algorithm, respectively. Two experienced radiologists identified the nipple locations

  13. Statistical-techniques-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using texture feature analysis: application in computed tomography (CT) imaging to fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woon-Kwan; Park, Hyong-Hu; Im, In-Chul; Lee, Jae-Seung; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Dong, Kyung-Rae

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on texture feature analysis and statistical wavelet transformation technology to diagnose fatty liver disease with computed tomography (CT) imaging. In the target image, a wavelet transformation was performed for each lesion area to set the region of analysis (ROA, window size: 50 × 50 pixels) and define the texture feature of a pixel. Based on the extracted texture feature values, six parameters (average gray level, average contrast, relative smoothness, skewness, uniformity, and entropy) were determined to calculate the recognition rate for a fatty liver. In addition, a multivariate analysis of the variance (MANOVA) method was used to perform a discriminant analysis to verify the significance of the extracted texture feature values and the recognition rate for a fatty liver. According to the results, each texture feature value was significant for a comparison of the recognition rate for a fatty liver ( p fatty liver had the same scale as that for the F-value, showing 100% (average gray level) at the maximum and 80% (average contrast) at the minimum. Therefore, the recognition rate is believed to be a useful clinical value for the automatic detection and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using the texture feature value. Nevertheless, further study on various diseases and singular diseases will be needed in the future.

  14. 3T MRI of the breast with computer aided diagnosis, can it help to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to check the sensitivity of multiple newly developed 3T MRI breast sequences using CAD software, in pre sampling diagnosis of breast cancer, in an attempt to minimize unnecessary invasive sampling or surgical procedures. Patients and methods: This was a prospective study, included 120 ...

  15. A novel computer-aided diagnosis system for breast MRI based on feature selection and ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Li, Zhe; Chu, Jinghui

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. With the development of modern medical science and information technology, medical imaging techniques have an increasingly important role in the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose an automated computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) framework for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The scheme consists of an ensemble of several machine learning-based techniques, including ensemble under-sampling (EUS) for imbalanced data processing, the Relief algorithm for feature selection, the subspace method for providing data diversity, and Adaboost for improving the performance of base classifiers. We extracted morphological, various texture, and Gabor features. To clarify the feature subsets' physical meaning, subspaces are built by combining morphological features with each kind of texture or Gabor feature. We tested our proposal using a manually segmented Region of Interest (ROI) data set, which contains 438 images of malignant tumors and 1898 images of normal tissues or benign tumors. Our proposal achieves an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.9617, which outperforms most other state-of-the-art breast MRI CADx systems. Compared with other methods, our proposal significantly reduces the false-positive classification rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis for detection of lacunar infarcts on brain MR images: ROC analysis of radiologists' detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Y.; Yokoyama, R.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H.; Asano, T.; Kato, H.; Hoshi, H.; Yamakawa, H.; Iwama, T.; Ando, H.; Yamakawa, H.

    2007-01-01

    The detection and management of asymptomatic lacunar infarcts on magnetic resonance (MR) images are important tasks for radiologists to ensure the prevention of sever cerebral infarctions. However, accurate identification of lacunar infarcts is a difficult. Therefore, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for detection of lacunar infarcts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiologists' performance in detection of lacunar infarcts without and with use of CAD scheme. 30 T1- and 30 T2- weighted images obtained from 30 patients were used for an observer study, which were consisted of 15 cases with a single lacunar infarct and 15 cases without any lacunar infarct. Six radiologists participated in the observer study. They interpreted lacunar infarcts first without and then with use of the scheme. For all six observers, average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value was increased from 0.920 to 0.965 when they used the computer output. This CAD scheme might have the potential to improve the accuracy of radiologists' performance in the detection of lacunar infarcts on MR images. (orig.)

  17. Computer aided diagnosis system for Alzheimer disease using brain diffusion tensor imaging features selected by Pearson's correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, M; Termenon, M; Savio, A; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Echeveste, J; Pérez, J M; Besga, A

    2011-09-20

    The aim of this paper is to obtain discriminant features from two scalar measures of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD), and to train and test classifiers able to discriminate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from controls on the basis of features extracted from the FA or MD volumes. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested on FA and MD data. Feature selection is done computing the Pearson's correlation between FA or MD values at voxel site across subjects and the indicative variable specifying the subject class. Voxel sites with high absolute correlation are selected for feature extraction. Results are obtained over an on-going study in Hospital de Santiago Apostol collecting anatomical T1-weighted MRI volumes and DTI data from healthy control subjects and AD patients. FA features and a linear SVM classifier achieve perfect accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in several cross-validation studies, supporting the usefulness of DTI-derived features as an image-marker for AD and to the feasibility of building Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for AD based on them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Ultrasound Using Computerized BI-RADS Features and Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Juan; Alam, S Kaisar; Garra, Brian; Zhang, Yingtao; Ahmed, Tahira

    2016-04-01

    This work identifies effective computable features from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for breast ultrasound. Computerized features corresponding to ultrasound BI-RADs categories were designed and tested using a database of 283 pathology-proven benign and malignant lesions. Features were selected based on classification performance using a "bottom-up" approach for different machine learning methods, including decision tree, artificial neural network, random forest and support vector machine. Using 10-fold cross-validation on the database of 283 cases, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 from a support vector machine with 77.7% overall accuracy; the highest overall accuracy, 78.5%, was from a random forest with the AUC 0.83. Lesion margin and orientation were optimum features common to all of the different machine learning methods. These features can be used in CAD systems to help distinguish benign from worrisome lesions. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer-aided tomography (CT) in diagnosis of organic brain lesions in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S.B.; Belova, O.G.; Nikiforchuk, N.M.; Savvateeva, N.Yu.; Atyasova, E.V.; Baev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors retrospectively analyse CT data obtained in examinations of 1745 patients divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 721 patients with schizophrenia, group consisted of 855 mentally normal subjects directed to computer tomographic examination with suspected organic involvement of the brain, and group 3 consisted of 169 mentally and neurologically normal subjects. Vascular diseases of the nervous system predominated in group 2 as against group 1, being 3.5 times more incident. No intracranial tumors were detected in controls; in schizophrenics computer tomographic signs of volumic brain lesions were detected in 1.5% of cases

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of lung cancer: the effect of training data sets on classification accuracy of lung nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing; Liu, Ji-Yu; Sun, Xi-Wen; Zheng, Bin; Nie, Sheng-Dong

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) scheme for classification between malignant and benign lung nodules, and also assess whether CADx performance changes in detecting nodules associated with early and advanced stage lung cancer. The study involves 243 biopsy-confirmed pulmonary nodules. Among them, 76 are benign, 81 are stage I and 86 are stage III malignant nodules. The cases are separated into three data sets involving: (1) all nodules, (2) benign and stage I malignant nodules, and (3) benign and stage III malignant nodules. A CADx scheme is applied to segment lung nodules depicted on computed tomography images and we initially computed 66 3D image features. Then, three machine learning models namely, a support vector machine, naïve Bayes classifier and linear discriminant analysis, are separately trained and tested by using three data sets and a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method embedded with a Relief-F feature selection algorithm. When separately using three data sets to train and test three classifiers, the average areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) are 0.94, 0.90 and 0.99, respectively. When using the classifiers trained using data sets with all nodules, average AUC values are 0.88 and 0.99 for detecting early and advanced stage nodules, respectively. AUC values computed from three classifiers trained using the same data set are consistent without statistically significant difference (p  >  0.05). This study demonstrates (1) the feasibility of applying a CADx scheme to accurately distinguish between benign and malignant lung nodules, and (2) a positive trend between CADx performance and cancer progression stage. Thus, in order to increase CADx performance in detecting subtle and early cancer, training data sets should include more diverse early stage cancer cases.

  1. Fuzzy Computer-Aided Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis Based on MRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashenyi, Igor; Ramírez, Javier; Popov, Anton; Górriz, Juan Manuel; The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that has no cure and leads to death. One of the most prevalent tools for AD diagnosis is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of its capability to visualize brain anatomical structures. There is a variety of classification methods for automatic diagnosis of AD, such as support vector machines, genetic algorithms, Bayes classifiers, neural networks, random forests, etc., but none of them provides robust information about the stage of the AD, they can just reveal the presence of disease. In this paper, a new approach for classification of MRI images using a fuzzy inference system is proposed. Two statistical moments (mean and standard deviation) of 116 anatomical regions of interests (ROIs) are used as input features for the classification system. A t-test feature selection method is used to identify the most discriminative ROIs. In order to evaluate the proposed system, MRI images from a database consisting of 818 subjects (229 normal, 401 mild cognitive impairment and 188 AD subjects) collected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) is analyzed. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) of the proposed fuzzy inference system fed by statistical input features are employed as the evaluation criteria with k-fold cross validation. The proposed system yields promising results in normal vs. AD classification with AUC of 0.99 on the training set and 0.8622±0.0033 on the testing set.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke based on cerebral hypoperfusion using 4D CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Jean-Paul; Smit, Ewoud J.; Viergever, Max A.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Vos, Pieter C.

    2013-02-01

    The presence of collateral blood flow is found to be a strong predictor of patient outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Collateral blood flow is defined as an alternative way to provide oxygenated blood to ischemic cerebral tissue. Assessment of collateral blood supply is currently performed by visual inspection of a Computed Tomography Angiogram (CTA) which introduces inter-observer variability and depends on the grading scale. Furthermore, variations in the arterial contrast arrival time may lead to underestimation of collateral blood supply in a CTA which exerts a negative influence on the prediction of patient outcome. In this study, the feasibility of a Computer-aided Diagnosis system is investigated capable of objectively predicting patient outcome. We present a novel automatic method for quantitative assessment of cerebral hypoperfusion in timing-invariant (i.e. delay insensitive) CTA (TI-CTA). The proposed Vessel Density Symmetry algorithm automatically generates descriptive maps based on hemispheric asymmetry of blood vessels. Intensity and symmetry based features are extracted from these descriptive maps and subjected to a best-first-search feature selection. Linear Discriminant Analysis is performed to combine selected features into a likelihood of good patient outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the CAD by leave-one- patient-out cross validation. A Positive Predicting Value of 1 was obtained at a sensitivity of 25% with an area under the ROC-curve of 0.86. The results show that the CAD is feasible to objectively predict patient outcome. The presented CAD could make an important contribution to acute ischemic stroke diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Progress of computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD in dentistryCAD in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Katsumata

    2014-08-01

    CAD is also useful in the detection and evaluation of dental and maxillofacial lesions. Identifying alveolar bone resorption due to periodontitis and radiolucent jaw lesions (such as radicular and dentigerous cysts are important goals for CAD. CAD can be applied not only to panoramic radiography but also to dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images. Linking of CAD and teleradiology will be an important issue.

  4. Computer-aided proximal caries diagnosis: correlation with clinical examination and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Scheetz, James P.; Aarman, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the LOGICON Caries Detector using RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors, by comparing results of each detector to the results of clinical and histological examinations. Pairs of extracted teeth were radiographed, and a total of 57 proximal surfaces, which included both carious and non-carious situations, were analyzed. The RVG-4 produced 8-bit images, while the RVG-ui unit produced 12-bit images, which were taken in the high sensitivity mode. The images produced by the LOGICON were evaluated by a trained observer using both automated and manual caries detection software modes. Ground sections of the teeth established the actual absence or existence of caries. LOGICON-aided caries detection and depth discrimination of the RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors were equally inconsistent irrespective of whether the LOGICON software was set to the automated or manual mode. Sensitivity ranged from 50% to 57% for caries penetration of the enamel-dentin junction. Care needs to be taken when using LOGICON in conjunction with RVG images as an adjunct for treatment planning dental caries. Even when applied by a trained observer, substantial discrepancies exist between the results of the LOGICON software-guided evalutation using RVG images and histologic examination.

  5. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Using Artificial Intelligence for the Diagnosis and Characterization of Thyroid Nodules on Ultrasound: Initial Clinical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Park, Hye Sun; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    An initial clinical assessment is described of a new, commercially available, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using artificial intelligence (AI) for thyroid ultrasound, and its performance is evaluated in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules and categorization of nodule characteristics. Patients with thyroid nodules with decisive diagnosis, whether benign or malignant, were consecutively enrolled from November 2015 to February 2016. An experienced radiologist reviewed the ultrasound image characteristics of the thyroid nodules, while another radiologist assessed the same thyroid nodules using the CAD system, providing ultrasound characteristics and a diagnosis of whether nodules were benign or malignant. The diagnostic performance and agreement of US characteristics between the experienced radiologist and the CAD system were compared. In total, 102 thyroid nodules from 89 patients were included; 59 (57.8%) were benign and 43 (42.2%) were malignant. The CAD system showed a similar sensitivity as the experienced radiologist (90.7% vs. 88.4%, p > 0.99), but a lower specificity and a lower area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve (specificity: 74.6% vs. 94.9%, p = 0.002; AUROC: 0.83 vs. 0.92, p = 0.021). Classifications of the ultrasound characteristics (composition, orientation, echogenicity, and spongiform) between radiologist and CAD system were in substantial agreement (κ = 0.659, 0.740, 0.733, and 0.658, respectively), while the margin showed a fair agreement (κ = 0.239). The sensitivity of the CAD system using AI for malignant thyroid nodules was as good as that of the experienced radiologist, while specificity and accuracy were lower than those of the experienced radiologist. The CAD system showed an acceptable agreement with the experienced radiologist for characterization of thyroid nodules.

  6. SU-E-J-248: Contributions of Tumor and Stroma Phenotyping in Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H; Lan, L; Sennett, C; Giger, M [Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To gain insight into the role of parenchyma stroma in the characterization of breast tumors by incorporating computerized mammographic parenchyma assessment into breast CADx in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Methods: This study was performed on 182 biopsy-proven breast mass lesions, including 76 benign and 106 malignant lesions. For each full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) case, our quantitative imaging analysis was performed on both the tumor and a region-of-interest (ROI) from the normal contralateral breast. The lesion characterization includes automatic lesion segmentation and feature extraction. Radiographic texture analysis (RTA) was applied on the normal ROIs to assess the mammographic parenchymal patterns of these contralateral normal breasts. Classification performance of both individual computer extracted features and the output from a Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN) were evaluated with a leave-one-lesion-out method using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC) as the figure of merit. Results: Lesion characterization included computer-extracted phenotypes of spiculation, size, shape, and margin. For parenchymal pattern characterization, five texture features were selected, including power law beta, contrast, and edge gradient. Merging of these computer-selected features using BANN classifiers yielded AUC values of 0.79 (SE=0.03) and 0.67 (SE=0.04) in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions using only tumor phenotypes and texture features from the contralateral breasts, respectively. Incorporation of tumor phenotypes with parenchyma texture features into the BANN yielded improved classification performance with an AUC value of 0.83 (SE=0.03) in the task of differentiating malignant from benign lesions. Conclusion: Combining computerized tumor and parenchyma phenotyping was found to significantly improve breast cancer diagnostic accuracy

  7. A study on computer-aided diagnosis based on temporal subtraction of sequential chest radiographs (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Akiko

    2001-01-01

    An automated digital image subtraction technique for use with pairs of temporally sequential chest radiographs has been developed to aid radiologists in the detection of interval changes. Automated image registration based on nonlinear geometric warping is performed prior to subtraction in order to deal with complicated radiographic misregistration. Processing includes global matching, to achieve rough registration between the entire lung fields in the two images, and local matching, based on a cross-correlation method, to determine local shift values for a number of small regions. A proper warping of x,y-coordinates is determined by fitting two-dimensional polynomials to the distributions of the shift values. One image is warped and then subtracted from the other. The resultant subtraction images were able to enhance the conspicuity of various types of interval changes. Improved global matching based on a weighted template matching method achieved robust registration even with photofluorographs taken in chest mass screening programs, which had previously presented us with a relatively large number of poor-registration images. The new method was applied to 129 pairs of chest mass screening images, and offered registration accuracy as good as manual global matching. An observer test using 114 cases including 57 lung cancer cases presented better sensitivity and specificity on average compared to conventional comparison readings. In addition, newly developed image processing that eliminates the rib edge artifacts in subtraction images was applied to 26 images having pathological interval changes; results showed the potential for application to automated schemes for the detection of interval change patterns. With its capacity to improve the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiographs, the chest temporal subtraction technique promises to become an important element of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems

  8. Automatic computer-aided diagnosis of retinal nerve fiber layer defects using fundus photographs in optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Eun; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the validity of an automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects on fundus photographs of glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. We have proposed an automatic detection method for RNFL defects on fundus photographs in various cases of glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. In order to detect the vertical dark bands as candidate RNFL defects, the nonuniform illumination of the fundus image was corrected, the blood vessels were removed, and the images were converted to polar coordinates with the center of the optic disc. False positives (FPs) were reduced by using knowledge-based rules. The sensitivity and FP rates for all images were calculated. We tested 98 fundus photographs with 140 RNFL defects and 100 fundus photographs of healthy normal subjects. The proposed method achieved a sensitivity of 90% and a 0.67 FP rate per image and worked well with RNFL defects with variable depths and widths, with uniformly high detection rates regardless of the angular widths of the RNFL defects. The average detection accuracy was approximately 0.94. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the proposed algorithm for detecting RNFL defects among 98 patients and 100 healthy individuals was 86% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The proposed CAD system successfully detected RNFL defects in optic neuropathies. Thus, the proposed algorithm is useful for the detection of RNFL defects.

  9. Continuous measurements of mandibular cortical width on dental panoramic radiographs for computer-aided diagnosis of osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M. S.; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided osteoporosis diagnosis system that automatically determines the inferior cortical width of the mandible continuously on dental panoramic radiographs to realize statistically more robust measurements than the conventional one-point measurements. The cortical width was continuously measured on dental panoramic radiographs by enhancing the original image, determining cortical boundaries, and finally evaluating the distance between boundaries continuously throughout the region of interest. The diagnostic performance using the average width calculated from the continuous measurement was compared with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women of whom 50 to the development of the tool and 50 to its validation with no history of osteoporosis was evaluated. We experimentally showed the superiority of our method with improved sensitivity and specificity of identifying the development subjects were 90.0% and 75.0% in women with low spinal BMD and 81.8% and 69.2% in those with low femoral BMD, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation subjects were 93.3% and 82.9% at the lumbar spine and 92.3% and 75.7% at the femoral neck, respectively in terms of efficacy for diagnosing osteoporosis. We also assessed the diagnosis and classification of women with osteoporosis using support vector machine employing the average and variance of the continuous measurements gave excellent discrimination ability. It yields sensitivity and specificity of 90.9% and 83.8%, respectively with lumbar spine and 90.0% and 69.1%, respectively with femoral neck BMD. Performance comparison and simplicity of this method indicate that our computeraided system is readily applicable to clinical practice.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  11. Statistical-techniques-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using texture feature analysis: application in computed tomography (CT) imaging to fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woon-Kwan; Park, Hyong-Hu; Im, In-Chul; Lee, Jae-Seung; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Dong, Kyung-Rae

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on texture feature analysis and statistical wavelet transformation technology to diagnose fatty liver disease with computed tomography (CT) imaging. In the target image, a wavelet transformation was performed for each lesion area to set the region of analysis (ROA, window size: 50 x 50 pixels) and define the texture feature of a pixel. Based on the extracted texture feature values, six parameters (average gray level, average contrast, relative smoothness, skewness, uniformity, and entropy) were determined to calculate the recognition rate for a fatty liver. In addition, a multivariate analysis of the variance (MANOVA) method was used to perform a discriminant analysis to verify the significance of the extracted texture feature values and the recognition rate for a fatty liver. According to the results, each texture feature value was significant for a comparison of the recognition rate for a fatty liver (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the F-value, which was used as a scale for the difference in recognition rates, was highest in the average gray level, relatively high in the skewness and the entropy, and relatively low in the uniformity, the relative smoothness and the average contrast. The recognition rate for a fatty liver had the same scale as that for the F-value, showing 100% (average gray level) at the maximum and 80% (average contrast) at the minimum. Therefore, the recognition rate is believed to be a useful clinical value for the automatic detection and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using the texture feature value. Nevertheless, further study on various diseases and singular diseases will be needed in the future.

  12. A new approach to develop computer-aided diagnosis scheme of breast mass classification using deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Yan, Shiju; Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Wang, Yunzhi; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    To develop and test a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of mammograms for classifying between malignant and benign masses. An image dataset involving 560 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digital mammograms was used. After down-sampling each ROI from 512×512 to 64×64 pixel size, we applied an 8 layer deep learning network that involves 3 pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers for automatic feature extraction and a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) classifier for feature categorization to process ROIs. The 3 pairs of convolution layers contain 20, 10, and 5 feature maps, respectively. Each convolution layer is connected with a max-pooling layer to improve the feature robustness. The output of the sixth layer is fully connected with a MLP classifier, which is composed of one hidden layer and one logistic regression layer. The network then generates a classification score to predict the likelihood of ROI depicting a malignant mass. A four-fold cross validation method was applied to train and test this deep learning network. The results revealed that this CAD scheme yields an area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.696±0.044, 0.802±0.037, 0.836±0.036, and 0.822±0.035 for fold 1 to 4 testing datasets, respectively. The overall AUC of the entire dataset is 0.790±0.019. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast masses without a lesion segmentation, image feature computation and selection process.

  13. A New Approach to Develop Computer-aided Diagnosis Scheme of Breast Mass Classification Using Deep Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Yan, Shiju; Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Wang, Yunzhi; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To develop and test a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of mammograms for classifying between malignant and benign masses. METHODS An image dataset involving 560 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digital mammograms was used. After down-sampling each ROI from 512×512 to 64×64 pixel size, we applied an 8 layer deep learning network that involves 3 pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers for automatic feature extraction and a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) classifier for feature categorization to process ROIs. The 3 pairs of convolution layers contain 20, 10, and 5 feature maps, respectively. Each convolution layer is connected with a max-pooling layer to improve the feature robustness. The output of the sixth layer is fully connected with a MLP classifier, which is composed of one hidden layer and one logistic regression layer. The network then generates a classification score to predict the likelihood of ROI depicting a malignant mass. A four-fold cross validation method was applied to train and test this deep learning network. RESULTS The results revealed that this CAD scheme yields an area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.696±0.044, 0.802±0.037, 0.836±0.036, and 0.822±0.035 for fold 1 to 4 testing datasets, respectively. The overall AUC of the entire dataset is 0.790±0.019. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast masses without a lesion segmentation, image feature computation and selection process. PMID:28436410

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer using multi-parametric MRI: comparison between PUN and Tofts models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, S.; Giannini, V.; Russo, F.; Regge, D.

    2018-05-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used in clinical settings to report multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate. Usually, CAD systems automatically highlight cancer-suspicious regions to the radiologist, reducing reader variability and interpretation errors. Nevertheless, implementing this software requires the selection of which mp-MRI parameters can best discriminate between malignant and non-malignant regions. To exploit functional information, some parameters are derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) acquisitions. In particular, much CAD software employs pharmacokinetic features, such as K trans and k ep, derived from the Tofts model, to estimate a likelihood map of malignancy. However, non-pharmacokinetic models can be also used to describe DCE-MRI curves, without any requirement for prior knowledge or measurement of the arterial input function, which could potentially lead to large errors in parameter estimation. In this work, we implemented an empirical function derived from the phenomenological universalities (PUN) class to fit DCE-MRI. The parameters of the PUN model are used in combination with T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted acquisitions to feed a support vector machine classifier to produce a voxel-wise malignancy likelihood map of the prostate. The results were all compared to those for a CAD system based on Tofts pharmacokinetic features to describe DCE-MRI curves, using different quality aspects of image segmentation, while also evaluating the number and size of false positive (FP) candidate regions. This study included 61 patients with 70 biopsy-proven prostate cancers (PCa). The metrics used to evaluate segmentation quality between the two CAD systems were not statistically different, although the PUN-based CAD reported a lower number of FP, with reduced size compared to the Tofts-based CAD. In conclusion, the CAD software based on PUN parameters is a feasible means with which to

  15. Diagnostic performance of combined single photon emission computed tomographic scintimammography and ultrasonography based on computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choi, Duck Joo; Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Jun Gu; Kim, Jong Hyo; Lee, Hyung Ji; Om, Kyong Sik; Lee, Byeong Il

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the diagnostic performance of SPECT scintimammography (SMM) can be improved by adding computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of ultrasonography (US). We reviewed breast SPECT SMM images and corresponding US images from 40 patients with breast masses (21 malignant and 19 benign tumors.) The quantitative data of SPECT SMM were obtained as the uptake ratio of lesion to contralateral normal breast. The morphologic features of the breast lesions on US were extracted and quantitated using the automated CAD software program. The diagnostic performance of SPECT SMM and CAD of US alone was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The best discriminating parameter (D-value) combining SPECT SMM and the CAD of US was created. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of combined two diagnostic modalities were compared to those of a single one. Both SPECT SMM and CAD of US showed a relatively good diagnostic performance (area under curve=0.846 and 0.831, respectively). Combining the results of SPECT SMM and CAD of US resulted in improved diagnostic performance (area under curve=0.860), but there was no statistical difference in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the combined method and a single modality. It seems that combining the results of SPECT SMM and CAD of breast US do not significantly improve the diagnostic performance for diagnosis of breast cancer, compared with that of SPECT SMM alone. However, SPECT SMM and CAD of US may complement each other in differential diagnosis of breast cancer

  16. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn; Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27±103.72/117.73±92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29±86.70/388.31±109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98±98.11/366.71±154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57±98.12/383.47±135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02±116.07/384.16±146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  17. Interstitial lung disease associated with collagen vascular disorders: disease quantification using a computer-aided diagnosis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K.; Engelke, C. [University Hospital of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Dicken, V. [MeVis Research GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Kneitz, C. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Dept. of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medizinische Klinik and Poliklinik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hoehmann, M.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool compared to human observers in quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with collagen-vascular disorders. A total of 52 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=24), scleroderma (n=14) and systemic lupus erythematosus (n=14) underwent thin-section CT. Two independent observers assessed the extent of ILD (EoILD), reticulation (EoRet) and ground-glass opacity (EoGGO). CAD assessed EoILD twice. Pulmonary function tests were obtained. Statistical evaluation used 95% limits of agreement and linear regression analysis. CAD correlated well with diffusing capacity (DL{sub CO}) (R=-0.531, P<0.0001) and moderately with forced vital capacity (FVC) (R=-0.483, P=0.0008). There was close correlation between CAD and the readers (EoILD vs. CAD: R=0.716, P<0.0001; EoRet vs. CAD: R=0.69, P<0.0001). Subgroup analysis including patients with minimal EoGGO (<15%) strengthened the correlations between CAD and the readers, readers and PFT, and CAD and PFT. EoILD by readers correlated strongly with DL{sub CO} (R=-0.705, P<0.0001) and moderately with FVC (R=-0.559, P=0.0002). EoRet correlated closely with DL{sub CO} and moderately with FVC (DL{sub CO}: R=-0.663; FVC: R=-0.436; P{<=}0.005). The CAD system is a promising tool for ILD quantification, showing close correlation with human observers and physiologic impairment. (orig.)

  18. Parameter optimization of a computer-aided diagnosis scheme for the segmentation of microcalcification clusters in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Floyd, Carey E. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to develop a parameter optimization technique for the segmentation of suspicious microcalcification clusters in digitized mammograms. In previous work, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme was developed that used local histogram analysis of overlapping subimages and a fuzzy rule-based classifier to segment individual microcalcifications, and clustering analysis for reducing the number of false positive clusters. The performance of this previous CAD scheme depended on a large number of parameters such as the intervals used to calculate fuzzy membership values and on the combination of membership values used by each decision rule. These parameters were optimized empirically based on the performance of the algorithm on the training set. In order to overcome the limitations of manual training and rule generation, the segmentation algorithm was modified in order to incorporate automatic parameter optimization. For the segmentation of individual microcalcifications, the new algorithm used a neural network with fuzzy-scaled inputs. The fuzzy-scaled inputs were created by processing the histogram features with a family of membership functions, the parameters of which were automatically extracted from the distribution of the feature values. The neural network was trained to classify feature vectors as either positive or negative. Individual microcalcifications were segmented from positive subimages. After clustering, another neural network was trained to eliminate false positive clusters. A database of 98 images provided training and testing sets to optimize the parameters and evaluate the CAD scheme, respectively. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with a FROC analysis. At a sensitivity rate of 93.2%, there was an average of 0.8 false positive clusters per image. The results are very comparable with those taken using our previously published rule-based method. However, the new algorithm is more suited to generalize its

  19. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  20. A new computer aided diagnosis system for evaluation of chronic liver disease with ultrasound shear wave elastography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2016-03-01

    Classify chronic liver disease (CLD) from ultrasound shear-wave elastography (SWE) imaging by means of a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The proposed algorithm employs an inverse mapping technique (red-green-blue to stiffness) to quantify 85 SWE images (54 healthy and 31 with CLD). Texture analysis is then applied involving the automatic calculation of 330 first and second order textural features from every transformed stiffness value map to determine functional features that characterize liver elasticity and describe liver condition for all available stages. Consequently, a stepwise regression analysis feature selection procedure is utilized toward a reduced feature subset that is fed into the support vector machines (SVMs) classification algorithm in the design of the CAD system. With regard to the mapping procedure accuracy, the stiffness map values had an average difference of 0.01 ± 0.001 kPa compared to the quantification results derived from the color-box provided by the built-in software of the ultrasound system. Highest classification accuracy from the SVM model was 87.0% with sensitivity and specificity values of 83.3% and 89.1%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.85 with [0.77-0.89] confidence interval. The proposed CAD system employing color to stiffness mapping and classification algorithms offered superior results, comparing the already published clinical studies. It could prove to be of value to physicians improving the diagnostic accuracy of CLD and can be employed as a second opinion tool for avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.

  1. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  2. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barache, J.M.; Beltranda, G.; Blanc, P.

    1987-01-01

    In order to ensure that the data transmitted to the managment system is of the required quality and consistent with the general control command protocols, computer aided design (CAD) was employed for level N4. One describes the use of CAD for the control system of N4 [fr

  4. Fate of pulmonary nodules detected by computer-aided diagnosis and physician review on the computed tomography simulation images for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jin Sung; Park, Hee Chul; Oh, Dong Ryul

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the frequency and clinical significance of detected incidental lung nodules found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and a physician review. Sixty-seven treatment-naive HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiotherapy (RT) were included for the study. Portal phase of simulation CT images was used for CAD analysis and a physician review for lung nodule detection. For automated nodule detection, a commercially available CAD system was used. To assess the performance of lung nodule detection for lung metastasis, the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-six patients had incidental nodules detected by CAD with a total of 109 nodules. Only 20 (18.3%) nodules were considered to be significant nodules by a physician review. The number of significant nodules detected by both of CAD or a physician review was 24 in 9 patients. Lung metastases developed in 11 of 46 patients who had any type of nodule. The sensitivities were 58.3% and 100% based on patient number and on the number of nodules, respectively. The NPVs were 91.4% and 100%, respectively. And the PPVs were 77.8% and 91.7%, respectively. Incidental detection of metastatic nodules was not an uncommon event. From our study, CAD could be applied to CT simulation images allowing for an increase in detection of metastatic nodules.

  5. Detection of simulated pulmonary nodules by single-exposure dual-energy computed radiography of the chest: effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system (Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Shoji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Ito, Wataru; Shimura, Kazuo; Kato, Hisatoyo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme on the detection of pulmonary nodules (PNs) in single-exposure dual-energy subtraction computed radiography (CR) images of the chest, and to evaluate the effect of this CAD scheme on radiologists' detectabilities. Methods and material: We compared the detectability by the CAD scheme with the detectability by 12 observers by using conventional CR (C-CR) and bone-subtracted CR (BS-CR) images of 25 chest phantoms with a low-contrast nylon nodule. Results: Both in the CAD scheme and for the observers, the detectability of BS-CR images was superior to that of C-CR images (P<0.005). The detection performance of the CAD scheme was equal to that of the observers. The nodules detected by the CAD did not necessarily coincide with those by the observers. Thus, if observers can use the results of the CAD system as a 'second opinion', their detectabilities increase. Conclusion: The CAD system for detection of PNs in the single-exposure dual-energy subtraction method is promising for improving radiologists' detectabilities of PNs

  6. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashini, K; Babu, Satish; Rajgopal, K V; Kokila, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT) in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD) and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP) rate of CAD software was calculated. Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2%) and 202 (91.4%) by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4%) and nodules in hilar (100%) and central (96.5%) location when compared to RAD's performance. CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD's performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  7. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prakashini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP rate of CAD software was calculated. Observations and Results: Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2% and 202 (91.4% by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4% and nodules in hilar (100% and central (96.5% location when compared to RAD′s performance. Conclusion: CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD′s performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: Segmentation and classification using 3D active contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, Ted W.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, H.-P.; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Bogot, Naama; Zhou Chuan

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to classify malignant and benign lung nodules found on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a three-dimensional (3D) active contour (AC) method. A data set of 96 lung nodules (44 malignant, 52 benign) from 58 patients was used in this study. The 3D AC model is based on two-dimensional AC with the addition of three new energy components to take advantage of 3D information: (1) 3D gradient, which guides the active contour to seek the object surface (2) 3D curvature, which imposes a smoothness constraint in the z direction, and (3) mask energy, which penalizes contours that grow beyond the pleura or thoracic wall. The search for the best energy weights in the 3D AC model was guided by a simplex optimization method. Morphological and gray-level features were extracted from the segmented nodule. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to the shell of voxels surrounding the nodule. Texture features based on run-length statistics were extracted from the RBST image. A linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was designed using a second simplex optimization to select the most effective features. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used to train and test the CAD system. The system achieved a test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A z ) of 0.83±0.04. Our preliminary results indicate that use of the 3D AC model and the 3D texture features surrounding the nodule is a promising approach to the segmentation and classification of lung nodules with CAD. The segmentation performance of the 3D AC model trained with our data set was evaluated with 23 nodules available in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The lung nodule volumes segmented by the 3D AC

  9. Design of a high-sensitivity classifier based on a genetic algorithm: application to computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Petrick, Nicholas; Helvie, Mark A.; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.

    1998-01-01

    identified 61% and 34% of the benign masses respectively without missing any malignant masses. Our results show that the choice of the feature selection technique is important in computer-aided diagnosis, and that the GA may be a useful tool for designing classifiers for lesion characterization. (author)

  10. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  11. Cloud-Based NoSQL Open Database of Pulmonary Nodules for Computer-Aided Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Reproducible Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Junior, José Raniery; Oliveira, Marcelo Costa; de Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and its main manifestation is pulmonary nodules. Detection and classification of pulmonary nodules are challenging tasks that must be done by qualified specialists, but image interpretation errors make those tasks difficult. In order to aid radiologists on those hard tasks, it is important to integrate the computer-based tools with the lesion detection, pathology diagnosis, and image interpretation processes. However, computer-aided diagnosis research faces the problem of not having enough shared medical reference data for the development, testing, and evaluation of computational methods for diagnosis. In order to minimize this problem, this paper presents a public nonrelational document-oriented cloud-based database of pulmonary nodules characterized by 3D texture attributes, identified by experienced radiologists and classified in nine different subjective characteristics by the same specialists. Our goal with the development of this database is to improve computer-aided lung cancer diagnosis and pulmonary nodule detection and classification research through the deployment of this database in a cloud Database as a Service framework. Pulmonary nodule data was provided by the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), image descriptors were acquired by a volumetric texture analysis, and database schema was developed using a document-oriented Not only Structured Query Language (NoSQL) approach. The proposed database is now with 379 exams, 838 nodules, and 8237 images, 4029 of them are CT scans and 4208 manually segmented nodules, and it is allocated in a MongoDB instance on a cloud infrastructure.

  12. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim7071@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  13. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  14. Computer aided analysis of disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeweg, F.; Lindner, A.

    1986-01-01

    Computer aided analysis of disturbances and the prevention of failures (diagnosis and therapy control) in technological plants belong to the most important tasks of process control. Research in this field is very intensive due to increasing requirements to security and economy of process control and due to a remarkable increase of the efficiency of digital electronics. This publication concerns with analysis of disturbances in complex technological plants, especially in so called high risk processes. The presentation emphasizes theoretical concept of diagnosis and therapy control, modelling of the disturbance behaviour of the technological process and the man-machine-communication integrating artificial intelligence methods, e.g., expert system approach. Application is given for nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  16. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...... in CACE enhancing efficient flow of information between the tools supporting the following phases of the design process. In principle, this flow has to be two-way, and more or less automated, in order to enable the engineer to observe the propagation of the particular design decisions taken at various...... levels.The major conclusions of the paper are related with identifying the factors affecting the software tool integration in a way needed to facilitate design "inter-phase" communication. These are: standard application interfaces, dynamic data exchange mechanisms, code generation techniques and general...

  17. System of diagnosis of generators computer aided integrated into a movable laboratory; Sistema de diagnostico de generadores asistido por computadora integrado a un laboratorio movil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, H. Octavio; Escorsa Morales, Oscar; Castaneda Parra, Adelina; Garcia- Colon H, Rodolfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of the Movable Laboratory is presented, which will allow to combine and document the knowledge acquired by more than ten years of experience in diagnosis of electrical generators. The development of the project is divided into three main parts: laboratory design, data acquisition system (Datec) and system of diagnosis of generators computer aided (Cadis). [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo del Laboratorio Movil, el cual permitira conjuntar y documentar el conocimiento adquirido por mas de diez anos de experiencia en diagnostico de generadores electricos. El desarrollo del proyecto se divide en tres grandes partes: diseno de laboratorio, sistema de adquisicion de datos (Datec) y sistema de diagnostico de generadores asistido por computadora (Cadis).

  18. A Hybrid Computer-aided-diagnosis System for Prediction of Breast Cancer Recurrence (HPBCR Using Optimized Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Mohebian

    Full Text Available Cancer is a collection of diseases that involves growing abnormal cells with the potential to invade or spread to the body. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. A method for 5-year breast cancer recurrence prediction is presented in this manuscript. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 579 breast cancer patients (recurrence prevalence of 19.3% were analyzed and discriminative features were selected using statistical feature selection methods. They were further refined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as the inputs of the classification system with ensemble learning (Bagged Decision Tree: BDT. The proper combination of selected categorical features and also the weight (importance of the selected interval-measurement-scale features were identified by the PSO algorithm. The performance of HPBCR (hybrid predictor of breast cancer recurrence was assessed using the holdout and 4-fold cross-validation. Three other classifiers namely as supported vector machines, DT, and multilayer perceptron neural network were used for comparison. The selected features were diagnosis age, tumor size, lymph node involvement ratio, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, progesterone receptor expression, having hormone therapy and type of surgery. The minimum sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of HPBCR were 77%, 93%, 95% and 85%, respectively in the entire cross-validation folds and the hold-out test fold. HPBCR outperformed the other tested classifiers. It showed excellent agreement with the gold standard (i.e. the oncologist opinion after blood tumor marker and imaging tests, and tissue biopsy. This algorithm is thus a promising online tool for the prediction of breast cancer recurrence. Keywords: Breast cancer, Cancer recurrence, Computer-assisted diagnosis, Machine learning, Prognosis

  19. Computer-aided cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Jones, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1992, the remedial investigation of operable unit 2 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in Fernald, Ohio was in trouble. Despite years of effort--including an EPA-approved field-investigation work plan, 123 soil borings, 51 ground-water-monitoring wells, analysis of more than 650 soil and ground-water samples, and preparation of a draft remedial-investigation (RI) report--it was not possible to conclude if contaminated material in the unit was related to ground-water contamination previously detected beneath and beyond the site boundary. Compounding the problem, the schedule for the RI, feasibility study and record of decision for operable unit 2 was governed by a DOE-EPA consent agreement stipulating penalties of up to $10,000 per week for not meeting scheduled milestones--and time was running out. An advanced three-dimensional computer model confirmed that radioactive wastes dumped at the Fernald, Ohio Superfund site had contaminated ground water, after years of previous testing has been inconclusive. The system is now being used to aid feasibility and design work on the more-than-$1 billion remediation project

  20. Evaluation of a Computer-aided Lung Auscultation System for Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, A V; Buczinski, S; Booker, C W; Timsit, E

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle. To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle. A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 ± 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot. Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALA's Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score ≥2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking. CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Potential clinical impact of advanced imaging and computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiology: importance of radiologist's role and successful observer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng

    2015-07-01

    This review paper is based on our research experience in the past 30 years. The importance of radiologists' role is discussed in the development or evaluation of new medical images and of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes in chest radiology. The four main topics include (1) introducing what diseases can be included in a research database for different imaging techniques or CAD systems and what imaging database can be built by radiologists, (2) understanding how radiologists' subjective judgment can be combined with technical objective features to improve CAD performance, (3) sharing our experience in the design of successful observer performance studies, and (4) finally, discussing whether the new images and CAD systems can improve radiologists' diagnostic ability in chest radiology. In conclusion, advanced imaging techniques and detection/classification of CAD systems have a potential clinical impact on improvement of radiologists' diagnostic ability, for both the detection and the differential diagnosis of various lung diseases, in chest radiology.

  2. A vector machine formulation with application to the computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer from DCE-MRI screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levman, Jacob E D; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the use of a proposed vector machine formulation with application to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examinations in the context of the computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper describes a method for generating feature measurements that characterize a lesion's vascular heterogeneity as well as a supervised learning formulation that represents an improvement over the conventional support vector machine in this application. Spatially varying signal-intensity measures were extracted from the examinations using principal components analysis and the machine learning technique known as the support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the results. An alternative vector machine formulation was found to improve on the results produced by the established SVM in randomized bootstrap validation trials, yielding a receiver-operating characteristic curve area of 0.82 which represents a statistically significant improvement over the SVM technique in this application.

  3. Automated quantification of renal interstitial fibrosis for computer-aided diagnosis: A comprehensive tissue structure segmentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Wei Keat; Kuang, Ye Chow; Ooi, Melanie Po-Leen; Khoo, Joon Joon

    2018-03-01

    through knowledge-based rules employing colour space transformations and structural features extraction from the images. In particular, the renal glomerulus identification is based on a multiscale textural feature analysis and a support vector machine. The regions in the biopsy representing interstitial fibrosis are deduced through the elimination of non-interstitial fibrosis structures from the biopsy area. The experiments conducted evaluate the system in terms of quantification accuracy, intra- and inter-observer variability in visual quantification by pathologists, and the effect introduced by the automated quantification system on the pathologists' diagnosis. A 40-image ground truth dataset has been manually prepared by consulting an experienced pathologist for the validation of the segmentation algorithms. The results from experiments involving experienced pathologists have demonstrated an average error of 9 percentage points in quantification result between the automated system and the pathologists' visual evaluation. Experiments investigating the variability in pathologists involving samples from 70 kidney patients also proved the automated quantification error rate to be on par with the average intra-observer variability in pathologists' quantification. The accuracy of the proposed quantification system has been validated with the ground truth dataset and compared against the pathologists' quantification results. It has been shown that the correlation between different pathologists' estimation of interstitial fibrosis area has significantly improved, demonstrating the effectiveness of the quantification system as a diagnostic aide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis of interictal 18F-FDG PET images for presurgical evaluation of epileptic foci in extratemporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imabayashi, Etsuko

    2003-01-01

    Interictal 18 F-FDG PET is beneficial to patients with epilepsy to define the epileptic foci before operation, especially to decide the laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However usefulness has not been clearly established in extra TLE. We retrospectively applied Z-score analysis to interictal preoperative 18 F-FDG PET images for detection of the epileptic foci in order to achieve better performance. Seventeen epileptic patients (women/men; 8/9, age; 11-55 yrs) underwent resection of epileptic foci with good outcome (Engel's stage of I or II) even after more than a year from operation. Presurgical 18 F-FDG PET images were spatially normalized using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99) with an original Japanese template for 18 F-FDG and compared with normal database constructed from 31 healthy volunteers (women/men; 14/17, age; 19-59 yrs). A software program, easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS), for analysis of patient data was developed by calculating Z-score in each voxel and visualizing the score in a standardized stereotactic space; Z-score=(normal mean-patient's value)/a standard deviation of normal data. Detectability of epileptic foci for this computer-aided analysis was compared with visual inspection of original 18 F-FDG PET images by five radiologists without any clinical information. In all cases, there was significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the operated area. The sensitivities of the detection of epileptic foci obtained from visual inspection were 47-59%. In contrast to, computer analysis by eZIS showed 71% sensitivity when we defined the highest Z-score in the cerebrum to be the focus diagnosed by eZIS. Computer-aided diagnosis with eZIS for 18 F-FDG PET study is useful for detecting epileptic foci in extra TLE. (author)

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis with Deep Learning Architecture: Applications to Breast Lesions in US Images and Pulmonary Nodules in CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chou, Yi-Hong; Qin, Jing; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Shen, Dinggang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-04-15

    This paper performs a comprehensive study on the deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules/lesions by avoiding the potential errors caused by inaccurate image processing results (e.g., boundary segmentation), as well as the classification bias resulting from a less robust feature set, as involved in most conventional CADx algorithms. Specifically, the stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) is exploited on the two CADx applications for the differentiation of breast ultrasound lesions and lung CT nodules. The SDAE architecture is well equipped with the automatic feature exploration mechanism and noise tolerance advantage, and hence may be suitable to deal with the intrinsically noisy property of medical image data from various imaging modalities. To show the outperformance of SDAE-based CADx over the conventional scheme, two latest conventional CADx algorithms are implemented for comparison. 10 times of 10-fold cross-validations are conducted to illustrate the efficacy of the SDAE-based CADx algorithm. The experimental results show the significant performance boost by the SDAE-based CADx algorithm over the two conventional methods, suggesting that deep learning techniques can potentially change the design paradigm of the CADx systems without the need of explicit design and selection of problem-oriented features.

  6. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule on Helical Dynamic CT Scans: Analysis of the Enhancement Patterns Using a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Jung; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Lee, Young Sun; Kweon, Keun Sang

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in assisting radiologists to diagnosis malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), as compared with diagnosing SPNs with using direct personal drawing. Forty patients with SPNs were analyzed. After the pre-contrast scan was performed, an additional ten series of post-contrast images were obtained at 20-second intervals. Two investigators measured the attenuation values of the SPNs: a radiologist who drew the regions of interest (ROIs), and a technician who used a CAD system. The Bland and Altman plots were used to compare the net enhancement between a CAD system and direct personal drawing. The diagnostic characteristics of the malignant SPNs were calculated by considering the CAD and direct personal drawing and with using Fisher's exact test. On the Bland and Altman plot, the net enhancement difference between the CAD system and direct personal drawing was not significant (within ± 2 standard deriation). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of diagnosing malignant SPNs using CAD was 92%, 85%, 75%, 96% and 88%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of diagnosing malignant SPNs using direct drawing was 92%, 89%, 79%, 92% and 88%, respectively. The CAD system was a useful tool for diagnosing malignant SPNs

  7. Computer Aided Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++.......Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++....

  8. Integration of computer-aided diagnosis/detection (CAD) results in a PACS environment using CAD-PACS toolkit and DICOM SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh H.T.; Liu, Brent; Huang, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is a mature technology in health care delivery for daily clinical imaging service and data management. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) utilizes computer methods to obtain quantitative measurements from medical images and clinical information to assist clinicians to assess a patient's clinical state more objectively. CAD needs image input and related information from PACS to improve its accuracy; and PACS benefits from CAD results online and available at the PACS workstation as a second reader to assist physicians in the decision making process. Currently, these two technologies remain as two separate independent systems with only minimal system integration. This paper describes a universal method to integrate CAD results with PACS in its daily clinical environment. The method is based on Health Level 7 (HL7) and Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standards, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles. In addition, the integration method is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant. The paper presents (1) the clinical value and advantages of integrating CAD results in a PACS environment, (2) DICOM Structured Reporting formats and some important IHE workflow profiles utilized in the system integration, (3) the methodology using the CAD-PACS integration toolkit, and (4) clinical examples with step-by-step workflows of this integration. (orig.)

  9. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis for detection of lacunar infarcts on brain MR images: ROC analysis of radiologists' detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Y.; Yokoyama, R.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H. [Dept. of Intelligent Image Information, Graduate Scholl of Medicine, Gifu Univ. (Japan); Asano, T.; Kato, H.; Hoshi, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate Scholl of Medicine, Gifu Univ. (Japan); Yamakawa, H.; Iwama, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Graduate Scholl of Medicine, Gifu Univ. (Japan); Ando, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Gifu Municipal Hospital (Japan); Yamakawa, H. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Chuno-Kousei Hospital (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The detection and management of asymptomatic lacunar infarcts on magnetic resonance (MR) images are important tasks for radiologists to ensure the prevention of sever cerebral infarctions. However, accurate identification of lacunar infarcts is a difficult. Therefore, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for detection of lacunar infarcts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiologists' performance in detection of lacunar infarcts without and with use of CAD scheme. 30 T1- and 30 T2- weighted images obtained from 30 patients were used for an observer study, which were consisted of 15 cases with a single lacunar infarct and 15 cases without any lacunar infarct. Six radiologists participated in the observer study. They interpreted lacunar infarcts first without and then with use of the scheme. For all six observers, average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value was increased from 0.920 to 0.965 when they used the computer output. This CAD scheme might have the potential to improve the accuracy of radiologists' performance in the detection of lacunar infarcts on MR images. (orig.)

  10. Black box integration of computer-aided diagnosis into PACS deserves a second chance: results of a usability study concerning bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldermann, Ina; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2013-08-01

    Usability aspects of different integration concepts for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) were inquired on the example of BoneXpert, a program determining the skeletal age from a left hand's radiograph. CAD-PACS integration was assessed according to its levels: data, function, presentation, and context integration focusing on usability aspects. A user-based study design was selected. Statements of seven experienced radiologists using two alternative types of integration provided by BoneXpert were acquired and analyzed using a mixed-methods approach based on think-aloud records and a questionnaire. In both variants, the CAD module (BoneXpert) was easily integrated in the workflow, found comprehensible and fitting in the conceptual framework of the radiologists. Weak points of the software integration referred to data and context integration. Surprisingly, visualization of intermediate image processing states (presentation integration) was found less important as compared to efficient handling and fast computation. Seamlessly integrating CAD into the PACS without additional work steps or unnecessary interrupts and without visualizing intermediate images may considerably improve software performance and user acceptance with efforts in time.

  11. Computer Aided Braille Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    The problems involved in teaching visually impaired persons to Braille are numerous. Training while the individual is still sighted and using a computer to assist is one way of shortening the learning curve. Such a solution is presented here.

  12. Which supplementary imaging modality should be used for breast ultrasonography? Comparison of the diagnostic performance of elastography and computer-aided diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Eun; Moon, Ji Eun Ho; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of grayscale ultrasonography (US), US elastography, and US computer-aided diagnosis (US-CAD) in the differential diagnosis of breast masses. A total of 193 breast masses in 175 consecutive women (mean age, 46.4 years) from June to August 2015 were included. US and elastography images were obtained and recorded. A US-CAD system was applied to the grayscale sonograms, which were automatically analyzed and visualized in order to generate a final assessment. The final assessments of breast masses were based on the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, while elasticity scores were assigned using a 5-point scoring system. The diagnostic performance of grayscale US, elastography, and US-CAD was calculated and compared. Of the 193 breast masses, 120 (62.2%) were benign and 73 (37.8%) were malignant. Breast masses had significantly higher rates of malignancy in BI-RADS categories 4c and 5, elastography patterns 4 and 5, and when the US-CAD assessment was possibly malignant (all P<0.001). Elastography had higher specificity (40.8%, P=0.042) than grayscale US. US-CAD showed the highest specificity (67.5%), positive predictive value (PPV) (61.4%), accuracy (74.1%), and area under the curve (AUC) (0.762, all P<0.05) among the three diagnostic tools. US-CAD had higher values for specificity, PPV, accuracy, and AUC than grayscale US or elastography. Computer-based analysis based on the morphologic features of US may be very useful in improving the diagnostic performance of breast US.

  13. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  14. A fully automated multi-modal computer aided diagnosis approach to coronary calcium scoring of MSCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-03-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. However, it can be difficult for a human observer to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the feasibility and requirement for an automated scoring method to reduce the subjectivity and reproducibility error inherent with manual clinical calcium scoring.

  15. Computer-Aided Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Computer-aided methods and tools have the potential to reduce the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and there is a benefit of working...... development and application. The proposed work is a part of the project for development of methods and tools that will allow systematic generation, analysis and solution of models for various objectives. It will use the computer-aided modeling framework that is based on a modeling methodology, which combines....... In this contribution, the concept of template-based modeling is presented and application is highlighted for the specific case of catalytic membrane fixed bed models. The modeling template is integrated in a generic computer-aided modeling framework. Furthermore, modeling templates enable the idea of model reuse...

  16. Diagnosis of osteoporosis from dental panoramic radiographs using the support vector machine method in a computer-aided system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, M S; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Kurita, Takio; Sanada, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of osteoporosis can potentially decrease the risk of fractures and improve the quality of life. Detection of thin inferior cortices of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs could be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of using kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) learning regarding the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify postmenopausal women with low BMD. We employed our newly adopted SVM method for continuous measurement of the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify women with low BMD or osteoporosis. The original X-ray image was enhanced, cortical boundaries were determined, distances among the upper and lower boundaries were evaluated and discrimination was performed by a radial basis function. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of this newly developed method for identifying women with low BMD (BMD T-score of -1.0 or less) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women (≥50 years old) with no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis. Sixty women were used for system training, and 40 were used in testing. The sensitivity and specificity using RBF kernel-SVM method for identifying women with low BMD were 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85.3-96.5] and 83.8% (95% CI, 76.6-91.0), respectively at the lumbar spine and 90.0% (95% CI, 84.1-95.9) and 69.1% (95% CI, 60.1-78.6), respectively at the femoral neck. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying women with low BMD at either the lumbar spine or femoral neck were 90.6% (95% CI, 92.0-100) and 80.9% (95% CI, 71.0-86.9), respectively. Our results suggest that the newly developed system with the SVM method would be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low skeletal BMD

  17. Novel computer-aided diagnosis of mesothelioma using nuclear structure of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Yergiyev, Oleksandr; Kolouri, Soheil; Silverman, Jan F.; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2014-03-01

    diagnostic standard is a pleural biopsy with subsequent histologic examination of the tissue demonstrating invasion by the tumor. The diagnostic tissue is obtained through thoracoscopy or open thoracotomy, both being highly invasive procedures. Thoracocenthesis, or removal of effusion fluid from the pleural space, is a far less invasive procedure that can provide material for cytological examination. However, it is insufficient to definitively confirm or exclude the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma, since tissue invasion cannot be determined. In this study, we present a computerized method to detect and classify malignant mesothelioma based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens. Our method aims at determining whether a set of nuclei belonging to a patient, obtained from effusion fluid images using image segmentation, is benign or malignant, and has a potential to eliminate the need for tissue biopsy. This method is performed by quantifying chromatin morphology of cells using the optimal transportation (Kantorovich-Wasserstein) metric in combination with the modified Fisher discriminant analysis, a k-nearest neighborhood classification, and a simple voting strategy. Our results show that we can classify the data of 10 different human cases with 100% accuracy after blind cross validation. We conclude that nuclear structure alone contains enough information to classify the malignant mesothelioma. We also conclude that the distribution of chromatin seems to be a discriminating feature between nuclei of benign and malignant mesothelioma cells.

  18. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  19. A Hybrid Computer-aided-diagnosis System for Prediction of Breast Cancer Recurrence (HPBCR) Using Optimized Ensemble Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebian, Mohammad R; Marateb, Hamid R; Mansourian, Marjan; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Mokarian, Fariborz

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a collection of diseases that involves growing abnormal cells with the potential to invade or spread to the body. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. A method for 5-year breast cancer recurrence prediction is presented in this manuscript. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 579 breast cancer patients (recurrence prevalence of 19.3%) were analyzed and discriminative features were selected using statistical feature selection methods. They were further refined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as the inputs of the classification system with ensemble learning (Bagged Decision Tree: BDT). The proper combination of selected categorical features and also the weight (importance) of the selected interval-measurement-scale features were identified by the PSO algorithm. The performance of HPBCR (hybrid predictor of breast cancer recurrence) was assessed using the holdout and 4-fold cross-validation. Three other classifiers namely as supported vector machines, DT, and multilayer perceptron neural network were used for comparison. The selected features were diagnosis age, tumor size, lymph node involvement ratio, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, progesterone receptor expression, having hormone therapy and type of surgery. The minimum sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of HPBCR were 77%, 93%, 95% and 85%, respectively in the entire cross-validation folds and the hold-out test fold. HPBCR outperformed the other tested classifiers. It showed excellent agreement with the gold standard (i.e. the oncologist opinion after blood tumor marker and imaging tests, and tissue biopsy). This algorithm is thus a promising online tool for the prediction of breast cancer recurrence.

  20. Improved detection of pulmonary nodules on energy-subtracted chest radiographs with a commercial computer-aided diagnosis software: comparison with human observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Patak, Michael A.; Yuksel-Hatz, Seyran; Ruder, Thomas; Vock, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the performance of a commercial computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software in the detection of pulmonary nodules in original and energy-subtracted (ES) chest radiographs. Original and ES chest radiographs of 58 patients with 105 pulmonary nodules measuring 5-30 mm and images of 25 control subjects with no nodules were randomized. Five blinded readers evaluated firstly the original postero-anterior images alone and then together with the subtracted radiographs. In a second phase, original and ES images were analyzed by a commercial CAD program. CT was used as reference standard. CAD results were compared to the readers' findings. True-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) findings with CAD on subtracted and non-subtracted images were compared. Depending on the reader's experience, CAD detected between 11 and 21 nodules missed by readers. Human observers found three to 16 lesions missed by the CAD software. CAD used with ES images produced significantly fewer FPs than with non-subtracted images: 1.75 and 2.14 FPs per image, respectively (p=0.029). The difference for the TP nodules was not significant (40 nodules on ES images and 34 lesions in non-subtracted radiographs, p = 0.142). CAD can improve lesion detection both on energy subtracted and non-subtracted chest images, especially for less experienced readers. The CAD program marked less FPs on energy-subtracted images than on original chest radiographs. (orig.)

  1. The usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis scheme for improving the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions on breast ultrasonographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, Mai; Nakayama, Ryohei; Okanami, Yuko; Kashikura, Yumi; Imai, Nao; Nakamura, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroko; Yamashita, Masako; Hanamura, Noriko; Ogawa, Tomoko

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for improving the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions appearing as hypoechoic areas on breast ultrasonographic images. The database included 97 ultrasonographic images with hypoechoic areas: 48 benign cases [benign lesion with benign mammary tissue or fibrocystic disease (n = 20), fibroadenoma (n = 11), and intraductal papilloma (n = 17)] and 49 malignant cases [ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 17) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 32)]. Seven clinicians, three expert breast surgeons, and four general surgeons participated in the observer study. They were asked their confidence level concerning the possibility of malignancy in all 97 cases with and without the use of the CAD scheme. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the CAD scheme. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) improved for all observers when they used the CAD scheme and increased from 0.649 to 0.783 (P = 0.0167). Notably, the AUC for the general surgeon group increased from 0.625 to 0.793 (P = 0.045). This study showed that the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions appearing as hypoechoic areas on breast ultrasonographic images was improved by the use of a CAD scheme.

  2. Impact on breast cancer diagnosis in a multidisciplinary unit after the incorporation of mammography digitalization and computer-aided detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cristina; Varela, Celia; Muñoz, Enriqueta; Almenar, Asunción; Pinto, Jose María; Botella, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact on the diagnosis of breast cancer of implementing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a multidisciplinary breast pathology unit and, 1 year later, the addition of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. A total of 13,453 mammograms performed between January and July of the years 2004, 2006, and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed using conventional mammography, digital mammography, and digital mammography plus CAD techniques. Mammograms were classified into two subsets: screening and diagnosis. Variables analyzed included cancer detection rate, rate of in situ carcinoma, tumor size at detection, biopsy rate, and positive predictive value of biopsy. FFDM increased the cancer detection rate, albeit not statistically significantly. The detection rate of in situ carcinoma increased significantly using FFDM plus CAD compared with conventional technique (36.8% vs 6.7%; p = 0.05 without Bonferroni statistical correction) for the screening dataset. Relative to conventional mammography, tumor size at detection decreased with digital mammography (T1, 61.5% vs 88%; p = 0.018) and with digital mammography plus CAD (T1, 79.7%; p = 0.03 without Bonferroni statistical correction). Biopsy rates in the general population increased significantly using CAD (10.6/1000 for conventional mammography, 14.7/1000 for digital mammography, and 17.9/1000 for digital mammography plus CAD; p = 0.02). The positive predictive value of biopsy decreased slightly, but not significantly, for both subsets. The incorporation of new techniques has improved the performance of the breast unit by increasing the overall detection rates and earlier detection (smaller tumors), both leading to an increase in interventionism.

  3. A two-stage multi-view learning framework based computer-aided diagnosis of liver tumors with contrast enhanced ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le-Hang; Wang, Dan; Qian, Yi-Yi; Zheng, Xiao; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Li, Xiao-Long; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Yue, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Jun; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2018-04-04

    With the fast development of artificial intelligence techniques, we proposed a novel two-stage multi-view learning framework for the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) based computer-aided diagnosis for liver tumors, which adopted only three typical CEUS images selected from the arterial phase, portal venous phase and late phase. In the first stage, the deep canonical correlation analysis (DCCA) was performed on three image pairs between the arterial and portal venous phases, arterial and delayed phases, and portal venous and delayed phases respectively, which then generated total six-view features. While in the second stage, these multi-view features were then fed to a multiple kernel learning (MKL) based classifier to further promote the diagnosis result. Two MKL classification algorithms were evaluated in this MKL-based classification framework. We evaluated proposed DCCA-MKL framework on 93 lesions (47 malignant cancers vs. 46 benign tumors). The proposed DCCA-MKL framework achieved the mean classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, false positive rate, and false negative rate of 90.41 ± 5.80%, 93.56 ± 5.90%, 86.89 ± 9.38%, 79.44 ± 11.83%, 13.11 ± 9.38% and 6.44 ± 5.90%, respectively, by soft margin MKL classifier. The experimental results indicate that the proposed DCCA-MKL framework achieves best performance for discriminating benign liver tumors from malignant liver cancers. Moreover, it is also proved that the three-phase CEUS image based CAD is feasible for liver tumors with the proposed DCCA-MKL framework.

  4. Predicting Classifier Performance with Limited Training Data: Applications to Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavanhally, Ajay; Viswanath, Satish; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly employ medical imaging data in conjunction with supervised classifiers, where the latter require large amounts of training data to accurately model the system. Yet, a classifier selected at the start of the trial based on smaller and more accessible datasets may yield inaccurate and unstable classification performance. In this paper, we aim to address two common concerns in classifier selection for clinical trials: (1) predicting expected classifier performance for large datasets based on error rates calculated from smaller datasets and (2) the selection of appropriate classifiers based on expected performance for larger datasets. We present a framework for comparative evaluation of classifiers using only limited amounts of training data by using random repeated sampling (RRS) in conjunction with a cross-validation sampling strategy. Extrapolated error rates are subsequently validated via comparison with leave-one-out cross-validation performed on a larger dataset. The ability to predict error rates as dataset size increases is demonstrated on both synthetic data as well as three different computational imaging tasks: detecting cancerous image regions in prostate histopathology, differentiating high and low grade cancer in breast histopathology, and detecting cancerous metavoxels in prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopy. For each task, the relationships between 3 distinct classifiers (k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine) are explored. Further quantitative evaluation in terms of interquartile range (IQR) suggests that our approach consistently yields error rates with lower variability (mean IQRs of 0.0070, 0.0127, and 0.0140) than a traditional RRS approach (mean IQRs of 0.0297, 0.0779, and 0.305) that does not employ cross-validation sampling for all three datasets. PMID:25993029

  5. Radiological diagnosis in AIDS - associated diseases: survey and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.; Frahm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acute manifestations of illnesses in patients with HIV-infection or AIDS will benefit from rapid diagnosis. Radiologic examinations provide substantial information to narrow the differential diagnosis. This article reviews clinically important HIV-associated diseases for the radiologist. The braod spectrum of possible manifestations is illustrated by the accompanying case reports that typify the complexity of diagnoses in this growing problem worldwide. (orig.) [de

  6. Are unnecessary follow-up procedures induced by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in mammography? Comparison of mammographic diagnosis with and without use of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Christiane; Malich, Ansgar; Facius, Mirjam; Grebenstein, Uta; Sauner, Dieter; Pfleiderer, Stefan O.R.; Kaiser, Werner A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the rate of unnecessary follow-up procedures recommended by radiologists using a CAD-system. Materials and methods: 185 patients (740 images) were consecutively selected from three groups (36 histologically proven cancers=group 1; 49 histologically proven benign lesions=group 2 and 100 screening cases (4 years-follow up=group 3). Mammograms were evaluated by a CAD system (Second Look [reg] , CADx, Canada). Five blinded radiologists assessed the images without/with CAD outputs. Diagnostic decisions were ranked from surely benign to surely malignant according to BIRADS classification, follow-up procedures were recommended for each observed lesion (a, screening; b, short interval follow-up examination in 6 months; c, pathologic clarification). Results: CAD-system detected 32/36 cancers (88.9%) (FP-rate: 1.04 massmarks and 0.27 calcmarks/image). The following values were reached by all observers without/with CAD in the mean: Sensitivity 80.6/80.0%, specificity 83.2/86.4%, PPV 53.1/58.1%, and NPV 94.6/94.7%. Observers described a similar number of additional lesions without/with the use of CAD (325/326). Whereas the number of unnecessary short-time follow up recommendations increased in all case-subgroups with CAD: 40.8/42.9% (group 1), 35.6/38.1% (group 2), 44.7/46.8% (group 3), respectively, the number of recommended biopsies decreased in all subgroups: group 1: 34.7/27.1%; group 2: 47.4/41.5%, group 3: 33.3/22.0%, respectively. Conclusion: In this rather small population additional usage of CAD led to a lower rate of unnecessary biopsies. The observed decrease of recommended unnecessary biopsies due to the usage of CAD in the screening group suggests a potential financial benefit by using CAD as diagnostic aid

  7. [Clinical skills and outcomes of chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q

    2018-04-09

    Computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology is a kind of oral digital system which is applied to clinical diagnosis and treatment. It overturns the traditional pattern, and provides a solution to restore defect tooth quickly and efficiently. In this paper we mainly discuss the clinical skills of chair-side CAD/CAM system, including tooth preparation, digital impression, the three-dimensional design of prosthesis, numerical control machining, clinical bonding and so on, and review the outcomes of several common kinds of materials at the same time.

  8. Computer-Aided Parts Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Adam; Smart, Robert

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, Ford Motor Company began deployment of CAPE (computer-aided parts estimating system), a highly advanced knowledge-based system designed to generate, evaluate, and cost automotive part manufacturing plans. cape is engineered on an innovative, extensible, declarative process-planning and estimating knowledge representation language, which underpins the cape kernel architecture. Many manufacturing processes have been modeled to date, but eventually every significant process in motor veh...

  9. Computer aids for plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    For some time, particularly since the TMI accident, nuclear power plant operators have been aware of the difficulties involved in diagnosing accidents and returning plants to their stable, safe operating mode. There are various possible solutions to these problems: improve control organization during accident situations, rewrite control procedures, integrate safety engineers in shifts, improve control rooms, and implement additional computer aids. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the efforts undertaken by EDF over the last few years in this field

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis for classifying benign versus malignant thyroid nodules based on ultrasound images: A comparison with radiologist-based assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yongjun [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Paul, Anjan Kumar [Funzin, Inc., 148 Ankuk-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 03060 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com; Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Eun Ju [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Wonchon-Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Dae; Lee, Hyoung Shin [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Kosin University College of Medicine, 34 Amnamdong, Seu-Gu, Busan 49267 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, DaeSeock; Kim, Nakyoung [MIDAS Information Technology, Pangyo-ro 228, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi 13487 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a semiautomated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for thyroid cancer using two-dimensional ultrasound images that can be used to yield a second opinion in the clinic to differentiate malignant and benign lesions. Methods: A total of 118 ultrasound images that included axial and longitudinal images from patients with biopsy-confirmed malignant (n = 30) and benign (n = 29) nodules were collected. Thyroid CAD software was developed to extract quantitative features from these images based on thyroid nodule segmentation in which adaptive diffusion flow for active contours was used. Various features, including histogram, intensity differences, elliptical fit, gray-level co-occurrence matrixes, and gray-level run-length matrixes, were evaluated for each region imaged. Based on these imaging features, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to differentiate benign and malignant nodules. Leave-one-out cross-validation with sequential forward feature selection was performed to evaluate the overall accuracy of this method. Additionally, analyses with contingency tables and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to compare the performance of CAD with visual inspection by expert radiologists based on established gold standards. Results: Most univariate features for this proposed CAD system attained accuracies that ranged from 78.0% to 83.1%. When optimal SVM parameters that were established using a grid search method with features that radiologists use for visual inspection were employed, the authors could attain rates of accuracy that ranged from 72.9% to 84.7%. Using leave-one-out cross-validation results in a multivariate analysis of various features, the highest accuracy achieved using the proposed CAD system was 98.3%, whereas visual inspection by radiologists reached 94.9% accuracy. To obtain the highest accuracies, “axial ratio” and “max probability” in axial images were most frequently included in the

  11. Computer-Aided Facilities Management Systems (CAFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyros, Kreon L.

    Computer-aided facilities management (CAFM) refers to a collection of software used with increasing frequency by facilities managers. The six major CAFM components are discussed with respect to their usefulness and popularity in facilities management applications: (1) computer-aided design; (2) computer-aided engineering; (3) decision support…

  12. Accident diagnosis, recovery, and prognosis aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation that was conducted to assess and demonstrate the feasibility of using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop an expert system serving as a nuclear plant accident diagnosis, recovery, and prognosis aid. This effort was sponsored under a contract with the Department of Energy as a part of their Small Business Innovation Research Program. The interest in such a system is based upon on-going industry and regulatory commitment to improved nuclear plant performance and safety

  13. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...

  14. Evaluation of a computer-aided detection algorithm for timely diagnosis of small acute intracranial hemorrhage on computed tomography in a critical care environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    Detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) is a primary task in the interpretation of computed tomography (CT) brain scans of patients suffering from acute neurological disturbances or after head trauma. Interpretation can be difficult especially when the lesion is inconspicuous or the reader is inexperienced. We have previously developed a computeraided detection (CAD) algorithm to detect small AIH. One hundred and thirty five small AIH CT studies from the Los Angeles County (LAC) + USC Hospital were identified and matched by age and sex with one hundred and thirty five normal studies. These cases were then processed using our AIH CAD system to evaluate the efficacy and constraints of the algorithm.

  15. Computer-aided instruction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneze, Jean Claude

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode

  16. Computer aided safety analysis 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The meeting was conducted in a workshop style, to encourage involvement of all participants during the discussions. Forty-five (45) experts from 19 countries, plus 22 experts from the GDR participated in the meeting. A list of participants can be found at the end of this volume. Forty-two (42) papers were presented and discussed during the meeting. Additionally an open discussion was held on the possible directions of the IAEA programme on Computer Aided Safety Analysis. A summary of the conclusions of these discussions is presented in the publication. The remainder of this proceedings volume comprises the transcript of selected technical papers (22) presented in the meeting. It is the intention of the IAEA that the publication of these proceedings will extend the benefits of the discussions held during the meeting to a larger audience throughout the world. The Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the National Board for Safety and Radiological Protection (SAAS) of the German Democratic Republic in Berlin. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for discussions on experiences in the use of computer codes used for safety analysis of nuclear power plants. In particular it was intended to provide a forum for exchange of information among experts using computer codes for safety analysis under the Technical Cooperation Programme on Safety of WWER Type Reactors (RER/9/004) and other experts throughout the world. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 22 selected papers. Refs, figs tabs and pictures

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis in phase contrast imaging X-ray computed tomography for quantitative characterization of ex vivo human patellar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B; Diemoz, Paul C; Glaser, Christian; Wismuller, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Visualization of ex vivo human patellar cartilage matrix through the phase contrast imaging X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has been previously demonstrated. Such studies revealed osteoarthritis-induced changes to chondrocyte organization in the radial zone. This study investigates the application of texture analysis to characterizing such chondrocyte patterns in the presence and absence of osteoarthritic damage. Texture features derived from Minkowski functionals (MF) and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were extracted from 842 regions of interest (ROI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. These texture features were subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify ROIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The best classification performance was observed with the MF features perimeter (AUC: 0.94 ±0.08 ) and "Euler characteristic" (AUC: 0.94 ±0.07 ), and GLCM-derived feature "Correlation" (AUC: 0.93 ±0.07). These results suggest that such texture features can provide a detailed characterization of the chondrocyte organization in the cartilage matrix, enabling classification of cartilage as healthy or osteoarthritic with high accuracy.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography: quantitative characterization of human patellar cartilage with high-dimensional geometric features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B; Diemoz, Paul C; Glaser, Christian; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-02-01

    Phase-contrast computed tomography (PCI-CT) has shown tremendous potential as an imaging modality for visualizing human cartilage with high spatial resolution. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of PCI-CT to visualize (1) structural details of the human patellar cartilage matrix and (2) changes to chondrocyte organization induced by osteoarthritis. This study investigates the use of high-dimensional geometric features in characterizing such chondrocyte patterns in the presence or absence of osteoarthritic damage. Geometrical features derived from the scaling index method (SIM) and statistical features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were extracted from 842 regions of interest (ROI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. These features were subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify ROIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). SIM-derived geometrical features exhibited the best classification performance (AUC, 0.95 ± 0.06) and were most robust to changes in ROI size. These results suggest that such geometrical features can provide a detailed characterization of the chondrocyte organization in the cartilage matrix in an automated and non-subjective manner, while also enabling classification of cartilage as healthy or osteoarthritic with high accuracy. Such features could potentially serve as imaging markers for evaluating osteoarthritis progression and its response to different therapeutic intervention strategies.

  19. Computer tomographic diagnosis of echinococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, M.; Fretz, C.; Fuchs, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    The computer tomographic appearances and differential diagnosis in 22 patients with echinococcosis are described; of these, twelve were of the cystic and ten of the alveolar type. The computer tomographic appearances are characterised by the presence of daughter cysts (66%) within the sharply demarkated parasitic cyst of water density. In the absence of daughter cysts, a definite aetiological diagnosis cannot be made, although there is a tendency to clasification of the occassionally multiple echinococcus cysts. The computer tomographic appearances of advanced alveolar echinococcosis are characterised by partial collequative necrosis, with clacification around the necrotic areas (90%). The absence of CT evidence of partial necrosis and calsification of the pseudotumour makes it difficult to establish a specific diagnosis. The conclusive and non-invasive character of the procedure and its reproducibility makes computer tomography the method of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of echinococcosis.

  20. Accident Diagnosis and Prognosis Aide (ADPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, A.D.; Touchton, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation provides a demonstration of a prototypical expert system developed by Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) under a contract with the Department of Energy as a part of their Small Business Innovation Research Program. The Accident Diagnosis and Prognosis Aide (ADPA) Demonstration Prototype is a working scale model of a real-time expert system which: Diagnoses an accident situation (as well as a number of underlying failures, events, and conditions deduced along the way). Calculates the change in the likelihood of core damage as a function of the events and failures diagnosed. Dynamically generates a recovery procedure tailored to the specific plant state at hand

  1. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  2. Computer-aided system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  3. Decision aids for improved accuracy and standardization of mammographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orsi, C.J.; Getty, D.J.; Swets, J.A.; Pickett, R.M.; Seltzer, S.E.; McNeil, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the gains in the accuracy of mammographic diagnosis of breast cancer achievable from a pair of decision aids. Twenty-three potentially relevant perceptual features of mammograms were identified through interviews, psychometric tests, and consensus meetings with mammography specialists. Statistical analyses determined the 12 independent features that were most information diagnostically and assigned a weight to each according to its importance. Two decision aids were developed: a checklist that solicits a scale value from the radiologist for each feature and a computer program that merges those values optimally in an advisory estimate of the probability of malignancy. Six radiologists read a set of 150 cases, first in their usual way and later with the aids

  4. Integrated computer aided design simulation and manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Diko, Faek

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) have been investigated and developed since twenty years as standalone systems. A large number of very powerful but independent packages have been developed for Computer Aided Design,Aanlysis and Manufacture. However, in most cases these packages have poor facility for communicating with other packages. Recently attempts have been made to develop integrated CAD/CAM systems and many software companies a...

  5. Computer aided fault tree synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear as well as non-nuclear organisations are showing during the past few years a growing interest in the field of reliability analysis. This urges for the development of powerful, state of the art methods and computer codes for performing such analysis on complex systems. In this report an interactive, computer aided approach is discussed, based on the well known fault tree technique. The time consuming and difficut task of manually constructing a system model (one or more fault trees) is replaced by an efficient interactive procedure in which the flexibility and the learning process inherent to the manual approach are combined with the accuracy in the modelling and the speed of the fully automatical approach. The method presented is based upon the use of a library containing component models. The possibility of setting up a standard library of models of general use and the link with a data collection system are discussed. The method has been implemented in the CAFTS-SALP software package which is described shortly in the report

  6. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  7. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  8. Opportunistic esophagitis in AIDS: Radiographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.S.; Woldenberg, R.; Herlinger, H.; Laufer, I.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1986, 35 of 90 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had double-contrast esophagograms to rule out opportunistic esophagitis. The radiographs were reviewed without knowledge of the clinical or endoscopic findings. Candida esophagitis was diagnosed radiographically in 17 patients who had varying degrees of plaque formation and viral esophagitis in three who had discrete ulcers without plaques. All three patients with viral esophagitis (herpes in 2 and cytomegalo virus in one) and 15 of 17 with Candida esophagitis had endoscopic and/or clinical corroboration of the radiographic diagnosis. Thus, the authors' experience suggests that fungal and viral esophagitis can often be differentiated on double-contrast esophagography, so that appropriate antifungal or antiviral therapy can be instituted without need for endoscopic intervention

  9. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  10. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  11. Toward computer-assisted diagnosis and telemedicine in ophthalmology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 6 (2012), s. 1-3 ISSN 1818-2259 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical and retinal image * deconvolution * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sorel-toward computer-assisted diagnosis and telemedicine in ophthalmology.pdf

  12. Automatic Detection of Calcaneal-Fifth Metatarsal Angle Using Radiograph: A Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Flat Foot for Military New Recruits in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Flatfoot (pes planus is one of the most important physical examination items for military new recruits in Taiwan. Currently, the diagnosis of flatfoot is mainly based on radiographic examination of the calcaneal-fifth metatarsal (CA-MT5 angle, also known as the arch angle. However, manual measurement of the arch angle is time-consuming and often inconsistent between different examiners. In this study, seventy male military new recruits were studied. Lateral radiographic images of their right and left feet were obtained, and mutual information (MI registration was used to automatically calculate the arch angle. Images of two critical bones, the calcaneus and the fifth metatarsal bone, were isolated from the lateral radiographs to form reference images, and were then compared with template images to calculate the arch angle. The result of this computer-calculated arch angle was compared with manual measurement results from two radiologists, which showed that our automatic arch angle measurement method had a high consistency. In addition, this method had a high accuracy of 97% and 96% as compared with the measurements of radiologists A and B, respectively. The findings indicated that our MI registration measurement method cannot only accurately measure the CA-MT5 angle, but also saves time and reduces human error. This method can increase the consistency of arch angle measurement and has potential clinical application for the diagnosis of flatfoot.

  13. Prerequisites for Computer-Aided Cognitive Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Colette

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation for mentally deficient persons. It lists motor, cognitive, emotional, and educational prerequisites to such rehabilitation and states advantages and disadvantages in using the prerequisites. (JDD)

  14. Computer aided design for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the new computer aided design (CAD) centre for the United Kingdom nuclear industry, and its applications. A description of the CAD system is given, including the current projects at the CAD centre. Typical applications of the 3D CAD plant based models, stress analysis studies, and the extraction of data from CAD drawings to produce associated documentation, are all described. Future developments using computer aided design systems are also considered. (U.K.)

  15. Remote handling prospects. Computer aided remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical manipulators, electrical control manipulators and computer aided manipulators were successively developed. The aim of computer aided manipulators is the realization of complex or tricky job in adverse environment but man is required for non routine work or for situation in evolution. French effort is developed in the frame of the project automation and advanced robotics and new problems have to be solved particularly at the interface man/machine [fr

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder

  17. Computer-aided decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2006-01-01

    Several major classes of software technologies have been used in decisionmaking for forest management applications over the past few decades. These computer-based technologies include mathematical programming, expert systems, network models, multi-criteria decisionmaking, and integrated systems. Each technology possesses unique advantages and disadvantages, and has...

  18. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    and computer-aided tools and methods for property prediction and computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) principles. This framework is applicable for solvent selection and design in product design as well as process design. The first module of the framework is dedicated to the solvent selection and design...... in terms of: physical and chemical properties (solvent-pure properties); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) characteristic (solvent-EHS properties); operational properties (solvent–solute properties). 3. Performing the search. The search step consists of two stages. The first is a generation and property...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  19. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  20. Computer aided training system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software

  1. Computer aid in solar architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, E W

    1982-02-01

    Among architects the question is being discussed in how far new buildings can be designed in a way to make more economical use of energy by architectural means. Solar houses in the USA are often taken as a model. As yet it is unclear how such measures will affect heat demand in the central European climate and with domestic building materials being used. A computer simulation program is introduced by which these questions can be answered as early as in the stage of planning. The program can be run on a common microcomputersystem.

  2. Computational diagnosis of canine lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkes, E. M.; Alexandrakis, I.; Slater, K.; Tuli, R.; Gorban, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    One out of four dogs will develop cancer in their lifetime and 20% of those will be lymphoma cases. PetScreen developed a lymphoma blood test using serum samples collected from several veterinary practices. The samples were fractionated and analysed by mass spectrometry. Two protein peaks, with the highest diagnostic power, were selected and further identified as acute phase proteins, C-Reactive Protein and Haptoglobin. Data mining methods were then applied to the collected data for the development of an online computer-assisted veterinary diagnostic tool. The generated software can be used as a diagnostic, monitoring and screening tool. Initially, the diagnosis of lymphoma was formulated as a classification problem and then later refined as a lymphoma risk estimation. Three methods, decision trees, kNN and probability density evaluation, were used for classification and risk estimation and several preprocessing approaches were implemented to create the diagnostic system. For the differential diagnosis the best solution gave a sensitivity and specificity of 83.5% and 77%, respectively (using three input features, CRP, Haptoglobin and standard clinical symptom). For the screening task, the decision tree method provided the best result, with sensitivity and specificity of 81.4% and >99%, respectively (using the same input features). Furthermore, the development and application of new techniques for the generation of risk maps allowed their user-friendly visualization.

  3. Pulse oximetry: a potential aid in endodontic diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Dan

    2010-06-01

    Pulse oximetry: review of a potential aid in endodontic diagnosis. Jafarzadeh H, Rosenberg PA. J Endod 2009;35(3):329-33. Dan Caplan, DDS, PhD. This article provided a description of pulse oximetry, its use in patient care settings, and its potential for use in endodontic diagnosis. Information not available. Comprehensive literature review. Level 3: Other evidence. Not applicable.

  4. Computer Aided Continuous Time Stochastic Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, N.R.; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2001-01-01

    A grey-box approach to process modelling that combines deterministic and stochastic modelling is advocated for identification of models for model-based control of batch and semi-batch processes. A computer-aided tool designed for supporting decision-making within the corresponding modelling cycle...

  5. Computer aided architectural design : futures 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Achten, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    CAAD Futures is a bi-annual conference that aims to promote the advancement of computer-aided architectural design in the service of those concerned with the quality of the built environment. The conferences are organized under the auspices of the CAAD Futures Foundation, which has its secretariat

  6. Computer-Aided Modelling Methods and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The development of models for a range of applications requires methods and tools. In many cases a reference model is required that allows the generation of application specific models that are fit for purpose. There are a range of computer aided modelling tools available that help to define the m...

  7. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  8. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  9. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue’s Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Diyana Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye’s ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue’s multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black, deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.

  10. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2017-01-01

    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds. PMID:29065640

  11. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Nur Diyana; Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2017-01-01

    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k -means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k -means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.

  12. Computer aided monitoring of breast abnormalities in X-ray mammograms

    OpenAIRE

    Selvan, Arul; Saatchi, Reza; Ferris, Christine

    2011-01-01

    X­ray mammography is regarded as the most effective tool for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, but the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult and \\ud error­prone task. Computer­aided detection (CADe) systems address the problem that radiologists often miss signs of cancers that are retrospectively visible in mammograms. Furthermore, computer­aided diagnosis (CADx) systems assist the radiologist in the classification of mammographic lesions as benign or malignant[1].\\ud This p...

  13. Tumor Size Evaluation according to the T Component of the Seventh Edition of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's TNM Classification: Interobserver Agreement between Radiologists and Computer-Aided Diagnosis System in Patients with Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyoung; Chong, Se Min; Seo, Jae Seung; Lee, Sun Jin; Han, Heon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the interobserver agreement for tumor size evaluation between radiologists and the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer in patients with lung cancer. We evaluated 20 patients who underwent a lobectomy or pneumonectomy for primary lung cancer. The maximum diameter of each primary tumor was measured by two radiologists and a CAD system on CT, and was staged based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification. The CT size and T-staging of the primary tumors was compared with the pathologic size and staging and the variability in the sizes and T stages of primary tumors was statistically analyzed between each radiologist's measurement or CAD estimation and the pathologic results. There was no statistically significant interobserver difference for the CT size among the two radiologists, between pathologic and CT size estimated by the radiologists, and between pathologic and CT staging by the radiologists and CAD system. However, there was a statistically significant interobserver difference between pathologic size and the CT size estimated by the CAD system (p = 0.003). No significant differences were found in the measurement of tumor size among radiologists or in the assessment of T-staging by radiologists and the CAD system.

  14. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  15. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  16. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  17. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  18. Computer-Aided Drug Design in Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysfunction has been widely implicated in several diseases especially cancers thus highlights the therapeutic potential for chemical interventions in this field. With rapid development of computational methodologies and high-performance computational resources, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a promising strategy to speed up epigenetic drug discovery. Herein, we make a brief overview of major computational methods reported in the literature including druggability prediction, virtual screening, homology modeling, scaffold hopping, pharmacophore modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry calculation, and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship that have been successfully applied in the design and discovery of epi-drugs and epi-probes. Finally, we discuss about major limitations of current virtual drug design strategies in epigenetics drug discovery and future directions in this field.

  19. Computer-Aided Drug Design in Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenchao; Zhang, Rukang; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic dysfunction has been widely implicated in several diseases especially cancers thus highlights the therapeutic potential for chemical interventions in this field. With rapid development of computational methodologies and high-performance computational resources, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a promising strategy to speed up epigenetic drug discovery. Herein, we make a brief overview of major computational methods reported in the literature including druggability prediction, virtual screening, homology modeling, scaffold hopping, pharmacophore modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry calculation, and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship that have been successfully applied in the design and discovery of epi-drugs and epi-probes. Finally, we discuss about major limitations of current virtual drug design strategies in epigenetics drug discovery and future directions in this field. PMID:29594101

  20. Computer-Aided Drug Design in Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenchao; Zhang, Rukang; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Epigenetic dysfunction has been widely implicated in several diseases especially cancers thus highlights the therapeutic potential for chemical interventions in this field. With rapid development of computational methodologies and high-performance computational resources, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a promising strategy to speed up epigenetic drug discovery. Herein, we make a brief overview of major computational methods reported in the literature including druggability prediction, virtual screening, homology modeling, scaffold hopping, pharmacophore modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry calculation and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship that have been successfully applied in the design and discovery of epi-drugs and epi-probes. Finally, we discuss about major limitations of current virtual drug design strategies in epigenetics drug discovery and future directions in this field.

  1. Computer aided design of solonoid magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeOlivares, J.M.

    1978-06-01

    Computer programs utilizing Legendre functions and elliptic integral functions have been written to aid in the design of solenoid magnets. The field inside an axisymmetric magnet can be expanded in a converging power series of Legendre functions. The Legendre function approach is very useful for designing solenoid magnets with a high degree of field uniformity. This approach has been programed on the LBL CDC 7600 computer so that one can design an axisymmetric magnet which meets any desired field structure. Two examples of computer designed solenoids are presented. A computer program utilizing elliptic integral functions was also written for the LBL CDC 7600 computer. This method was used in a computer program to verify the results obtained from the Legendre approach and for field calculations within the conductor. The elliptic integral field calculations within the conductor showed that thin solenoids produce field peaking at the ends of the magnet. Computer data is generated for various magnet geometries and compared with theoretical predictions. Computer results and theoretical prediction both show that field peaking is reduced for longer coils, increased for thinner coils and field peaking is a logarithmic function of length, thickness and radius.

  2. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS | Lyamuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. E Lyamuya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  4. Diagnosis of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, M; Steffenson, S

    1997-02-01

    Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the many manifestations of AIDS. There are no specific tests for its early diagnosis. Because its symptoms may be similar to tuberculosis, it may be diagnosed incorrectly and treated as such. Consequently, by the time of the correct diagnosis, valuable time will have been lost for effective medical care that could positively impact prognosis. The discussion in this case study is focused on pulmonary KS with an interest in improving premorbid diagnosis that may lead to an earlier recognition and better treatment of the disease.

  5. Framework for computer-aided systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced computer technology, analytical methods, graphics capabilities, and expert systems contribute to significant changes in the design process. Continued progress is expected. Achieving the ultimate benefits of these computer-based design tools depends on successful research and development on a number of key issues. A fundamental understanding of the design process is a prerequisite to developing these computer-based tools. In this paper a hierarchical systems design approach is described, and methods by which computers can assist the designer are examined. A framework is presented for developing computer-based design tools for power plant design. These tools include expert experience bases, tutorials, aids in decision making, and tools to develop the requirements, constraints, and interactions among subsystems and components. Early consideration of the functional tasks is encouraged. Methods of acquiring an expert's experience base is a fundamental research problem. Computer-based guidance should be provided in a manner that supports the creativity, heuristic approaches, decision making, and meticulousness of a good designer

  6. Speech-enabled Computer-aided Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2014-01-01

    The present study has surveyed post-editor trainees’ views and attitudes before and after the introduction of speech technology as a front end to a computer-aided translation workbench. The aim of the survey was (i) to identify attitudes and perceptions among post-editor trainees before performing...... a post-editing task using automatic speech recognition (ASR); and (ii) to assess the degree to which post-editors’ attitudes and expectations to the use of speech technology changed after actually using it. The survey was based on two questionnaires: the first one administered before the participants...

  7. Computer-aided control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebenhaft, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Control systems are typically implemented using conventional PID controllers, which are then tuned manually during plant commissioning to compensate for interactions between feedback loops. As plants increase in size and complexity, such controllers can fail to provide adequate process regulations. Multivariable methods can be utilized to overcome these limitations. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, modern control systems are designed and analyzed with the aid of MVPACK, a system of computer programs that appears to the user like a high-level calculator. The software package solves complicated control problems, and provides useful insight into the dynamic response and stability of multivariable systems

  8. Computer training aids for nuclear operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.G.P.; Binns, J.B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Royal Navy's Nuclear Propulsion School at HMS SULTAN which is responsible for training all ratings and officers who operate Submarine Pressurised Water Reactor plants, has available a varied selection of classroom simulator training aids as well as purpose built Submarine Manoeuvring Room simulators. The use of these classroom training aids in the twelve months prior to Autumn 1981 is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using relatively expensive computer based aids to support classroom instruction for students who do not investigate mathematically the dynamics of the Reactor Plant are identified. The conclusions drawn indicate that for students of limited academic ability the classroom simulators are disproportionately expensive in cost, maintenance load, and instructional time. Secondly, the experience gained in the use of the Manoeuvring Room Simulators to train future operators who have just finished the academic phase of their training is outlined. The possible pitfalls for the instructor are discussed and the lessons learnt, concluding that these simulators provide a valuable substitute for the live plant enabling trainees to be brought up to a common standard and reducing their on job training time to an acceptable level. (author)

  9. Use of pattern recognition and neural networks for non-metric sex diagnosis from lateral shape of calvarium: an innovative model for computer-aided diagnosis in forensic and physical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Fabio; Lusnig, Luca; Trentin, Edmondo

    2017-05-01

    Sex determination on skeletal remains is one of the most important diagnosis in forensic cases and in demographic studies on ancient populations. Our purpose is to realize an automatic operator-independent method to determine the sex from the bone shape and to test an intelligent, automatic pattern recognition system in an anthropological domain. Our multiple-classifier system is based exclusively on the morphological variants of a curve that represents the sagittal profile of the calvarium, modeled via artificial neural networks, and yields an accuracy higher than 80 %. The application of this system to other bone profiles is expected to further improve the sensibility of the methodology.

  10. Diagnosis aids with artificial intelligence in the PSAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourgnon-Hanoune, A.; Porcheron, M.; Ricard, B.

    1996-01-01

    To improve monitoring and diagnosis capabilities in nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF) has designed an integrated monitoring and diagnosis assistance system: PSAD - Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic. The development of this sophisticated monitoring and data processing system requires the addition of analysis and diagnosis assistance capabilities. Diagnostic knowledge based systems have thus been added to the functions monitored in PSAD: DIVA for turbine generators, and DIAPO for reactor coolant pumps. These systems rely on a representation of the diagnostic reasoning process of experts and of supporting knowledge. Diagnosis in both systems is performed through an abductive reasoning process applied to component fault models and observations derived from their actual behavior, as provided by the monitoring functions. The basic theoretical elements of this diagnostic model are summarized in a first part of this paper. In a second part, DIVA and DIAPO specific elements are described. (authors)

  11. Computer-Aided Manufacturing of 3D Workpieces

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel Drugarin; Mihaela Dorica Stroia

    2017-01-01

    Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) assumes to use dedicated software for controlling machine tools and similar devices in the process of workpieces manufacturing. CAM is, in fact, an application technology that uses computer software and machinery to simplify and automate manufacturing processes. CAM is the inheritor of computer-aided engineering (CAE) and is often used conjunctively with computer-aided design (CAD). Advanced CAM solutions are forthcoming and have a large ...

  12. Monitoring and aid to diagnosis of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousellin, A.; Trenty, A.; Benas, J.C.; Renault, Y.; Busquet, J.L.; Mouhamed, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improvise safety and availability in its nuclear power plants, EDF has designed a new generation of monitoring systems integrated into a workstation for monitoring and aid to diagnosis (PSAD). These systems perform on-line monitoring of the main power plant components and PSAD stations provide homogeneous aid to diagnosis which enable plant personnel to pinpoint the mechanical behavior of plant equipments. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerably free them from routine tasks. The first version of the prototype is working on a French plant at Tricastin. This version includes the software host structure and two monitoring functions: the reactor coolant pumps and the turbo-generator monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring (ISM) and Loose Parts Detection function (LPD) are under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1996. (authors)

  13. Learning and case-based reasoning for faults diagnosis-aiding in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the design of a faults diagnosis-aiding system in a nuclear facility of the Cea. Actually the existing system allows the optimization of the production processes in regular operating conditions. Meanwhile during accidental events, the alarms, managed by threshold, are bringing no relevant information. To increase the reliability and the safety, the human operator needs a faults diagnosis-aiding system. The developed system, SECAPI, combines problem solving techniques and automatic learning techniques, that allow the diagnosis and the the simulation of various faults happening on nuclear facilities. Its reasoning principle uses case-based and rules-based techniques. SECAPI owns a learning module which reads out knowledge connected with faults. It can then simulate various faults, using the inductive logical computing. SECAPI has been applied on a radioactive tritium treatment operating channel, at the Cea with good results. (A.L.B.)

  14. Computer-aided reduction of plasma data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati, S.

    1984-01-01

    Poor signal-to-noise ratios and the non-linear characteristics of the data obtained by most plasma diagnostic equipment makes computer-aided data handling a desirable feature in plasma laboratories. The Lecroy 3500-SA32 signal analyzer is used as the data handling system in this work. The performance of the Lecroy 3500-SA32 signal analyzer, used for recording and reducing the plasma data under the noisy environment of the laboratory, is reported. The data characteristics and software programs are discussed for three types of plasma diagnostic equipment: 1) Langmuir Probes; 2) Charge Exchange Neutral Energy Analyzers; 3) Retarding Potential Energy Analyzers. In order to protect the computer internal circuitry and to have satisfactory data acquisition and handling, methods for dealing with the noisy environment, including stray magnetic fields, RF radiation, and transient spikes on power lines, are also developed. Three computer programs are included which obtain an iterated best fit of experimental data to the corresponding analytical expressions for each case. The new data handling system enables the user to do a real-time analysis of data by using the interactive features of the Lecroy 3500-SA32 system

  15. A computer-aided continuous assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C.H. Turton

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities within the United Kingdom have had to cope with a massive expansion in undergraduate student numbers over the last five years (Committee of Scottish University Principals, 1993; CVCP Briefing Note, 1994. In addition, there has been a move towards modularization and a closer monitoring of a student's progress throughout the year. Since the price/performance ratio of computer systems has continued to improve, Computer- Assisted Learning (CAL has become an attractive option. (Fry, 1990; Benford et al, 1994; Laurillard et al, 1994. To this end, the Universities Funding Council (UFQ has funded the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP. However universities also have a duty to assess as well as to teach. This paper describes a Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA system capable of assisting in grading students and providing feedback. In this particular case, a continuously assessed course (Low-Level Languages of over 100 students is considered. Typically, three man-days are required to mark one assessed piece of coursework from the students in this class. Any feedback on how the questions were dealt with by the student are of necessity brief. Most of the feedback is provided in a tutorial session that covers the pitfalls encountered by the majority of the students.

  16. Computer-Aided Design of Antimicrobial Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjell, Christopher D.; Hancock, Robert E.W.; Jenssen, Håvard

    2010-01-01

    in antimicrobial activity. Consequently, the majority of peptides put into clinical trials have failed at some point, underlining the importance of a thorough peptide optimization. An important tool in peptide design and optimization is quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, correlating...... chemical parameters with biological activities of the peptide, using statistical methods. In this review we will discuss two different in silico strategies of computer-aided antibacterial peptide design, a linear correlation model build as an extension of traditional principal component analysis (PCA......) and a non-linear artificial neural network model. Studies on structurally diverse peptides, have concluded that the PCA derived model are able to guide the antibacterial peptide design in a meaningful way, however requiring rather a high homology between the peptides in the test-set and the in silico...

  17. IMAGING AS AN AID TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel I Wijesuriya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis has been known as a disease entity for well over a century but a confident diagnosis before surgeryin all patients suspected of the condition is still not possible. Timely diagnosis is essential to minimise morbidity due topossible perforation of the inflamed organ in the event treatment is delayed; so much so that surgeons often preferredto operate at the slightest suspicion of the diagnosis in the past. This resulted in the removal of many normal appendixes.When the diagnosis of appendicitis is clear from the history and clinical examination, then no further investigation isnecessary and prompt surgical treatment is appropriate. Where there is doubt about the diagnosis however it is advisableto resort to imaging studies such as abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography to clear such suspicions beforesubjecting the patient to an appendicectomy. These studies would also help avoid delays in surgery in deservingpatients.

  18. Intelligent Support for a Computer Aided Design Optimisation Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    B. Dolšak; M. Novak; J. Kaljun

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming more and more evident that  adding intelligence  to existing computer aids, such as computer aided design systems, can lead to significant improvements in the effective and reliable performance of various engineering tasks, including design optimisation. This paper presents three different intelligent modules to be applied within a computer aided design optimisation cycle to enable more intelligent and less experience-dependent design performance. 

  19. Computer aided materials design; Keisanki zairyo sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The questionnaire survey on the computer aided materials design (CAMD), and the survey of current domestic and overseas software concerned were carried out to clarify developmental issues. The current elementary technology of CAMD was also surveyed to study its several problems caused with a progress of material design technology due to drastic diffusion of CAMD. This project aims at establishment of a new demanded software, computer chemistry, focusing attention on functional materials such as catalyst, polymer and non-linear electronic materials. Microscopic simulation technology was mainly surveyed in fiscal 1996. Although some fruitful results have been obtained in the fields of medical and agricultural chemicals, organic compounds, proteins, catalysts and electronic materials, such some problems are pointed out as `CAMD cannot handle an actual size of the target system` and `commercially available software are very expensive.` Reliable tool development as elementary technology, and the verification of its applications are thus required. Meso-dynamics, polymers, surface reaction and integrated technological environment attract users` attention. 27 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer aided probabilistic assessment of containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.C.; Touchton, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant, there are three probability-based techniques which are widely used for event sequence frequency quantification (including nodal probability estimation). These three techniques are the event tree analysis, the fault tree analysis and the Bayesian approach for database development. In the barrier analysis for assessing radionuclide release to the environment in a PRA study, these techniques are employed to a greater extent in estimating conditions which could lead to failure of the fuel cladding and the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary, but to a lesser degree in the containment pressure boundary failure analysis. The main reason is that containment issues are currently still in a state of flux. In this paper, the authors describe briefly the computer programs currently used by the nuclear industry to do event tree analyses, fault tree analyses and the Bayesian update. The authors discuss how these computer aided probabilistic techniques might be adopted for failure analysis of the containment pressure boundary

  2. Computer-Aided Video Differential Planimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Djoleto, Ben D.

    1984-08-01

    THE VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETER (VDP)1 is a re-mote sensing instrument that can measure minute changes in the area of any object seen by an optical scanning system. The composite video waveforms obtained by scanning the object against a contrasting back-ground are amplified and shaped to yield a sequence of constant amplitude pulses whose polarity distinguishes the studied area from its background and whose varying widths reflect the dynamics of the viewed object. These pulses are passed through a relatively long time-constant capacitor-resistor circuit and are then fed into an integrator. The net integration voltage resulting from the most recent sequence of object-background time pulses is recorded and the integrator is returned to zero at the end of each video frame. If the object's area remains constant throughout the following frame, the integrator's summation will also remain constant. However, if the object's area varies, the positive and negative time pulses entering the integrator will change, and the integrator's summation will vary proportionately. The addition of a computer interface and a video recorder enhances the versatility and the resolving power of the VDP by permitting the repeated study and analysis of selected portions of the recorded data, thereby uncovering the major sources of the object's dynamics. Among the medical and biological procedures for which COMPUTER-AIDED VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETRY is suitable are Ophthalmoscopy, Endoscopy, Microscopy, Plethysmography, etc. A recent research study in Ophthalmoscopy2 will be cited to suggest a useful application of Video Differential Planimetry.

  3. An esthetics rehabilitation with computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaro, Josá Vitor Quinelli; de Mello, Caroline Cantieri; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Santiago, Joel Ferreira; Amoroso, Andressa Paschoal; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a case of a rehabilitation involving Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system in implant supported and dental supported prostheses using zirconia as framework. The CAD-CAM technology has developed considerably over last few years, becoming a reality in dental practice. Among the widely used systems are the systems based on zirconia which demonstrate important physical and mechanical properties of high strength, adequate fracture toughness, biocompatibility and esthetics, and are indicated for unitary prosthetic restorations and posterior and anterior framework. All the modeling was performed by using CAD-CAM system and prostheses were cemented using resin cement best suited for each situation. The rehabilitation of the maxillary arch using zirconia framework demonstrated satisfactory esthetic and functional results after a 12-month control and revealed no biological and technical complications. This article shows the important of use technology CAD/CAM in the manufacture of dental prosthesis and implant-supported.

  4. Aided diagnosis methods of breast cancer based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Wang, Nian; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In the field of medicine, quickly and accurately determining whether the patient is malignant or benign is the key to treatment. In this paper, K-Nearest Neighbor, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logistic Regression were applied to predict the classification of thyroid,Her-2,PR,ER,Ki67,metastasis and lymph nodes in breast cancer, in order to recognize the benign and malignant breast tumors and achieve the purpose of aided diagnosis of breast cancer. The results showed that the highest classification accuracy of LDA was 88.56%, while the classification effect of KNN and Logistic Regression were better than that of LDA, the best accuracy reached 96.30%.

  5. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S.; Barros, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  6. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  7. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  8. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  9. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  10. Computer aided information system for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidian, T.A.; Karmakar, G.; Rajagopal, R.; Shankar, V.; Patil, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The computer aided information system (CAIS) is designed with a view to improve the performance of the operator. CAIS assists the plant operator in an advisory and support role, thereby reducing the workload level and potential human errors. The CAIS as explained here has been designed for a PWR type KLT- 40 used in Floating Nuclear Power Stations (FNPS). However the underlying philosophy evolved in designing the CAIS can be suitably adopted for other type of nuclear power plants too (BWR, PHWR). Operator information is divided into three broad categories: a) continuously available information b) automatically available information and c) on demand information. Two in number touch screens are provided on the main control panel. One is earmarked for continuously available information and the other is dedicated for automatically available information. Both the screens can be used at the operator's discretion for on-demand information. Automatically available information screen overrides the on-demand information screens. In addition to the above, CAIS has the features of event sequence recording, disturbance recording and information documentation. CAIS design ensures that the operator is not overburdened with excess and unnecessary information, but at the same time adequate and well formatted information is available. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs

  11. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary artery aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Kouji; Kontani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Makoto; Sakurai, Noboru; Sawada, Taisei; Fukeda, Yasuhiko; Takata, Shigeo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Hattori, Nobu.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare lesions. Clagett et al reported that one aneurysm of the pulmonary artery may be found in approximately 14,000 necropsies. We have experienced a case of giant pulmonary artery aneurysm confirmed by computed tomography. A 38 year-old man with atrial septal defect admitted to Kanazawa City Hospital. He had been pointed out of a right hilar mass when he was 26 years old. His complaint was bloody sputum and cough. Pulmonary angiography was not useful for the definite diagnosis because of its mural thrombi. Enhanced computed tomography showed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity. This shows that enhanced computed tomography is very useful for the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary artery aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Kouji; Kontani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Makoto; Sakurai, Noboru; Sawada, Taisei; Fukeda, Yasuhiko; Takata, Shigeo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Hattori, Nobu

    1986-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare lesions. Clagett et al reported that one aneurysm of the pulmonary artery may be found in approximately 14,000 necropsies. We have experienced a case of giant pulmonary artery aneurysm confirmed by computed tomography. A 38 year-old man with atrial septal defect admitted to Kanazawa City Hospital. He had been pointed out of a right hilar mass when he was 26 years old. His complaint was bloody sputum and cough. Pulmonary angiography was not useful for the definite diagnosis because of its mural thrombi. Enhanced computed tomography showed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity. This shows that enhanced computed tomography is very useful for the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity.

  13. Fractography of clinically fractured, implant-supported dental computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing crowns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Belli, Renan; Cune, Marco S; Schepke, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Today, a substantial part of the dental crown production uses computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. A recent step in restorative dentistry is the replacement of natural tooth structure with pre-polymerized and machined resin-based methacrylic polymers.

  14. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  15. Computer-aided engineering in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachy, G.; Hauviller, C.; Messerli, R.; Mottier, M.

    1988-01-01

    Computing, standard tool for a long time in the High Energy Physics community, is being slowly introduced at CERN in the mechanical engineering field. The first major application was structural analysis followed by Computer-Aided Design (CAD). Development work is now progressing towards Computer-Aided Engineering around a powerful data base. This paper gives examples of the power of this approach applied to engineering for accelerators and detectors

  16. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT.

  17. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Koichi

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT. (Nishio, M.)

  18. Computer assisted diagnosis of benign bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardziski, M.; Zafiroski, G.; Janevska, V.; Miladinova, D.; Popeska, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) of benign bone tumours (BBT) and their histological type. Patients and method. Altogether 120 patients were included in two groups. The retrospective group comprised 68 patients in whom the histological type of BBT was known prior to computer analysis. The prospective group comprised 52 patients in whom the histological type of BBT was unknown prior to computer analysis. Computer program was efficient and easy to use. Results. Average percent of histological type confirmed with CAD in the retrospective and prospective groups was 72.06% and 76.92%, respectively. Histological confirmation of CAD in specific BBT was 91.42% for enchondroma, 96.15% for osteoid-osteoma, and 98.08% for osteochondroma. Significantly lower percentage of CAD confirmation of fibroma, chondromixoid fibroma, osteoclastoma, desmoplastic fibroma and osteobalstoma due to their adverse biological character or complex anatomic localization is understandable. Conclusions. The results speak in favour of the assumption that computer assisted diagnosis of bone tumours program may improve the diagnostic accuracy of the examiner. (author)

  19. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  20. Adhesive Bonding to Computer-aided Design/ Computer-aided Manufacturing Esthetic Dental Materials: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Mohamed Moustafa; Alqahtani, H; Al-Mudahi, A; Murayshed, M S; Alrahlah, A; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2017-07-01

    To review the adhesive bonding to different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) esthetic restorative materials. The use of CAD/CAM esthetic restorative materials has gained popularity in recent years. Several CAD/ CAM esthetic restorative materials are commercially available. Adhesive bonding is a major determinant of success of CAD/ CAM restorations. Review result: An account of the currently available bonding strategies are discussed with their rationale in various CAD/ CAM materials. Different surface treatment methods as well as adhesion promoters can be used to achieve reliable bonding of CAD/CAM restorative materials. Selection of bonding strategy to such material is determined based on its composition. Further evidence is required to evaluate the effect of new surface treatment methods, such as nonthermal atmospheric plasma and self-etching ceramic primer on bonding to different dental ceramics. An understanding of the currently available bonding strategies to CA/CAM materials can help the clinician to select the most indicated system for each category of materials.

  1. Torsional strength of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated esthetic orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrejaye, Najla; Pober, Richard; Giordano Ii, Russell

    2017-01-01

    To fabricate orthodontic brackets from esthetic materials and determine their fracture resistance during archwire torsion. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology (Cerec inLab, Sirona) was used to mill brackets with a 0.018 × 0.025-inch slot. Materials used were Paradigm MZ100 and Lava Ultimate resin composite (3M ESPE), Mark II feldspathic porcelain (Vita Zahnfabrik), and In-Ceram YZ zirconia (Vita Zahnfabrik). Ten brackets of each material were subjected to torque by a 0.018 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire (G&H) using a specially designed apparatus. The average moments and degrees of torsion necessary to fracture the brackets were determined and compared with those of commercially available alumina brackets, Mystique MB (Dentsply GAC). The YZ brackets were statistically significantly stronger than any other tested material in their resistance to torsion (P brackets. Resistance of MZ100 and Lava Ultimate composite resin brackets to archwire torsion was comparable to commercially available alumina ceramic brackets.

  2. Towards a Computer Assisted Violin Teaching Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Derry; Charles, Jane; Coyle, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a possible approach for developing a violin teaching aid based on violin pedagogy, sound analysis and comparison of beginner and good player recordings. This teaching aid is targeted at students who have difficulty listening attentively to the sounds they produce. It aims to draw their attention to the sound of a fault, offer correction and to train the user's ear to actively listen.

  3. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient leads to diagnosis of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Soleimani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite, with a worldwide distribution from 30%–75% seroprevalence in different countries. In patient with immunosuppression such as AIDS, the parasite can be reactivated and causes the disease. We report on the case of a 36–year–old man admitted to MadaniHospital with Imbalance and loss of consciousness. He has been suffering headache, impaired speech and inability to walk since two weeks ago. In magnetic resonance imaging multiple space occupying lesions in bilateral cerebral hemispheres with ring enhancement after contrast injection were seen. HIV test for HIV-1 was reactive, Toxoplasma serology was revealed raised immunoglobulin G antibody levels of 650 IU/mL. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in this patient leads to diagnosis of HIV infection at advanced stage. The patient treated successfully with alternative drug but we need more activity in education of high risk people to get tested for HIV in our country, Iran.

  4. Multimedia Image Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Song

    2018-03-01

    Since the reform and opening up, with the continuous development of science and technology in China, more and more advanced science and technology have emerged under the trend of diversification. Multimedia imaging technology, for example, has a significant and positive impact on computer aided manufacturing engineering in China. From the perspective of scientific and technological advancement and development, the multimedia image technology has a very positive influence on the application and development of computer-aided manufacturing engineering, whether in function or function play. Therefore, this paper mainly starts from the concept of multimedia image technology to analyze the application of multimedia image technology in computer aided manufacturing engineering.

  5. Perceptual Computing Aiding People in Making Subjective Judgments

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Explains for the first time how "computing with words" can aid in making subjective judgments. Lotfi Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase "computing with words" (CWW) to describe a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language. Perceptual Computing explains how to implement CWW to aid in the important area of making subjective judgments, using a methodology that leads to an interactive device—a "Perceptual Computer"—that propagates random and linguistic uncertainties into the subjective judg

  6. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  7. Computer-aided voice training in higher education: participants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The training of performance singing in a multi lingual, multi cultural educational context presents unique problems and requires inventive teaching strategies. Computer-aided training offers objective visual feedback of the voice production that can be implemented as a teaching aid in higher education. This article reports on ...

  8. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium and Partners | Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric -Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric

  9. Computer Aided Design Tools for Extreme Environment Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to provide Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools for radiation-tolerant, wide-temperature-range digital, analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency...

  10. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Masses in Digital Tomosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Swatee; Lo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate feasibility of computer-aided detection of masses and calcification clusters in breast tomosynthesis images and obtain reliable estimates of sensitivity...

  11. The potential impact of computer-aided assessment technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential impact of computer-aided assessment technology in higher education. ... Further more 'Increased number of students in Higher Education and the ... benefits, limitations, impacts on student learning and strategies for developing ...

  12. Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis with Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nideröst

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite some fragmentary references in the literature about qualitative methods, it is fairly unknown that Word can be successfully used for computer-aided Qualitative Data Analyses (QDA. Based on several Word standard operations, elementary QDA functions such as sorting data, code-and-retrieve and frequency counts can be realized. Word is particularly interesting for those users who wish to have first experiences with computer-aided analysis before investing time and money in a specialized QDA Program. The well-known standard software could also be an option for those qualitative researchers who usually work with word processing but have certain reservations towards computer-aided analysis. The following article deals with the most important requirements and options of Word for computer-aided QDA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0202225

  13. DICOM standard in computer-aided medical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, A.V.; Prilutskij, D.A.; Selishchev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper outlines one of the promising standards to transmit images in medicine, in radiology in particular. the essence of the standard DICOM is disclosed and promises of its introduction into computer-aided medical technologies

  14. Planning Computer-Aided Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Dobnik

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Didactics of autonomous learning changes under the influence of new technologies. Computer technology can cover all the functions that a teacher develops in personal contact with the learner. People organizing distance learning must realize all the possibilities offered by computers. Computers can take over and also combine the functions of many tools and systems, e. g. type­ writer, video, telephone. This the contents can be offered in form of classic media by means of text, speech, picture, etc. Computers take over data pro­cessing and function as study materials. Computer included in a computer network can also function as a medium for interactive communication.

  15. Computer-aided system for cryogenic research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, V.P.; Zhelamsky, M.V.; Mozin, I.V.; Repin, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided system is developed for the more effective choice and optimization of the design and manufacturing technologies of the superconductor for the magnet system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with the aim to ensure the superconductor certification. The computer-aided system provides acquisition, processing, storage and display of data describing the proceeding tests, the detection of any parameter deviations and their analysis. Besides, it generates commands for the equipment switch off in emergency situations. ((orig.))

  16. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  17. Computer-assisted diagnosis of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Collin; Cellura, A Paul; Hibler, Brian P; Burris, Katy

    2016-03-01

    The computer-assisted diagnosis of melanoma is an exciting area of research where imaging techniques are combined with diagnostic algorithms in an attempt to improve detection and outcomes for patients with skin lesions suspicious for malignancy. Once an image has been acquired, it undergoes a processing pathway which includes preprocessing, enhancement, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, change detection, and ultimately classification. Practicality for everyday clinical use remains a vital question. A successful model must obtain results that are on par or outperform experienced dermatologists, keep costs at a minimum, be user-friendly, and be time efficient with high sensitivity and specificity. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  18. Automatic computer aided analysis algorithms and system for adrenal tumors on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hanchao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-12-04

    The adrenal tumor will disturb the secreting function of adrenocortical cells, leading to many diseases. Different kinds of adrenal tumors require different therapeutic schedules. In the practical diagnosis, it highly relies on the doctor's experience to judge the tumor type by reading the hundreds of CT images. This paper proposed an automatic computer aided analysis method for adrenal tumors detection and classification. It consisted of the automatic segmentation algorithms, the feature extraction and the classification algorithms. These algorithms were then integrated into a system and conducted on the graphic interface by using MATLAB Graphic user interface (GUI). The accuracy of the automatic computer aided segmentation and classification reached 90% on 436 CT images. The experiments proved the stability and reliability of this automatic computer aided analytic system.

  19. [Development of a Computer-aided Diagnosis System to Distinguish between Benign and Malignant Mammary Tumors in Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Images: Automatic Detection of the Position with the Strongest Washout Effect in the Tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiaki; Tabata, Nobuyuki; Taroura, Tomomi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Kubo, Yuichiro; Tokunaga, Eriko; Taguchi, Kenichi

    We propose a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that uses time-intensity curves to distinguish between benign and malignant mammary tumors. Many malignant tumors show a washout pattern in time-intensity curves. Therefore, we designed a program that automatically detects the position with the strongest washout effect using the technique, such as the subtraction technique, which extracts only the washout area in the tumor, and by scanning data in 2×2 pixel region of interest (ROI). Operation of this independently developed program was verified using a phantom system that simulated tumors. In three cases of malignant tumors, the washout pattern detection rate in images with manually set ROI was ≤6%, whereas the detection rate with our novel method was 100%. In one case of a benign tumor, when the same method was used, we checked that there was no washout effect and detected the persistent pattern. Thus, the distinction between benign and malignant tumors using our method was completely consistent with the pathological diagnoses made. Our novel method is therefore effective for differentiating between benign and malignant mammary tumors in dynamic magnetic resonance images.

  20. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient’s symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80% and sensitivity (≥99%, and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers.

  1. Computer-Aided Instruction in Automated Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses functions of automated instrumentation systems, i.e., systems which combine electrical measuring instruments and a controlling computer to measure responses of a unit under test. The computer-assisted tutorial then described is programmed for use on such a system--a modern microwave spectrum analyzer--to introduce engineering students to…

  2. PSAD, a prototype for monitoring and aid to diagnosis of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousselin, A.; Bourgeois, P.; Busquet, J.L.; Monnier, B.; Mouhamed, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve safety and availability in its nuclear power plants, EDF has designed a new generation of monitoring systems integrated into a workstation for monitoring and aid to diagnosis (PSAD). These systems perform on-line monitoring of the main power plant components and PSAD stations provide homogenous aids ro diagnosis which enable plant personnel to diagnose the mechanical behavior of plant equipments. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerably free them from routine tasks. PSAD has a flexible architecture, guaranteeing optimum distribution of computing power to make it available where it is needed, thus enhancing the quality of the information. Its architecture includes diagnosis support software based on artificial intelligence technology which can dialogue with real-time or deferred-time processing software and a relational database. The first version of the prototype is working on a french plant at Tricastin. This version includes the software for the host structure and two monitoring functions: the reactor coolant pumps and the turbo-generator monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring function (ISM) and Loose Parts Detection function (LPD) are under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1996. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs

  3. Students' perceptions of a multimedia computer-aided instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To develop an interactive muttimedia-based computer-aided instruction (CAI) programme, to detennine its educational worth and efficacy in a multicuttural academic environment and to evaluate its usage by students with differing levels of computer literacy. Design. A prospective descriptive study evaluating ...

  4. A Personal Computer as Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    Albicki, A.; Cohen, G.H.; Metz, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a microcomputer aided strabismus diagnostic system STRABCON. Two goals were achieved: at any time during the diagnostic process a list of plausible disorders are produced, and an optimal procedure for arriving at a final diagnosis is determined. This publication deals primarily with a microcomputer implementation of the STRABCON diagnostic system.

  5. COMPUTER AIDED SELECTION OF PLANT LAYOUT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special focus is directed at improving the preparation of the input data to enhance computer assistance to plant layout. ... INTRODUCTION. Plant layout problems have ... 1960's with the development by industrial engineers and operational ...

  6. COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION OF ACINAR SHADOWS IN CHEST RADIOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technological advances in medical diagnosis, accurate detection of infectious tuberculosis (TB still poses challenges due to complex image features and thus infectious TB continues to be a public health problem of global proportions. Currently, the detection of TB is mainly conducted visually by radiologists examining chest radiographs (CXRs. To reduce the backlog of CXR examination and provide more precise quantitative assessment, computer-aided detection (CAD systems for potential lung lesions have been increasingly adopted and commercialized for clinical practice. CADs work as supporting tools to alert radiologists on suspected features that could have easily been neglected. In this paper, an effective CAD system aimed for acinar shadow regions detection in CXRs is proposed. This system exploits textural and photometric features analysis techniques which include local binary pattern (LBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG to analyze target regions in CXRs. Classification of acinar shadows using Adaboost is then deployed to verify the performance of a combination of these techniques. Comparative study in different image databases shows that the proposed CAD system delivers consistent high accuracy in detecting acinar shadows.

  7. Server-Aided Verification Signature with Privacy for Mobile Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, much data communication and processing has been conducted in mobile devices with wireless connection. As we know that the mobile devices will always be resource-poor relative to static ones though they will improve in absolute ability, therefore, they cannot process some expensive computational tasks due to the constrained computational resources. According to this problem, server-aided computing has been studied in which the power-constrained mobile devices can outsource some expensive computation to a server with powerful resources in order to reduce their computational load. However, in existing server-aided verification signature schemes, the server can learn some information about the message-signature pair to be verified, which is undesirable especially when the message includes some secret information. In this paper, we mainly study the server-aided verification signatures with privacy in which the message-signature pair to be verified can be protected from the server. Two definitions of privacy for server-aided verification signatures are presented under collusion attacks between the server and the signer. Then based on existing signatures, two concrete server-aided verification signature schemes with privacy are proposed which are both proved secure.

  8. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  9. Computer-Aided Engineering | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computes coupled section properties of composite blades for beam-type models Inputs are the airfoil shape and internal lay-up of composite laminas Uses a combined laminate theory (modified) with shear flow FE developed to handle rotation-related terms WT_Perf Calculates steady-state rotor performance

  10. COMPUTER-AIDED ACQUISITION OF WRITING SKILLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, R.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of the literature questioning whether and to what extent computers can be used as a means of instruction for the guided acquisition of communicative writing skills in higher education. To answer this question, the present paper first explores the

  11. Assessment of Computer Aids in Shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    terminology and the dis- cussion to alevel that both high level and low level that are understood by the people who are really managing our busi- ness...edge in this computer maybe the com- pany doesn’t need them any more. So there’s always been a psychological bar- rier. I Was talking to Douglas

  12. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, Masataka

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two pulmonary nodules (PNs) were examined by thin-section computed tomography (CT) and conventional tomography (tomography). In this study, 109 PNs were analyzed to assess tissue density by calculating the representative CT number (RCT no.) from a computer printout. For the primary malignancies, the mean RCT no. was 72 HU, with a standard deviation (SD) of 21 HU, and for metastases, it was 66 ± 19 HU. The RCT no. separating primary malignancy from benign lesions was 157 HU, the one including metastasis was 183 HU. In addition, dual-energy CT scan was performed to evaluate capability of diagnosing calcification in 35 PNs. Dual-energy CT scan had increased the reliability of CT diagnosis for PNs with RCT no. between 100 HU and 300 HU. The descriptive criteria of CT and tomography for 127 PNs were analyzed and statistical diagnoses by CT and tomography were compared with the results of their final diagnoses. CT and tomography had domonstrated similar sensitivities in the evaluation of primary malignancies; 86 % in CT and 90 % in tomography, and the same sensitivities (86 %) in diagnosing metastases. In evaluating benign PNs, CT was superior to tomography with capability to detect minimal calcification and fat density; the specificity was 80 % with CT, and 52 % with tomography (p < 0.025). Overall accuracy in the diagnosis for PNs was 82 % with CT, and 73 % with tomography, which was not different statistically. It can be concluded that CT is a reliable examination in the evaluation of PNs, and there is an advantage to the use of CT over tomography in diagnosing benign lesions. (author)

  13. Computer-Aided Modeling of Lipid Processing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel

    2011-01-01

    increase along with growing interest in biofuels, the oleochemical industry faces in the upcoming years major challenges in terms of design and development of better products and more sustainable processes to make them. Computer-aided methods and tools for process synthesis, modeling and simulation...... are widely used for design, analysis, and optimization of processes in the chemical and petrochemical industries. These computer-aided tools have helped the chemical industry to evolve beyond commodities toward specialty chemicals and ‘consumer oriented chemicals based products’. Unfortunately...... to develop systematic computer-aided methods (property models) and tools (database) related to the prediction of the necessary physical properties suitable for design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. The methods and tools include: the development of a lipid-database (CAPEC...

  14. On the Value of Computer-aided Instruction: Thoughts after Teaching Sales Writing in a Computer Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, John

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on problems encountered with computer-aided writing instruction. Discusses conflicts caused by the computer classroom concept, some general paradoxes and ethical implications of computer-aided instruction. (EL)

  15. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  16. Performative Computation-aided Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a collaborative research and teaching project between the University of Cincinnati, Perkins+Will’s Tech Lab, and the University of North Carolina Greensboro. The primary investigation focuses on the simulation, optimization, and generation of architectural designs using performance-based computational design approaches. The projects examine various design methods, including relationships between building form, performance and the use of proprietary software tools for parametric design.

  17. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility

  18. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing

  19. CLINICAL DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Suryono Suryono; Nasronudin Nasronudin

    2014-01-01

    Infections ofHIV/AIDS currently has become very serious problems for the world health. In the country the first case ofHIV/AIDS was discovered in Bali in 1987, in its progress has not the meaning but after 1985 HIV transmission increased considerably. The complex problem that the living and the increasing number ofcases should indeed, medical practitioners understand more the clinical and how to diagnose infections ofHIV/AIDS. A snapshot ofthe clinical HIV infection/aids can be seen fro...

  20. Computer-aided engineering of semiconductor integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J. D.; Dutton, R. W.; Gibbons, J. F.; Helms, C. R.; Plummer, J. D.; Tiller, W. A.; Ho, C. P.; Saraswat, K. C.; Deal, B. E.; Kamins, T. I.

    1980-07-01

    Economical procurement of small quantities of high performance custom integrated circuits for military systems is impeded by inadequate process, device and circuit models that handicap low cost computer aided design. The principal objective of this program is to formulate physical models of fabrication processes, devices and circuits to allow total computer-aided design of custom large-scale integrated circuits. The basic areas under investigation are (1) thermal oxidation, (2) ion implantation and diffusion, (3) chemical vapor deposition of silicon and refractory metal silicides, (4) device simulation and analytic measurements. This report discusses the fourth year of the program.

  1. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  2. Computer aided construction of fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Computer code CAT for the automatic construction of the fault tree is briefly described. Code CAT makes possible simple modelling of components using decision tables, it accelerates the fault tree construction process, constructs fault trees of different complexity, and is capable of harmonized co-operation with programs PREPandKITT 1,2 for fault tree analysis. The efficiency of program CAT and thus the accuracy and completeness of fault trees constructed significantly depends on the compilation and sophistication of decision tables. Currently, program CAT is used in co-operation with programs PREPandKITT 1,2 in reliability analyses of nuclear power plant systems. (B.S.)

  3. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  4. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  5. Computer-aided Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, R.R.

    1978-08-01

    A computer-oriented methodology for deriving minimal cut and path set families associated with arbitrary fault trees is discussed first. Then the use of the Fault Tree Analysis Program (FTAP), an extensive FORTRAN computer package that implements the methodology is described. An input fault tree to FTAP may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems associated with the tree as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the state of the system as a function of these module state variables. Another FTAP feature allows a subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily consists only of sets that are interesting to the analyst in a special sense

  6. Computer-aided injection molding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. K.; Shen, S. F.; Cohen, C.; Hieber, C. A.; Isayev, A. I.

    1982-10-01

    Achievements are reported in cavity-filling simulation, modeling viscoelastic effects, measuring and predicting frozen-in birefringence in molded parts, measuring residual stresses and associated mechanical properties of molded parts, and developing an interactive mold-assembly design program and an automatic NC maching data generation and verification program. The Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) consortium is discussed as are computer user manuals that have been published by the consortium. Major tasks which should be addressed in future efforts are listed, including: (1) predict and experimentally determine the post-fillin behavior of thermoplastics; (2) simulate and experimentally investigate the injection molding of thermosets and filled materials; and (3) further investigate residual stresses, orientation and mechanical properties.

  7. [Key points for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth using chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Feng, H L

    2018-04-09

    With the rapid development of the chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology, its accuracy and operability of have been greatly improved in recent years. Chair-side CAD/CAM system may produce all kinds of indirect restorations, and has the advantages of rapid, accurate and stable production. It has become the future development direction of Stomatology. This paper describes the clinical application of the chair-side CAD/CAM technology for anterior aesthetic restorations from the aspects of shade and shape.

  8. Database organization for computer-aided characterization of laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedokun, Z.O.

    1988-01-01

    Computer-aided data logging involves a huge amount of data which must be properly managed for optimized storage space, easy access, retrieval and utilization. An organization method is developed to enhance the advantages of computer-based data logging of the testing of the semiconductor injection laser which optimize storage space, permit authorized user easy access and inhibits penetration. This method is based on unique file identification protocol tree structure and command file-oriented access procedures

  9. Computer aided operation of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-09-01

    Advanced technology is having the effect that industrial systems are becoming more highly automated and do not rely on human intervention for the control of normally planned and/or predicted situations. Thus the importance of the operator has shifted from being a manual controller to becoming more of a systems manager and supervisory controller. At the same time, the use of advanced information technology in the control room and its potential impact on human-machine capabilities places additional demands on the designer. This report deals with work carried out to describe the plant-operator relationship in order to systematize the design and evaluation of suitable information systems in the control room. This design process starts with the control requirements from the plant and transforms them into corresponding sets of decision-making tasks with appropriate allocation of responsibilities between computer and operator. To further effectivize this cooperation, appropriate information display and accession are identified. The conceptual work has been supported by experimental studies on a small-scale simulator. (author)

  10. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were:

  11. New design methods for computer aided architecturald design methodology teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Architects and architectural students are exploring new ways of design using Computer Aided Architectural Design software. This exploration is seldom backed up from a design methodological viewpoint. In this paper, a design methodological framework for reflection on innovate design processes by

  12. Critiquing the Computer-Aided Design of Dental Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, F. J.; And Others

    This paper describes RaPiD, a computer-aided assistant for the design of dental prostheses called removable partial dentures. The user manipulates icons directly to indicate the desired design solution to a given clinical situation. A developing design is represented as a logic database of components in a design; expert rules are applied as…

  13. Computer-aided discovery of antimicrobial agents as potential enoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer-aided discovery of antimicrobial agents as potential enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase inhibitors. ... Conclusion: Overall, the newly discovered hits can act as a good starting point in the future for the development of safe and potent antibacterial agents. Keywords: Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase, saFabI, ...

  14. Computer aided operation of the Karlsruhe isochronous cyclotron using CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, W.; Karbstein, W.; Kneis, W.; Moellenbeck, J.; Schweickert, H.; Volk, B.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive branch system is used with a NOVA 2/10 computer as an aid to the operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron. The accelerator operator calls the different tasks by an interactive program system ''CICERO'' under BASIC. CAMAC operations are called by means of the ordinary BASIC Call mechanism through assembler routines

  15. Assisted supervision of a computer aided tele-operation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bars, H; Gravez, P; Fournier, R

    1994-12-31

    This paper talks about Computer Aided Tele-operation (CAT) in dismantling and maintenance of nuclear plants. The current research orientations at CEA, basic concepts of the supervision assistance system and the realisation of a prototype are presented. (TEC). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Assisted supervision of a computer aided tele-operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bars, H.; Gravez, P.; Fournier, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper talks about Computer Aided Tele-operation (CAT) in dismantling and maintenance of nuclear plants. The current research orientations at CEA, basic concepts of the supervision assistance system and the realisation of a prototype are presented. (TEC). 3 refs., 4 figs

  17. A Complete Interactive Graphical Computer-Aided Instruction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven Selby

    The use of interactive graphics in computer-aided instruction systems is discussed with emphasis placed on two requirements of such a system. The first is the need to provide the teacher with a useful tool with which to design and modify teaching sessions tailored to the individual needs and capabilities of the students. The second is the…

  18. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CHAIN COUPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Sergeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the development stages of computer-aided design of chain couplings. The first stage is the automation of traditional design techniques (intermediate automation. The second integrated automation with the development of automated equipment and production technology, including on the basis of flexible manufacturing systems (high level of automation.

  20. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  1. Computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alan P

    2007-07-01

    An overview of computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business in South Africa, with a detailed description of the AIDS Projection Model (APM) for companies, developed by the author, and suggestions for further work. Computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business in South Africa requires modelling of the epidemic as a whole, and of its impact on a company. This paper gives an overview of epidemiological modelling, with an introduction to the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA) model, the most widely used such model for South Africa. The APM produces projections of HIV prevalence, new infections, and AIDS mortality on a company, based on the anonymous HIV testing of company employees, and projections from the ASSA model. A smoothed statistical model of the prevalence test data is computed, and then the ASSA model projection for each category of employees is adjusted so that it matches the measured prevalence in the year of testing. FURTHER WORK: Further techniques that could be developed are microsimulation (representing individuals in the computer), scenario planning for testing strategies, and models for the business environment, such as models of entire sectors, and mapping of HIV prevalence in time and space, based on workplace and community data.

  2. Computer-Aided Test Flow in Core-Based Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper copes with the efficient test-pattern generation in a core-based design. A consistent Computer-Aided Test (CAT) flow is proposed based on the required core-test strategy. It generates a test-pattern set for the embedded cores with high fault coverage and low DfT area overhead. The CAT

  3. Computer-Aided Test Flow in Core-Based Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper copes with the test-pattern generation and fault coverage determination in the core based design. The basic core-test strategy that one has to apply in the core-based design is stated in this work. A Computer-Aided Test (CAT) flow is proposed resulting in accurate fault coverage of

  4. Computer-aided engineering for Qinshan CANDU projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhizhang; Goland, D.

    1999-01-01

    The author briefly describes AECL's work in applying computer-aided engineering tools to the Qinshan CANDU Project. The main emphases will be to introduce the major CADD software tools and their use in civil design, process design and EI and C design. Other special software tools and non-CADD tools and their applications are also briefly introduced

  5. Computer Aided Education System SuperTest. Present and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing process for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES SuperTest, used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chisinau, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacau, Romania. We discuss here the future of this software, from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.

  6. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...

  7. The University of Michigan's Computer-Aided Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, D. E.; Olsen, Leslie A.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering Network (CAEN) of the University of Michigan. Describes its arrangement of workstations, communication networks, and servers. Outlines the factors considered in hardware and software decision making. Reviews the program's impact on students. (ML)

  8. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps...

  9. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.

  10. Software Engineering Techniques for Computer-Aided Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bertrand

    1989-01-01

    Describes the process for developing tutorials for computer-aided learning (CAL) using a programing language rather than an authoring system. The workstation used is described, the use of graphics is discussed, the role of a local area network (LAN) is explained, and future plans are discussed. (five references) (LRW)

  11. Research on computer aided testing of pilot response to critical in-flight events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on pilot decision making are described. The development of models of pilot decision making in critical in flight events (CIFE) are emphasized. The following tests are reported on the development of: (1) a frame system representation describing how pilots use their knowledge in a fault diagnosis task; (2) assessment of script norms, distance measures, and Markov models developed from computer aided testing (CAT) data; and (3) performance ranking of subject data. It is demonstrated that interactive computer aided testing either by touch CRT's or personal computers is a useful research and training device for measuring pilot information management in diagnosing system failures in simulated flight situations. Performance is dictated by knowledge of aircraft sybsystems, initial pilot structuring of the failure symptoms and efficient testing of plausible causal hypotheses.

  12. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Lung Hua,1 Che-Hao Hsu,1 Shintami Chusnul Hidayati,1 Wen-Huang Cheng,2 Yu-Jen Chen3 1Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 2Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. Keywords: nodule classification, deep learning, deep belief network, convolutional neural network

  13. CLINICAL DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryono Suryono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections ofHIV/AIDS currently has become very serious problems for the world health. In the country the first case ofHIV/AIDS was discovered in Bali in 1987, in its progress has not the meaning but after 1985 HIV transmission increased considerably. The complex problem that the living and the increasing number ofcases should indeed, medical practitioners understand more the clinical and how to diagnose infections ofHIV/AIDS. A snapshot ofthe clinical HIV infection/aids can be seen from grievances and a disease that often accompanies it, a complaint which is found at HIV/AIDS sufferers in the form of suds retroviral acute: fever, weight loss, diarrhea chronic, disphagi, limpadenopati, infections in the skin respiratory disorders and nervous breakdown center. While a disease that often been gained by those with HIV / AIDS as candidiasis, tuberculosis, pneumonia bakterialis, toksoplasmosis and pneumonia pneumocystic carinii. Diagnose HIV infection created based on clinical symptoms which includes major symptoms and symptoms of minor, and the result ofthe examination ofthe laboratory.

  14. Possible Computer Vision Systems and Automated or Computer-Aided Edging and Trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses research which is underway to help our industry reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market more accurately graded and described products. The research is part of a team effort to help the hardwood sawmill industry automate with computer vision systems, and computer-aided or computer controlled processing. This paper...

  15. Computer-aided proofs for multiparty computation with active security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagh, Helene; Karbyshev, Aleksandr; Oechsner, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a general cryptographic technique that allows distrusting parties to compute a function of their individual inputs, while only revealing the output of the function. It has found applications in areas such as auctioning, email filtering, and secure...... teleconference. Given its importance, it is crucial that the protocols are specified and implemented correctly. In the programming language community it has become good practice to use computer proof assistants to verify correctness proofs. In the field of cryptography, EasyCrypt is the state of the art proof...... public-key encryption, signatures, garbled circuits and differential privacy. Here we show for the first time that it can also be used to prove security of MPC against a malicious adversary. We formalize additive and replicated secret sharing schemes and apply them to Maurer's MPC protocol for secure...

  16. Method of Computer-aided Instruction in Situation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy O. Kargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of computer-aided instruction in context-chain motivated situation control system of the complex technical system behavior. The conceptual and formal models of situation control with practical instruction are considered. Acquisition of new behavior knowledge is presented as structural changes in system memory in the form of situational agent set. Model and method of computer-aided instruction represent formalization, based on the nondistinct theories by physiologists and cognitive psychologists.The formal instruction model describes situation and reaction formation and dependence on different parameters, effecting education, such as the reinforcement value, time between the stimulus, action and the reinforcement. The change of the contextual link between situational elements when using is formalized.The examples and results of computer instruction experiments of the robot device “LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT”, equipped with ultrasonic distance, touch, light sensors.

  17. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  18. New tools to aid in scientific computing and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, M.G.; Christian-Frear, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, two computer programs are described which aid in the pre- and post-processing of computer generated data. CoMeT (Computational Mechanics Toolkit) is a customizable, interactive, graphical, menu-driven program that provides the analyst with a consistent user-friendly interface to analysis codes. Trans Vol (Transparent Volume Visualization) is a specialized tool for the scientific three-dimensional visualization of complex solids by the technique of volume rendering. Both tools are described in basic detail along with an application example concerning the simulation of contaminant migration from an underground nuclear repository

  19. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  20. Computer-aided head film analysis: the University of California San Francisco method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D M

    1980-07-01

    Computer technology is already assuming an important role in the management of orthodontic practices. The next 10 years are likely to see expansion in computer usage into the areas of diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment-record keeping. In the areas of diagnosis and treatment planning, one of the first problems to be attacked will be the automation of head film analysis. The problems of constructing computer-aided systems for this purpose are considered herein in the light of the authors' 10 years of experience in developing a similar system for research purposes. The need for building in methods for automatic detection and correction of gross errors is discussed and the authors' method for doing so is presented. The construction of a rudimentary machine-readable data base for research and clinical purposes is described.

  1. An overview of interactive computer graphics and its application to computer-aided engineering and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this brief birds-eye view of interactive graphics is to list the key ideas, and to show how one of the most important application areas, Computer Aided Engineering/Design takes advantage of it. (orig.)

  2. Computer aided detection system for lung cancer using computer tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Shanthi; Rakesh, Spoorthi; Patil, Vidya C.

    2018-04-01

    Lung Cancer is a disease can be defined as uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If we detect the Lung Cancer in its early stage, then that could be the key of its cure. In this work the non-invasive methods are studied for assisting in nodule detection. It supplies a Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CAD) for early detection of lung cancer nodules from the Computer Tomography (CT) images. CAD system is the one which helps to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in their image interpretations. The main aim of this technique is to develop a CAD system for finding the lung cancer using the lung CT images and classify the nodule as Benign or Malignant. For classifying cancer cells, SVM classifier is used. Here, image processing techniques have been used to de-noise, to enhance, for segmentation and edge detection of an image is used to extract the area, perimeter and shape of nodule. The core factors of this research are Image quality and accuracy.

  3. Diagnosis and Management of AIDS-related Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has been increasing since the initial description in 1981. While virtually all organ systems may be affected, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be a major target. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, affecting up to half of all AIDS patients during the course of their disease. Although diarrhea occurs frequently, its optimal management remains controversial. An extensive evaluation including stool studies and endoscopic biopsies of both the colon and small intestine has been widely recommended to identify all potential pathogenic organisms. An alternative approach is a more limited evaluation consisting of stool and blood cultures followed by symptomatic treatment with antidiarrheal agents if no specific organisms are identified. The clinical presentation of the most common opportunistic pathogens are reviewed, including several recently discovered organisms. Recommendations for treatment are followed by a brief discussion of management strategies used to care for patients with AIDS-related diarrhea.

  4. A supervisor system for computer aided laser machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers achieve non divergent beam of short wavelength energy which can propagate through normal atmosphere with little divergence and can be focused on very fine points. The final high energy per unit area on target is highly localised and suitable for various types of machining at high speeds. The most notable factor is that this high energy spot can be located precisely using light-weight optical components. The laser-machining is very amenable to environmental conditions unlike electron beam and other techniques. Precision cutting and welding of nuclear materials in normal or non oxidising atmosphere can be done using this fairly easily. To achieve these objectives, development of a computer controlled laser machining system has been undertaken. The development project aims at building a computer aided machine with indegenous controller and medium power laser suitable for cutting, welding, and marking. This paper describes the integration of the various computer aided functions, spanning over the full range, from job-defining to final finished part-delivary, in computer aided laser machining. Various innovative features of the system that render it suitable for laser tool development as well as for special machining applications with user-friendliness have been covered. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  5. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  6. Computer Aided Multi-Data Fusion Dismount Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    dependent on a particular environmental condition. They are costly, cumbersome, and involve dedicated software practices and particular knowledge to operate...allow manipulation of 2D matrices, like Microsoft Excel or Libre Office. The second alternative is to modify an already created model (MEM). The model... software . Therefore, with the described computer aided multi-data dismount model the researcher will be able to attach signatures to any desired

  7. Contributions on Computer Aided Manufacturing of Drill-Jig Bushings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for computer aided manufacturing (CAMof the bushings technological class parts: design of the part in CADsoftware; generation of the parametrical link with MSExcel files; extract of the useful information for the technological design (mass, volume, surfaces; setting of the CNC lathe and necessary tools; programming of the CNC code for manufacturing. Given the large variety of the bushingsshapes and dimensions, the application focused on the jig bushings used in drilling processes.

  8. Modeling electric fields in two dimensions using computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, D.W.; Giovanetti, D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a method for analyzing static electric fields in two dimensions using AutoCAD. The algorithm is coded in LISP and is modeled after Coloumb's Law. The software platform allows for facile graphical manipulations of field renderings and supports a wide range of hardcopy-output and data-storage formats. More generally, this application is representative of the ability to analyze data that is the solution to known mathematical functions with computer aided design (CAD)

  9. Computer-Aided Test Flow in Core-Based Design

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper copes with the test-pattern generation and fault coverage determination in the core based design. The basic core-test strategy that one has to apply in the core-based design is stated in this work. A Computer-Aided Test (CAT) flow is proposed resulting in accurate fault coverage of embedded cores. The CAT now is applied to a few cores within the Philips Core Test Pilot IC project

  10. CADRIGS--computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwik, R.J.; Polizzi, L.M.; Sticco, S.; Gerrard, P.B.; Yeater, M.L.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Phillips, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated reliability analysis program combining graphic representation of fault trees, automated data base loadings and reference, and automated construction of reliability code input files was developed. The functional specifications for CADRIGS, the computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system, are presented. Previously developed fault tree segments used in auxiliary feedwater system safety analysis were constructed on CADRIGS and, when combined, yielded results identical to those resulting from manual input to the same reliability codes

  11. An Integrated Computer-Aided Approach for Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Chen, Fei; Jaksland, Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    A general framework for an integrated computer-aided approach to solve process design, control, and environmental problems simultaneously is presented. Physicochemical properties and their relationships to the molecular structure play an important role in the proposed integrated approach. The sco...... and applicability of the integrated approach is highlighted through examples involving estimation of properties and environmental pollution prevention. The importance of mixture effects on some environmentally important properties is also demonstrated....

  12. The computer-aided design of rubber-metal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo S. Shvets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem in design of rubber-metal products is the optimization of their mass without sacrificing of proportionality factor is in the limits of standard. Aim: The aim of this work is to improve the computer-aided systems by development and implementation of improved optimization method in rubber-metal CAD systems for designers based on the reverse optimization. Materials and Methods: The paper studies the matters of computer-aided structural design of technical composite products composed of anisotropic materials that are essentially different in properties. Results: The structure of CAD systems for designers solving the problems of such design is offered and the work principles of its subsystems are described. It is shown that complicated systems optimization in CAD systems must consider as restrictions the entitative connection between separate elements of these systems within the area of the optimizing arguments. Conclusions: The problem of the “reverse” optimization when objective functions are the connectivity area parameters is considered. In many cases, this allows receiving solutions that are more effective during the computer-aided design process. The developed CAD system for designers was used during the production of rubber-metal shock absorbers at the Odessa Rubber Technical Articles Plant. The positive technical and economic effect was obtained.

  13. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  14. Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naklie, M.M.; Pless, L.; Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance

  15. Computer aided approach for qualitative risk assessment of engineered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, W.K.; Arendt, J.S.; Fussell, J.B.; Rooney, J.J.; Wagner, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper outlines a computer aided methodology for determining the relative contributions of various subsystems and components to the total risk associated with an engineered system. Major contributors to overall task risk are identified through comparison of an expected frequency density function with an established risk criterion. Contributions that are inconsistently high are also identified. The results from this analysis are useful for directing efforts for improving system safety and performance. An analysis of uranium hexafluoride handling risk at a gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plant using a preliminary version of the computer program EXCON is briefly described and illustrated

  16. Computer-aided assessment of diagnostic images for epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gange Stephen J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic images are often assessed for clinical outcomes using subjective methods, which are limited by the skill of the reviewer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD algorithms that assist reviewers in their decisions concerning outcomes have been developed to increase sensitivity and specificity in the clinical setting. However, these systems have not been well utilized in research settings to improve the measurement of clinical endpoints. Reductions in bias through their use could have important implications for etiologic research. Methods Using the example of cortical cataract detection, we developed an algorithm for assisting a reviewer in evaluating digital images for the presence and severity of lesions. Available image processing and statistical methods that were easily implementable were used as the basis for the CAD algorithm. The performance of the system was compared to the subjective assessment of five reviewers using 60 simulated images. Cortical cataract severity scores from 0 to 16 were assigned to the images by the reviewers and the CAD system, with each image assessed twice to obtain a measure of variability. Image characteristics that affected reviewer bias were also assessed by systematically varying the appearance of the simulated images. Results The algorithm yielded severity scores with smaller bias on images where cataract severity was mild to moderate (approximately ≤ 6/16ths. On high severity images, the bias of the CAD system exceeded that of the reviewers. The variability of the CAD system was zero on repeated images but ranged from 0.48 to 1.22 for the reviewers. The direction and magnitude of the bias exhibited by the reviewers was a function of the number of cataract opacities, the shape and the contrast of the lesions in the simulated images. Conclusion CAD systems are feasible to implement with available software and can be valuable when medical images contain exposure or outcome information for

  17. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  18. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  19. To the problem of reliability standardization in computer-aided manufacturing at NPP units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebenetskij, M.A.; Shvyryaev, Yu.V.; Spektor, L.I.; Nikonenko, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of reliability standardization in computer-aided manufacturing of NPP units considering the following approaches: computer-aided manufacturing of NPP units as a part of automated technological complex; computer-aided manufacturing of NPP units as multi-functional system, are analyzed. Selection of the composition of reliability indeces for computer-aided manufacturing of NPP units for each of the approaches considered is substantiated

  20. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Graphic of a 24-cell (bottom). Images: Courtesy of EC Power NREL's work on the U.S. Department of Energy Computer-Aided

  1. Computer Navigation-aided Resection of Sacral Chordomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Kun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resection of sacral chordomas is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and there are often no bony landmarks to guide the resection. Achieving adequate surgical margins is, therefore, difficult, and the recurrence rate is high. Use of computer navigation may allow optimal preoperative planning and improve precision in tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of computer navigation-aided resection of sacral chordomas. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 26 patients with sacral chordoma underwent computer navigation-aided surgery were included and followed for a minimum of 18 months. There were 21 primary cases and 5 recurrent cases, with a mean age of 55.8 years old (range: 35-84 years old. Tumors were located above the level of the S3 neural foramen in 23 patients and below the level of the S3 neural foramen in 3 patients. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed with a computed tomography-based navigation system combined with the magnetic resonance images using the navigation software. Tumors were resected via a posterior approach assisted by the computer navigation. Mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range: 18-84 months. Results: Mean operative time was 307 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 3065 ml. For computer navigation, the mean registration deviation during surgery was 1.7 mm. There were 18 wide resections, 4 marginal resections, and 4 intralesional resections. All patients were alive at the final follow-up, with 2 (7.7% exhibiting tumor recurrence. The other 24 patients were tumor-free. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 27.3 (range: 19-30. Conclusions: Computer-assisted navigation can be safely applied to the resection of the sacral chordomas, allowing execution of preoperative plans, and achieving good oncological outcomes. Nevertheless, this needs to be accomplished by surgeons with adequate experience and skill.

  2. Grids to aid breast cancer diagnosis and research

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Mammo Grid project is studying the commercial possibilities for its distributed computing environment taht emplys existing Grid technologies for the creation of a European database of mammogram data (1 page)

  3. A study on quantification of the information flow and effectiveness of information aids for diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    2004-02-01

    terms of time-to-task completion. As a study on human performance model, this paper evaluates the effectiveness of information aiding types based on the operator strategies for diagnosis tasks at NPPs, especially for fault identification. To evaluate the effectiveness, four aiding types which are available for supporting MCR operator's diagnosis were selected for the experiment: no aid, alarm, hypothesis with certainty factor, and hypothesis with certainty factor + expected symptom patterns. The main features of the aiding types were elicited from typical direct operator support systems for MCR operators. An experiment was conducted for 24 graduate students and subject performances were analyzed according to the strategies the subjects used in problem-solving. The experimental results show that the effect of the information aiding types on subject performance can be changed according to subject strategy. Finally, as the analysis of operator support system for MCR operators, this paper suggests a method for the quantitative evaluation of NPP decision support systems (DSSs). In this approach, the dynamic aspects of DSSs are first defined. Then, the hierarchical structure of the evaluation criteria for dynamic aspects of DSS is provided. For quantitative evaluation, the relative weights of the criteria are computed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to gain and aggregate the priority of the components. The criteria at the lowest level are quantified by simple numerical expressions and questionnaires which are developed to describe the characteristics of the criteria. Finally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, one case study is performed for the fault diagnosis module of OASYS"T"M (On-Line Operator Aid SYStem for Nuclear Power Plant), which is an operator support system developed at KAIST. In conclusion, this paper describes the practical implications in the design of MCR operator support systems

  4. Computed tomographic diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    CT was performed in seventeen cases of E, alveolaris of the liver, and two cases of E. alveolaris of the lung. The scans provided considerable detailed information which, when taken together, enabled a specific diagnosis of echinococcus infestation to be made in most cases. The extent of intra- and extrahepatic infiltration by E. alveolaris can be well defined by CT. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomographic diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    CT was performed in seventeen cases of E, alveolaris of the liver, and two cases of E. alveolaris of the lung. The scans provided considerable detailed information which, when taken together, enabled a specific diagnosis of echinococcus infestation to be made in most cases. The extent of intra- and extrahepatic infiltration by E. alveolaris can be well defined by CT.

  6. Diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical hemorrhage by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Haskin, M.E.; Rose, L.I.; Bemis, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Adrenocortical hemorrhage has been diagnosed on the basis of the clinical presentation and response to steroids or autopsy findings. Prompt recognition of the disease has been difficult because of its similarity to other disorders. We report the diagnosis of a bilateral adrenocortical hemorrhage by computed tomography (CT), followed by biochemical confirmation of the diagnosis

  7. Rhythmic chaos: irregularities of computer ECG diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting Laureen; Seow, Swee-Chong; Singh, Devinder; Poh, Kian-Keong; Chai, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Diagnostic errors can occur when physicians rely solely on computer electrocardiogram interpretation. Cardiologists often receive referrals for computer misdiagnoses of atrial fibrillation. Patients may have been inappropriately anticoagulated for pseudo atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulation carries significant risks, and such errors may carry a high cost. Have we become overreliant on machines and technology? In this article, we illustrate three such cases and briefly discuss how we can reduce these errors. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. Computed tomography in diagnosis of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Sunao; Yamashita, Noriko; Hidano, Akira; Kohno, Atsushi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1983-02-01

    There has been no report of CT study in the dermatological field. CT was performed on 10 cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors (2 of steatoma, 2 of atheroma, 2 of calcified epithelioma, 1 of basal cell cancer, and 3 of angioma); and in some of them, this method appeared to be useful for diagnosis. In each case, a clinical picture and CT findings were compared, and further application of CT was discussed.

  9. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasz, Nicholas J; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning.

  10. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bergner, Andreas; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2017-03-01

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI. In particular, virtual screening in vast chemical spaces, which can be accessed by combinatorial chemistry, has added a new option for the identification of hits in many projects. Recently, a new framework has been implemented allowing fast, interactive predictions of relevant on and off target endpoints and other optimization parameters. In addition to the introduction of this new framework at BI, CADD has been focusing on the enablement of medicinal chemists to independently perform an increasing amount of molecular modeling and design work. This is made possible through the deployment of MOE as a global modeling platform, allowing computational and medicinal chemists to freely share ideas and modeling results. Furthermore, a central communication layer called the computational chemistry framework provides broad access to predictive models and other computational services.

  11. [Computer-aided prescribing: from utopia to reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Varela Ubeda, J; Beltrán Calvo, C; Molina López, T; Navarro Marín, P

    2005-05-31

    To determine whether the introduction of computer-aided prescribing helped reduce the administrative burden at primary care centers. Descriptive, cross-sectional design. Torreblanca Health Center in the province of Seville, southern Spain. From 29 October 2003 to the present a pilot project involving nine pharmacies in the basic health zone served by this health center has been running to evaluate computer-aided prescribing (the Receta XXI project) with real patients. All patients on the center's list of patients who came to the center for an administrative consultation to renew prescriptions for medications or supplies for long-term treatment. Total number of administrative visits per patient for patients who came to the center to renew prescriptions for long-term treatment, as recorded by the Diraya system (Historia Clinica Digital del Ciudadano, or Citizen's Digital Medical Record) during the period from February to July 2004. Total number of the same type of administrative visits recorded by the previous system (TASS) during the period from February to July 2003. The mean number of administrative visits per month during the period from February to July 2003 was 160, compared to a mean number of 64 visits during the period from February to July 2004. The reduction in the number of visits for prescription renewal was 60%. Introducing a system for computer-aided prescribing significantly reduced the number of administrative visits for prescription renewal for long-term treatment. This could help reduce the administrative burden considerably in primary care if the system were used in all centers.

  12. 9th Asian Conference on Computer-Aided Surgery

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest research advances in the theory, design, control, and application of robot systems intended for a variety of purposes such as manipulation, manufacturing, automation, surgery, locomotion, and biomechanics. Several chapters deal with fundamental kinematics in nature, including synthesis, calibration, redundancy, force control, dexterity, inverse and forward kinematics, kinematic singularities, and over-constrained systems. This book is a compilation of the extended versions of the very best papers selected from the many that were presented at the Asian Conference on Computer-Aided Surgery held September 16–18, 2013, in Tokyo, Japan (ACCAS 2013).

  13. A fast algorithm for computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Franck, D.; Pihet, P.; Ballongue, P.

    2000-08-01

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera is aimed at breaking down the resolution sensitivity trade-off of the conventional parallel hole collimator. It uses larger and longer holes, having an added linear movement at the acquisition sequence. A dedicated algorithm including shift and sum, deconvolution, parabolic filtering and rotation is described. Examples of reconstruction are given. This work shows that a simple and fast algorithm, based on a diagonal dominant approximation of the problem can be derived. Its gives a practical solution to the CACAO reconstruction problem.

  14. Technology computer aided design simulation for VLSI MOSFET

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Responding to recent developments and a growing VLSI circuit manufacturing market, Technology Computer Aided Design: Simulation for VLSI MOSFET examines advanced MOSFET processes and devices through TCAD numerical simulations. The book provides a balanced summary of TCAD and MOSFET basic concepts, equations, physics, and new technologies related to TCAD and MOSFET. A firm grasp of these concepts allows for the design of better models, thus streamlining the design process, saving time and money. This book places emphasis on the importance of modeling and simulations of VLSI MOS transistors and

  15. Smart Makeup Mirror: Computer Augmented Mirror to Aid Makeup Application

    OpenAIRE

    岩渕, 絵里子; 椎尾, 一郎

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the system that aids people in wearing makeup easily and make the process enjoyable. The proposed system is the Smart Makeup Mirror device, which is an electronic dressing table that facilitates the process of makeup application. In this system, we place a high-resolution camera on top of a computer display. We developed some functions such as Automatic zoom to a specific part of the face, Display our face from various angles , and Simulation of the lighting conditio...

  16. Computer-aided design of bromelain and papain covalent immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Bessy Cutiño-Avila; Dayrom Gil Pradas; Carlos Aragón Abreu; Yuniel Fernández Marrero; Martha Hernández de la Torre; Emir Salas Sarduy; María de los Ángeles Chávez Planes; José Manuel Guisán Seijas; Joaquín Díaz Brito; Alberto del Monte-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Diseño asistido por computadora de la inmovilización covalente de bromelina y papaína. Título corto: Computer-aided design of bromelain and papain.  Abstract: Enzymes as immobilized derivatives have been widely used in Food, Agrochemical, Pharmaceutical and Biotechnological industries. Protein immobilization is probably the most used technology to improve the operational stability of these molecules. Bromelain (Ananas comosus) and papain (Carica papaya) are cystein pr...

  17. Computer aided system for parametric design of combination die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranje, Vishal G.; Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a computer aided system for parametric design of combination dies is presented. The system is developed using knowledge based system technique of artificial intelligence. The system is capable to design combination dies for production of sheet metal parts having punching and cupping operations. The system is coded in Visual Basic and interfaced with AutoCAD software. The low cost of the proposed system will help die designers of small and medium scale sheet metal industries for design of combination dies for similar type of products. The proposed system is capable to reduce design time and efforts of die designers for design of combination dies.

  18. Computer-aided design of new metal binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnek, A.; Fourches, D.; Klimchuk, O.; Marcou, G.; Kireeva, N.; Tsivadze, A.; Solov'ev, V.

    2008-01-01

    Chemoinformatics approaches open new opportunities for computer-aided design of new efficient metal binders. Here, we demonstrate performances of ISIDA and COMET software tools to predict stability constants (log K) of the metal ion/organic ligand complexes in solution and to design in silico new molecules possessing desirable properties. The predictive models for log K of lanthanides complexation in water have been developed. Some new uranyl binders based on monoamides and on phosphoryl-containing podands were suggested theoretically, then synthesized and tested experimentally. Reasonable agreement between experimental uranyl distribution coefficients and theoretically predicted values has been observed. (orig.)

  19. Efficient Use of Preisach Hysteresis Model in Computer Aided Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONITA, V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a practical detailed analysis regarding the use of the classical Preisach hysteresis model, covering all the steps, from measuring the necessary data for the model identification to the implementation in a software code for Computer Aided Design (CAD in Electrical Engineering. An efficient numerical method is proposed and the hysteresis modeling accuracy is tested on magnetic recording materials. The procedure includes the correction of the experimental data, which are used for the hysteresis model identification, taking into account the demagnetizing effect for the sample that is measured in an open-circuit device (a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  20. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  1. Computer-aided system for diabetes care in Berlin, G.D.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoelke, H; Meusel, K; Ratzmann, K P

    1990-01-01

    In the Centre of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders of Berlin, G.D.R., a computer-aided care system has been used since 1974, aiming at relieving physicians and medical staff from routine tasks and rendering possible epidemiological research on an unselected diabetes population of a defined area. The basis of the system is the data bank on diabetics (DB), where at present data from approximately 55,000 patients are stored. DB is used as a diabetes register of Berlin. On the basis of standardised criteria of diagnosis and therapy of diabetes mellitus in our dispensary care system, DB facilitates representative epidemiological analyses of the diabetic population, e.g. prevalence, incidence, duration of diabetes, and modes of treatment. The availability of general data on the population or the selection of specified groups of patients serves the management of the care system. Also, it supports the computer-aided recall of type II diabetics, treated either with diet alone or with diet and oral drugs. In this way, the standardised evaluation of treatment strategies in large populations of diabetics is possible on the basis of uniform metabolic criteria (blood glucose plus urinary glucose). The system consists of a main computer in the data processing unit and of personal computers in the diabetes centre which can be used either individually or as terminals to the main computer. During 14 years of experience, the computer-aided out-patient care of type II diabetics has proved efficient in a big-city area with a large population.

  2. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru (Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed.

  3. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru

    1982-01-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed. (Ueda, J.)

  4. Computer aided instruction in the nuclear training classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives formulated for introducing computer aided instruction into the nuclear training programme are discussed and the process of comparative evaluation which was followed to arrive at a preferred system is described. Three points must be remembered. First it is unlikely that specialized training will benefit from any cost reduction since the total manpower invested can seldom be applied over enough students to represent an overall cost saving when compared with conventional classroom methods. Second it is unnecessary to present on a video screen material which would be better left in its original printed textbook or manual. Thirdly care must be taken not to assume too much or too little prior knowledge in the student. In nuclear training, concentrated information transfer is required in a short period of time. Carefully planned and executed computer assisted instruction can improve teaching effectiveness and provide a welcome alternative to conventional classroom instruction. (U.K.)

  5. Computer Aided Automatic Control - CAAC artificial intelligence block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balate, J.; Chramcov, B.; Princ, M. [Brno Univ. of Technology (Czech Republic). Faculty of Technology in Zlin

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the plan to build up the system CAAC - Computer Aided Automatic Control is to create modular setup of partial computing programs including theory of automatic control, algorithms of programs for processing signals and programs of control algorithms. To approach its informative contents to students and professional public the CAAC system utilizes Internet services http in the form of WWW pages. The CAAC system is being processed at the Institute of Automation and Control Technique of the Faculty of Technology in Zlin of the Brno University of Technology and is determined particularly for pedagogic purposes. Recently also the methods of artificial intelligence have been included to the open CAAC system and that is comprised in this article. (orig.)

  6. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  7. Computer-Aided Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the technique for the computer aided numerical inversion of Laplace transform. The inversion technique is based on the properties of a family of three parameter exponential probability density functions. The only limitation in the technique is the word length of the computer being used. The Laplace transform has been used extensively in the frequency domain solution of linear, lumped time invariant networks but its application to the time domain has been limited, mainly because of the difficulty in finding the necessary poles and residues. The numerical inversion technique mentioned above does away with the poles and residues but uses precomputed numbers to find the time response. This technique is applicable to the solution of partially differentiable equations and certain classes of linear systems with time varying components.

  8. Computer-Aided Grading of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) using HRCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Avila, Nilo; Dwyer, Andrew; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disorder associated with proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells, which leads to destruction of lung parenchyma. Subjective grading of LAM on HRCT is imprecise and can be arduous especially in cases with severe involvement. We propose a computer-aided evaluation system that grades LAM involvement based on analysis of lung texture patterns. A committee of support vector machines is employed for classification. The system was tested on 36 patients. The computer grade demonstrates good correlation with subjective radiologist grade (R=0.91, p<0.0001) and pulmonary functional tests (R=0.85, p<0.0001). The grade also provides precise progression assessment of disease over time. PMID:21625320

  9. Development of a computer-aided digital reactivity computer system for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.-K.; Sung, K.-Y.; Kim, D.; Cho, D.-Y.

    1993-01-01

    Reactor physics tests at initial startup and after reloading are performed to verify nuclear design and to ensure safety operation. Two kinds of reactivity computers, analog and digital, have been widely used in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core physics test. The test data of both reactivity computers are displayed only on the strip chart recorder, and these data are managed by hand so that the accuracy of the test results depends on operator expertise and experiences. This paper describes the development of the computer-aided digital reactivity computer system (DRCS), which is enhanced by system management software and an improved system for the application of the PWR core physics test

  10. Computer aided analysis, simulation and optimisation of thermal sterilisation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, C M; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-04-01

    Although thermal sterilisation is a widely employed industrial process, little work is reported in the available literature including patents on the mathematical analysis and simulation of these processes. In the present work, software packages have been developed for computer aided optimum design of thermal sterilisation processes. Systems involving steam sparging, jacketed heating/cooling, helical coils submerged in agitated vessels and systems that employ external heat exchangers (double pipe, shell and tube and plate exchangers) have been considered. Both batch and continuous operations have been analysed and simulated. The dependence of del factor on system / operating parameters such as mass or volume of substrate to be sterilised per batch, speed of agitation, helix diameter, substrate to steam ratio, rate of substrate circulation through heat exchanger and that through holding tube have been analysed separately for each mode of sterilisation. Axial dispersion in the holding tube has also been adequately accounted for through an appropriately defined axial dispersion coefficient. The effect of exchanger characteristics/specifications on the system performance has also been analysed. The multiparameter computer aided design (CAD) software packages prepared are thus highly versatile in nature and they permit to make the most optimum choice of operating variables for the processes selected. The computed results have been compared with extensive data collected from a number of industries (distilleries, food processing and pharmaceutical industries) and pilot plants and satisfactory agreement has been observed between the two, thereby ascertaining the accuracy of the CAD softwares developed. No simplifying assumptions have been made during the analysis and the design of associated heating / cooling equipment has been performed utilising the most updated design correlations and computer softwares.

  11. Computer tomographic and sonographic diagnosis of echinococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Huebener, K.H.; Klott, K.; Jenss, H.; Baehr, R. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Strahleninstitut und Roentgenabteilung; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1980-05-01

    In 33 patients (18 cystic echinococci, 15 alveolar) both methods produced the following findings which could be correlated with the pathological results: single or multi-centric lesions, sharp or indefinite demarkation and abnormalities in the shape and size of the liver. The sonographic findings were analysed with respect to the echo characteristics, whereas the computer tomographically demonstrated lesions were examined densitometrically in order to show calcification. Both methods demonstrate the pathological changes satisfactorily. Computer tomography is more effective in alveolar echinococcus lesions by showing the different types of calcification, whereas sonography provides a more accurate picture of the internal structure of the cysts in cystic echinococcus. Comparison of the methods in 19 patients examined by both showed a high accuracy in each method, but sonography was relatively poor in demonstrating lesions in the spleen.

  12. Computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    To specify the role of computer tomography in the diagnosis of malignant of the larynx. Forty-two patients with suspected laryngeal tumors were examined: 38 men and 4 women aged 41-68 years. X-ray examinations included traditional immediate tomography of the larynx. Main X-ray and computer tomographic symptoms of laryngeal tumors of different localizations are described. It is shown that the use of computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer permits an objective assessment of the tumor, its structure and dissemination, and of the regional lymph nodes [ru

  13. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  14. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  15. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H.; Weber, M.; Weiss, M. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  16. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K H; Weber, M; Weiss, M [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  17. Collaborative research on fluidization employing computer-aided particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain unique, fundamental information on fluidization dynamics over a wide range of flow regimes using a Transportable Computer-Aided Particle Tracking Apparatus (TCAPTA). The contractor will design and fabricate a transportable version of the Computer-Aided Particle Tracking Facility (CAPTF) he has previously developed. The contractor will install and operate the (TCAPTA) at the METC fluidization research facilities. Quantitative data on particle motion will be obtained and reduced. The data will be used to provide needed information for modeling of bed dynamics, and prediction of bed performance, including erosion. A radioactive tracer particle, identical in size shape and mass to the bed particles under study, is mixed in the bed. The radiation emitted by the tracer particle, monitored continuously by 16 scintillation detectors, allows its position to be determined as a function of time. Stochastic mixing processes intrinsic to fluidization further cause the particle to travel to all active regions of the bed, thus sampling the motion in these regions. After a long test run to insure that a sufficient sampling have been acquired, time-differentiation and other statistical processing will then yield the mean velocity distribution, the fluctuating velocity distribution, many types of auto- and cross correlations, as well as mean fluxes, including the mean momentum fluxes due to random motion, which represent the kinetic contributions to the mean stress tensor

  18. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  19. Clinical diagnosis and computer analysis of headache symptoms.

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, P D; Lance, J W

    1984-01-01

    The headache histories obtained from clinical interviews of 600 patients were analysed by computer to see whether patients could be separated systematically into clinical categories and to see whether sets of symptoms commonly reported together differed in distribution among the categories. The computer classification procedure assigned 537 patients to the same category as their clinical diagnosis, the majority of discrepancies between clinical and computer classifications involving common mi...

  20. Computed tomographic diagnosis of abdominal abscess in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, J.P.; Berger, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight children suspected clinically of having an abdominal abscess were examined by CT. Eighteen had gallium 67 citrate scans and 22 had ultrasound studies. Computed tomography was found to be the most accurate test for diagnosis and evaluation of an abscess and the computed tomographic appearance of abscess is illustrated. However, because of cost factors, radiation dose, and clinical considerations, computed tomography is not always the first modality of choice in evaluating a suspected abdominal abscess [fr

  1. Computer-aided detection system for lung cancer in computed tomography scans: Review and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The goal of this paper is to present a critical review of major Computer-Aided Detection systems (CADe) for lung cancer in order to identify challenges for future research. CADe systems must meet the following requirements: improve the performance of radiologists providing high sensitivity in the diagnosis, a low number of false positives (FP), have high processing speed, present high level of automation, low cost (of implementation, training, support and maintenance), the ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules, and software security assurance. Methods The relevant literature related to “CADe for lung cancer” was obtained from PubMed, IEEEXplore and Science Direct database. Articles published from 2009 to 2013, and some articles previously published, were used. A systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized. Discussion Based on literature search, it was observed that many if not all systems described in this survey have the potential to be important in clinical practice. However, no significant improvement was observed in sensitivity, number of false positives, level of automation and ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules in the studied period. Challenges were presented for future research. Conclusions Further research is needed to improve existing systems and propose new solutions. For this, we believe that collaborative efforts through the creation of open source software communities are necessary to develop a CADe system with all the requirements mentioned and with a short development cycle. In addition, future CADe systems should improve the level of automation, through integration with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the electronic record of the patient, decrease the number of false positives, measure the evolution of tumors, evaluate the evolution of the oncological treatment, and its possible prognosis. PMID:24713067

  2. Computed tomographic diagnosis of the splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Funaki, Hiromi; Uogishi, Makoto; Isobe, Tsugimasa; Kanno, Shoichi; Ushitani, Kenji; Fuchuh, Kosei; Sakita, Tsuyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Three cases (3-year-old, 51-year-old and 17-year-old males) in which splenic trauma was diagnosed by plain computed tomography (CT) are presented. CT images revealed retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity in all cases and clear splenic hematoma and laceration in one case. CT is superior in the visualization of splenic hematoma and hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity accompanied by splenic trauma. It should, however, be noted that the presence of laceration is frequently difficult to detect due to artifacts. Indication for surgery should be decided by evaluating the severity of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Computed tomographic diagnosis of the splenic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Funaki, Hiromi; Uogishi, Makoto; Isobe, Tsugimasa; Kanno, Shoichi; Ushitani, Kenji; Fuchuh, Kosei; Sakita, Tsuyoshi

    1985-01-01

    Three cases (3-year-old, 51-year-old and 17-year-old males) in which splenic trauma was diagnosed by plain computed tomography (CT) are presented. CT images revealed retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity in all cases and clear splenic hematoma and laceration in one case. CT is superior in the visualization of splenic hematoma and hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity accompanied by splenic trauma. It should, however, be noted that the presence of laceration is frequently difficult to detect due to artifacts. Indication for surgery should be decided by evaluating the severity of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Masuda, Takahiro; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  5. Vision-based gait impairment analysis for aided diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Javier; Herrero-Ezquerro, María Trinidad; Mollineda, Ramón A

    2018-02-12

    Gait is a firsthand reflection of health condition. This belief has inspired recent research efforts to automate the analysis of pathological gait, in order to assist physicians in decision-making. However, most of these efforts rely on gait descriptions which are difficult to understand by humans, or on sensing technologies hardly available in ambulatory services. This paper proposes a number of semantic and normalized gait features computed from a single video acquired by a low-cost sensor. Far from being conventional spatio-temporal descriptors, features are aimed at quantifying gait impairment, such as gait asymmetry from several perspectives or falling risk. They were designed to be invariant to frame rate and image size, allowing cross-platform comparisons. Experiments were formulated in terms of two databases. A well-known general-purpose gait dataset is used to establish normal references for features, while a new database, introduced in this work, provides samples under eight different walking styles: one normal and seven impaired patterns. A number of statistical studies were carried out to prove the sensitivity of features at measuring the expected pathologies, providing enough evidence about their accuracy. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract reflecting main contributions of the manuscript: at the top, a robust, semantic and easy-to-interpret feature set to describe impaired gait patterns; at the bottom, a new dataset consisting of video-recordings of a number of volunteers simulating different patterns of pathological gait, where features were statistically assessed.

  6. Prostate cancer: computer-aided diagnosis on multiparametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Laura; Racoceanu, Daniel; Renard Penna, Raphaele; Ezziane, Malek

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men, being also the second most deadly cancer after lung cancer. There is increasing interest in active surveillance and minimally invasive focal therapies in PCa to avoid morbidities associated with whole gland therapy. Tumor volume represents an essential prognostic factor of PCa and the definition of index lesion volume is critical for appropriate decision making, especially for image guide focal treatment or in case of active surveillance. Multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mp-MRI) is the modality of choice for the detection and the localization of PCa foci. However, little has been published on mp-MRI accuracy in determining PCa volume, especially at 3T. There is insufficient evidence and no consensus to determine which of the methods for measuring volume is optimal. The objective of this study concerns the elaboration of an algorithm for automatic interpretation of mp-MRI. We determine the accuracy of the proposed method by comparing the prostate tumor volume issued from the automated volumetric mp-MRI measurements of the tumoral region, with manual and semi-automated volumetric measurements done by and respectively with radiologists. Information issued from whole mount histopathology is used to validate the whole approach.

  7. Computer-aided analysis of cutting processes for brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, A. I.; Tikhonov, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on 3D computer simulation of cutting processes for brittle materials and silicon wafers. Computer-aided analysis of wafer scribing and dicing is carried out with the use of the ANSYS CAE (computer-aided engineering) software, and a parametric model of the processes is created by means of the internal ANSYS APDL programming language. Different types of tool tip geometry are analyzed to obtain internal stresses, such as a four-sided pyramid with an included angle of 120° and a tool inclination angle to the normal axis of 15°. The quality of the workpieces after cutting is studied by optical microscopy to verify the FE (finite-element) model. The disruption of the material structure during scribing occurs near the scratch and propagates into the wafer or over its surface at a short range. The deformation area along the scratch looks like a ragged band, but the stress width is rather low. The theory of cutting brittle semiconductor and optical materials is developed on the basis of the advanced theory of metal turning. The fall of stress intensity along the normal on the way from the tip point to the scribe line can be predicted using the developed theory and with the verified FE model. The crystal quality and dimensions of defects are determined by the mechanics of scratching, which depends on the shape of the diamond tip, the scratching direction, the velocity of the cutting tool and applied force loads. The disunity is a rate-sensitive process, and it depends on the cutting thickness. The application of numerical techniques, such as FE analysis, to cutting problems enhances understanding and promotes the further development of existing machining technologies.

  8. Recent advances in the reconstruction of cranio-maxillofacial defects using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-Hyeon

    2018-12-01

    With the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, it has been possible to reconstruct the cranio-maxillofacial defect with more accurate preoperative planning, precise patient-specific implants (PSIs), and shorter operation times. The manufacturing processes include subtractive manufacturing and additive manufacturing and should be selected in consideration of the material type, available technology, post-processing, accuracy, lead time, properties, and surface quality. Materials such as titanium, polyethylene, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), hydroxyapatite (HA), poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA), polylactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA), and calcium phosphate are used. Design methods for the reconstruction of cranio-maxillofacial defects include the use of a pre-operative model printed with pre-operative data, printing a cutting guide or template after virtual surgery, a model after virtual surgery printed with reconstructed data using a mirror image, and manufacturing PSIs by directly obtaining PSI data after reconstruction using a mirror image. By selecting the appropriate design method, manufacturing process, and implant material according to the case, it is possible to obtain a more accurate surgical procedure, reduced operation time, the prevention of various complications that can occur using the traditional method, and predictive results compared to the traditional method.

  9. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the fit of removable partial denture fabricated by computer-aided designing/computer aided manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Khalid A O

    2018-01-01

    To assess the level of evidence that supports the quality of fit for removable partial denture (RPD) fabricated by computer-aided designing/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and rapid prototyping (RP) technology. Methods: An electronic search was performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Cochrane library search engines, using Boolean operators. All articles published in English and published in the period from 1950 until April 2017 were eligible to be included in this review. The total number of articles contained the search terms in any part of the article (including titles, abstracts, or article texts) were screened, which resulted in 214 articles. After exclusion of irrelevant and duplicated articles, 12 papers were included in this systematic review.  Results: All the included studies were case reports, except one study, which was a case series that recruited 10 study participants. The visual and tactile examination in the cast or clinically in the patient's mouth was the most-used method for assessment of the fit of RPDs. From all included studies, only one has assessed the internal fit between RPDs and oral tissues using silicone registration material. The vast majority of included studies found that the fit of RPDs ranged from satisfactory to excellent fit. Conclusion: Despite the lack of clinical trials that provide strong evidence, the available evidence supported the claim of good fit of RPDs fabricated by new technologies using CAD/CAM.

  11. Computer aided plant engineering: An analysis and suggestions for computer use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1979-09-01

    To get indications to and boundary conditions for computer use in plant engineering, an analysis of the engineering process was done. The structure of plant engineering is represented by a network of substaks and subsets of data which are to be manipulated. Main tool for integration of CAD-subsystems in plant engineering should be a central database which is described by characteristical requirements and a possible simple conceptual schema. The main features of an interactive system for computer aided plant engineering are shortly illustrated by two examples. The analysis leads to the conclusion, that an interactive graphic system for manipulation of net-like structured data, usable for various subtasks, should be the base for computer aided plant engineering. (orig.) [de

  12. Cognitive models and computer aids for nuclear plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews what is usually meant by a cognitive model of a control room operator in a nuclear power plant. It emphasizes the idea of internal (that is, mental) representation of external events and the use of such representation for the cognitive steps of attending, recognizing or learning, assessing and deciding. As computers play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plants, especially as cognitive aids to human supervisors of highly automated control systems, it is important that the software and computer interface characteristics be compatible with the operator's internal model. Specific examples discussed in this paper are in the monitoring and prediction of the plant state and in the detection and diagnosis of failures. Current trends in SPDS (safety parameter display system) and failure detection/location systems will be discussed in this regard

  13. Computer-aided detection and automated CT volumetry of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Engelke, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    With use of multislice computed tomography (MSCT), small pulmonary nodules are being detected in vast numbers, constituting the majority of all noncalcified lung nodules. Although the prevalence of lung cancers among such lesions in lung cancer screening populations is low, their isolation may contribute to increased patient survival. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has emerged as a diverse set of diagnostic tools to handle the large number of images in MSCT datasets and most importantly, includes automated detection and volumetry of pulmonary nodules. Current CAD systems can significantly enhance experienced radiologists' performance and outweigh human limitations in identifying small lesions and manually measuring their diameters, augment observer consistency in the interpretation of such examinations and may thus help to detect significantly higher rates of early malignomas and give more precise estimates on chemotherapy response than can radiologists alone. In this review, we give an overview of current CAD in lung nodule detection and volumetry and discuss their relative merits and limitations. (orig.)

  14. Computer tomography in the diagnosis of liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, D.; Zhelyazkov, S.; Nedelkov, G.

    1983-01-01

    The modern achievements in the clinical study and diagnosis of liver diseases has definitely been associated with the application of whole body computer tomography (CT) in the practice. The diagnostic possibilities of the method come from high contrast and spacial disjunctive capabilities. Visualization of local lesions is associated with their size and the differences in their densitometric compactness from that of the normal parenchyma. The advantages of computer tomography in the diagnosis of liver diseases is discussed. They are associated with the possibilities for densitometric analysis of the pathologic changes, which opens a way for a probable qualitative diagnosis. Diffuse processes in the liver are relative indication for performing computer tomography. Examination under conditions of contrast amplification is indicated in cases when the nature of the lesion has to be specified and a ''negative'' result does not concur with the clinical manifestations. (authors)

  15. CAISSE (Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy) technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelon, P E; Beinhauer, F W

    1979-01-01

    The Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy (CAISSE) was developed to provide the general public with information on solar energy and its potential uses and costs for domestic consumption. CAISSE is an interactive computing system which illustrates solar heating concepts through the use of 35 mm slides, text displays on a screen and a printed report. The user communicates with the computer by responding to questions about his home and heating requirements through a touch sensitive screen. The CAISSE system contains a solar heating simulation model which calculates the heating load capable of being supplied by a solar heating system and uses this information to illustrate installation costs, fuel savings and a 20 year life-cycle analysis of cost and benefits. The system contains several sets of radiation and weather data for Canada and USA. The selection of one of four collector models is based upon the requirements input during the computer session. Optimistic and pessimistic fuel cost forecasts are made for oil, natural gas, electricity, or propane; and the forecasted fuel cost is made the basis of the life cycle cost evaluation for the solar heating application chosen. This manual is organized so that each section describes one major aspect of the use of solar energy systems to provide energy for domestic consumption. The sources of data and technical information and the method of incorporating them into the CAISSE display system are described in the same order as the computer processing. Each section concludes with a list of future developments that could be included to make CAISSE outputs more regionally specific and more useful to designers. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Geometric and computer-aided spline hob modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailov, I. G.; Myasoedova, T. M.; Panchuk, K. L.; Krysova, I. V.; Rogoza, YU A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers acquiring the spline hob geometric model. The objective of the research is the development of a mathematical model of spline hob for spline shaft machining. The structure of the spline hob is described taking into consideration the motion in parameters of the machine tool system of cutting edge positioning and orientation. Computer-aided study is performed with the use of CAD and on the basis of 3D modeling methods. Vector representation of cutting edge geometry is accepted as the principal method of spline hob mathematical model development. The paper defines the correlations described by parametric vector functions representing helical cutting edges designed for spline shaft machining with consideration for helical movement in two dimensions. An application for acquiring the 3D model of spline hob is developed on the basis of AutoLISP for AutoCAD environment. The application presents the opportunity for the use of the acquired model for milling process imitation. An example of evaluation, analytical representation and computer modeling of the proposed geometrical model is reviewed. In the mentioned example, a calculation of key spline hob parameters assuring the capability of hobbing a spline shaft of standard design is performed. The polygonal and solid spline hob 3D models are acquired by the use of imitational computer modeling.

  17. Computer-Aided Drug Discovery in Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Jeon, Junhyun

    2017-12-01

    Control of plant diseases is largely dependent on use of agrochemicals. However, there are widening gaps between our knowledge on plant diseases gained from genetic/mechanistic studies and rapid translation of the knowledge into target-oriented development of effective agrochemicals. Here we propose that the time is ripe for computer-aided drug discovery/design (CADD) in molecular plant pathology. CADD has played a pivotal role in development of medically important molecules over the last three decades. Now, explosive increase in information on genome sequences and three dimensional structures of biological molecules, in combination with advances in computational and informational technologies, opens up exciting possibilities for application of CADD in discovery and development of agrochemicals. In this review, we outline two categories of the drug discovery strategies: structure- and ligand-based CADD, and relevant computational approaches that are being employed in modern drug discovery. In order to help readers to dive into CADD, we explain concepts of homology modelling, molecular docking, virtual screening, and de novo ligand design in structure-based CADD, and pharmacophore modelling, ligand-based virtual screening, quantitative structure activity relationship modelling and de novo ligand design for ligand-based CADD. We also provide the important resources available to carry out CADD. Finally, we present a case study showing how CADD approach can be implemented in reality for identification of potent chemical compounds against the important plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides .

  18. Latest developments for a computer aided thermohydraulic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, A.; Graziosi, G.; Mini, G.; Susco, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermohydraulic networks are I-D systems characterized by a small number of basic components (pumps, valves, heat exchangers, etc) connected by pipes and limited spatially by a defined number of boundary conditions (tanks, atmosphere, etc). The network system is simulated by the well known computer program RELAPS/mod3. Information concerning the network geometry component behaviour, initial and boundary conditions are usually supplied to the RELAPS code using an ASCII input file by means of 'input cards'. CATNET (Computer Aided Thermalhydraulic NETwork) is a graphically user interface that, under specific user guidelines which completely define its range of applicability, permits a very high level of standardization and simplification of the RELAPS/mod3 input deck development process as well as of the output processing. The characteristics of the components (pipes, valves, pumps etc), defining the network system can be entered through CATNET. The CATNET interface is provided by special functions to compute form losses in the most typical bending and branching configurations. When the input of all system components is ready, CATNET is able to generate the RELAPS/mod3 input file. Finally, by means of CATNET, the RELAPS/mod3 code can be run and its output results can be transformed to an intuitive display form. The paper presents an example of application of the CATNET interface as well as the latest developments which greatly simplified the work of the users and allowed to reduce the possibility of input errors. (authors)

  19. Computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In the framework of the Agency's programme on nuclear safety a survey was carried out based on a questionnaire to collect information on computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants in Member States. The intention was to put together a state-of-the-art report where different systems under development or already implemented would be described. This activity was also supported by an INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) recommendation. Two consultant's meetings were convened and their work is reflected in the two sections of the technical document. The first section, produced during the first meeting, is devoted to provide some general background material on the overall usability of Computerized Operator Decision Aids (CODAs), their advantages and shortcomings. During this first meeting, the first draft of the questionnaire was also produced. The second section presents the evaluation of the 40 questionnaires received from 11 Member States and comprises a short description of each system and some statistical and comparative observations. The ultimate goal of this activity was to inform Member States, particularly those who are considering implementation of a CODA, on the status of related developments elsewhere. 8 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  20. 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Engineering present selected papers from the event, which was held in Polanica Zdrój, Poland, from June 22 to 25, 2016. The contributions are organized according to thematic sections on the design and manufacture of machines and technical systems; durability prediction; repairs and retrofitting of power equipment; strength and thermodynamic analyses for power equipment; design and calculation of various types of load-carrying structures; numerical methods for dimensioning materials handling; and long-distance transport equipment. The conference and its proceedings offer a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers to present the most innovative studies and advances in this dynamic field.

  1. Application of computer aided tolerance analysis in product design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hua

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the shortage of the traditional tolerance design method and the strong point of the computer aided tolerancing (CAT) method,compares the shortage and the strong point among the three tolerance analysis methods, which are Worst Case Analysis, Statistical Analysis and Monte-Carlo Simulation Analysis, and offers the basic courses and correlative details for CAT. As the study objects, the reactor pressure vessel, the core barrel, the hold-down barrel and the support plate are used to upbuild the tolerance simulation model, based on their 3D design models. Then the tolerance simulation analysis has been conducted and the scheme of the tolerance distribution is optimized based on the analysis results. (authors)

  2. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  3. Computer-aided resource planning and scheduling for radiological services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.; Ge, Yiqun; Khan, Javed I.

    1996-05-01

    There exists tremendous opportunity in hospital-wide resource optimization based on system integration. This paper defines the resource planning and scheduling requirements integral to PACS, RIS and HIS integration. An multi-site case study is conducted to define the requirements. A well-tested planning and scheduling methodology, called Constrained Resource Planning model, has been applied to the chosen problem of radiological service optimization. This investigation focuses on resource optimization issues for minimizing the turnaround time to increase clinical efficiency and customer satisfaction, particularly in cases where the scheduling of multiple exams are required for a patient. How best to combine the information system efficiency and human intelligence in improving radiological services is described. Finally, an architecture for interfacing a computer-aided resource planning and scheduling tool with the existing PACS, HIS and RIS implementation is presented.

  4. Micro computer aided beam transport for the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement of the beam transport system for the SF cyclotron is described. The system was designed to handle on-line alignment of the beam extracted from the SF cyclotron onto the optical axis of the transport line. It also enables to measure the beam emittance. The measurement of the emittance parameters is in particular necessary to calculate the beam optics. The calculation has been modified to become easy to handle. With the help of the computer-aided on-line beam profile measurement system, the operation of the beam transport system is very subservient to shorten the beam-tuning time and to improve the beam-transmission efficiency and the quality. (author)

  5. Computer aided design of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a computer aided design process for Ni-base superalloys developed and employed at ASEA Brown Boveri. The technique involves a series of modules each of which predicts a particular property of a hypothetical new composition. In the first stage of the development of this design techniques modules were produced to predict phase stability, using PHACOMP, and high temperature creep strength and hot corrosion resistance, using multiple linear regression equations derived from the data in the literature. Alloys designed using these technique are also discussed and, in particular, shortcomings of the design process are highlighted. This information was then used to produce a revamped design methodology involving extra modules, including prediction of an alloy's gamma-prime content. (orig.)

  6. Computer-aided assessment in statistics: the CAMPUS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Hunt

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The relentless drive for 'efficiency' in higher education, and the consequent increase in workloads, has given university teachers a compelling incentive to investigate alternative forms of assessment. Some forms of assessment with a clear educational value can no longer be entertained because of the burden placed on the teacher. An added concern is plagiarism, which anecdotal evidence would suggest is on the increase yet which is difficult to detect in large modules with more than one assessor. While computer-aided assessment (CAA has an enthusiastic following, it is not clear to many teachers that it either reduces workloads or reduces the risk of cheating. In an ideal world, most teachers would prefer to give individual attention and personal feedback to each student when marking their work. In this sense CAA must be seen as second best and will therefore be used only if it is seen to offer significant benefits in terms of reduced workloads or increased validity.

  7. Use of computer-aided-engineering (CAE) for configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.

    1989-01-01

    For nearly 25 years, Electricite de France (EDF) has been designing and building nuclear power plants, and now has more than 50 in operation. During this period, EDF has faced problems common to all designers and operators. The author discusses two major aspects which must be dealt with to design a power plant: installation design and operational description. In both cases, the designer has to ensure that all parameters conform to the design requirements and that all documents are consistent with each other. For the operational description, the most important part of the job is to check and maintain consistency between the various documents: P and ID's, functional diagrams, cable networks, procedures, data management and also installation drawings. The author discusses how EDF has chosen two computer aided design softwares---PDMS and PHENIX---and has built a powerful engineering system around them

  8. Computer- Aided Design in Power Engineering Application of Software Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stojkovic, Zlatan

    2012-01-01

    This textbooks demonstrates the application of software tools in solving a series of problems from the field of designing power system structures and systems. It contains four chapters: The first chapter leads the reader through all the phases necessary in the procedures of computer aided modeling and simulation. It guides through the complex problems presenting on the basis of eleven original examples. The second chapter presents  application of software tools in power system calculations of power systems equipment design. Several design example calculations are carried out using engineering standards like MATLAB, EMTP/ATP, Excel & Access, AutoCAD and Simulink. The third chapters focuses on the graphical documentation using a collection of software tools (AutoCAD, EPLAN, SIMARIS SIVACON, SIMARIS DESIGN) which enable the complete automation of the development of graphical documentation of a power systems. In the fourth chapter, the application of software tools in the project management in power systems ...

  9. Computer-Aided Sustainable Process Synthesis-Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan

    -groups is that, the performance of the entire process can be evaluated from the contributions of the individual process-groups towards the selected flowsheet property (for example, energy consumed). The developed flowsheet property models include energy consumption, carbon footprint, product recovery, product......Process synthesis involves the investigation of chemical reactions needed to produce the desired product, selection of the separation techniques needed for downstream processing, as well as taking decisions on sequencing the involved separation operations. For an effective, efficient and flexible...... focuses on the development and application of a computer-aided framework for sustainable synthesis-design and analysis of process flowsheets by generating feasible alternatives covering the entire search space and includes analysis tools for sustainability, LCA and economics. The synthesis method is based...

  10. [Veneer computer aided design based on reverse engineering technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-li; Chen, Xiao-dong; Wang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To explore the computer aided design (CAD) method of veneer restoration, and to assess if the solution can help prosthesis meet morphology esthetics standard. A volunteer's upper right central incisor needed to be restored with veneer. Super hard stone models of patient's dentition (before and after tooth preparation) were scanned with the three-dimensional laser scanner. The veneer margin was designed as butt-to-butt type. The veneer was constructed using reverse engineering (RE) software. The technique guideline of veneers CAD was explore based on RE software, and the veneers was smooth, continuous and symmetrical, which met esthetics construction needs. It was a feasible method to reconstruct veneer restoration based on RE technology.

  11. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  12. Computer-Aided Detection of Kidney Tumor on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Park, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a computer-aided detection system for kidney segmentation and kidney tumor detection on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods: Abdominal CT images were digitized with a film digitizer, and a gray-level threshold method was used to segment the kidney. Based on texture analysis performed on sample images of kidney tumors, a portion of the kidney tumor was selected as seed region for start point of the region-growing process. The average and standard deviations were used to detect the kidney tumor. Starting at the detected seed region, the region-growing method was used to segment the kidney tumor with intensity values used as an acceptance criterion for a homogeneous test. This test was performed to merge the neighboring region as kidney tumor boundary. These methods were applied on 156 transverse images of 12 cases of kidney tumors scanned using a G.E. Hispeed CT scanner and digitized with a Lumisys LS-40 film digitizer. Results: The computer-aided detection system resulted in a kidney tumor detection sensitivity of 85% and no false-positive findings. Conclusion: This computer-aided detection scheme was useful for kidney tumor detection and gave the characteristics of detected kidney tumors

  13. 3D Computer aided treatment planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Wicher J; Vissink, Arjan; Ng, Yuan Ling; Gulabivala, Kishor

    2016-02-01

    Obliteration of the root canal system due to accelerated dentinogenesis and dystrophic calcification can challenge the achievement of root canal treatment goals. This paper describes the application of 3D digital mapping technology for predictable navigation of obliterated canal systems during root canal treatment to avoid iatrogenic damage of the root. Digital endodontic treatment planning for anterior teeth with severely obliterated root canal systems was accomplished with the aid of computer software, based on cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) scans and intra-oral scans of the dentition. On the basis of these scans, endodontic guides were created for the planned treatment through digital designing and rapid prototyping fabrication. The custom-made guides allowed for an uncomplicated and predictable canal location and management. The method of digital designing and rapid prototyping of endodontic guides allows for reliable and predictable location of root canals of teeth with calcifically metamorphosed root canal systems. The endodontic directional guide facilitates difficult endodontic treatments at little additional cost. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  15. Computer-aided Teaching of Math in Electromechanics Vocational Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shigueo Hoji

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of teaching mathematics in the electromechanics vocational course with aid of the computer. Instead of giving a bunch of equations and a calculator to the students, as it is usual in vocational courses, we offer them Octave, which is a numerical computational tool. Furthermore, the mathematical concepts involved in the solution of applied problems are provided within a multidisciplinary framework. The proposed approach helped to reduce the abstraction of mathematics for the students. Despite the deficiencies the students in vocational courses have in their formation, we could notice that their perception regarding mathematics has changed after figuring out that “a bunch of numbers” can be useful in the solution of problems they shall face in their professional life. The approach was applied to three groups already. All of them are composed of mature students, who passed by a flawed basic educational system and stayed away from school for a long time.

  16. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  17. Marginal accuracy of computer-aided design- and computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated full-arch zirconia restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntavee, Niwut; Sirisathit, Issarawas

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated marginal accuracy of full-arch zirconia restoration fabricated from two digital computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems (Trios-3 and CS3500) in comparison to conventional cast metal restoration. A stainless steel model comprising two canine and two molar abutments was used as a master model for full-arch reconstruction. The canine and molar abutments were machined in a cylindrical shape with 5° taper and chamfer margin. The CAD-CAM systems based on the digital approach were used to construct the full-arch zirconia restoration. The conventional cast metal restoration was fabricated according to a conventional lost-wax technique using nickel-chromium alloys. Ten restorations were fabricated from each system. The marginal accuracy of each restoration was determined at four locations for each abutment. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) multiple comparisons were used to determine statistically significant difference at 95% confidence interval. The mean values of marginal accuracy of restorations fabricated from conventional casting, Trios-3, and CS3500 were 48.59±4.16 μm, 53.50±5.66 μm, and 56.47±5.52 μm, respectively. ANOVA indicated significant difference in marginal fit of restorations among various systems. The marginal discrepancy of zirconia restoration fabricated from the CS3500 system demonstrated significantly larger gap than that fabricated from the 3Shape system ( p marginal gap than the conventional cast metal restoration ( p marginal fits than that from the CS3500, although, both were slightly less accurate than the conventional cast restoration. However, the marginal discrepancies of restoration produced by both CAD-CAM systems were within the clinically acceptable range and satisfactorily precise to be suggested for construction full-arch zirconia restoration.

  18. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of pericardial heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isner, J.M.; Carter, B.L.; Bankoff, M.S.; Konstam, M.A.; Salem, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pericardial heart disease, 53 patients were prospectively studied by computed tomography of the chest and cardiac ultrasound. A diagnostic-quality CT study was done for all patients; a technically satisfactory ultrasound examination was not possible in six patients. Of 47 patients in whom both chest scans and satisfactory ultrasound studies were obtained, computed tomography showed pericardial thickening not shown by ultrasound in five patients. Estimated size of pericardial effusion was the same for both computed tomography and ultrasound. Computed tomography provided quantifiable evaluation of the composition of pericardial fluid in seven patients with either hemopericardium or purulent pericarditis. Neoplastic pericardial heart disease was detected by CT scan in four of the 53 patients. Computed tomography of the chest provides a sensitive evaluation of the pericardium and quality of pericardial effusion, and is a valuable adjunct in patients in whom cardiac ultrasound is technically unsatisfactory

  19. Role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the work: To assess the role of multidetector computed tomographic imaging in the diagnosis of secondary intussusception with pathological leading points in children. Materials and methods: This study is a retrospective study including 12 children referred to the radiodiagnosis department at Alexandria University ...

  20. Image calibration and registration in cone-beam computed tomogram for measuring the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Walter Y. H.; Ngan, Henry Y. T.; Wat, Peter Y. P.; Luk, Henry W. K.; Goto, Tazuko K.; Pow, Edmond H. N.

    2015-02-01

    Medical radiography is the use of radiation to "see through" a human body without breaching its integrity (surface). With computed tomography (CT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be produced. These imagings not only facilitate disease diagnosis but also enable computer-aided surgical planning/navigation. In dentistry, the common method for transfer of the virtual surgical planning to the patient (reality) is the use of surgical stent either with a preloaded planning (static) like a channel or a real time surgical navigation (dynamic) after registration with fiducial markers (RF). This paper describes using the corner of a cube as a radiopaque fiducial marker on an acrylic (plastic) stent, this RF allows robust calibration and registration of Cartesian (x, y, z)- coordinates for linking up the patient (reality) and the imaging (virtuality) and hence the surgical planning can be transferred in either static or dynamic way. The accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery was measured with reference to coordinates. In our preliminary model surgery, a dental implant was planned virtually and placed with preloaded surgical guide. The deviation of the placed implant apex from the planning was x=+0.56mm [more right], y=- 0.05mm [deeper], z=-0.26mm [more lingual]) which was within clinically 2mm safety range. For comparison with the virtual planning, the physically placed implant was CT/CBCT scanned and errors may be introduced. The difference of the actual implant apex to the virtual apex was x=0.00mm, y=+0.21mm [shallower], z=-1.35mm [more lingual] and this should be brought in mind when interpret the results.

  1. Computer-aided classification of breast masses using contrast-enhanced digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danala, Gopichandh; Aghaei, Faranak; Heidari, Morteza; Wu, Teresa; Patel, Bhavika; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    By taking advantages of both mammography and breast MRI, contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) has emerged as a new promising imaging modality to improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The primary objective of study is to develop and evaluate a new computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) scheme of CEDM images to classify between malignant and benign breast masses. A CEDM dataset consisting of 111 patients (33 benign and 78 malignant) was retrospectively assembled. Each case includes two types of images namely, low-energy (LE) and dual-energy subtracted (DES) images. First, CAD scheme applied a hybrid segmentation method to automatically segment masses depicting on LE and DES images separately. Optimal segmentation results from DES images were also mapped to LE images and vice versa. Next, a set of 109 quantitative image features related to mass shape and density heterogeneity was initially computed. Last, four multilayer perceptron-based machine learning classifiers integrated with correlationbased feature subset evaluator and leave-one-case-out cross-validation method was built to classify mass regions depicting on LE and DES images, respectively. Initially, when CAD scheme was applied to original segmentation of DES and LE images, the areas under ROC curves were 0.7585+/-0.0526 and 0.7534+/-0.0470, respectively. After optimal segmentation mapping from DES to LE images, AUC value of CAD scheme significantly increased to 0.8477+/-0.0376 (pbreast tissue on lesions, segmentation accuracy was significantly improved as compared to regular mammograms, the study demonstrated that computer-aided classification of breast masses using CEDM images yielded higher performance.

  2. Computational Intelligence in Early Diabetes Diagnosis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research. PMID:21713313

  3. Computational intelligence in early diabetes diagnosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S

    2010-01-01

    The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research.

  4. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  5. Development of computer-aided auto-ranging technique for a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Shimura, K.; Nakajima, N.; Kato, H.

    1988-01-01

    For a computed radiography system, the authors developed a computer-aided autoranging technique in which the clinically useful image data are automatically mapped to the available display range. The preread image data are inspected to determine the location of collimation. A histogram of the pixels inside the collimation is evaluated regarding characteristic values such as maxima and minima, and then the optimal density and contrast are derived for the display image. The effect of the autoranging technique was investigated at several hospitals in Japan. The average rate of films lost due to undesirable density or contrast was about 0.5%

  6. Serum lysozyme activity in coeliac disease: a possible aid to athe diagnosis of malignant change.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, B T; Ukabam, S O; Barry, R E; Read, A E

    1981-01-01

    Serum lysozyme activities were measured in 34 control subjects, 13 untreated adult coeliac patients, 21 adult coeliac patients on gluten-free diet, and eight coeliac patients with a histiocytic lymphoma. Serum lysozyme activities were raised in three untreated patients, three patients treated with a gluten-free diet, and in only two patients with coeliac disease and lymphoma. Serum lysozyme estimations cannot be recommended as an aid to the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with coeliac disease.

  7. Computed tomography diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Weike; Jiang Bin; Liu Jinquan; Li Sixia; Zhu Zhichang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage using Computed Tomography. Methods: Six cases diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage were analyzed by morphic and histologic method and investigated the key point of scan in diagnosis. Result: The correct rate of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage by Computed Tomography is above 83 percent, it characteristic representation is strip and would high-density shadow after enhancement. Conclusion: The characteristic representation of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage is attain by Computed Tomography, which provides effective operation evidences for clinical operation. (authors)

  8. Late diagnosis and vulnerabilities of the elderly living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Aguiar Alencar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify vulnerabilities of elderly people with HIV/AIDS and the trajectory that they follow until reaching the diagnosis of the disease. METHOD Qualitative research conducted in specialized clinics in the state of São Paulo, from January to June 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 elderly people who were found to be infected with the virus at the age of 60 years or older. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS In this process four categories emerged, then analyzed with reference to the theoretical framework of vulnerability. CONCLUSION Late diagnosis of HIV infection or AIDS among the elderly happens in the secondary or tertiary service. Issues related to sexual life of the elderly are only questioned by health professionals after the diagnosis, also the time that condom use becomes absolute. It is believed that the investigation of the vulnerability of the elderly to HIV/AIDS allows for carrying out appropriate interventions for this population.

  9. The CDD system in computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelnik, Daniel; Elsholtz, Fabian Henry Juergen; Hamm, Bernd; Niehues, Stefan Markus; Bojarski, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose cation in computed tomographic diagnosis and briefly recapitulates its targeted advantages over preliminary systems. Primarily, application of the CDD in computed tomography diagnostics is described. Differences with respect to the categories of the older systems are pointed out on the level of each CDD type using imaging examples. The presented images are derived from our institute according to the S2k criteria. Literature was researched on PubMed. Results The CDD constitutes an improvement compared to older systems for categorizing the stages of diverticular disease. It provides more discriminatory power on the descriptive-morphological level and defines as well as differentiates more courses of the disease. Furthermore, the categories translate more directly into state-of-the-art decision-making concerning hospitalization and therapy. The CDD should be applied routinely in the computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease. Typical imaging patterns are presented.

  10. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  11. Computer-aided detection of basal cell carcinoma through blood content analysis in dermoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Pegah; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Wang, Z. Jane; Lee, Tim K.

    2018-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer, which is highly damaging to the skin at its advanced stages and causes huge costs on the healthcare system. However, most types of BCC are easily curable if detected at early stage. Due to limited access to dermatologists and expert physicians, non-invasive computer-aided diagnosis is a viable option for skin cancer screening. A clinical biomarker of cancerous tumors is increased vascularization and excess blood flow. In this paper, we present a computer-aided technique to differentiate cancerous skin tumors from benign lesions based on vascular characteristics of the lesions. Dermoscopy image of the lesion is first decomposed using independent component analysis of the RGB channels to derive melanin and hemoglobin maps. A novel set of clinically inspired features and ratiometric measurements are then extracted from each map to characterize the vascular properties and blood content of the lesion. The feature set is then fed into a random forest classifier. Over a dataset of 664 skin lesions, the proposed method achieved an area under ROC curve of 0.832 in a 10-fold cross validation for differentiating basal cell carcinomas from benign lesions.

  12. Computer-Aided Engineering Education at the K.U. Leuven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeys, R.; Gobin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some recent initiatives and developments in the computer-aided design program in the engineering faculty of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Provides a survey of the engineering curriculum, the computer facilities, and the main software packages available. (TW)

  13. Advanced and intelligent computations in diagnosis and control

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the demands of research and industrial centers for diagnostics, monitoring and decision making systems that result from the increasing complexity of automation and systems, the need to ensure the highest level of reliability and safety, and continuing research and the development of innovative approaches to fault diagnosis. The contributions combine domains of engineering knowledge for diagnosis, including detection, isolation, localization, identification, reconfiguration and fault-tolerant control. The book is divided into six parts:  (I) Fault Detection and Isolation; (II) Estimation and Identification; (III) Robust and Fault Tolerant Control; (IV) Industrial and Medical Diagnostics; (V) Artificial Intelligence; (VI) Expert and Computer Systems.

  14. Computer-assisted diagnosis: applications in chest and breast X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.; Souto, M.; Correa, J.; Carrascal, F.; Mendez, A.; Martin Carreira, J.; Lado, J.M.; Vidal, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in the area of computers during the last years has focussed attention on its potential benefits as applied to computer aided diagnosis (CAD) in radiology. these CAD systems are being dedicated mainly to chest and breast radiology. Different schemes have been under investigation at our laboratory. Both automatic discrimination between normal and abnormal interstitial patterns by fractal dimension analysis and measurement of total lung capacity (TLC) have shown encouraging results (r=0.967, p<0.001). Automatic classification of mammograms in patterns with different risk to develop breast carcinoma and computer detection of breast masses with a sensitivity of 65% for a total number of 2.6 false positives per image suggest that CAD is a realistic goal in selected areas. (Author) 42 refs

  15. Computer Aided Design of a Low-Cost Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYEDA MARIA KHATOON ZAIDI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of robots or robotic systems for painting parts is becoming increasingly conventional; to improve reliability, productivity, consistency and to decrease waste. However, in Pakistan only highend Industries are able to afford the luxury of a robotic system for various purposes. In this study we propose an economical Painting Robot that a small-scale industry can install in their plant with ease. The importance of this robot is that being cost effective, it can easily be replaced in small manufacturing industries and therefore, eliminate health problems occurring to the individual in charge of painting parts on an everyday basis. To achieve this aim, the robot is made with local parts with only few exceptions, to cut costs; and the programming language is kept at a mediocre level. Image processing is used to establish object recognition and it can be programmed to paint various simple geometries. The robot is placed on a conveyer belt to maximize productivity. A four DoF (Degree of Freedom arm increases the working envelope and accessibility of painting different shaped parts with ease. This robot is capable of painting up, front, back, left and right sides of the part with a single colour. Initially CAD (Computer Aided Design models of the robot were developed which were analyzed, modified and improved to withstand loading condition and perform its task efficiently. After design selection, appropriate motors and materials were selected and the robot was developed. Throughout the development phase, minor problems and errors were fixed accordingly as they arose. Lastly the robot was integrated with the computer and image processing for autonomous control. The final results demonstrated that the robot is economical and reduces paint wastage.

  16. Computer aided design of a low-cost painting robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.; Janejo, F.; Mujtaba, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of robots or robotic systems for painting parts is becoming increasingly conventional; to improve reliability, productivity, consistency and to decrease waste. However, in Pakistan only highend Industries are able to afford the luxury of a robotic system for various purposes. In this study we propose an economical Painting Robot that a small-scale industry can install in their plant with ease. The importance of this robot is that being cost effective, it can easily be replaced in small manufacturing industries and therefore, eliminate health problems occurring to the individual in charge of painting parts on an everyday basis. To achieve this aim, the robot is made with local parts with only few exceptions, to cut costs; and the programming language is kept at a mediocre level. Image processing is used to establish object recognition and it can be programmed to paint various simple geometries. The robot is placed on a conveyer belt to maximize productivity. A four DoF (Degree of Freedom) arm increases the working envelope and accessibility of painting different shaped parts with ease. This robot is capable of painting up, front, back, left and right sides of the part with a single colour. Initially CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of the robot were developed which were analyzed, modified and improved to withstand loading condition and perform its task efficiently. After design selection, appropriate motors and materials were selected and the robot was developed. Throughout the development phase, minor problems and errors were fixed accordingly as they arose. Lastly the robot was integrated with the computer and image processing for autonomous control. The final results demonstrated that the robot is economical and reduces paint wastage. (author)

  17. Computer-Aided Construction of Chemical Kinetic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, William H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The combustion chemistry of even simple fuels can be extremely complex, involving hundreds or thousands of kinetically significant species. The most reasonable way to deal with this complexity is to use a computer not only to numerically solve the kinetic model, but also to construct the kinetic model in the first place. Because these large models contain so many numerical parameters (e.g. rate coefficients, thermochemistry) one never has sufficient data to uniquely determine them all experimentally. Instead one must work in “predictive” mode, using theoretical rather than experimental values for many of the numbers in the model, and as appropriate refining the most sensitive numbers through experiments. Predictive chemical kinetics is exactly what is needed for computer-aided design of combustion systems based on proposed alternative fuels, particularly for early assessment of the value and viability of proposed new fuels before those fuels are commercially available. This project was aimed at making accurate predictive chemical kinetics practical; this is a challenging goal which requires a range of science advances. The project spanned a wide range from quantum chemical calculations on individual molecules and elementary-step reactions, through the development of improved rate/thermo calculation procedures, the creation of algorithms and software for constructing and solving kinetic simulations, the invention of methods for model-reduction while maintaining error control, and finally comparisons with experiment. Many of the parameters in the models were derived from quantum chemistry calculations, and the models were compared with experimental data measured in our lab or in collaboration with others.

  18. Use of logic flowgraph models in a computer aided process analysis and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.; Okrent, D.

    1985-07-01

    The development of a multi-function computer-aided process analysis and management (CAPAM) system, to be implemented in nuclear power plant control rooms, is proposed and discussed. The design goals identified for such a system are early disturbance detection and diagnosis, accompanied by identification of the best possible recovery actions or alternative success paths. The CAPAM structure is articulated in three functional levels with dedicated CRT displays. Increasing amount of diagnostic or recovery information is made available to the operators at the lower display levels. Probabilistic safety margins to the loss of important safety functions may be also calculated. The proposed implementation of the CAPAM concept is based on the use of logic flowgraph networks for the more detailed system modeling. Examples of such an implementation are given. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. CASAD -- Computer-Aided Sonography of Abdominal Diseases - the concept of joint technique impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deserno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound image is the primary (input information for every ultrasonic examination. Since being used in ultrasound images analysis the both knowledge-base decision support and content-based image retrieval techniques have their own restrictions, the combination of these techniques looks promissory for covering the restrictions of one by advances of another. In this work we have focused on implementation of the proposed combination in the frame of CASAD (Computer-Aided Sonography of Abdominal Diseases system for supplying the ultrasound examiner with a diagnostic-assistant tool based on a data warehouse of standard referenced images. This warehouse serves: to manifest the diagnosis when the ecographist specifies the pathology and then looks through corresponding images to verify his opinion; to suggest a second opinion by automatic analysis of the annotation of relevant images that were assessed from the repository using content-based image retrieval.

  20. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  1. The Effects of Computer-Aided Design Software on Engineering Students' Spatial Visualisation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösa, Temel; Karakus, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of computer-aided design (CAD) software-based instruction on the spatial visualisation skills of freshman engineering students in a computer-aided engineering drawing course. A quasi-experimental design was applied, using the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization of Rotations…

  2. Enabling Lean Design Through Computer Aided Synthesis: The Injection Moulding Cooling Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the application of Computer Aided Synthesis (CAS) to support the implementation of Set-Based Concurrent Engineering (SBCE) and Just In Time Decision Making (JIT-DM), which are considered as two of the cornerstones of the Lean Design method. Computer Aided Synthesis refers to a

  3. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  4. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical based products. The framework is a systematic approach to convert a Computer-aided Molecular, Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) formulation, based on needs and target properties, into a mixed integer non...

  5. Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids as Instruction for Solving Pico-Fomi Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes investigation of effectiveness of computer-presented organizational/memory aids (matrix and verbal charts controlled by computer or learner) as instructional technique for solving Pico-Fomi problems, and the acquisition of deductive inference rules when such aids are present. Results indicate chart use control should be adapted to…

  6. [The automatic iris map overlap technology in computer-aided iridiagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-feng; Ye, Hu-nian; Ye, Miao-yuan

    2002-11-01

    In the paper, iridology and computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies are briefly introduced and the extraction method of the collarette contour is then investigated. The iris map can be overlapped on the original iris image based on collarette contour extraction. The research on collarette contour extraction and iris map overlap is of great importance to computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies.

  7. Computer-aided safety systems of industrial high energy objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolsky, N.G.; Gordeev, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern objects of fuel and energy, chemical industries are characterized by high power consumption; by presence of large quantities of combustible and explosive substances used in technological processes; by advanced communications of submission systems of initial liquid and gasiform reagents, lubricants and coolants, the products of processing, and wastes of production; by advanced ventilation and pneumatic transport; and by complex control systems of energy, material and information flows. Such objects have advanced infrastructures, including a significant quantity of engineering buildings intended for storage, transportation, and processing of combustible liquids, gasiform fuels and materials, and firm materials. Examples of similar objects are nuclear and thermal power stations, chemical plants, machine-building factories, iron and steel industry enterprises, etc. Many tasks and functions characterizing the problem of fire safety of these objects can be accomplished only upon the development of special Computer-Aided Fire Safety Systems (CAFSS). The CAFSS for these objects are intended to reduce the hazard of disastrous accidents both causing fires and caused by them. The tasks of fire prevention and rescue work of large-scale industrial objects are analyzed within the bounds of the recommended conception. A functional structure of CAFSS with a list of the main subsystems forming a part of its composition has been proposed

  8. Efficacy of computer-aided detection system for screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mioko; Ohnuki, Koji; Yamada, Takayuki; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for screening mammography (MMG). Screening mammograms of 2,231 women aged over 50 yr were examined. Medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images were obtained, and two expert observers interpreted the mammograms by consensus. First, each mammogram was interpreted without the assistance of CAD, followed immediately by a re-evaluation of areas marked by the CAD system. Data were recorded to measure the effect of CAD on the recall rate, cancer detection rate and detection rate of masses, microcalcifications and other findings. The CAD system increased the recall rate from 2.3% to 2.6%. Six recalled cases were diagnosed as breast cancer pathologically, and CAD detected all of these lesions. Seven additional cases in which CAD detected abnormal findings had no malignancy. The detection rate of CAD for microcalcifications was high (95.0%). However, the detection rate for mass lesions and other findings was low (29.2% and 25.0% respectively). The false positivity rate was 0.13/film for microcalcifications, and 0.25/film for mass lesions. The efficacy of the CAD system for detecting microcalcifications on screening mammograms was confirmed. However, the low detection rate of mass lesions and relatively high rate of false positivity need to be further improved. (author)

  9. Heuristic lipophilicity potential for computer-aided rational drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qishi; Arteca, Gustavo A.; Mezey, Paul G.

    1997-09-01

    In this contribution we suggest a heuristic molecular lipophilicitypotential (HMLP), which is a structure-based technique requiring noempirical indices of atomic lipophilicity. The input data used in thisapproach are molecular geometries and molecular surfaces. The HMLP is amodified electrostatic potential, combined with the averaged influences fromthe molecular environment. Quantum mechanics is used to calculate theelectron density function ρ(r) and the electrostatic potential V(r), andfrom this information a lipophilicity potential L(r) is generated. The HMLPis a unified lipophilicity and hydrophilicity potential. The interactions ofdipole and multipole moments, hydrogen bonds, and charged atoms in amolecule are included in the hydrophilic interactions in this model. TheHMLP is used to study hydrogen bonds and water-octanol partitioncoefficients in several examples. The calculated results show that the HMLPgives qualitatively and quantitatively correct, as well as chemicallyreasonable, results in cases where comparisons are available. Thesecomparisons indicate that the HMLP has advantages over the empiricallipophilicity potential in many aspects. The HMLP is a three-dimensional andeasily visualizable representation of molecular lipophilicity, suggested asa potential tool in computer-aided three-dimensional drug design.

  10. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  11. ARCHITECTURE OF WEB BASED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Filyukov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with design of a web-based system for Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM. Remote applications and databases located in the "private cloud" are proposed to be the basis of such system. The suggested approach contains: service - oriented architecture, using web applications and web services as modules, multi-agent technologies for implementation of information exchange functions between the components of the system and the usage of PDM - system for managing technology projects within the CAM. The proposed architecture involves CAM conversion into the corporate information system that will provide coordinated functioning of subsystems based on a common information space, as well as parallelize collective work on technology projects and be able to provide effective control of production planning. A system has been developed within this architecture which gives the possibility for a rather simple technological subsystems connect to the system and implementation of their interaction. The system makes it possible to produce CAM configuration for a particular company on the set of developed subsystems and databases specifying appropriate access rights for employees of the company. The proposed approach simplifies maintenance of software and information support for CAM subsystems due to their central location in the data center. The results can be used as a basis for CAM design and testing within the learning process for development and modernization of the system algorithms, and then can be tested in the extended enterprise.

  12. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide.

  13. A dimension reduction strategy for improving the efficiency of computer-aided detection for CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Wang, Huafeng; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    Various types of features, e.g., geometric features, texture features, projection features etc., have been introduced for polyp detection and differentiation tasks via computer aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Although these features together cover more information of the data, some of them are statistically highly-related to others, which made the feature set redundant and burdened the computation task of CAD. In this paper, we proposed a new dimension reduction method which combines hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) for false positives (FPs) reduction task. First, we group all the features based on their similarity using hierarchical clustering, and then PCA is employed within each group. Different numbers of principal components are selected from each group to form the final feature set. Support vector machine is used to perform the classification. The results show that when three principal components were chosen from each group we can achieve an area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics of 0.905, which is as high as the original dataset. Meanwhile, the computation time is reduced by 70% and the feature set size is reduce by 77%. It can be concluded that the proposed method captures the most important information of the feature set and the classification accuracy is not affected after the dimension reduction. The result is promising and further investigation, such as automatically threshold setting, are worthwhile and are under progress.

  14. Computed Tomography diagnosis of skeletal involvement in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, Pier Nuccio; Galeotti, Roberto; Leprotti, Stefano; Piva, Nadia; Spanedda, Romedio

    1997-01-01

    The authors assess the role of Computed Topography in the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma (MM) and investigate if Computed Tomography findings can influence the clinical approach, prognosis and treatment. 273 multiple myeloma patients submitted to Computed Tomography June 1994, to December, 1996. The patients were 143 men and 130 women (mean age: 65 years): 143 were stage I, 38 stage II and 92 stage III according to Durie and Salomon's clinical classification. All patients were submitted to blood tests, spinal radiography and Computed Tomography, the latter with serial 5-mm scans on several vertebral bodies. Computed Tomography despicted vertebral arch and process involvement in 3 cases with the vertebral pedicle sign. Moreover, Computed Tomography proved superior to radiography in showing the spread of myelomatous masses into the soft tissues in a case with solitary permeative lesion in the left public bone, which facilitated subsequent biopsy. As for extraosseous localizations, Computed Tomography demonstrated thoracic soft tissue (1 woman) and pelvic (1 man) involvement by myelomtous masses penetrating into surrounding tissues. In our series, only a case of osteosclerotic bone myeloma was observed in the pelvis, associated with lytic abnormalities. Computed Tomography findings do not seem to improve the clinical approach and therapeutic management of the disease. Nevertheless, the authors reccommend Computed Tomography for some myelomatous conditions, namely: a) in the patients with focal bone pain but normal skeletal radiographs; b) in the patients with M protein, bone marrow plasmocytosis and back pain, but with an incoclusive multiple myeloma diagnosis; c) to asses bone spread in the regions which are anatomically complex or difficult to study with radiography and to depict soft tissue involvement; d) for bone biopsy

  15. Computer aided instrumented Charpy test applied dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1986-01-01

    Micro computer aided data treatment system and personal computer aided data analysis system were applied to the traditional instrumented Charpy impact test system. The analysis of Charpy absorbed energy (E i , E p , E t ) and load (P y , P m ), and the evaluation of dynamic toughness through whole fracture process, i.e. J Id , J R curve and T mat was examined using newly developed computer aided instrumented Charpy impact test system. E i , E p , E t , P y and P m were effectively analyzed using moving average method and printed out automatically by micro computer aided data treatment system. J Id , J R curve and T mat could be measured by stop block test method. Then, J Id , J R curve and T mat were effectively estimated using compliance changing rate method and key curve method on the load-load point displacement curve of single fatigue cracked specimen by personal computer aided data analysis system. (author)

  16. [Development of computer aided forming techniques in manufacturing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuelei; Dong, Fuhui

    2011-12-01

    To review recent advance in the research and application of computer aided forming techniques for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The literature concerning computer aided forming techniques for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds in recent years was reviewed extensively and summarized. Several studies over last decade have focused on computer aided forming techniques for bone scaffold construction using various scaffold materials, which is based on computer aided design (CAD) and bone scaffold rapid prototyping (RP). CAD include medical CAD, STL, and reverse design. Reverse design can fully simulate normal bone tissue and could be very useful for the CAD. RP techniques include fused deposition modeling, three dimensional printing, selected laser sintering, three dimensional bioplotting, and low-temperature deposition manufacturing. These techniques provide a new way to construct bone tissue engineering scaffolds with complex internal structures. With rapid development of molding and forming techniques, computer aided forming techniques are expected to provide ideal bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  17. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing ceramic crowns cemented on solid abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stona, Deborah; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    Because no information was found in the dental literature regarding the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns using CEREC (Sirona) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system on solid abutments, the authors conducted a study. Sixty synOcta (Straumann) implant replicas and regular neck solid abutments were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned (n = 20 per group). Three types of ceramics were used: feldspathic, CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA); leucite, IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent); and lithium disilicate, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent). The crowns were fabricated by the CEREC CAD-CAM system. After receiving glaze, the crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 (3M ESPE) resin cement under load of 1 kilogram. For each ceramic, one-half of the specimens were subjected to the fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 millimeter per minute, and the other half were subjected to the fractured resistance testing after 1,000,000 cyclic fatigue loading at 100 newtons. According to a 2-way analysis of variance, the interaction between the material and mechanical cycling was significant (P = .0001). According to a Tukey test (α = .05), the fracture resistance findings with or without cyclic fatigue loading were as follows, respectively: CEREC VITABLOCKS Mark II (405 N/454 N) was statistically lower than IPS Empress CAD (1169 N/1240 N) and IPS e.max CAD (1378 N/1025 N) (P Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD did not differ statistically (P > .05). According to a t test, there was no statistical difference in the fracture resistance with and without cyclic fatigue loading for CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II and IPS Empress CAD (P > .05). For IPS e.max CAD, the fracture resistance without cyclic fatigue loading was statistically superior to that obtained with cyclic fatigue loading (P Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD showed higher fracture resistance compared with CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II. The cyclic

  18. Marginal accuracy of computer-aided design- and computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated full-arch zirconia restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntavee N

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Niwut Juntavee,1 Issarawas Sirisathit2 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Division of Biomaterials and Prosthodontics Research, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: This study evaluated marginal accuracy of full-arch zirconia restoration fabricated from two digital computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM systems (Trios-3 and CS3500 in comparison to conventional cast metal restoration. Materials and methods: A stainless steel model comprising two canine and two molar abutments was used as a master model for full-arch reconstruction. The canine and molar abutments were machined in a cylindrical shape with 5° taper and chamfer margin. The CAD-CAM systems based on the digital approach were used to construct the full-arch zirconia restoration. The conventional cast metal restoration was fabricated according to a conventional lost-wax technique using nickel–chromium alloys. Ten restorations were fabricated from each system. The marginal accuracy of each restoration was determined at four locations for each abutment. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD multiple comparisons were used to determine statistically significant difference at 95% confidence interval. Results: The mean values of marginal accuracy of restorations fabricated from conventional casting, Trios-3, and CS3500 were 48.59±4.16 μm, 53.50±5.66 μm, and 56.47±5.52 μm, respectively. ANOVA indicated significant difference in marginal fit of restorations among various systems. The marginal discrepancy of zirconia restoration fabricated from the CS3500 system demonstrated significantly larger gap than that fabricated from the 3Shape system (p<0.05. Tukey’s HSD multiple comparisons indicated that the zirconia restoration fabricated from either CS3500 or Trios-3 demonstrated a significantly larger marginal gap than the conventional cast metal restoration (p<0.05. Conclusion: Full

  19. Computer vision techniques for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of computer vision techniques in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the world. Early diagnosis is particularly important since melanoma can be cured with a simple excision if detected early. In recent years, dermoscopy has proved valuable in visualizing the morphological structures in pigmented lesions. However, it has also been shown that dermoscopy is difficult to learn and subjective. Newer technologies such as infrared imaging, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy, have recently come to the forefront in providing greater diagnostic accuracy. These imaging technologies presented in this book can serve as an adjunct to physicians and  provide automated skin cancer screening. Although computerized techniques cannot as yet provide a definitive diagnosis, they can be used to improve biopsy decision-making as well as early melanoma detection, especially for pa...

  20. ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF OPTIC NERVE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Saakyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve (ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected. The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors, which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment.