Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences adopts a modern scientific approach that combines knowledge from mathematical modeling with various aspects of social science. Special algorithms can be created to simulate an artificial society and a detailed analysis can subsequently be used to project social realities. This Ebook specifically deals with computations using the NetLogo platform, and is intended for researchers interested in advanced human geography and mathematical modeling studies.
In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.
In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t
Full Text Available Social scientists and computer scientist are divided by small differences in perspective and not by any significant disciplinary divide. In the field of text analysis, several such differences are noted: social scientists often use unsupervised models to explore corpora, whereas many computer scientists employ supervised models to train data; social scientists hold to more conventional causal notions than do most computer scientists, and often favor intense exploitation of existing algorithms, whereas computer scientists focus more on developing new models; and computer scientists tend to trust human judgment more than social scientists do. These differences have implications that potentially can improve the practice of social science.
Pham, Manh Cuong; Klamma, Ralf; Jarke, Matthias
In contrast to many other scientific disciplines, computer science considers conference publications. Conferences have the advantage of providing fast publication of papers and of bringing researchers together to present and discuss the paper with peers. Previous work on knowledge mapping focused on the map of all sciences or a particular domain based on ISI published JCR (Journal Citation Report). Although this data covers most of important journals, it lacks computer science conference and ...
Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard
Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability wcomputer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.
Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Hung, Hayley; Keyton, Joann
This special issue on advancing interdisciplinary collaboration between computer scientists and social scientists documents the joint results of the international Lorentz workshop, "Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics," which took place in Leiden, The Netherlands, July 2016. An equal number of scholars from social and computer science participated in the workshop and contributed to the papers included in this special issue. In this introduction, we first identify interaction dynamics as the core of group and team models and review how scholars in social and computer science have typically approached behavioral interactions in groups and teams. Next, we identify key challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration between social and computer scientists, and we provide an overview of the different articles in this special issue aimed at addressing these challenges.
Smith, Paul H.
The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.
Carrigan, Coleen M
Computing is highly segregated and stratified by gender. While there is abundant scholarship investigating this problem, emerging evidence suggests that a hierarchy of value exists between the social and technical dimensions of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) and this plays a role in the underrepresentation of women in the field. This ethnographic study of women's experiences in computing offers evidence of a systemic preference for the technical dimensions of computing over the social and a correlation between gender and social aspirations. Additionally, it suggests there is a gap between the exaltation of computing's social contributions and the realities of them. My participants expressed a yearning to contribute to the collective well-being of society using their computing skills. I trace moments of rupture in my participants' stories, moments when they felt these aspirations were in conflict with the cultural values in their organizations. I interpret these ruptures within a consideration of yearning, a need my participants had to contribute meaningfully to society that remained unfulfilled. The yearning to align one's altruistic values with one's careers aspirations in CSE illuminates an area for greater exploration on the path to realizing gender equity in computing. I argue that before a case can be made that careers in computing do indeed contribute to social and civil engagements, we must first address the meaning of the social within the values, ideologies and practices of CSE institutions and next, develop ways to measure and evaluate the field's contributions to society.
Illustrates the application of mathematical and computational modeling in a variety of disciplines With an emphasis on the interdisciplinary nature of mathematical and computational modeling, Mathematical and Computational Modeling: With Applications in the Natural and Social Sciences, Engineering, and the Arts features chapters written by well-known, international experts in these fields and presents readers with a host of state-of-the-art achievements in the development of mathematical modeling and computational experiment methodology. The book is a valuable guide to the methods, ideas,
Stevens, Stacy Mckimm
There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico
This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.
Cappella, Joseph N
Simultaneous developments in big data, social media, and computational social science have set the stage for how we think about and understand interpersonal and mass communication. This article explores some of the ways that these developments generate 4 hypothetical "vectors" - directions - into the next generation of communication research. These vectors include developments in network analysis, modeling interpersonal and social influence, recommendation systems, and the blurring of distinctions between interpersonal and mass audiences through narrowcasting and broadcasting. The methods and research in these arenas are occurring in areas outside the typical boundaries of the communication discipline but engage classic, substantive questions in mass and interpersonal communication.
Full Text Available Two developments in computational text analysis may change the way qualitative data analysis in social sciences is performed: 1. the availability of digital text worth to investigate is growing rapidly, and 2. the improvement of algorithmic information extraction approaches, also called text mining, allows for further bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative text analysis. The key factor hereby is the inclusion of context into computational linguistic models which extends conventional computational content analysis towards the extraction of meaning. To clarify methodological differences of various computer-assisted text analysis approaches the article suggests a typology from the perspective of a qualitative researcher. This typology shows compatibilities between manual qualitative data analysis methods and computational, rather quantitative approaches for large scale mixed method text analysis designs. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302231
The past decade has witnessed a momentous transformation in the way people interact with each other. Content is now co-produced, shared, classified, and rated by millions of people, while attention has become the ephemeral and valuable resource that everyone seeks to acquire. This talk will describe how social attention determines the production and consumption of content within both the scientific community and social media, how its dynamics can be used to predict the future and the role that social media plays in setting the public agenda. About the speaker Bernardo Huberman is a Senior HP Fellow and Director of the Social Computing Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, and is currently a Consulting Professor in the Department of Applied Physics at Stanford University. He originally worked in condensed matter physics, ranging from superionic conductors to two-dimensional superfluids, and made contributions to the theory of critical p...
Nuno David; Jaime Simão Sichman; Helder Coelho
WOS:000235217900009 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The classical theory of computation does not represent an adequate model of reality for simulation in the social sciences. The aim of this paper is to construct a methodological perspective that is able to conciliate the formal and empirical logic of program verification in computer science, with the interpretative and multiparadigmatic logic of the social sciences. We attempt to evaluate whether social simulation implies an additional pers...
Applied data-centric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from data-oriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socio-economic systems. From a data-centric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people’s minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie ...
Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.
Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…
The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.
Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Hung, H.S.; Keyton, Joann
This special issue on advancing interdisciplinary collaboration between computer scientists and social scientists documents the joint results of the international Lorentz workshop, “Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics,” which took place in Leiden, The Netherlands, July 2016.
Bredereck, R.; Chen, J.; Faliszewski, P.; Guo, J.; Niedermeier, R.; Woeginger, G.J.
Computational Social Choice is an interdisciplinary research area involving Economics, Political Science, and Social Science on the one side, and Mathematics and Computer Science (including Artificial Intelligence and Multiagent Systems) on the other side. Typical computational problems studied in
The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.
Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna
Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....
Full Text Available The development of the web, in the last 20 years, has opened new areas of analysis and new phenomena sociologically relevant for social research. However, the research work in digital space presents a series of ethical and deontological problems. In this context the members of the Association of Internet Researchers (AOIR have composed and edited a document with a series of ethical guidelines for social research. The work of the AOIR group not include Italian researchers; for this reason, the aim of this paper is propose a commented translation of the contents of Ethical decision-making and Internet research for make the ethical factor one of the main tools for computational sociology.
The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.
The theoretical and computational science carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory in 1984/5 is detailed in the Appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report. The Theory, Computational Science and Applications Groups, provide support work for the experimental projects conducted at Daresbury. Use of the FPS-164 processor is also described. (U.K.)
Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to bring together
Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to
Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…
Tucker, Allen B
Due to the great response to the famous Computer Science Handbook edited by Allen B. Tucker, … in 2004 Chapman & Hall/CRC published a second edition of this comprehensive reference book. Within more than 70 chapters, every one new or significantly revised, one can find any kind of information and references about computer science one can imagine. … All in all, there is absolute nothing about computer science that can not be found in the encyclopedia with its 110 survey articles …-Christoph Meinel, Zentralblatt MATH
Dean, David Jarvis
Simulations - utilizing computers to solve complicated science and engineering problems - are a key ingredient of modern science. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is a world leader in the development of high-performance computing (HPC), the development of applied math and algorithms that utilize the full potential of HPC platforms, and the application of computing to science and engineering problems. An interesting general question is whether the DOE can strategically utilize its capability in simulations to advance innovation more broadly. In this article, I will argue that this is certainly possible.
In this text we present a technical overview of the emerging field of quantum computation along with new research results by the authors. What distinguishes our presentation from that of others is our focus on the relationship between quantum computation and computer science. Specifically, our emphasis is on the computational model of quantum computing rather than on the engineering issues associated with its physical implementation. We adopt this approach for the same reason that a book on computer programming doesn't cover the theory and physical realization of semiconductors. Another distin
With computers becoming more frequently used in theoretical and experimental physics, physicists can no longer afford to be ignorant of the basic techniques and results of computer science. Computing principles belong in a physicist's tool box, along with experimental methods and applied mathematics, and the easiest way to educate physicists in computing is to provide, as part of the undergraduate curriculum, a computing course designed specifically for physicists. As well, the working physicist should interact with computer scientists, giving them challenging problems in return for their expertise. (orig.)
The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...
Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Structural Engineering Laboratory Water Resources Laboratory Computer Science Department Computer Science Academic Programs Computer Science Undergraduate Programs Computer Science Major Computer Science Tracks
Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Structural Engineering Laboratory Water Resources Laboratory Computer Science Department Computer Science Academic Programs Computer Science Undergraduate Programs Computer Science Major Computer Science Tracks
Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Structural Engineering Laboratory Water Resources Laboratory Computer Science Department Computer Science Academic Programs Computer Science Undergraduate Programs Computer Science Major Computer Science Tracks
Ortega, J. M.
Various graduate research activities in the field of computer science are reported. Among the topics discussed are: (1) failure probabilities in multi-version software; (2) Gaussian Elimination on parallel computers; (3) three dimensional Poisson solvers on parallel/vector computers; (4) automated task decomposition for multiple robot arms; (5) multi-color incomplete cholesky conjugate gradient methods on the Cyber 205; and (6) parallel implementation of iterative methods for solving linear equations.
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science I includes fundamental computer concepts, number representations, Boolean algebra, switching circuits, and computer architecture.
Rougier, Nicolas; Hinsen, Konrad; Alexandre, Frédéric
Computer science offers a large set of tools for prototyping, writing, running, testing, validating, sharing and reproducing results, however computational science lags behind. In the best case, authors may provide their source code as a compressed archive and they may feel confident their research...... workflows, in particular in peer-reviews. Existing journals have been slow to adapt: source codes are rarely requested, hardly ever actually executed to check that they produce the results advertised in the article. ReScience is a peer-reviewed journal that targets computational research and encourages...... the explicit replication of already published research, promoting new and open-source implementations in order to ensure that the original research can be replicated from its description. To achieve this goal, the whole publishing chain is radically different from other traditional scientific journals. ReScience...
This edited book presents scientific results of the 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2016) which was held on June 26– 29 in Okayama, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. This publication captures 12 of the conference’s most promising...
Blok, Anders; Pedersen, Morten Axel
of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods......The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address...
The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...
Huray, Paul G.
This is the final report for the "Partnership in Computational Science" (PICS) award in an amount of $500,000 for the period January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993. A copy of the proposal with its budget is attached as Appendix A. This report first describes the consequent significance of the DOE award in building infrastructure of high performance computing in the Southeast and then describes the work accomplished under this grant and a list of publications resulting from it.
Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo
The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.
Svendsen, Michael; Lauersen, Christian Ulrich
At the Faculty Library of Social Sciences (part of Copenhagen University Library) we are currently working intensely towards the establishment of a Digital Social Science Lab (DSSL). The purpose of the lab is to connect research, education and learning processes with the use of digital tools...... at the Faculty of Social Sciences. DSSL will host and facilitate an 80 m2 large mobile and intelligent study- and learning environment with a focus on academic events, teaching and collaboration. Besides the physical settings DSSL has two primary functions: 1. To implement relevant social scientific software...... and hardware at the disposal for students and staff at The Faculty of Social Sciences along with instruction and teaching in the different types of software, e.g. Stata, Nvivo, Atlas.ti, R Studio, Zotero and GIS-software. 2. To facilitate academic events focusing on use of digital tools and analytic software...
Birman, Ken; Roughgarden, Tim; Seltzer, Margo; Spohrer, Jim; Stolterman, Erik; Kearsley, Greg; Koszalka, Tiffany; de Jong, Ton
Scholars representing the field of computer/information science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Ken Birman, Jennifer Rexford, Tim Roughgarden, Margo Seltzer, Jim Spohrer, and…
J. A. Kimelyev
Full Text Available Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.
The post–World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists—and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize...... of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose...... it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation...
Explores polymathic education through unconventional and creative applications of computer science in the arts and sciences Examines the use of visual computation, 3d printing, social robotics and computer modeling for computational art creation and design Includes contributions from leading researchers and practitioners in computer science, architecture and digital media
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly
Computational Materials Science Computational Materials Science An image of interconnecting, sphere science capabilities span many research fields and interests. Electronic, Optical, and Transport Properties of Photovoltaic Materials Material properties and defect physics of Si, CdTe, III-V, CIGS, CZTS
Quinn, Michael J
The author has surveyed a quarter of the accredited undergraduate computer science programs in the United States. More than half of these programs offer a 'social and ethical implications of computing' course taught by a computer science faculty member, and there appears to be a trend toward teaching ethics classes within computer science departments. Although the decision to create an 'in house' computer ethics course may sometimes be a pragmatic response to pressure from the accreditation agency, this paper argues that teaching ethics within a computer science department can provide students and faculty members with numerous benefits. The paper lists topics that can be covered in a computer ethics course and offers some practical suggestions for making the course successful.
Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Bernier, David
Broadening computer science learning to include more students is a crucial item on the United States' education agenda, these authors say. Although policymakers advocate more computer science expertise, computer science offerings in high schools are few--and actually shrinking. In addition, poorly resourced schools with a high percentage of…
This book is aimed at students who are thinking of studying Computer Science or a related topic at university. Part One is a brief introduction to the topics that make up Computer Science, some of which you would expect to find as course modules in a Computer Science programme. These descriptions should help you to tell the difference between Computer Science as taught in different departments and so help you to choose a course that best suits you. Part Two builds on what you have learned about the nature of Computer Science by giving you guidance in choosing universities and making your appli
Computer Science: A Concise Introduction covers the fundamentals of computer science. The book describes micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers and their uses; the ranges and types of computers and peripherals currently available; applications to numerical computation; and commercial data processing and industrial control processes. The functions of data preparation, data control, computer operations, applications programming, systems analysis and design, database administration, and network control are also encompassed. The book then discusses batch, on-line, and real-time systems; the basic
Zinn, Jens; Taylor-Gooby, Peter
... for control. Advances in social science improve understanding of how people perceive and prioritise risks, broaden awareness of the bearing of a range of other issues (trust, experience during the life course, democratic expectations) on people's capacity to manage risks, and facilitate exploration of the ways in which people communicate abo...
Gonzalez, Teofilo; Tucker, Allen
Overview of Computer Science Structure and Organization of Computing Peter J. DenningComputational Thinking Valerie BarrAlgorithms and Complexity Data Structures Mark WeissBasic Techniques for Design and Analysis of Algorithms Edward ReingoldGraph and Network Algorithms Samir Khuller and Balaji RaghavachariComputational Geometry Marc van KreveldComplexity Theory Eric Allender, Michael Loui, and Kenneth ReganFormal Models and Computability Tao Jiang, Ming Li, and Bala
Quigley, Mark Declan
The purpose of this researcher was to examine specific environmental, educational, and demographic factors and their influence on mathematics and science achievement. In particular, the researcher ascertained the interconnections of home computer access and social capital, with Asian American students and the effect on mathematics and science achievement. Coleman's theory on social capital and parental influence was used as a basis for the analysis of data. Subjects for this study were the base year students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the subsequent follow-up survey data in 1990, 1992, and 1994. The approximate sample size for this study is 640 ethnic Asians from the NELS:88 database. The analysis was a longitudinal study based on the Student and Parent Base Year responses and the Second Follow-up survey of 1992, when the subjects were in 12th grade. Achievement test results from the NELS:88 data were used to measure achievement in mathematics and science. The NELS:88 test battery was developed to measure both individual status and a student's growth in a number of achievement areas. The subject's responses were analyzed by principal components factor analysis, weights, effect sizes, hierarchial regression analysis, and PLSPath Analysis. The results of this study were that prior ability in mathematics and science is a major influence in the student's educational achievement. Findings from the study support the view that home computer access has a negative direct effect on mathematics and science achievement for both Asian American males and females. None of the social capital factors in the study had either a negative or positive direct effect on mathematics and science achievement although some indirect effects were found. Suggestions were made toward increasing parental involvement in their children's academic endeavors. Computer access in the home should be considered related to television viewing and should be closely
Extreme Computing Data-Intensive Science Applied Mathematics Science & Engineering Applications Software Extreme Computing Data-Intensive Science Applied Mathematics Science & Engineering Opportunities For Employees Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory Mathematics and Computer Science Tools
This poster offers information about volunteer computing for science gateways that offer high-throughput computing services. Volunteer computing can be used to get computing power. This increases the visibility of the gateway to the general public as well as increasing computing capacity at little cost.
Amaturo, Enrica; Grassia, Maria; Aragona, Biagio; Marino, Marina
This edited volume lays the groundwork for Social Data Science, addressing epistemological issues, methods, technologies, software and applications of data science in the social sciences. It presents data science techniques for the collection, analysis and use of both online and offline new (big) data in social research and related applications. Among others, the individual contributions cover topics like social media, learning analytics, clustering, statistical literacy, recurrence analysis and network analysis. Data science is a multidisciplinary approach based mainly on the methods of statistics and computer science, and its aim is to develop appropriate methodologies for forecasting and decision-making in response to an increasingly complex reality often characterized by large amounts of data (big data) of various types (numeric, ordinal and nominal variables, symbolic data, texts, images, data streams, multi-way data, social networks etc.) and from diverse sources. This book presents selected papers from...
Reed, Daniel A; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Fernandez, Manuel A; Griffiths, Jose-Marie; Mott, Randall D; Dongarra, J. J; Johnson, Chris R; Inouye, Alan S; Miner, William; Matzke, Martha K; Ponick, Terry L
Computational science is now indispensable to the solution of complex problems in every sector, from traditional science and engineering domains to such key areas as national security, public health...
Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.
Reed, Daniel A; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Fernandez, Manuel A; Griffiths, Jose-Marie; Mott, Randall D; Dongarra, J. J; Johnson, Chris R; Inouye, Alan S; Miner, William; Matzke, Martha K; Ponick, Terry L
... previously deemed intractable. Yet, despite the great opportunities and needs, universities and the Federal government have not effectively recognized the strategic significance of computational science in either...
Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.
Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...
Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy
This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.
White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.
The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.
Lee, Jun Geun
This book gives, descriptions of computer simulation, computational materials science, typical three ways of computational materials science, empirical methods ; molecular dynamics such as potential energy, Newton's equation of motion, data production and analysis of results, quantum mechanical methods like wave equation, approximation, Hartree method, and density functional theory, dealing of solid such as pseudopotential method, tight-binding methods embedded atom method, Car-Parrinello method and combination simulation.
Larsen, R. L.
Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) is focused on meeting DOE's mission needs and is part of PNNL's overarching research computing strategy. PIC supports large-scale...
Mermin, N. David
Preface; 1. Cbits and Qbits; 2. General features and some simple examples; 3. Breaking RSA encryption with a quantum computer; 4. Searching with a quantum computer; 5. Quantum error correction; 6. Protocols that use just a few Qbits; Appendices; Index.
This book presents a study of digital computation in contemporary cognitive science. Digital computation is a highly ambiguous concept, as there is no common core definition for it in cognitive science. Since this concept plays a central role in cognitive theory, an adequate cognitive explanation requires an explicit account of digital computation. More specifically, it requires an account of how digital computation is implemented in physical systems. The main challenge is to deliver an account encompassing the multiple types of existing models of computation without ending up in pancomputationalism, that is, the view that every physical system is a digital computing system. This book shows that only two accounts, among the ones examined by the author, are adequate for explaining physical computation. One of them is the instructional information processing account, which is developed here for the first time. “This book provides a thorough and timely analysis of differing accounts of computation while adv...
I present some fundamental theorems in computer science and illustrate their relevance in Biology and Physics. I do not assume prerequisites in mathematics or computer science beyond the set N of natural numbers, functions from N to N, the use of some notational conveniences to describe functions, and at some point, a minimal amount of linear algebra and logic. I start with Cantor's transcendental proof by diagonalization of the non enumerability of the collection of functions from natural numbers to the natural numbers. I explain why this proof is not entirely convincing and show how, by restricting the notion of function in terms of discrete well defined processes, we are led to the non algorithmic enumerability of the computable functions, but also-through Church's thesis-to the algorithmic enumerability of partial computable functions. Such a notion of function constitutes, with respect to our purpose, a crucial generalization of that concept. This will make easy to justify deep and astonishing (counter-intuitive) incompleteness results about computers and similar machines. The modified Cantor diagonalization will provide a theory of concrete self-reference and I illustrate it by pointing toward an elementary theory of self-reproduction-in the Amoeba's way-and cellular self-regeneration-in the flatworm Planaria's way. To make it easier, I introduce a very simple and powerful formal system known as the Schoenfinkel-Curry combinators. I will use the combinators to illustrate in a more concrete way the notion introduced above. The combinators, thanks to their low-level fine grained design, will also make it possible to make a rough but hopefully illuminating description of the main lessons gained by the careful observation of nature, and to describe some new relations, which should exist between computer science, the science of life and the science of inert matter, once some philosophical, if not theological, hypotheses are made in the cognitive sciences. In the
Scheufele, Dietram A
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.
Scheufele, Dietram A.
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341
De Jong, Wibe A.; Cowley, David E.; Dunning, Thom H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.
This 2010 Greenbook outlines the science drivers for performing integrated computational environmental molecular research at EMSL and defines the next-generation HPC capabilities that must be developed at the MSC to address this critical research. The EMSL MSC Science Panel used EMSL’s vision and science focus and white papers from current and potential future EMSL scientific user communities to define the scientific direction and resulting HPC resource requirements presented in this 2010 Greenbook.
Presents insight into the social behaviour of animals (including the study of animal tracks and learning by members of the same species). This book provides web-based evidence of social interaction, perceptual learning, information granulation and the behaviour of humans and affinities between web-based social networks
In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914
Dendrinos, Markos N.
This paper attempts to present the current state of computer science penetration into librarianship in terms of both workplace and education issues. The shift from material libraries into digital libraries is mirrored in the corresponding shift from librarians into information scientists. New library data and metadata, as well as new automated…
Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper
Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…
Ivanov, Ivan; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris
This book is essentially a collection of the best papers of the International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER), which was held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands on May 7–9, 2011. The conference addressed technology trends in the domain of cloud computing in relation to a
Westland, Stephen; Cheung, Vien
Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction. Each t
Kotsireas, Ilias; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Shodiev, Hasan
The Applied Mathematics, Modelling, and Computational Science (AMMCS) conference aims to promote interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The contributions in this volume cover the latest research in mathematical and computational sciences, modeling, and simulation as well as their applications in natural and social sciences, engineering and technology, industry, and finance. The 2013 conference, the second in a series of AMMCS meetings, was held August 26–30 and organized in cooperation with AIMS and SIAM, with support from the Fields Institute in Toronto, and Wilfrid Laurier University. There were many young scientists at AMMCS-2013, both as presenters and as organizers. This proceedings contains refereed papers contributed by the participants of the AMMCS-2013 after the conference. This volume is suitable for researchers and graduate students, mathematicians and engineers, industrialists, and anyone who would like to delve into the interdisciplinary research of applied and computational mathematics ...
Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119
Wayne, James J.
Economics, and other fields of social science are often criticized as unscientific for their apparent failures to formulate universal laws governing human societies. Whether economics is truly a science is one of the oldest questions. This paper attempts to create such universal laws, and asserts that economics is a branch of quantum physics just like chemistry. Choice is a central concept in economics and other fields of social science, yet there is no corresponding concept of choice in mode...
The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…
development model. TopCoder’s development model is competition-based, meaning that TopCoder conducts competitions to develop digital assets. TopCoder...success in running a competition that had as an objective creating digital assets, and we intend to run more of them, to create assets for...cash prizes and merchandise . This includes social media contests, contests will all our games, special referral contests, and a couple NASA
Voigt, S. J. (Editor)
A workshop was held at Langley Research Center, November 2-5, 1981, to highlight ongoing computer science research at Langley and to identify additional areas of research based upon the computer user requirements. A panel discussion was held in each of nine application areas, and these are summarized in the proceedings. Slides presented by the invited speakers are also included. A survey of scientific, business, data reduction, and microprocessor computer users helped identify areas of focus for the workshop. Several areas of computer science which are of most concern to the Langley computer users were identified during the workshop discussions. These include graphics, distributed processing, programmer support systems and tools, database management, and numerical methods.
After the success of SETI@home, many other scientists have found computer power donated by the public to be a valuable resource - and sometimes the only possibility to achieve their goals. In July, representatives of several “public resource computing” projects came to CERN to discuss technical issues and R&D activities on the common computing platform they are using, BOINC. This photograph shows the LHC@home screen-saver which uses the BOINC platform: the dots represent protons and the position of the status bar indicates the progress of the calculations. This summer, CERN hosted the first “pangalactic workshop” on BOINC (Berkeley Open Interface for Network Computing). BOINC is modelled on SETI@home, which millions of people have downloaded to help search for signs of extraterrestrial intelligence in radio-astronomical data. BOINC provides a general-purpose framework for scientists to adapt their software to, so that the public can install and run it. An important part of BOINC is managing the...
All researchers need to write or speak about their work, and to have research that is worth presenting. Based on the author's decades of experience as a researcher and advisor, this third edition provides detailed guidance on writing and presentations and a comprehensive introduction to research methods, the how-to of being a successful scientist. Topics include: · Development of ideas into research questions; · How to find, read, evaluate and referee other research; · Design and evaluation of experiments and appropriate use of statistics; · Ethics, the principles of science and examples of science gone wrong. Much of the book is a step-by-step guide to effective communication, with advice on: · Writing style and editing; · Figures, graphs and tables; · Mathematics and algorithms; · Literature reviews and referees' reports; · Structuring of arguments an...
Mathematics, Physics and Computer Sciences The computation of system matrices for biquadraticsquare finite ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... The computation of system matrices for biquadraticsquare finite elements.
background on 52 53 China’s scientific research and on their computer science before 1978. A useful companion to the directory is another publication of the...bimonthly publication in Portuguese; occasional translation of foreign articles into Portuguese. Data News: A bimonthly industry newsletter. Sistemas ...computer-related topics; Spanish. Delta: Publication of local users group; Spanish. Sistemas : Publication of System Engineers of Colombia; Spanish. CUBA
like Science in the City in which the science institutions communicate and discuss science with interested citizens. It can be done in relation to strategic plans: solving medical, environmental, socio-political problems for which the state or commercial actors provide funding. But it can also be what...... this is kind of funny, it has some kind of serious core to it in that part of science responsibility to society is to figure out the meaning of the questions that we want to pose – and furthermore: which questions can be asked. Doing this may not be limited to short-term processes, to strategic considerations...
Hu, J.; Luen, P.; Rau, P.
In the era of social networking and computing, things and people are more and more interconnected, giving rise to not only new opportunities but also new challenges in designing new products that are networked, and services that are adaptive to their human users and context aware in their physical
Rosenberg, Richard S
The Social Impact of Computers should be read as a guide to the social implications of current and future applications of computers. Among the basic themes presented are the following: the changing nature of work in response to technological innovation as well as the threat to jobs; personal freedom in the machine age as manifested by challenges to privacy, dignity, and work; the relationship between advances in computer and communications technology and the possibility of increased centralization of authority; and the emergence and influence of artificial intelligence and its role in decision
Horst, Maja; Glerup, Cecilie
The paper investigates the discourse on social responsibility in science as it appears in academic journals. Through database searches a collection of more than 300 papers have been analysed in order to map their answers to the following three questions: - What is the central problem that threatens...... responsibility in science? - What are the central aspects of science or its relation to society that need to be regulated or changed? - What kinds of solutions are imagined and how are these solutions supposed to be put into place? On this basis the paper explores how different interpretations of the notion...... of social responsibility of science imply different forms of governance of and within science. The paper employs a Foucaldian discourse analysis to understand how a particular conceptualisation of responsibility implies a political rationality, i.e. a particular form of governance of science. The analysis...
Simon, Herbert A.
This article reviews some recent technical progress in the social sciences and three frontier areas including evolutionary theory as related to sociobiology, the theory of human rational choice, and cognitive science. These areas offer explanations for broad areas of human behavior. (Author/SA)
Davis, Martin D; Rheinboldt, Werner
Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expa
A taxonomy of computer science is included, one state of the art of each of the major computer science categories is summarized. A functional breakdown of NASA programs under Aeronautics R and D, space R and T, and institutional support is also included. These areas were assessed against the computer science categories. Concurrent processing, highly reliable computing, and information management are identified.
Dev Raj Dahal
Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the
The interface of Operation Research and Computer Science - although elusive to a precise definition - has been a fertile area of both methodological and applied research. The papers in this book, written by experts in their respective fields, convey the current state-of-the-art in this interface across a broad spectrum of research domains which include optimization techniques, linear programming, interior point algorithms, networks, computer graphics in operations research, parallel algorithms and implementations, planning and scheduling, genetic algorithms, heuristic search techniques and dat
Link, J; Pachaly, J
In a retrospective 18-month study the infusion therapy applied in a great anesthesia institute is examined. The data of the course of anesthesia recorded on magnetic tape by routine are analysed for this purpose bya computer with the statistical program SPSS. It could be proved that the behaviour of the several anesthetists is very different. Various correlations are discussed.
In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised.
In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised
... of Nigerian computer science / Information Communication Technology (ICT) graduates. ... It also x-rays the women performance in Computer Science. ... key players were analyzed using variables such as competence, creativity, innovation, ...
Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus
The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations (C of I) was not a book that I had any long-standing plans to write. The manuscript did, however, grow out of two related and long-standing frustrations that I had with discussions in Political Science in general and International Relations in particular about research design, causation, and the basic contours of knowledge-production. First of all, people seemed to invariably conflate questions of method or technique with questions of methodol...
Ehret, Philip; Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Gipp, Bela
This is a research-in-progress paper concerning two types of institutional rankings, the Leiden and QS World ranking, and their relationship to a list of universities’ ‘geo-based’ impact scores, and Computing Research and Education Conference (CORE) participation scores in the field of computer...... science. A ‘geo-based’ impact measure examines the geographical distribution of incoming citations to a particular university’s journal articles for a specific period of time. It takes into account both the number of citations and the geographical variability in these citations. The CORE participation...... score is calculated on the basis of the number of weighted proceedings papers that a university has contributed to either an A*, A, B, or C conference as ranked by the Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia. In addition to calculating the correlations between the distinct university...
Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.
Yen, Neil; Park, James; CSA 2013
The theme of CSA is focused on the various aspects of computer science and its applications for advances in computer science and its applications and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of computer science and its applications. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in computer science and its applications.
Le poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales" visait à présenter la recherche doctorale de l'auteure au grand public dans le cadre de la Journée des Maladies Rares du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège dont le thème était "la recherche sur les maladies rares". Réalisé spécialement pour l'occasion, le poster explicitait de manière synthétique le sujet de recherche, la méthodologie, certains résultats, ainsi que les apports possibles des échanges entre chercheurs en sciences et sociales...
Although nearly every college offers a major in computer science, many computer science teachers at the secondary level have received little formal training. This paper presents details of a project that could make a significant contribution to national efforts to improve computer science education by combining teacher education and professional…
Computer science and the liberal arts have much to offer each other. Yet liberal arts colleges, in particular, have been slow to recognize the opportunity that the study of computer science provides for achieving the goals of a liberal education. After the precipitous drop in computer science enrollments during the first decade of this century,…
It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…
Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.
A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.
University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…
Anderson, Loren James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Marion Kei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
We explore functional programming through a 16-week internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Functional programming is a branch of computer science that has exploded in popularity over the past decade due to its high-level syntax, ease of parallelization, and abundant applications. First, we summarize functional programming by listing the advantages of functional programming languages over the usual imperative languages, and we introduce the concept of parsing. Second, we discuss the importance of lambda calculus in the theory of functional programming. Lambda calculus was invented by Alonzo Church in the 1930s to formalize the concept of effective computability, and every functional language is essentially some implementation of lambda calculus. Finally, we display the lasting products of the internship: additions to a compiler and runtime system for the pure functional language STG, including both a set of tests that indicate the validity of updates to the compiler and a compiler pass that checks for illegal instances of duplicate names.
Hules, John A.
Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics
Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja
This article employs the Foucauldian notion of ‘political rationality’ to map discussions and ideals about the responsibility of science toward society. By constructing and analyzing an archive of 263 journal papers, four political rationalities were identified: the Demarcation rationality, which......, which insists that responsible science should live up to public demands for innovation and democracy; and the Integration rationality, which advocates that science should be co-constructed with societal actors in order to be socially responsible. While each rationality is distinct, the article argues...... that all of them address the issue of a boundary (or integration) between science and society. Hence, it is not possible for scientists to avoid ‘a relationship’ with society. The political question is how this relationship is to be defined and regulated....
Computing, Environment and Life Sciences Research Divisions BIOBiosciences CPSComputational Science DSLData Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Biosciences Division Environmental Science Division Mathematics and Computer Science Division Facilities and Institutes Argonne Leadership Computing Facility News Events About
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Page, B.; Hilty, L.M.
Environmental computer science is a new partial discipline of applied computer science, which makes use of methods and techniques of information processing in environmental protection. Thanks to the inter-disciplinary nature of environmental problems, computer science acts as a mediator between numerous disciplines and institutions in this sector. The handbook reflects the broad spectrum of state-of-the art environmental computer science. The following important subjects are dealt with: Environmental databases and information systems, environmental monitoring, modelling and simulation, visualization of environmental data and knowledge-based systems in the environmental sector. (orig.) [de
The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.
University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real outputs are of no common value. It is necessary that rankings be soundly based in scientific terms if a virtuous relationship between performance and...
Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.
The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.
Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo
Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into
Second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012)
This book includes the proceedings of the second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012), which was held during January 13-14, 2012 in Sanya, China. The papers in these proceedings of CES 2012 focus on the researchers’ advanced works in their fields of Computer Science and Engineering mainly organized in four topics, (1) Software Engineering, (2) Intelligent Computing, (3) Computer Networks, and (4) Artificial Intelligence Software.
Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt
This article investigates the writings of Danish science journalist Børge Michelsen from 1939 to 1956. As part of the international social relations of science movement in the period, Michelsen transformed science journalism from mere reporting on issues pertaining to science into performing...... the social function of science journalism: advancing and enacting the social relations of science. Based on analyses of Michelsen's articles and other initiatives, this study suggests that the social function of science journalism practiced by Michelsen showed many new and conflicting aspects. From...... new links to reinforce mutual relations between scientists and policy-makers, between scientists and journalists, and between science and the public. Finally, in the concluding remarks, the contemporary significance of Michelsen's social function of science journalism is discussed....
Keele, Luke John
An introductory guide to smoothing techniques, semiparametric estimators, and their related methods, this book describes the methodology via a selection of carefully explained examples and data sets. It also demonstrates the potential of these techniques using detailed empirical examples drawn from the social and political sciences. Each chapter includes exercises and examples and there is a supplementary website containing all the datasets used, as well as computer code, allowing readers to replicate every analysis reported in the book. Includes software for implementing the methods in S-Plus and R.
Aspuru-Guzik, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Dam, Wim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farhi, Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaitan, Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humble, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Landahl, Andrew J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lucas, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preskill, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Svore, Krysta [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiebe, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Carl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report details the findings of the DOE ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science that was organized to assess the viability of quantum computing technologies to meet the computational requirements of the DOE’s science and energy mission, and to identify the potential impact of quantum technologies. The workshop was held on February 17-18, 2015, in Bethesda, MD, to solicit input from members of the quantum computing community. The workshop considered models of quantum computation and programming environments, physical science applications relevant to DOE's science mission as well as quantum simulation, and applied mathematics topics including potential quantum algorithms for linear algebra, graph theory, and machine learning. This report summarizes these perspectives into an outlook on the opportunities for quantum computing to impact problems relevant to the DOE’s mission as well as the additional research required to bring quantum computing to the point where it can have such impact.
Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter
The significance of computer science for economics and society is undisputed. In particular, computer science is acknowledged to play a key role in schools (e.g., by opening multiple career paths). The provision of effective computer science education in schools is dependent on teachers who are able to properly represent the discipline and whose…
Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil
Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health
Schmitz, Birgit; Czauderna, André; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Czauderna, A., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2011). Game based learning for computer science education. In G. van der Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 81-86). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit.
This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography © 2002 Birkhӓuser, this second edition provides a modern introduction to the foundations of logic, mathematics, and computers science, developing the theory that demonstrates construction of all mathematics and theoretical computer science from logic and set theory. The focus is on foundations, with specific statements of all the associated axioms and rules of logic and set theory, and provides complete details and derivations of formal proofs. Copious references to literature that document historical development is also provided. Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so uni...
V. B. Raspopov
Full Text Available Using the example of PPS «Toolbox of multimedia lessons «For Children About Chopin» we demonstrate the possibility of involving creative students in developing the software packages for educational purposes. Similar projects can be assigned to school and college students studying computer sciences and informatics, and implemented under the teachers’ supervision, as advanced assignments or thesis projects as a part of a high school course IT or Computer Sciences, a college course of Applied Scientific Research, or as a part of preparation for students’ participation in the Computer Science competitions or IT- competitions of Youth Academy of Sciences ( MAN in Russian or in Ukrainian.
McDonagh, James L; Barker, Daniel; Alderson, Rosanna G
The increasing use of computers in science allows for the scientific analyses of large datasets at an increasing pace. We provided examples and interactive demonstrations at Dundee Science Centre as part of the 2015 Women in Science festival, to present aspects of computational science to the general public. We used low-cost Raspberry Pi computers to provide hands on experience in computer programming and demonstrated the application of computers to biology. Computer games were used as a means to introduce computers to younger visitors. The success of the event was evaluated by voluntary feedback forms completed by visitors, in conjunction with our own self-evaluation. This work builds on the original work of the 4273π bioinformatics education program of Barker et al. (2013, BMC Bioinform. 14:243). 4273π provides open source education materials in bioinformatics. This work looks at the potential to adapt similar materials for public engagement events. It appears, at least in our small sample of visitors (n = 13), that basic computational science can be conveyed to people of all ages by means of interactive demonstrations. Children as young as five were able to successfully edit simple computer programs with supervision. This was, in many cases, their first experience of computer programming. The feedback is predominantly positive, showing strong support for improving computational science education, but also included suggestions for improvement. Our conclusions are necessarily preliminary. However, feedback forms suggest methods were generally well received among the participants; "Easy to follow. Clear explanation" and "Very easy. Demonstrators were very informative." Our event, held at a local Science Centre in Dundee, demonstrates that computer games and programming activities suitable for young children can be performed alongside a more specialised and applied introduction to computational science for older visitors.
The identity of computing has been fiercely debated throughout its short history. Why is it still so hard to define computing as an academic discipline? Is computing a scientific, mathematical, or engineering discipline? By describing the mathematical, engineering, and scientific traditions of computing, The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline presents a rich picture of computing from the viewpoints of the field's champions. The book helps readers understand the debates about computing as a discipline. It explains the context of computing's central debates and portrays a broad perspecti
Landau, Rubin H; Bordeianu, Cristian C
Computational physics is a rapidly growing subfield of computational science, in large part because computers can solve previously intractable problems or simulate natural processes that do not have analytic solutions. The next step beyond Landau's First Course in Scientific Computing and a follow-up to Landau and Páez's Computational Physics, this text presents a broad survey of key topics in computational physics for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, including new discussions of visualization tools, wavelet analysis, molecular dynamics, and computational fluid dynamics
Madhavan, Veni CE
Mathematics has been an important intellectual preoccupation of man for a long time. Computer science as a formal discipline is about seven decades young. However, one thing in common between all users and producers of mathematical thought is the almost involuntary use of computing. In this article, we bring to fore the many close connections and parallels between the two sciences of mathematics and computing. We show that, unlike in the other branches of human inquiry where mathematics is me...
Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó
In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.
Discusses the relationship and value of semiotics to the established domains of information science. Highlights include documentation; computer operations; the language of computing; automata theory; linguistics; speech and writing; and the written language as a unifying principle for the document and the computer. (93 references) (LRW)
Hoi, Steven CH; Boll, Susanne; Xu, Dong; Jin, Rong; King, Irwin
Presents contributions from an international selection of preeminent experts in the field Discusses topics on social-media content analysis, and examines social-media system design and analysis Describes emerging applications of social media
Hardman, Sean; Riofrio, Andres; Shams, Khawaja; Freeborn, Dana; Springer, Paul; Chafin, Brian
Cloud Computing holds tremendous potential for missions across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Several flight missions are already benefiting from an investment in cloud computing for mission critical pipelines and services through faster processing time, higher availability, and drastically lower costs available on cloud systems. However, these processes do not currently extend to general scientific algorithms relevant to earth science missions. The members of the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment task at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have worked closely with the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to integrate cloud computing into their science data processing pipeline. This paper details the efforts involved in deploying a science data system for the CARVE mission, evaluating and integrating cloud computing solutions with the system and porting their science algorithms for execution in a cloud environment.
Jayakumar, S.; Ravindran, P.; Arun Kumar, R.; Sudarshan, C.
The proceedings of the international conference on advanced materials discusses the advances being made in the area of single crystals, their preparation and device development from these crystals and details of the progress that is taking place in the computational field relating to materials science. Computational materials science makes use of advanced simulation tools and computer interfaces to develop a virtual platform which can provide a model for real-time experiments. This book includes selected papers in topics of crystal growth and computational materials science. We are confident that the new concepts and results presented will stimulate and enhance progress of research on crystal growth and computational materials science. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...... and reignite social scientific methodology. Imaginative Methodologies challenges the mainstream social science methodological orthodoxy closely guarding the boundaries between the social sciences and the arts and humanities, pointing out that authors and artists are often engaged in projects parallel to those...... of the social sciences and vice versa, and that artistic and cultural productions today do not constitute a specialist field, but are integral to our social reality. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the social sciences and across the arts and humanities working with questions...
The amount of data in everyday life has been exploding. This data increase has been especially significant in scientific fields, where substantial amounts of data must be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed. Cloud Computing with e-Science Applications explains how cloud computing can improve data management in data-heavy fields such as bioinformatics, earth science, and computer science. The book begins with an overview of cloud models supplied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and then:Discusses the challenges imposed by big data on scientific
Montag, Christian; Duke, Éilish; Markowetz, Alexander
The present paper provides insight into an emerging research discipline called Psychoinformatics. In the context of Psychoinformatics, we emphasize the cooperation between the disciplines of psychology and computer science in handling large data sets derived from heavily used devices, such as smartphones or online social network sites, in order to shed light on a large number of psychological traits, including personality and mood. New challenges await psychologists in light of the resulting "Big Data" sets, because classic psychological methods will only in part be able to analyze this data derived from ubiquitous mobile devices, as well as other everyday technologies. As a consequence, psychologists must enrich their scientific methods through the inclusion of methods from informatics. The paper provides a brief review of one area of this research field, dealing mainly with social networks and smartphones. Moreover, we highlight how data derived from Psychoinformatics can be combined in a meaningful way with data from human neuroscience. We close the paper with some observations of areas for future research and problems that require consideration within this new discipline.
Should scientists use social media? Why practice open science? What is data science? Ten years ago, these phrases hardly existed. Now they are ubiquitous. Here I argue that these phenomena are inextricably linked and reflect similar underlying social and technological transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This Special Edited Volume is a unique approach towards Computational solution for the upcoming field of study called Vision Science. From a scientific firmament Optics, Ophthalmology, and Optical Science has surpassed an Odyssey of optimizing configurations of Optical systems, Surveillance Cameras and other Nano optical devices with the metaphor of Nano Science and Technology. Still these systems are falling short of its computational aspect to achieve the pinnacle of human vision system. In this edited volume much attention has been given to address the coupling issues Computational Science and Vision Studies. It is a comprehensive collection of research works addressing various related areas of Vision Science like Visual Perception and Visual system, Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, Psychophysics and Ophthalmology, linguistic relativity, color vision etc. This issue carries some latest developments in the form of research articles and presentations. The volume is rich of contents with technical tools ...
Journal of Computer Science and Its Application ... Cloud model construct for transaction-based cooperative systems · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The evaluation of tertiary institution service quality using HiEdQUAL and fuzzy ...
Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.
In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.
A technique that combines machine learning and quantum computing has been used to identify the particles known as Higgs bosons. The method could find applications in many areas of science. See Letter p.375
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...rationalization and restructuring of computational science within universities and Federal agencies, and the development and maintenance of a multi-decade roadmap...
Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.
Tirado-Ramos, A.; Shiflet, A.
The Third Workshop on Teaching Computational Science, within the International Conference on Computational Science, provides a platform for discussing innovations in teaching computational sciences at all levels and contexts of higher education. This editorial provides an introduction to the work
The Second Workshop on Teaching Computational Science, within the International Conference on Computational Science, provides a platform for discussing innovations in teaching computational sciences at all levels and contexts of higher education. This editorial provides an introduction to the work
subject to a series of rigorous testing, self-scrutiny and the verification of facts as ... the social sciences cannot be subject to such tests and verification. The social sciences ... until such a time when that hypothesis or theory is scrutinized and.
The article describes a case study of the World Bank's social innovation game called Urgent Evoke. The case shows that the social innovations generated by a small group of players rest upon the contributions and collaboration offered by the larger social network of gamers. The article argues...
Buckler, Chris; Koperski, Kevin; Loveland, Thomas R.
Although technology education evolved over time, and pressure increased to infuse more engineering principles and increase links to STEM (science technology, engineering, and mathematics) initiatives, there has never been an official alignment between technology and engineering education and computer science. There is movement at the federal level…
Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.
Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Rangaswamy Narasimhan: Doyen of Computer Science and Technology. Srinivasan Ramani. Article-in-a-Box Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 407-409. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Blum, Mark E.; Spangehl, Stephen D.
A competency-based, introductory social science course for college students is described. Objectives of the manual are twofold--first, to present the complete set of materials which have served as the basis of a one semester social sciences course at the University of Louisville over three years, and, second, to offer suggestions regarding…
The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...
Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.
A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…
The goal of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) is to extend the frontiers of science by solving problems that require innovative approaches and the largest-scale computing systems. ALCF's most powerful computer - Mira, an IBM Blue Gene/Q system - has nearly one million cores. How does one program such systems? What software tools are available? Which scientific and engineering applications are able to utilize such levels of parallelism? This talk will address these questions and describe a sampling of projects that are using ALCF systems in their research, including ones in nanoscience, materials science, and chemistry. Finally, the ways to gain access to ALCF resources will be presented. This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Group projects in computer science are normally delivered with reference to good software engineering practice. The discipline of software engineering is rapidly evolving, and the application of the latest 'agile techniques' to group projects causes a potential conflict with constraints imposed by regulating bodies on the computer science…
Bauer, Janice P
This book presents leading-edge research from across the globe in the field of computer science research, technology and applications. Each contribution has been carefully selected for inclusion based on the significance of the research to this fast-moving and diverse field. Some topics included are: network topology; agile programming; virtualization; and reconfigurable computing.
Full Text Available The paper “Computer science and the recent innovations of the modern society” presents the importance of computer science, with the most important historical moments in its evolution, the main theoretical elements of the computation science, computer elements and architecture and the latest innovations in the computer science, such as Artificial Intelligence.
Engerman, David C
This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.
Mishra, Krishn; Tiwari, Shailesh; Singh, Vivek
Exchange of information and innovative ideas are necessary to accelerate the development of technology. With advent of technology, intelligent and soft computing techniques came into existence with a wide scope of implementation in engineering sciences. Keeping this ideology in preference, this book includes the insights that reflect the ‘Advances in Computer and Computational Sciences’ from upcoming researchers and leading academicians across the globe. It contains high-quality peer-reviewed papers of ‘International Conference on Computer, Communication and Computational Sciences (ICCCCS 2016), held during 12-13 August, 2016 in Ajmer, India. These papers are arranged in the form of chapters. The content of the book is divided into two volumes that cover variety of topics such as intelligent hardware and software design, advanced communications, power and energy optimization, intelligent techniques used in internet of things, intelligent image processing, advanced software engineering, evolutionary and ...
This paper proposes a teaching method that utilizes video games in computer science education. The primary characteristic of this approach is that it utilizes video games as observational materials. The underlying idea is that by observing the computational behavior of a wide variety of video games, learners will easily grasp the fundamental architecture, theory, and technology of computers. The results of a case study conducted indicate that the method enhances the motivation of students for...
Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational
Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.
Diagrams, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23-36, 2009. Topics covered include: divide and conquer construction of Voronoi diagrams; new generalized Voronoi diagrams or properties of existing generalized Voronoi diagrams; and applications of Voronoi diagrams and their duals in graph theory, computer...... graphics, bioinformatics, and spatial process simulation....
Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.
The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science‿ discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly
Pidko, E.A.; Santen, van R.A.; Chester, A.W.; Derouane, E.G.
This chapter presents an overview of different computational methods and their application to various fields of zeolite chemistry. We will discuss static lattice methods based on interatomic potentials to predict zeolite structures and topologies, Monte Carlo simulations for the investigation of
Marandjian, H.; Shoukourian, Yu.
This survey is devoted to the development of informatics and computer science in Armenia. The results in theoretical computer science (algebraic models, solutions to systems of general form recursive equations, the methods of coding theory, pattern recognition and image processing), constitute the theoretical basis for developing problem-solving-oriented environments. As examples can be mentioned: a synthesizer of optimized distributed recursive programs, software tools for cluster-oriented implementations of two-dimensional cellular automata, a grid-aware web interface with advanced service trading for linear algebra calculations. In the direction of solving scientific problems that require high-performance computing resources, examples of completed projects include the field of physics (parallel computing of complex quantum systems), astrophysics (Armenian virtual laboratory), biology (molecular dynamics study of human red blood cell membrane), meteorology (implementing and evaluating the Weather Research and Forecast Model for the territory of Armenia). The overview also notes that the Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia has established a scientific and educational infrastructure, uniting computing clusters of scientific and educational institutions of the country and provides the scientific community with access to local and international computational resources, that is a strong support for computational science in Armenia.
Snell, Joel C.
The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.
Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena
Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…
The Second SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering was held in San Diego from February 10-12, 2003. Total conference attendance was 553. This is a 23% increase in attendance over the first conference. The focus of this conference was to draw attention to the tremendous range of major computational efforts on large problems in science and engineering, to promote the interdisciplinary culture required to meet these large-scale challenges, and to encourage the training of the next generation of computational scientists. Computational Science & Engineering (CS&E) is now widely accepted, along with theory and experiment, as a crucial third mode of scientific investigation and engineering design. Aerospace, automotive, biological, chemical, semiconductor, and other industrial sectors now rely on simulation for technical decision support. For federal agencies also, CS&E has become an essential support for decisions on resources, transportation, and defense. CS&E is, by nature, interdisciplinary. It grows out of physical applications and it depends on computer architecture, but at its heart are powerful numerical algorithms and sophisticated computer science techniques. From an applied mathematics perspective, much of CS&E has involved analysis, but the future surely includes optimization and design, especially in the presence of uncertainty. Another mathematical frontier is the assimilation of very large data sets through such techniques as adaptive multi-resolution, automated feature search, and low-dimensional parameterization. The themes of the 2003 conference included, but were not limited to: Advanced Discretization Methods; Computational Biology and Bioinformatics; Computational Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Computational Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Computational Electromagnetics; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Computational Medicine and Bioengineering; Computational Physics and Astrophysics; Computational Solid Mechanics and Materials; CS
Jie, Wei; Daw, Michael; Procter, Rob; Voss, Alex
The e-Infrastructure for e-Social Sciences project leverages Grid computing technology to provide an integrated platform which enables social science researchers to securely access a variety of e-Science resources. Security underpins the e-Infrastructure and a security framework with authentication and authorization functionality is a core component of the e-Infrastructure for social sciences. To build the security framework, we adopt Shibboleth as the basic authentication and authorization i...
Edgington, Jeffrey Michael
Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.
Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.
Background: Computational exposure science represents a frontier of environmental science that is emerging and quickly evolving.Objectives: In this commentary, we define this burgeoning discipline, describe a framework for implementation, and review some key ongoing research elements that are advancing the science with respect to exposure to chemicals in consumer products.Discussion: The fundamental elements of computational exposure science include the development of reliable, computationally efficient predictive exposure models; the identification, acquisition, and application of data to support and evaluate these models; and generation of improved methods for extrapolating across chemicals. We describe our efforts in each of these areas and provide examples that demonstrate both progress and potential.Conclusions: Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source
Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.
Beerenwinkel, Niko; Siebourg, Juliane
In this chapter, we review basic concepts from probability theory and computational statistics that are fundamental to evolutionary genomics. We provide a very basic introduction to statistical modeling and discuss general principles, including maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Markov chains, hidden Markov models, and Bayesian network models are introduced in more detail as they occur frequently and in many variations in genomics applications. In particular, we discuss efficient inference algorithms and methods for learning these models from partially observed data. Several simple examples are given throughout the text, some of which point to models that are discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters.
Harris, J.K. [Francis Marion Univ., Florence, SC (United States)
Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.
Mark, J.E. Glicksman, M.E.; Marsh, S.P.
The Symposium on which this volume is based was conceived as a timely expression of some of the fast-paced developments occurring throughout materials science and engineering. It focuses particularly on those involving modern computational methods applied to model and predict the response of materials under a diverse range of physico-chemical conditions. The current easy access of many materials scientists in industry, government laboratories, and academe to high-performance computers has opened many new vistas for predicting the behavior of complex materials under realistic conditions. Some have even argued that modern computational methods in materials science and engineering are literally redefining the bounds of our knowledge from which we predict structure-property relationships, perhaps forever changing the historically descriptive character of the science and much of the engineering
Nicolas P. Rougier
Full Text Available Computer science offers a large set of tools for prototyping, writing, running, testing, validating, sharing and reproducing results; however, computational science lags behind. In the best case, authors may provide their source code as a compressed archive and they may feel confident their research is reproducible. But this is not exactly true. James Buckheit and David Donoho proposed more than two decades ago that an article about computational results is advertising, not scholarship. The actual scholarship is the full software environment, code, and data that produced the result. This implies new workflows, in particular in peer-reviews. Existing journals have been slow to adapt: source codes are rarely requested and are hardly ever actually executed to check that they produce the results advertised in the article. ReScience is a peer-reviewed journal that targets computational research and encourages the explicit replication of already published research, promoting new and open-source implementations in order to ensure that the original research can be replicated from its description. To achieve this goal, the whole publishing chain is radically different from other traditional scientific journals. ReScience resides on GitHub where each new implementation of a computational study is made available together with comments, explanations, and software tests.
Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Guillaume; Kelso, J A Scott
To complement experimental efforts toward understanding human social interactions at both neural and behavioral levels, two computational approaches are presented: (1) a fully parameterizable mathematical model of a social partner, the Human Dynamic Clamp which, by virtue of experimentally controlled interactions between Virtual Partners and real people, allows for emergent behaviors to be studied; and (2) a multiscale neurocomputational model of social coordination that enables exploration of social self-organization at all levels-from neuronal patterns to people interacting with each other. These complementary frameworks and the cross product of their analysis aim at understanding the fundamental principles governing social behavior.
Martin, Hedley G
Mathematics for Engineering, Technology and Computing Science is a text on mathematics for courses in engineering, technology, and computing science. It covers linear algebra, ordinary differential equations, and vector analysis, together with line and multiple integrals. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with a discussion on determinants and linear equations, with emphasis on how the value of a determinant is defined and how it may be obtained. Solution of linear equations and the dependence between linear equations are also considered. The next chapter introduces the reader to
Belcaid, Mahdi; Toonen, Robert J
In this age of data-driven science and high-throughput biology, computational thinking is becoming an increasingly important skill for tackling both new and long-standing biological questions. However, despite its obvious importance and conspicuous integration into many areas of biology, computer science is still viewed as an obscure field that has, thus far, permeated into only a few of the biology curricula across the nation. A national survey has shown that lack of computational literacy in environmental sciences is the norm rather than the exception [Valle & Berdanier (2012) Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 93, 373-389]. In this article, we seek to introduce a few important concepts in computer science with the aim of providing a context-specific introduction aimed at research biologists. Our goal was to help biologists understand some of the most important mainstream computational concepts to better appreciate bioinformatics methods and trade-offs that are not obvious to the uninitiated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C
Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.
Rosen, Devan; Barnett, George A.; Kim, Jang Hyun
The science of social network analysis has co-evolved with the development of online environments and computer-mediated communication. Unique and precise data available from computer and information systems have allowed network scientists to explore novel social phenomena and develop new methods. Additionally, advances in the structural analysis and visualization of computer-mediated social networks have informed developers and shaped the design of social media tools. This article reviews som...
Full Text Available Employment and the unity of social sciences are discussed. The paper argues that employment is the simplest and the best indicator of human-centered sustainable and secure development.
.... At the risk of adding to the veritable cottage industry of distortion, this article attempts to add conceptual clarity by demonstrating that Clausewitz was formulating a social science approach...
Whereas it is obvious that every computation process is a physical process it has hardly been recognized that many complex physical processes bear similarities to computation processes. This is in particular true for the control of physical systems on the nanoscopic level: usually the system can only be accessed via a rather limited set of elementary control operations and for many purposes only a concatenation of a large number of these basic operations will implement the desired process. This concatenation is in many cases quite similar to building complex programs from elementary steps and principles for designing algorithm may thus be a paradigm for designing control processes. For instance, one can decrease the temperature of one part of a molecule by transferring its heat to the remaining part where it is then dissipated to the environment. But the implementation of such a process involves a complex sequence of electromagnetic pulses. This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. We show that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer. Likewise, the implementation of a heat engine on the nanoscale requires to process the heat in a way that is similar to information processing and it can be shown that heat engines with maximal efficiency would be powerful computers, too. In the same way as problems in computer science can be classified by complexity classes we can also classify control problems according to their complexity. Moreover, we directly relate these complexity classes for control problems to the classes in computer science. Unifying notions of complexity in computer science and physics has therefore two aspects: on the one hand, computer science methods help to analyze the complexity of physical processes. On the other hand, reasonable
Barret, Anna R.; Carnett, George S.
Described are current trends in the social and behavioral sciences intended to meet the needs of the educational community. The projects listed include studies in anthropology, sociology, political science, history, geography, foreign area studies, economics, international relations, and environmental education. Part I of the directory lists…
The Global Conference on Applied Computing in Science and Engineering is organized by academics and researchers belonging to different scientific areas of the C3i/Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre (Portugal) and the University of Extremadura (Spain) with the technical support of ScienceKnow Conferences. The event has the objective of creating an international forum for academics, researchers and scientists from worldwide to discuss worldwide results and proposals regarding to the soundest issues related to Applied Computing in Science and Engineering. This event will include the participation of renowned keynote speakers, oral presentations, posters sessions and technical conferences related to the topics dealt with in the Scientific Program as well as an attractive social and cultural program. The papers will be published in the Proceedings e-books. The proceedings of the conference will be sent to possible indexing on Thomson Reuters (selective by Thomson Reuters, not all-inclusive) and Google Scholar...
Open European Academy of Public Sciences
The Organizing Committee of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of the Open European Academy of Social Sciences(Spain, Barcelona), in partnership with the Barcelona University (Spain, Barcelona), the Berlin University (Germany, Berlin) Conference sections: Anthropology, Demography and Ethnography, Journalism, Art History and Culturology History and archeology, Political science, Psychology, Pedagogy Regional studies and socio-economic geography, Relig...
Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit
The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…
Kothe, Douglas B [ORNL
Scientific computation has come into its own as a mature technology in all fields of science. Never before have we been able to accurately anticipate, analyze, and plan for complex events that have not yet occurred from the operation of a reactor running at 100 million degrees centigrade to the changing climate a century down the road. Combined with the more traditional approaches of theory and experiment, scientific computation provides a profound tool for insight and solution as we look at complex systems containing billions of components. Nevertheless, it cannot yet do all we would like. Much of scientific computation s potential remains untapped in areas such as materials science, Earth science, energy assurance, fundamental science, biology and medicine, engineering design, and national security because the scientific challenges are far too enormous and complex for the computational resources at hand. Many of these challenges are of immediate global importance. These challenges can be overcome by a revolution in computing that promises real advancement at a greatly accelerated pace. Planned petascale systems (capable of a petaflop, or 1015 floating point operations per second) in the next 3 years and exascale systems (capable of an exaflop, or 1018 floating point operations per second) in the next decade will provide an unprecedented opportunity to attack these global challenges through modeling and simulation. Exascale computers, with a processing capability similar to that of the human brain, will enable the unraveling of longstanding scientific mysteries and present new opportunities. Table ES.1 summarizes these scientific opportunities, their key application areas, and the goals and associated benefits that would result from solutions afforded by exascale computing.
The aim of this Conference was to become a forum for discussion of both academic and industrial research in those areas of computational engineering science and mechanics which involve and enrich the rational application of computers, numerical methods, and mechanics, in modern technology. The papers presented at this Conference cover the following topics: Solid and Structural Mechanics, Constitutive Modelling, Inelastic and Finite Deformation Response, Transient Analysis, Structural Control and Optimization, Fracture Mechanics and Structural Integrity, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Compressible and Incompressible Flow, Aerodynamics, Transport Phenomena, Heat Transfer and Solidification, Electromagnetic Field, Related Soil Mechanics and MHD, Modern Variational Methods, Biomechanics, and Off-Shore-Structural Mechanics.
Solution of many problems in materials science requires that high performance computing (HPC) be used. Therefore, a cluster computer, Latvian Super-cluster (LASC), was constructed at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Latvia in 2002. The LASC is used for advanced research in the fields of quantum chemistry, solid state physics and nano materials. In this work we overview currently available computational technologies and exemplify their application by interpretation of x-ray absorption spectra for nano-sized ZnO. (author)
Gelenbe, E.; Orhun, E.; Basar, E.
The symposium presented in this book covered the following topics in computer and information sciences: computer networks, computers in education, software engineering, modelling and simulation, concurrency, artificial intelligence, image and signal processing, data base systems, operating systems, parallel processing, robotics, reliability, computer architecture, CAD/CAM, and social and technical applications. Many of the papers presented are studies on computer networks, computers in education, artificial intelligence, software engineering, concurrency, data base systems, image processing, and parallel processing
Duff, I.S.; Reid, J.K.
These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. These concern hardware and software for vector and parallel processors, numerical methods and algorithms for the computation on such processors, as well as applications of such methods to different fields of physics and related sciences. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)
Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.
With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services demonstration grant, librarians of the Undergraduate Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign partnered with students in computer science courses to design and build student-centered mobile apps. The grant work called for demonstration of student collaboration…
Armando González-Cabán; Richard W. Haynes; Sarah McCaffrey; Evan Mercer; Alan Watson
Forest Service Research and Development has a long-standing component of social fire science that since 2000 has expanded significantly. Much of this new work focuses on research that will increase understanding of the social and economic issues connected with wildland fire and fuels management. This information can enhance the ability of agencies and communities to...
McLendon, Johathan C., Ed.
This guide is written for the social studies curriculum developer interested in developing a structured multidisciplinary program based on the concepts, methodology, and structure of social science disciplines and history. Seven 15-29 page chapters are included on each discipline: Anthropology and Psychology, by Charles R. Berryman; Economics, by…
The aim of John Searle’s philosophy of society is to provide a foundation for the social sciences. Arguing that the study of social reality needs to be based on a philosophy of language, Searle claims that sociology has little to offer, since no sociologist ever took language seriously. Attacking...
How to integrate simulation-based engineering and science (SBES) into the science curriculum smoothly is a challenging question. For the importance of SBES to be appreciated, the core value of simulations-that they help people understand natural phenomena and solve engineering problems-must be taught. A strategy to achieve this goal is to introduce computational experiments to the science curriculum to replace or supplement textbook illustrations and exercises and to complement or frame hands-on or wet lab experiments. In this way, students will have an opportunity to learn about SBES without compromising other learning goals required by the standards and teachers will welcome these tools as they strengthen what they are already teaching. This paper demonstrates this idea using a number of examples in physics, chemistry, and engineering. These exemplary computational experiments show that it is possible to create a curriculum that is both deeper and wider.
Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip
This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.
Full Text Available We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1 devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2 focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3 have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.
Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny
We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.
Full Text Available “Big Data” can revolutionize historical social science if it arises from substantively important contexts and is oriented towards answering substantively important questions. Such data may be especially important for answering previously largely intractable questions about the timing and sequencing of events, and of event boundaries. That said, “Big Data” makes no difference for social scientists and historians whose accounts rest on narrative sentences. Since such accounts are the norm, the effects of Big Data on the practice of historical social science may be more limited than one might wish.
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
Introduction: The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. Methods: The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Results: Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. Discussion: The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication. PMID:27092290
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication.
Full Text Available Since international tests compare the performance of students in different subjects, the issue of literacy in the social science subject is becoming more pressing. The successes and failures in international tests influence the national education policies considerably. First, the inclusion of subjects in international comparisons has consequences for their importance. Second, the race in the Olympics of education leads to an increasing focus on the output of educational processes, also measured in the central exams. Social Sciences can refuse to take part in the national comparison studies with the price of losing much more importance; they can participate with the danger of undermining their goals. This raises a lot of questions: What competences students need in this social world to reason about it und to act responsibly? What is the foundation of concepts from social science students need for guidance and understanding their place and role as an individual in society? The social science disciplines, as sociology, political science and economics in a narrow sense, history, law and geography in a broader sense, supported by philosophy, pedagogy and psychology are able to select them for educational purposes or determine such educational aims. This Journal wants to resume und discuss competences and core con¬cepts for political and economic teaching and learning as Social Science Literacy”. Contributions in this issue do not only discuss and recommend competences and core concepts from a domain specific political or economic point of view, but also from an interdisciplinary or psychological point of view. They analyse preconditions and interdependencies as well as obstacles und problems of development and diagnosis core concepts and competences of Social Science Literacy.
Lawler, James P.; Joseph, Anthony
Education in entrepreneurship is becoming a critical area of curricula for computer science students. Few schools of computer science have a concentration in entrepreneurship in the computing curricula. The paper presents Technology Entrepreneurship in the curricula at a leading school of computer science and information systems, in which students…
This volume provides the audience with an updated, in-depth and highly coherent material on the conceptually appealing and practically sound information technology of Computational Intelligence applied to the analysis, synthesis and evaluation of social networks. The volume involves studies devoted to key issues of social networks including community structure detection in networks, online social networks, knowledge growth and evaluation, and diversity of collaboration mechanisms. The book engages a wealth of methods of Computational Intelligence along with well-known techniques of linear programming, Formal Concept Analysis, machine learning, and agent modeling. Human-centricity is of paramount relevance and this facet manifests in many ways including personalized semantics, trust metric, and personal knowledge management; just to highlight a few of these aspects. The contributors to this volume report on various essential applications including cyber attacks detection, building enterprise social network...
Hamid Reza Jamali
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.
This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references
Quirk, Thomas J
This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching social science statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Social Sciences Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical social science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in social science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Social Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in ...
CSE2011 is an integrated conference concentration its focus on computer science and education. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about computer science and education of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful
As part of a school review process a survey of the students was designed to gain insight into who the students of the school were. The survey was a voluntary anonymous online survey. Students were able to skip questions and select more than one option in some questions. This was to reduce frustration with participation in the survey and ensure that the survey was completed. This conference details the average undergraduate Computer Science student of a large third level institute.
Bodei, Chiara; Grossi, Roberto; Lagan?, Maria Rita; Righi, Marco
As a young discipline, Computer Science does not rely on longly tested didactic procedures. This allows the experimentation of innovative teaching methods at schools, especially in early childhood education. Our approach is based on the idea that abstracts notions should be gained as the ﬁnal result of a learning path made of concrete and touchable steps. To illustrate our methodology, we present some of the teaching projects we proposed.
Middleton, Stuart; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis
Social media is the place to go for both journalists and the general public when news events break, offering a real-time source of eyewitness images and videos through platforms like YouTube, Instagram, and Periscope. Yet, the value of such content as a means of documenting and disseminating breaking news is compromised by the increasing amount of content misuse and false claims in social media. To this end, cost-effective social computing solutions for user-generated content verification are...
Basawapatna, Ashok Ram
Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.
Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.
The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a
Gordon, Rachel A
The book provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of both SAS and Stata "side-by-side" and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set and course exercises in which students can choose their own research questions and data set.
Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G.
In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised
This chapter introduces the ideas and practices of digital technology enthusiasts who fall under the umbrella of “hackers. “We will discuss how their defining activity has been constructed as a social problem and how that construction has been challenged in different ways. The chapter concludes with several policy suggestions aimed at addressing the more problematic aspects of computer hacking.
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.
The Nasa Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) has been a leading capacity computing facility, providing a production environment and support resources to address the challenges facing the Earth and space sciences research community.
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Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science during the period April 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983 is summarized.
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The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 1) issue of the Nexus Network Journal is dedicated to the theme “Architecture, Systems Research and Computational Sciences”. This is an outgrowth of the session by the same name which took place during the eighth international, interdisciplinary conference “Nexus 2010: Relationships between Architecture and Mathematics, held in Porto, Portugal, in June 2010. Today computer science is an integral part of even strictly historical investigations, such as those concerning the construction of vaults, where the computer is used to survey the existing building, analyse the data and draw the ideal solution. What the papers in this issue make especially evident is that information technology has had an impact at a much deeper level as well: architecture itself can now be considered as a manifestation of information and as a complex system. The issue is completed with other research papers, conference reports and book reviews.
In the past two decades, computational methods have emerged as an essential component of the scientific and engineering enterprise. A diverse assortment of scientific applications has been simulated and explored via advanced computational techniques. Computer vendors have built enormous parallel machines to support these activities, and the research community has developed new algorithms and codes, and agreed on standards to facilitate ever more ambitious computations. However, this track record of success will be increasingly hard to sustain in coming years. Power limitations constrain processor clock speeds, so further performance improvements will need to come from ever more parallelism. This higher degree of parallelism will require new thinking about algorithms, programming models, and architectural resilience. Simultaneously, cutting edge science increasingly requires more complex simulations with unstructured and adaptive grids, and multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. These new codes will push existing parallelization strategies to their limits and beyond. Emerging data-rich scientific applications are also in need of high performance computing, but their complex spatial and temporal data access patterns do not perform well on existing machines. These interacting forces will reshape high performance computing in the coming years.
Laubichler, Manfred D; Maienschein, Jane; Renn, Jürgen
Computational methods and perspectives can transform the history of science by enabling the pursuit of novel types of questions, dramatically expanding the scale of analysis (geographically and temporally), and offering novel forms of publication that greatly enhance access and transparency. This essay presents a brief summary of a computational research system for the history of science, discussing its implications for research, education, and publication practices and its connections to the open-access movement and similar transformations in the natural and social sciences that emphasize big data. It also argues that computational approaches help to reconnect the history of science to individual scientific disciplines.
Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil
We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.
van der Sijde, Peter; Doornekamp, B.G.
Nowadays, in Dutch secondary education, computer science is integrated within school subjects. About ten years ago computer science was considered an independent subject, but in the mid-1980s this idea changed. In our study we investigated whether the objectives of teaching computer science as an
Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter; Seitz, Cornelia
The authors discuss empirically determined competence areas to K-12 computer science education, emphasizing the cognitive level of competence. The results of a questionnaire with 120 professors of computer science serve as a database. By using multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis, four competence areas to computer science education…
The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the…
Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.
Constructivist approaches to computer science education emphasize that as well as knowledge, thinking skills and processes are involved in active knowledge construction. K-12 computer science curricula must not be based on fashions and trends, but on contents and processes that are observable in various domains of computer science, that can be…
Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen
The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…
Tang, W M; Chan, V S
Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This
This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to
This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…
Drost, Ellen A.
In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…
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Carragee, Kevin M.
Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…
Lopez, Jose M. Cuenca; Caceres, Myriam J. Martin
The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their…
Girard, Brian James
This study investigates two high school social science classrooms in order to better understand the pedagogical relationships among teachers, students, and disciplinary content, and how teachers can influence students' opportunities to learn disciplinary literacy. Drawing on conceptual resources from sociocultural theories of learning and…
In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social
Poirier, Maben Walter
In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…
Logan, Judith R; Price, Susan L
The core curriculum in the education of medical informaticians remains a topic of concern and discussion. This paper reports on a survey of medical informaticians with Master's level credentials that asked about computer science (CS) topics or skills that they need in their employment. All subjects were graduates or "near-graduates" of a single medical informatics Master's program that they entered with widely varying educational backgrounds. The survey instrument was validated for face and content validity prior to use. All survey items were rated as having some degree of importance in the work of these professionals, with retrieval and analysis of data from databases, database design and web technologies deemed most important. Least important were networking skills and object-oriented design and concepts. These results are consistent with other work done in the field and suggest that strong emphasis on technical skills, particularly databases, data analysis, web technologies, computer programming and general computer science are part of the core curriculum for medical informatics.
Social media (SM) is a popular and ubiquitous communication method and as such offers scientists an opportunity to directly interface with the public, improve public perception of science and scientists, and combat the growing tide of scientific misunderstanding and misinformation. It's become increasingly critical for scientists to use their voice and influence to communicate science and address misinformation. More than 60% of US adults get news from SM (1) but studies find that scientists infrequently post about science (2), missing a rich opportunity to combat scientific disinformation. While it may seem like a futile exercise to educate over SM, even passive exposure to new information can change public perceptions and behavior (3). Additionally, scientists, especially early career scientists, have social networks populated largely by non-scientists (2), allowing them an opportunity to speak to an audience that already trusts and values their scientific judgment. Importantly, these networks are often ideologically and politically diverse (4). However, science communication isn't as simple as a presentation of facts, and effective science communication via SM requires both SM competence and science communication proficiency. Thus, a discussion of best practices for both topics would benefit the scientific community. The range of potential topics for discussion is broad and could include scientific storytelling, empathetic communication, crafting a message, using SM to "humanize science", tips and tricks for broad SM information dissemination and how to run an effective SM campaign. (1) Gottfried J, Shearer E. New use across social media platforms: Pew Research Center; 2016. Available from: http://www.journalism.org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/. (2) McClain, Craig R., Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach:Becoming a "Nerd of Trust". PLOS Biology 15(6). 2017; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002020(3) Messing S
Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders
The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....
Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of philosophical and methodological considerations concerning empiricism in computer/computing science. In this study, we trace the most important current events in the history of reflection on computing. The forerunners of Artificial Intelligence H.A. Simon and A. Newell in their paper Computer Science As Empirical Inquiry (1975 started these considerations. Later the concept of empirical computer science was developed by S.S. Shapiro, P. Wegner, A.H. Eden and P.J. Denning. They showed various empirical aspects of computing. This led to a view of the science of computing (or science of information processing - the science of general scope. Some interesting contemporary ways towards a generalized perspective on computations were also shown (e.g. natural computing.
Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nørreklit, Hanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
The majority of social science research is conducted within public or semi-public institutions, such as universities. Over the past decades, these institutions have experienced substantial changes in governance structures and an increased focus on performance contracts. Obviously, the new...... structures do not enter into a governance vacuum but replace existing profession-based governance structures. The present paper has a two-fold purpose. First, we map the key features and problems of a profession-based governance system focussing on principal-agent issues and motivational drivers. Second, we...... study the implications of the current changes in the social science research landscape along with central aspects of mechanism design, validity, employee motivation as well as the ability to establish socially optimal resource allocations. We identify a number of potential problems that may come along...
What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Social Representations (SR of teachers regarding the Nature of Science (NoS, gender issues in society, Science and in the teaching context. The theoretical approach is Moscovici’s SR associated to NoS discussions, Science feminist theories and Teaching of Science. A number of twenty-two teachers were part of this research. Data were collected through the filmic record. The lexical analysis was performed using the Alceste software. Four classes were formed: NoS, Gender and women in Science, Gender and teaching context, and Gender and society. In the areas of the teachers’ education, it was not possible to find significant differences in SR. Through empirical data, the distinct argumentation of men and women is noticed. The SR of men, naturalized, discriminatory and of gender issue denial in society and Science, is more forceful than of women. It is necessary, in the initial and continued education, the problematization of gender issues in Science.
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith
Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…
Computer science faces a continuing crisis in the lack of females pursuing and succeeding in the field. Companies may suffer due to reduced product quality, students suffer because educators have failed to adjust to diverse populations, and future generations suffer due to a lack of role models and continued challenges in the environment. In this book, we draw on the latest research in sociology, psychology, and education to first identify why we should be striving for gender diversity (beyond social justice), refuting misconceptions about the differing potentials between females and males. We
During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."
José Manuel Cabrera Delgado
Full Text Available How to incorporate Computer Science (CS into the basic education curriculum continues to be subject of controversy at the European level. Without there being a defined strategy on behalf of the European Union in this respect, several countries have begun their incorporation showing us the advantages and difficulties of such action. Main elements of CS, such as computational thinking and coding, are already being taught in schools, establishing the need for a curriculum adapted to the ages of the students, training for teachers and enough resources. The purpose of this article, from the knowledge of the experience of these countries, is to respond, or at least to reflect, on the answers to the following questions: what is CS?, what are their main elements?, why is it necessary?, at what age should CS be taught?, what requirements are needed for their incorporation?
Information technology is the enabling foundation science and technology for all of human activity at the beginning of the 21st century, and advances in this area are crucial to all of us. These advances are taking place all over the world and can only be followed and perceived when researchers from all over the world assemble, and exchange their ideas in conferences such as the one presented in this proceedings volume regarding the 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Systems, held at the Institut Henri Poincare' in Paris on October 3 and 4, 2012. Computer and Information Sciences III: 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences contains novel advances in the state of the art covering applied research in electrical and computer engineering and computer science, across the broad area of information technology. It provides access to the main innovative activities in research across the world, and points to the results obtained recently by some of the most active teams ...
Lent, Ricardo; Sakellari, Georgia
Information technology is the enabling foundation for all of human activity at the beginning of the 21st century, and advances in this area are crucial to all of us. These advances are taking place all over the world and can only be followed and perceived when researchers from all over the world assemble, and exchange their ideas in conferences such as the one presented in this proceedings volume regarding the 26th International Symposium on Computer and Information Systems, held at the Royal Society in London on 26th to 28th September 2011. Computer and Information Sciences II contains novel advances in the state of the art covering applied research in electrical and computer engineering and computer science, across the broad area of information technology. It provides access to the main innovative activities in research across the world, and points to the results obtained recently by some of the most active teams in both Europe and Asia.
Damgaard, Sidse; Mølmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob
Progress in the field of quantum computation is hampered by daunting technical challenges. Here we present an alternative approach to solving these by enlisting the aid of computer players around the world. We have previously examined a quantum computation architecture involving ultracold atoms in optical lattices and strongly focused tweezers of light. In The Quantum Computer Game (see http://www.scienceathome.org/), we have encapsulated the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the problem in a graphical user interface allowing for easy user input. Players can then search the parameter space with real-time graphical feedback in a game context with a global high-score that rewards short gate times and robustness to experimental errors. The game which is still in a demo version has so far been tried by several hundred players. Extensions of the approach to other models such as Gross-Pitaevskii and Bose-Hubbard are currently under development. The game has also been incorporated into science education at high-school and university level as an alternative method for teaching quantum mechanics. Initial quantitative evaluation results are very positive. AU Ideas Center for Community Driven Research, CODER.
Przybylla, Mareen; Romeike, Ralf
Physical computing covers the design and realization of interactive objects and installations and allows students to develop concrete, tangible products of the real world, which arise from the learners' imagination. This can be used in computer science education to provide students with interesting and motivating access to the different topic…
Thackeray, Lynn Roy
The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning that women make of the social and cultural factors that influence their reasons for entering and remaining in study of computer science. The twenty-first century presents many new challenges in career development and workforce choices for both men and women. Information technology has become the driving force behind many areas of the economy. As this trend continues, it has become essential that U.S. citizens need to pursue a career in technologies, including the computing sciences. Although computer science is a very lucrative profession, many Americans, especially women, are not choosing it as a profession. Recent studies have shown no significant differences in math, technical and science competency between men and women. Therefore, other factors, such as social, cultural, and environmental influences seem to affect women's decisions in choosing an area of study and career choices. A phenomenological method of qualitative research was used in this study, based on interviews of seven female students who are currently enrolled in a post-secondary computer science program. Their narratives provided meaning into the social and cultural environments that contribute to their persistence in their technical studies, as well as identifying barriers and challenges that are faced by female students who choose to study computer science. It is hoped that the data collected from this study may provide recommendations for the recruiting, retention and support for women in computer science departments of U.S. colleges and universities, and thereby increase the numbers of women computer scientists in industry. Keywords: gender access, self-efficacy, culture, stereotypes, computer education, diversity.
Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks in ... second cycle primary level social science textbooks vis-à-vis the principles of multiculturalism. ... Biases were disclosed in gender, economic and occupational roles.
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Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E
Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.
Knight, J. C.
During the grant reporting period our primary activities have been to begin preparation for the establishment of a research program in experimental computer science. The focus of research in this program will be safety-critical systems. Many questions that arise in the effort to improve software dependability can only be addressed empirically. For example, there is no way to predict the performance of the various proposed approaches to building fault-tolerant software. Performance models, though valuable, are parameterized and cannot be used to make quantitative predictions without experimental determination of underlying distributions. In the past, experimentation has been able to shed some light on the practical benefits and limitations of software fault tolerance. It is common, also, for experimentation to reveal new questions or new aspects of problems that were previously unknown. A good example is the Consistent Comparison Problem that was revealed by experimentation and subsequently studied in depth. The result was a clear understanding of a previously unknown problem with software fault tolerance. The purpose of a research program in empirical computer science is to perform controlled experiments in the area of real-time, embedded control systems. The goal of the various experiments will be to determine better approaches to the construction of the software for computing systems that have to be relied upon. As such it will validate research concepts from other sources, provide new research results, and facilitate the transition of research results from concepts to practical procedures that can be applied with low risk to NASA flight projects. The target of experimentation will be the production software development activities undertaken by any organization prepared to contribute to the research program. Experimental goals, procedures, data analysis and result reporting will be performed for the most part by the University of Virginia.
Gordon, Rachel A
Provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of Stata and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set. A separate set of exercises allows students to select a data set to apply the concepts learned in each chapter to a research question of interest to them, all updated for this edition.
Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G
In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised.
Full Text Available Like the navigation tools that freed ancient sailors from the need to stay close to the shoreline—eventually affording the discovery of new worlds—Big Data might open us up to new sociological possibilities by freeing us from the shackles of hypothesis testing. But for that to happen we need forensic social science: the careful compilation of evidence from unstructured digital traces as a means to generate new theories.
Molecular modeling techniques have been of great applicability in the study of the biological sciences and other exact science fields like agriculture, mathematics, computer science and the like. In this write up, a list of computer programs for predicting, for instance, the structure of proteins has been provided. Discussions on ...
Describes a nationwide study to identify: (1) the representation of different areas within the social sciences (i.e. anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social/ethnic studies, sociology, and interdisciplinary social sciences) in the two-year college curriculum, and (2) which courses were offered for transfer,…
Parham, Jennifer R.
According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…
Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)
Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.
The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?
Stojmenovic, Ivan; Jeong, Hwa; Yi, Gangman
The 6th FTRA International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-14) will be held in Guam, USA, Dec. 17 - 19, 2014. CSA-14 presents a comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in engineering systems in computer science, and applications, including ubiquitous computing, U-Health care system, Big Data, UI/UX for human-centric computing, Computing Service, Bioinformatics and Bio-Inspired Computing and will show recent advances on various aspects of computing technology, Ubiquitous Computing Services and its application.
Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu
With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…
Stoilescu, Dorian; Egodawatte, Gunawardena
Research shows that female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs view computer culture differently. Female students are interested more in the use of computers than in doing programming, whereas male students see computer science mainly as a programming activity. The overall purpose of our research was not to find new…
Anastas, Jeane W.
As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…
Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David
We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…
Stoilescu, Dorian; Egodawatte, Gunawardena
Research shows that female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs view computer culture differently. Female students are interested more in the use of computers than in doing programming, whereas male students see computer science mainly as a programming activity. The overall purpose of our research was not to find new definitions for computer science culture but to see how male and female students see themselves involved in computer science practices, how they see computer science as a successful career, and what they like and dislike about current computer science practices. The study took place in a mid-sized university in Ontario. Sixteen students and two instructors were interviewed to get their views. We found that male and female views are different on computer use, programming, and the pattern of student interactions. Female and male students did not have any major issues in using computers. In computing programming, female students were not so involved in computing activities whereas male students were heavily involved. As for the opinions about successful computer science professionals, both female and male students emphasized hard working, detailed oriented approaches, and enjoying playing with computers. The myth of the geek as a typical profile of successful computer science students was not found to be true.
Akiyama, Mamoru; Miya, Kenzo; Iwata, Shuichi; Yagawa, Genki; Kondo, Shusuke; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Akinao; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Masatoshi.
The numerical simulation technology used for the design of nuclear reactors includes the scientific fields of wide range, and is the cultivated technology which grew in the steady efforts to high calculation accuracy through safety examination, reliability verification test, the assessment of operation results and so on. Taking the opportunity of putting numerical simulation to practical use in wide fields, the numerical simulation of five basic equations which describe the natural world and the progress of its related technologies are reviewed. It is expected that numerical simulation technology contributes to not only the means of design study but also the progress of science and technology such as the construction of new innovative concept, the exploration of new mechanisms and substances, of which the models do not exist in the natural world. The development of atomic energy and the progress of computers, Boltzmann's transport equation and its periphery, Navier-Stokes' equation and its periphery, Maxwell's electromagnetic field equation and its periphery, Schroedinger wave equation and its periphery, computational solid mechanics and its periphery, and probabilistic risk assessment and its periphery are described. (K.I.)
We present an overview of the nature of academic dishonesty with respect to computer science coursework. We discuss the efficacy of various policies for collaboration with regard to student education, and we consider a number of strategies for mitigating dishonest behaviour on computer science coursework by addressing some common causes. Computer science coursework is somewhat unique, in that there often exist ideal solutions for problems, and work may be shared and copied with very little ef...
Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka
This volume is based on the research papers presented in the 5th Computer Science On-line Conference. The volume Artificial Intelligence Perspectives in Intelligent Systems presents modern trends and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in the field of artificial intelligence. New algorithms in a variety of fields are also presented. The Computer Science On-line Conference (CSOC 2016) is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The addressed topics are the theoretical aspects and applications of Computer Science, Artificial Intelligences, Cybernetics, Automation Control Theory and Software Engineering.
Winston P. Nagan
Full Text Available This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic. As an ancient philosopher put it, change is so ubiquitous that you cannot jump into the same river twice. Since we tend to look at social dynamics in a more static way, one major theorist reminds us that the stable in social process is a special case of the unstable. The article underscores a point that the anticipatory perspective is a ubiquitous part of social dynamics and change. Indeed, it is a critical component of social coexistence. To briefly illustrate, if the members of a governing group come into power, they will immediately have to anticipate the security needs, the economic needs, the educational needs, the health and well-being needs, the skill and labor needs, the food needs of the body politic, the requirements of effective family relationships, the requirements of morality and ethics and the needs of aesthetics. The paper provides a framework in which anticipation is used to predict the problems that emerge from the social process. The value of a social science that facilitates anticipation before problems occur provides opportunities on the time-space manifold of society to develop problem-solving strategies with a better chance of those strategies being successful. To utilize this approach, the authors provide the sophisticated model of social process developed by WAAS Fellows Lasswell and McDougal: Human beings pursue values through institutions based on resources. Using this model the authors provide a provisional map of the social process with key markers at points likely to generate important problems. The markers in the maps are as follows: participators
Informatics is about information and its processing, also known as computation. Nowadays, children grow up taking smartphones and the internet for granted. Information and computation rule society. Science uses computerized equipment to collect, analyze, and visualize massive amounts of data.
Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor
We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Wayne, James J.
Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.
The article deals with the formation of computer science as science and school subject as well in the system of education in Ukraine taking into consideration the development tendencies of this science in the world. The introduction of the notion« information technology», «computer science» and «informatics science» into the science, their correlation and the peculiarities of subject sphere determination are analyzed through the historical aspect. The author considers the points of view conce...
Ruggirello, Rachel; Flohr, Linda
This forum explores contradictions that arose within the partnership between Teach for America (TFA) and a university teacher education program. TFA is an alternate route teacher preparation program that places individuals into K-12 classrooms in low-income school districts after participating in an intense summer training program and provides them with ongoing support. This forum is a conversation about the challenges we faced as new science teachers in the TFA program and in the Peace Corps program. We both entered the teaching field with science degrees and very little formal education in science education. In these programs we worked in a community very different from the one we had experienced as students. These experiences allow us to address many of the issues that were discussed in the original paper, namely teaching in an unfamiliar community amid challenges that many teachers face in the first few years of teaching. We consider how these challenges may be amplified for teachers who come to teaching through an alternate route and may not have as much pedagogical training as a more traditional teacher education program provides. The forum expands on the ideas presented in the original paper to consider the importance of perspectives on socially just science education. There is often a disconnect between what is taught in teacher education programs and what teachers actually experience in urban classrooms and this can be amplified when the training received through alternate route provides a different framework as well. This forum urges universities and alternate route programs to continue to find ways to authentically partner using practical strategies that bring together the philosophies and goals of all stakeholders in order to better prepare teachers to partner with their students to achieve their science learning goals.
In this paper we propose the structure of an exploratory course in theoretical computer science intended for a broad range of students (and especially kids). The course is built on computational cards, a simple paper toy, in which playing cards are computational elements; computing machines can...
Moser, C.; Birkholz, J.M.; Deichmann, D.; Hellsten, I.; Wang, S.
In this paper, we explore changes in both structural and semantic characteristics of a scientific social network. We trace the emergence of knowledge, what we refer to as ideation, through publication data from two conferences in a sub-field of Computer Science. Social network analysis is used to
Information professionals are increasingly responsible not only for running traditional information and library services but also for providing an online presence for their organisation. This book shows how best practice in delivering online information services should be based on actual user needs and behaviour. A series of case studies provide real life examples of how social science information is being used in the community. The book then draws on these case studies to outline the main issues facing service providers: such as usability, metadata and management. The book concludes with a lo
Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L
To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model
In this discussion, Richard Sennett and Hans Joas elaborate on the role of both creativity and pragmatism in the social sciences. They pursue these topics from different perspectives: the role creativity played in the history of ideas and in classical pragmatism, what creativity means...... in the practice of the arts and how a creative pragmatist sociology might be possible. Pragmatism, they conclude, may not be a new idea, but the practice of pragmatism offers a new political vision beyond the traditional frontiers of left and right....
Introduction to Research in Social and Behavioral SciencesBasic Principles of ResearchPlanning for ResearchTypes of Research Designs Sampling ProceduresValidity and Reliability of Measurement InstrumentsSteps of the Research Process Introduction to Nonparametric StatisticsData AnalysisOverview of Nonparametric Statistics and Parametric Statistics Overview of Parametric Statistics Overview of Nonparametric StatisticsImportance of Nonparametric MethodsMeasurement InstrumentsAnalysis of Data to Determine Association and Agreement Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association and IndependenceContingency
Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Computer science has one of the largest gender disparities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. An important reason for this disparity is that girls are less likely than boys to enroll in necessary "pipeline courses," such as introductory computer science. Two experiments investigated whether high-school girls' lower…
Enrico eDi Minin
Full Text Available Social media data have been extensively used in numerous fields of science, but examples of their use in conservation science are still very limited. In this paper, we propose a framework on how social media data could be useful for conservation science and practice. We present the commonly used social media platforms and discuss how their content could be providing new data and information for conservation science. Based on this, we discuss how future work in conservation science and practice would benefit from social media data.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear
Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…
Galambos, Eva C.
This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…
Berube, David M.
This article examines the state of social science of science, particularly nanoscience. It reviews what has been done and offers a series of constructive criticisms. It examines some of the problems associated with experts and expertise and itemizes challenges we confront dealing with them. It presages some of the social science research work that we may consider to embrace in the future.
Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele
This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…
Rakhimzhanova, B. Lyazzat; Issabayeva, N. Darazha; Khakimova, Tiyshtik; Bolyskhanova, J. Madina
The purpose of this study was to justify of the formation technique of representation of modeling methodology at computer science lessons. The necessity of studying computer modeling is that the current trends of strengthening of general education and worldview functions of computer science define the necessity of additional research of the…
Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.
This report documents the work performed by the University of New Mexico Principal Investigators and Research Assistants while hosting the highly successful Summer 1994 Computational Sciences Workshop in Albuquerque on August 6--11, 1994. Included in this report is a final budget for the workshop, along with a summary of the participants` evaluation of the workshop. The workshop proceeding have been delivered under separate cover. In order to assist in the organization of future workshops, we have also included in this report detailed documentation of the pre- and post-workshop activities associated with this contract. Specifically, we have included a section that documents the advertising performed, along with the manner in which applications were handled. A complete list of the workshop participants in this section. Sample letters that were generated while dealing with various commercial entities and departments at the University are also included in a section dealing with workshop logistics. Finally, we have included a section in this report that deals with suggestions for future workshops.
Brey, Philip A.E.
This paper addresses social and ethical issues in computer-mediated education, with a focus on higher education. It will be argued if computer-mediated education is to be implemented in a socially and ethically sound way, four major social and ethical issues much be confronted. These are: (1) the
Full Text Available Over the years, computation has become a fundamental part of the scientific practice in several research fields that goes far beyond the boundaries of natural sciences. Data mining, machine learning, simulations and other computational methods lie today at the hearth of the scientific endeavour in a growing number of social research areas from anthropology to economics. In this scenario, an increasingly important role is played by analytical platforms: integrated environments allowing researchers to experiment cutting-edge data-driven and computation-intensive analyses. The paper discusses the appearance of such tools in the emerging field of computational legal science. After a general introduction to the impact of computational methods on both natural and social sciences, we describe the concept and the features of an analytical platform exploring innovative cross-methodological approaches to the academic and investigative study of crime. Stemming from an ongoing project involving researchers from law, computer science and bioinformatics, the initiative is presented and discussed as an opportunity to raise a debate about the future of legal scholarship and, inside of it, about the challenges of computational legal science.
Walker, Henry M.; Kelemen, Charles
This article explores the philosophy and position of the discipline of computer science within the liberal arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer science and a review of the characteristics of the liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but also presents important…
With the development of XML Web Services, the Internet could become an integral part of and the basis for teaching computer science and software engineering. The approach has been applied to a university course for students studying introduction to computer science from the point of view of software development in a stateless, Internet…
Teaching science with computer simulations is a complex undertaking. This case study examines how an experienced science teacher taught chemistry using computer simulations and the impact of his teaching on his students. Classroom observations over 3 semesters, teacher interviews, and student surveys were collected. The data was analyzed for (1)…
Pollack, Seymour V., Ed.
The nine articles in this collection were selected because they represent concerns central to computer science, emphasize topics of particular interest to mathematicians, and underscore the wide range of areas deeply and continually affected by computer science. The contents consist of: "Introduction" (S. V. Pollack), "The…
Stoilescu, Dorian; McDougall, Douglas
Previous research revealed a reduced number of female students registered in computer science studies. In addition, the female students feel isolated, have reduced confidence, and underperform. This article explores differences between female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs in a mid-size university in Ontario. Based on…
Fluck, Andrew; Webb, Mary; Cox, Margaret; Angeli, Charoula; Malyn-Smith, Joyce; Voogt, Joke; Zagami, Jason
Computer science has been a discipline for some years, and its position in the school curriculum has been contested differently in several countries. This paper looks at its role in three countries to illustrate these differences. A reconsideration of computer science as a separate subject both in primary and secondary education is suggested. At…
Educational Horizons, 2014
Pat Yongpradit is the director of education at Code.org. He leads all education efforts, including professional development and curriculum creation, and he builds relationships with school districts. Pat joined "Educational Horizons" to talk about why it is important to teach computer science--even for non-computer science teachers. This…
Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony; Narula, Stuti
Corporate entrepreneurship is a critical area of curricula for computer science and information systems students. Few institutions of computer science and information systems have entrepreneurship in the curricula however. This paper presents entrepreneurial health informatics as a course in a concentration of Technology Entrepreneurship at a…
This article surveys the examination requirements for attaining degree candidate (candidacy) status in computer science doctoral programs at all of the computer science doctoral granting institutions in the United States. It presents a framework for program examination requirement categorization, and categorizes these programs by the type or types…
We present an overview of the nature of academic dishonesty with respect to computer science coursework. We discuss the efficacy of various policies for collaboration with regard to student education, and we consider a number of strategies for mitigating dishonest behaviour on computer science coursework by addressing some common causes. Computer…
Nager, Adams; Atkinson, Robert
Despite the growing use of computers and software in every facet of our economy, not until recently has computer science education begun to gain traction in American school systems. The current focus on improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in the U.S. School system has disregarded differences within STEM…
Baldwin, D.; Brady, A.; Danyluk, A.; Adams, J.; Lawrence, A.
Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer computer science majors. This article illustrates how quality computer science programs can be realized in a wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the State University of New York…
...] Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Pharmaceutical Users Software Exchange (PhUSE), is announcing a public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and...
...] Annual Computational Science Symposium; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... with the Pharmaceutical Users Software Exchange (PhUSE), is announcing a public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the...
Barbara G. Ryder, professor of computer science at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, will become the computer science department head at Virginia Tech, starting in fall 2008. She is the first woman to serve as a department head in the history of the nationally ranked College of Engineering.
Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.
Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…
Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others
Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…
Flynn, Marilyn L.
Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…
Dugan, Robert F., Jr.
In this article, we surveyed literature related to undergraduate computer science capstone courses. The survey was organized around course and project issues. Course issues included: course models, learning theories, course goals, course topics, student evaluation, and course evaluation. Project issues included: software process models, software process phases, project type, documentation, tools, groups, and instructor administration. We reflected on these issues and thecomputer science capstone course we have taught for seven years. The survey summarized, organized, and synthesized the literature to provide a referenced resource for computer science instructors and researchers interested in computer science capstone courses.
Computer and Information 2012
The series "Studies in Computational Intelligence" (SCI) publishes new developments and advances in the various areas of computational intelligence – quickly and with a high quality. The intent is to cover the theory, applications, and design methods of computational intelligence, as embedded in the fields of engineering, computer science, physics and life science, as well as the methodologies behind them. The series contains monographs, lecture notes and edited volumes in computational intelligence spanning the areas of neural networks, connectionist systems, genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, cellular automata, self-organizing systems, soft computing, fuzzy systems, and hybrid intelligent systems. Critical to both contributors and readers are the short publication time and world-wide distribution - this permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results. The purpose of the 11th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2012...
Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... ... aspects of science, technology, agriculture, health and other related fields. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Mechanical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Physics and other related ...
Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles
This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…
Amouzegar, Mahyar; Ao, Sio-long
This volume contains thirty-nine revised and extended research articles, written by prominent researchers participating in the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2014, held in San Francisco, October 22-24 2014. Topics covered include engineering mathematics, electrical engineering, circuit design, communications systems, computer science, chemical engineering, systems engineering, and applications of engineering science in industry. This book describes some significant advances in engineering technologies, and also serves as an excellent source of reference for researchers and graduate students.
Juan Vicente OLTRA GUTIÉRREZ
Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal to bring ethics and ICT closer to students of the first courses of the primary education, supporting one in each other, following the Law “Real Decreto 126/2014, 28th of February”, which establishes the basic curriculum for Primary Education. Within this Law, two of seven skills in the curriculum are established: digital skill (the third and also social and civic skills (the fifth. Given the digital natives population who are receiving education, it would be a slightly more ambitious goal to be able to glimpse them to support one in another. In this area, for example, we find a specific subject such as “Social and Civic values” with evaluation criteria such as “Employ new technologies by developing social and civic values in safe environments”. Thanks to this gateway, we can introduce small door to the vision of computer science, through ethics, which may be transversal with all subjects of the curriculum. The suggestion of the present article is to confront teachers with a vision of technology from an outside perspective, from an ethical prism, once the technology is turned it off and the mobiles or tablets screens are converted into a mere black mirror.
Honey, Margaret A., Ed.; Hilton, Margaret, Ed.
At a time when scientific and technological competence is vital to the nation's future, the weak performance of U.S. students in science reflects the uneven quality of current science education. Although young children come to school with innate curiosity and intuitive ideas about the world around them, science classes rarely tap this potential.…
Conery, John S
Introduction Computation The Limits of Computation Algorithms A Laboratory for Computational ExperimentsThe Ruby WorkbenchIntroducing Ruby and the RubyLabs environment for computational experimentsInteractive Ruby Numbers Variables Methods RubyLabs The Sieve of EratosthenesAn algorithm for finding prime numbersThe Sieve Algorithm The mod Operator Containers Iterators Boolean Values and the delete if Method Exploring the Algorithm The sieve Method A Better Sieve Experiments with the Sieve A Journey of a Thousand MilesIteration as a strategy for solving computational problemsSearching and Sortin
Heelan, Patrick A.
An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogs with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. Suggests that the hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological view. (LZ)
Mustard, John F.
In the fall of 1998, MacMillan Hall opened at Brown University to students. In MacMillan Hall was the new Computer Learning Center, since named the EarthLab which was outfitted with high-end workstations and peripherals primarily focused on the use of remotely sensed and other spatial data in the environmental sciences. The NASA grant we received as part of the "Centers of Excellence in Applications of Remote Sensing to Regional and Global Integrated Environmental Assessments" was the primary source of funds to outfit this learning and research center. Since opening, we have expanded the range of learning and research opportunities and integrated a cross-campus network of disciplines who have come together to learn and use spatial data of all kinds. The EarthLab also forms a core of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research on environmental problems that draw upon the unique perspective of remotely sensed data. Over the last two years, the Earthlab has been a center for research on the environmental impact of water resource use in and regions, impact of the green revolution on forest cover in India, the design of forest preserves in Vietnam, and detailed assessments of the utility of thermal and hyperspectral data for water quality analysis. It has also been used extensively for local environmental activities, in particular studies on the impact of lead on the health of urban children in Rhode Island. Finally, the EarthLab has also served as a key educational and analysis center for activities related to the Brown University Affiliated Research Center that is devoted to transferring university research to the private sector.
The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation systems, cities, e...
CDM, for computational discrete mathematics, is a course that attempts to teach a number of topics in discrete mathematics to computer science majors. The course abandons the classical definition-theorem-proof model, and instead relies heavily on computation as a source of motivation and also for experimentation and illustration. The emphasis on…
National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Computer Sciences and Technology.
This bibliography lists publications of the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology of the National Bureau of Standards. Publications are listed by subject in the areas of computer security, computer networking, and automation technology. Sections list publications of: (1) current Federal Information Processing Standards; (2) computer…
Hermansen, Jens Christian
such phenomena. In the light of new uses ofWittgenstein within social theory and recent philosophical research on Wittgenstein (that challenge the orthodoxWinchian reception of Wittgenstein), the paper discusses the prospects of a critical social science after Wittgenstein.......In "The Idea of a Social Science" and in the article "Understanding a Primitive Society" Peter Winch develops what he believes to be the implications ofWittgenstein's late philosophy for the social sciences. Inspired byWittgenstein,Winch argues for a linguistic turn. Winch's basic ontological claim...... is that social life is conceptually organised: it is organised by the ways in which language is used by members of social life. This claim has methodological implications: the social sciences are, according to Winch, conceptual studies, that is, they are studies of the concepts possessed by members of social...
Why and how a Latin American and the Caribbean social sciences network (Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, CLACSO) started a cooperative open access digital library to disseminate research results (journal articles, books, working documents)
Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society
Miah, Abdul Quader
This book addresses the application of statistical techniques and methods across a wide range of disciplines. While its main focus is on the application of statistical methods, theoretical aspects are also provided as fundamental background information. It offers a systematic interpretation of results often discovered in general descriptions of methods and techniques such as linear and non-linear regression. SPSS is also used in all the application aspects. The presentation of data in the form of tables and graphs throughout the book not only guides users, but also explains the statistical application and assists readers in interpreting important features. The analysis of statistical data is presented consistently throughout the text. Academic researchers, practitioners and other users who work with statistical data will benefit from reading Applied Statistics for Social and Management Sciences. .
Stone, Daryl Bryant
" self-efficacy between lower-level computer science majors and upper-level computer science majors. (5) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. Finally, the researcher selected African-American male students attending six primary schools, including the predominately African-American elementary, middle and high school that the researcher attended during his own academic career. Additionally, a racially mixed elementary, middle and high school was selected from the same county in Maryland. Bowie State University provided both the underclass and upperclass computer science majors surveyed in this study. Of the five hypotheses, the sample provided enough evidence to support the claim that there are significant differences in the "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. ANOVA analysis by question and total self-efficacy scores provided more results of statistical significance. Additionally, factor analysis and review of the qualitative data provide more insightful results. Overall, the data suggest 'a clog' may exist in the middle school level and students attending racially mixed schools were more confident in their computer, math and science skills. African-American males admit to spending lots of time on social networking websites and emailing, but are 'dis-aware' of the skills and knowledge needed to study in the computing disciplines. The majority of the subjects knew little, if any, AAMs in the 'computing discipline pipeline'. The collegian African-American males, in this study, agree that computer programming is a difficult area and serves as a 'major clog in the pipeline'.
Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.
This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…
Discusses the importance of computer security and considers criminal, national security, and personal privacy threats posed by security breakdown. Several examples are given, including incidents involving computer viruses. Objectives, content, instructional strategies, resources, and a sample examination for an experimental undergraduate computer…
Kim, Haeng; Amouzegar, Mahyar
This proceedings volume contains selected revised and extended research articles written by researchers who participated in the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2015, held in San Francisco, USA, 21-23 October 2015. Topics covered include engineering mathematics, electrical engineering, circuits, communications systems, computer science, chemical engineering, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the reader an overview of the state of the art in engineering technologies, computer science, systems engineering and applications, and will serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working in these fields.
Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.
Emerging Trends in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning. This book includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2010). The proceedings are a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts presenting the state of international practice in Innovative Algorithms and Techniques in Automation, Industrial Electronics and Telecommunications.
Burrelli, Joan S.
This brief describes graduate enrollment increases in the science and engineering fields, especially in engineering and computer sciences. Graduate student enrollment is summarized by enrollment status, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and fields. (KHR)
The latest inventions in computer technology influence most of human daily activities. In the near future, there is tendency that all of aspect of human life will be dependent on computer applications. In manufacturing, robotics and automation have become vital for high quality products. In education, the model of teaching and learning is focusing more on electronic media than traditional ones. Issues related to energy savings and environment is becoming critical. Computational Science should enhance the quality of human life, not only solve their problems. Computational Science should help humans to make wise decisions by presenting choices and their possible consequences. Computational Science should help us make sense of observations, understand natural language, plan and reason with extensive background knowledge. Intelligence with wisdom is perhaps an ultimate goal for human-oriented science. This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in computer application and computational sci...
Edgington, Jeffrey Michael
Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. …
The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the U.S. population which they represent. The overall enrollment in computer science programs has continued to decline with the enrollment of women declining at a higher rate than that of men. This study addressed three aspects of underrepresentation about which there has been little previous research: addressing computing disciplines specifically rather than embedding them within the STEM disciplines, what attracts women and minorities to computer science, and addressing the issues of race/ethnicity and gender in conjunction rather than in isolation. Since women of underrepresented ethnicities are more severely underrepresented than women in general, it is important to consider whether race and ethnicity play a role in addition to gender as has been suggested by previous research. Therefore, this study examined what attracted Hispanic women to computer science specifically. The study determines whether being subjected to multiple marginalizations---female and Hispanic---played a role in the experiences of Hispanic women currently in computer science. The study found five emergent themes within the experiences of Hispanic women in computer science. Encouragement and role models strongly influenced not only the participants' choice to major in the field, but to persist as well. Most of the participants experienced a negative atmosphere and feelings of not fitting in while in college and industry. The interdisciplinary nature of computer science was the most common aspect that attracted the participants to computer science. The aptitudes participants commonly believed are needed for success in computer science are the Twenty
Full Text Available Our ability to learn from the outcomes of our actions and to adapt our decisions accordingly changes over the course of the human lifespan. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using computational models to understand developmental changes in learning and decision-making. Moreover, extensions of these models are currently applied to study socio-emotional influences on learning in different age groups, a topic that is of great relevance for applications in education and health psychology. In this article, we aim to provide an introduction to basic ideas underlying computational models of reinforcement learning and focus on parameters and model variants that might be of interest to developmental scientists. We then highlight recent attempts to use reinforcement learning models to study the influence of social information on learning across development. The aim of this review is to illustrate how computational models can be applied in developmental science, what they can add to our understanding of developmental mechanisms and how they can be used to bridge the gap between psychological and neurobiological theories of development.
Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.
Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.
Full Text Available Design science research (DSR is a relatively unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in this paradigm, this study sought to explore DSR perspectives among local computing researchers. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT such as anchoring and objectification were used to explore how researchers construct their understanding of DSR. A visual approach was used to administer drawing and association tasks to two focus groups; each focus group comprised around 25 participants ranging from doctoral students to experienced researchers. The focus group discussions invoked interesting complementary and distinctive associations about the process and content of DSR – anchored in dominant and conventional research practices. The results also illustrated several ways in which DSR is objectified by the researchers in drawings and metaphorical constructions. We conclude that SRT is useful for exploring beliefs about novel and relatively unfamiliar research practices. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of how computing researchers go about making sense and assigning meaning to changing research practices. The findings are developed into recommendations for introducing changes to research practices. These recommendations can be used to direct efforts to more appropriately accommodate changing research practices within the computing community to broaden knowledge generation.
Dimick, Alexandra Schindel
Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…
This paper describes a qualitative study that investigated the nature of the participation structures and how the participation structures were organized by four science teachers when they constructed and communicated science content in their classrooms with computer technology. Participation structures focus on the activity structures and processes in social settings like classrooms thereby providing glimpses into the complex dynamics of teacher-students interactions, configurations, and conventions during collective meaning making and knowledge creation. Data included observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. Analysis revealed that the dominant participation structure evident within participants' instruction with computer technology was ( Teacher) initiation-( Student and Teacher) response sequences-( Teacher) evaluate participation structure. Three key events characterized the how participants organized this participation structure in their classrooms: setting the stage for interactive instruction, the joint activity, and maintaining accountability. Implications include the following: (1) teacher educators need to tap into the knowledge base that underscores science teachers' learning to teach philosophies when computer technology is used in instruction. (2) Teacher educators need to emphasize the essential idea that learning and cognition is not situated within the computer technology but within the pedagogical practices, specifically the participation structures. (3) The pedagogical practices developed with the integration or with the use of computer technology underscored by the teachers' own knowledge of classroom contexts and curriculum needs to be the focus for how students learn science content with computer technology instead of just focusing on how computer technology solely supports students learning of science content.
Nakatani, Takeshi; Inamura, Yasuhiro
Many world-forefront experimental apparatuses are under construction at Materials and Life Science Facility of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), and new experimental methods supported by the computer facility are under development towards practical use. Many problems, however, remains to be developed as a large open use facility under the Low for Promotion of Public Utilization. Some of them need the cooperation of experimental scientists and computer scientists to be solved. Present status of the computing ability at Materials and Life Science Facility of J-PARC, and research results expected to be brought by the collaboration of experimental- and computer-scientists are described. (author)
Gribble, Mary; And Others
This paper addresses the question of teacher socialization through contrived images, i.e., the influence of advertising as part of an educational and socialization process. It examines ways in which computer advertisements directed towards teachers influence their perceptions of how computers can and should be used, and how the same advertisements…
Full Text Available Under standard models of expected utility, preferences over stochastic events are assumed to be independent of the source of uncertainty. Thus, in decision-making, an agent should exhibit consistent preferences, regardless of whether the uncertainty derives from the unpredictability of a random process or the unpredictability of a social partner. However, when a social partner is the source of uncertainty, social preferences can influence decisions over and above pure risk attitudes. Here, we compared risk-related hemodynamic activity and individual preferences for two sets of options that differ only in the social or non-social nature of the risk. Risk preferences in social and non-social contexts were systematically related to neural activity during decision and outcome phases of each choice. Individuals who were more risk averse in the social context exhibited decreased risk-related activity in the amygdala during non-social decisions, while individuals who were more risk averse in the non-social context exhibited the opposite pattern. Differential risk preferences were similarly associated with hemodynamic activity in ventral striatum at the outcome of these decisions. These findings suggest that social preferences, including aversion to betrayal or exploitation by social partners, may be associated with variability in the response of these subcortical regions to social risk.
Alt, Franz L
Electronic Digital Computers: Their Use in Science and Engineering describes the principles underlying computer design and operation. This book describes the various applications of computers, the stages involved in using them, and their limitations. The machine is composed of the hardware which is run by a program. This text describes the use of magnetic drum for storage of data and some computing. The functions and components of the computer include automatic control, memory, input of instructions by using punched cards, and output from resulting information. Computers operate by using numbe
Ballas, Dimitris; Clarke, Graham; Franklin, Rachel S.; Newing, Andy
GIS and the Social Sciences offers a uniquely social science approach on the theory and application of GIS with a range of modern examples. It explores how human geography can engage with a variety of important policy issues through linking together GIS and spatial analysis, and demonstrates the
This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...
The first pan-Asia conference ‘Status and Role of Social Science Research in Asia, Emerging Challenges and Policy Issues’ (New Delhi, 13-15 March 2014), with representatives from 24 countries in Asia and some non-Asian countries, was intended to assess the present state of social science research in
Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton
The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…
Scaff, Lawrence A.
The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…
Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme
This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…
van Winden, F.A.A.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.
Recent developments in economics and psychology suggest that productivity in the social sciences will benefit from crossing existing academic barriers, and that such crossing is more and more likely. Social science is in the making, but its success seems particularly conditioned on the willingness
A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university's Research Office.
This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…
Advanced Technology in Teaching
2012 International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science (ICTCS 2012) is held on April 1-2, 2012, Macao. This volume contains 120 selected papers presented at 2012 International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science (ICTCS 2012), which is to bring together researchers working in many different areas of teaching and computational Science to foster international collaborations and exchange of new ideas. This volume book can be divided into two sections on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered. The first section deals with teaching. The second section of this volume consists of computational Science. We hope that all the papers here published can benefit you in the related researching fields.
Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.
This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.
Grady, Leo J
This unique text brings together into a single framework current research in the three areas of discrete calculus, complex networks, and algorithmic content extraction. Many example applications from several fields of computational science are provided.
Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth
Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form are included for topics in three categories: computer science, data systems and space station applications.
Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth
Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form, along with abstracts, are included for topics in three catagories: computer science, data systems, and space station applications.
Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.
Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka
This book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd Computer Science On-line Conference 2014 (CSOC 2014). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest high-quality research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The topics addressed are the theoretical aspects and applications of Artificial Intelligences, Computer Science, Informatics and Software Engineering. The authors provide new approaches and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in their field. Particular emphasis is laid on modern trends in selected fields of interest. New algorithms or methods in a variety of fields are also presented. This book is divided into three sections and covers topics including Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science and Software Engineering. Each section consists of new theoretical contributions and applications which can be used for the further development of knowledge of everybod...
Gelenbe, Erol; Gorbil, Gokce; Lent, Ricardo
The 30th Anniversary of the ISCIS (International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences) series of conferences, started by Professor Erol Gelenbe at Bilkent University, Turkey, in 1986, will be held at Imperial College London on September 22-24, 2015. The preceding two ISCIS conferences were held in Krakow, Poland in 2014, and in Paris, France, in 2013. The Proceedings of ISCIS 2015 published by Springer brings together rigorously reviewed contributions from leading international experts. It explores new areas of research and technological development in computer science, computer engineering, and information technology, and presents new applications in fast changing fields such as information science, computer science and bioinformatics. The topics covered include (but are not limited to) advances in networking technologies, software defined networks, distributed systems and the cloud, security in the Internet of Things, sensor systems, and machine learning and large data sets.
Fet , Yakov
Part 6: Putting the History of Computing into Different Contexts; International audience; This report focuses on the dangerous problems that are currently facing the society – the negative phenomena in development of education and science. The most important way to solve this problem seems to be education and enlightenment. It is assumed that in the history of Computer Science, the intellectual and moral heritage of this history contains a wealth of material that can be used for the dissemina...
Irena Nančovska Šerbec; Branko Kaučič; Jože Rugelj
At the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana we educate future computer science teachers. Beside didactical, pedagogical, mathematical and other interdisciplinary knowledge, students gain knowledge and skills of programming that are crucial for computer science teachers. For all courses, the main emphasis is the absorption of professional competences, related to the teaching profession and the programming profile. The latter are selected according to the well-known document, the ACM C...
Gordon, Rachel A A
Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content
Hedgecoe, Adam M
This article attempts to show a way in which social science research can contribute in a meaningful and equitable way to philosophical bioethics. It builds on the social science critique of bioethics present in the work of authors such as Renee Fox, Barry Hoffmaster and Charles Bosk, proposing the characteristics of a critical bioethics that would take social science seriously. The social science critique claims that traditional philosophical bioethics gives a dominant role to idealised, rational thought, and tends to exclude social and cultural factors, relegating them to the status of irrelevancies. Another problem is they way in which bioethics assumes social reality divides down the same lines/categories as philosophical theories. Critical bioethics requires bioethicists to root their enquiries in empirical research, to challenge theories using evidence, to be reflexive and to be sceptical about the claims of other bioethicists, scientists and clinicians. The aim is to produce a rigorous normative analysis of lived moral experience.
Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…
Faculty members in social/behavioral science programs at the Universities of Chicago and California at Berkeley have been given the highest overall "grades" for quality by their academic peers in a survey published by the National Academy of Sciences. Includes scores for anthropology, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology…
Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique
Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…
Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren de Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.
Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between 'completed' sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way
Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren De Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.
Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way
Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter
Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way
Goldsmith, Judy; Mattei, Nicholas
The undergraduate computer science curriculum is generally focused on skills and tools; most students are not exposed to much research in the field, and do not learn how to navigate the research literature. We describe how fiction reviews (and specifically science fiction) are used as a gateway to research reviews. Students learn a little about…
This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…
Steven I. Miller
Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.
Tang, W.M.; Chan, V.S.
Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology
Computer Graphics in Ergonomie Design (A. H. Kudryavtsev; TEKHNICHESKAYA ESTETIKA, No 9, 1987) 45 Prospecting Systems Based on Electrical and Seismic...kodirovanlya, 1987 9835 44 APPLICATIONS UDC 331.101.1:62,001.66:681.3:766 Computer Graphics in Ergonomie Design 18630003 Moscow TEKHN1CHESKAYA ESTETIKA in...characteristics (visual, aural and other sensory capabilities), Figure 1. Ergonomie CAD System Structure (10) (15) CPEflCTBA MAWWHHOW TPAOMKH
Ruthberg, Zella G.
This is a collection of consensus reports, each produced at a session of an invitational workshop sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of the workshop was to explore the state-of-the-art and define appropriate subjects for future research in the audit and evaluation of computer security. Leading experts in the audit and…
Zizka, Jan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan
The International conference series on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on understanding computer science, engineering and applications and to establish new collaborations in these areas. The Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA-2012), held in Delhi, India, during May 25-27, 2012 attracted many local and international delegates, presenting a balanced mixture of intellect and research both from the East and from the West. Upon a strenuous peer-review process the best submissions were selected leading to an exciting, rich and a high quality technical conference program, which featured high-impact presentations in the latest developments of various areas of computer science, engineering and applications research.
Zizka, Jan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan
The International conference series on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on understanding computer science, engineering and applications and to establish new collaborations in these areas. The Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA-2012), held in Delhi, India, during May 25-27, 2012 attracted many local and international delegates, presenting a balanced mixture of intellect and research both from the East and from the West. Upon a strenuous peer-review process the best submissions were selected leading to an exciting, rich and a high quality technical conference program, which featured high-impact presentations in the latest developments of various areas of computer science, engineering and applications research.
Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.
Author Guidelines. The Journal of Computer Science and Its Applications welcomes submission of complete and original research manuscripts, which are not under review in any other conference or journal. The topics covered by the journal include but are not limited to Artificial Intelligence, Bioinformatics, Computational ...
Talisayon, Vivien M.
Compares policies and programs on computers in science and mathematics education in the six ASEAN countries: Brunei, Indonesia; Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Limits discussion to the computer as a teaching aid and object of study, attendant problems, and regional cooperation. (MVL)
Zinth, Jennifer Dounay
Computer science and coding skills are widely recognized as a valuable asset in the current and projected job market. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 37.5 percent growth from 2012 to 2022 in the "computer systems design and related services" industry--from 1,620,300 jobs in 2012 to an estimated 2,229,000 jobs in 2022. Yet some…
Fouh, Eric; Akbar, Monika; Shaffer, Clifford A.
Computer science core instruction attempts to provide a detailed understanding of dynamic processes such as the working of an algorithm or the flow of information between computing entities. Such dynamic processes are not well explained by static media such as text and images, and are difficult to convey in lecture. The authors survey the history…
Skolnick, Michael M.; Spooner, David L.
Modern computing systems exploit graphical user interfaces for interaction with users; as a result, introductory computer science courses must begin to teach the principles underlying such interfaces. This paper presents an approach to graphical user interface (GUI) implementation that is simple enough for beginning students to understand, yet…
Full Text Available As defined by the National Institutes of Health: “Biomedical engineering integrates physical, chemical, mathematical, and computational sciences and engineering principles to study biology, medicine, behavior, and health”. Many issues in this area are closely related to fluid dynamics. This paper provides an overview of the basic concepts concerning Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications in medicine.
Cifuentes, Lauren; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan Jane
Discusses student use of computer graphics software and presents documentation from a visualization workshop designed to help learners use computer graphics to construct meaning while they studied science concepts. Describes problems and benefits when delivering visualization workshops in the natural setting of a middle school. (Author/LRW)
The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...
Alakpodia, Onome Norah
The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…
Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O
University Press, (05 2014) Huan Liu, Jiliang Tang. Trust in Social Media , Synthesis Lectures on Information Security, Privacy , and Trust: Morgan & Claypool...applications such as targeted advertisements or real- time monitoring of political opinions. Huge amounts of data generated by social media users present...Networking Site" • Research Problem Studied: Privacy and security are major concerns for many users of social media . When users share information (e.g
Kaiser, Alex; Williams, Samuel Webb; Madduri, Kamesh; Ibrahim, Khaled; Bailey, David H.; Demmel, James W.; Strohmaier, Erich
For decades, computer scientists have sought guidance on how to evolve architectures, languages, and programming models in order to improve application performance, efficiency, and productivity. Unfortunately, without overarching advice about future directions in these areas, individual guidance is inferred from the existing software/hardware ecosystem, and each discipline often conducts their research independently assuming all other technologies remain fixed. In today's rapidly evolving world of on-chip parallelism, isolated and iterative improvements to performance may miss superior solutions in the same way gradient descent optimization techniques may get stuck in local minima. To combat this, we present TORCH: A Testbed for Optimization ResearCH. These computational reference kernels define the core problems of interest in scientific computing without mandating a specific language, algorithm, programming model, or implementation. To compliment the kernel (problem) definitions, we provide a set of algorithmically-expressed verification tests that can be used to verify a hardware/software co-designed solution produces an acceptable answer. Finally, to provide some illumination as to how researchers have implemented solutions to these problems in the past, we provide a set of reference implementations in C and MATLAB.
Soltoggio, Andrea; Dawson, Christian; Meng, Qinggang; Pain, Matthew
This book presents the main scientific results of the 10th International Symposium of Computer Science in Sport (IACSS/ISCSS 2015), sponsored by the International Association of Computer Science in Sport in collaboration with the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP), which took place between September 9-11, 2015 at Loughborough, UK. This proceedings aims to build a link between computer science and sport, and reports on results from applying computer science techniques to address a wide number of problems in sport and exercise sciences. It provides a good platform and opportunity for researchers in both computer science and sport to understand and discuss ideas and promote cross-disciplinary research. The strictly reviewed and carefully revised papers cover the following topics: Modelling and Analysis, Artificial Intelligence in Sport, Virtual Reality in Sport, Neural Cognitive Training, IT Systems for Sport, Sensing Technologies and Image Processing.
Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Biel, J.; Cook, A.; Deppe, J.; Edel, M.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Hance, R.
This paper reports that Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program (ACP) has been developing cost effective, yet practical, parallel computers for high energy physics since 1984. The ACP's latest developments are proceeding in two directions. A Second Generation ACP Multiprocessor System for experiments will include $3500 RISC processors each with performance over 15 VAX MIPS. To support such high performance, the new system allows parallel I/O, parallel interprocess communication, and parallel host processes. The ACP Multi-Array Processor, has been developed for theoretical physics. Each $4000 node is a FORTRAN or C programmable pipelined 20 Mflops (peak), 10 MByte single board computer. These are plugged into a 16 port crossbar switch crate which handles both inter and intra crate communication. The crates are connected in a hypercube. Site oriented applications like lattice gauge theory are supported by system software called CANOPY, which makes the hardware virtually transparent to users. A 256 node, 5 GFlop, system is under construction
Renato Santiago Quintal
Full Text Available In its origins, the social sciences have focused on technological issues. Social scientists have devoted much attention to the subject affects the action of technological progress on the conformation of human life in General, as well as keeping an eye on more concreteness about the aspects related to the way the technique is acquired, the ways employed to protect her and the tools used to Exchange and protection. In this context, the article aims to identify the contributions of social sciences-notably of the applied social sciences-to discussions involving science, technology and innovation. The survey used the inductive method, applied to the literature review. The findings point to multidisciplinarity of significant thematic affects to science, technology and innovation. Keywords: Scientific knowledge; Social Sciences; Technology and society.
Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.
The unclassified and unlimited bibliography compiles references dealing specifically with the role of computers in information sciences. The volume contains 239 annotated references grouped under three major headings: Artificial and Programming Languages, Computer Processing of Analog Data, and Computer Processing of Digital Data. The references…
Peterson, James K
This book shows how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It begins with a general model of cognitive processes in a network of computational nodes, such as neurons, using a variety of tools from mathematics, computational science and neurobiology. It then moves on to solve the diffusion model from a low-level random walk point of view. It also demonstrates how this idea can be used in a new approach to solving the cable equation, in order to better understand the neural computation approximations. It introduces specialized data for emotional content, which allows a brain model to be built using MatLab tools, and also highlights a simple model of cognitive dysfunction.
Vieira, Camilo; Magana, Alejandra J.; García, R. Edwin; Jana, Aniruddha; Krafcik, Matthew
Computational tools and methods have permeated multiple science and engineering disciplines, because they enable scientists and engineers to process large amounts of data, represent abstract phenomena, and to model and simulate complex concepts. In order to prepare future engineers with the ability to use computational tools in the context of their disciplines, some universities have started to integrate these tools within core courses. This paper evaluates the effect of introducing three computational modules within a thermodynamics course on student disciplinary learning and self-beliefs about computation. The results suggest that using worked examples paired to computer simulations to implement these modules have a positive effect on (1) student disciplinary learning, (2) student perceived ability to do scientific computing, and (3) student perceived ability to do computer programming. These effects were identified regardless of the students' prior experiences with computer programming.
Lakshmikantham, Vangipuram; Chui, Charles K; Chui, Charles K
The book "Computational Error and Complexity in Science and Engineering pervades all the science and engineering disciplines where computation occurs. Scientific and engineering computation happens to be the interface between the mathematical model/problem and the real world application. One needs to obtain good quality numerical values for any real-world implementation. Just mathematical quantities symbols are of no use to engineers/technologists. Computational complexity of the numerical method to solve the mathematical model, also computed along with the solution, on the other hand, will tell us how much computation/computational effort has been spent to achieve that quality of result. Anyone who wants the specified physical problem to be solved has every right to know the quality of the solution as well as the resources spent for the solution. The computed error as well as the complexity provide the scientific convincing answer to these questions. Specifically some of the disciplines in which the book w...
Interest of Society (CITRIS) and Professor University of California, Berkeley J. Carter Beese , Jr. President Riggs Capital Partners Pedro Celis, Ph.D...and Library Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill William J. Hannigan President AT&T Jonathan C. Javitt, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Fellow...Vannier, Ph.D., Professor of Radiology, University of Chicago • Jonathan C. Silverstein, M.D., M.S., FACS, Assistant Professor of Surgery, University of
Harris, Christopher Glenn
Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…
Bulucea, Aida; Tsekouras, George
This book provides readers with modern computational techniques for solving variety of problems from electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering. Mathematical methods are presented in a unified manner, so they can be applied consistently to problems in applied electromagnetics, strength of materials, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, signal processing, automatic control and more.
Smith, Paul H.; Hunter, Paul
An external review of the Integrated Technology Plan for the Civil Space Program is presented. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: onboard memory and storage technology; advanced flight computers; special purpose flight processors; onboard networking and testbeds; information archive, access, and retrieval; visualization; neural networks; software engineering; and flight control and operations.
Raimundo González Fernández
Full Text Available This article presents a panorama of the necessity the current Cuban society has to form high quality technicians in Computer science, and the social and historical conditions that compromise the existence of the subject “Language of Programming ”inside its study plan, as well as the necessity to upgrade teachers who teach this subject, in Computer Science's Polytechnical School "Carlos Hidalgo Díaz” in Pinar del Río province. Regarding the inadequacies there are in these programs, in the theoretical and methodological order, it is expected that with an intervention strategy consisting on an upgrading course this problem can be solved.
Liu, Hexuan; Guo, Guang
In this paper, we draw attention to one unique and valuable source of big data, genomic data, by demonstrating the opportunities they provide to social scientists. We discuss different types of large-scale genomic data and recent advances in statistical methods and computational infrastructure used to address challenges in managing and analyzing such data. We highlight how these data and methods can be used to benefit social science research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.
computers will require extensive research and development to have a chance of reaching the exascale level. Even if exascale level machines can...generations of petascale and then exascale level computing capability. This includes both the hardware and the complex software that may be...required for the architectures needed for exacscale capability. The challenges are extremely daunting, especially at the exascale
Johnson, James L
Comprehensive and thorough development of both probability and statistics for serious computer scientists; goal-oriented: ""to present the mathematical analysis underlying probability results"" Special emphases on simulation and discrete decision theory Mathematically-rich, but self-contained text, at a gentle pace Review of calculus and linear algebra in an appendix Mathematical interludes (in each chapter) which examine mathematical techniques in the context of probabilistic or statistical importance Numerous section exercises, summaries, historical notes, and Further Readings for reinforcem
pages of Literary Gazette, it would be appropriate to proceed with a literary example. Not just elegance of handwriting (made absolutely unnecessary... adult population of the industrially developed nations would have been absorbed by scientific organizations. For this reason, the phenomenon of so...The Institute’s festivities are over. The young specialists in the computer department are in an elated mood . Thanks to their enthusiasm, clearness
Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael
This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.
De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.
The purpose of this document is to define the evolving science drivers for performing environmental molecular research at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and to provide guidance associated with the next-generation high-performance computing center that must be developed at EMSL's Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in order to address this critical research. The MSCF is the pre-eminent computing facility?supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER)?tailored to provide the fastest time-to-solution for current computational challenges in chemistry and biology, as well as providing the means for broad research in the molecular and environmental sciences. The MSCF provides integral resources and expertise to emerging EMSL Scientific Grand Challenges and Collaborative Access Teams that are designed to leverage the multiple integrated research capabilities of EMSL, thereby creating a synergy between computation and experiment to address environmental molecular science challenges critical to DOE and the nation.
Brekke, John S.
Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…
Full Text Available Cybercitizen describes a frequent user of the Internet or in other terms, a member of an online community (cybercommunity). This digital space can be used to participate in educational, economical and cultural activities. Social computing...
Reviewed by Onur DONMEZ
Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have pervaded and changed much of our lives both on individual and societal scales. PCs, notebooks, tablets, cell phones, RSS feeds, emails, podcasts, tweets, social networks are all technologies we are familiar with and we are intensively using them in our daily lives. It is safe to say that our lives are becoming more and more digitized day by day.We have already invented bunch of terms to refer effects of these technologies on our lives. Digital nomads, grasshopper minds, millennium learners, digital natives, information age, knowledge building, knowledge society, network society are all terms invented to refer societal changes motivated by ICTs. New opportunities provided by ICTs are also shaping skill and quality demands of the next age. Individuals have to match these qualities if they want to earn their rightful places in tomorrow‘s world. Education is of course the sole light to guide them in their transformation to tomorrow‘s individual. One question arises however: ―are today‘s educational paradigms and practices ready to confront such a challenge?‖ There is a coherent and strong opinion among educators that the answer is ―NO‖. ―Today‘s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors‖(Prensky, 2001. And education has to keep pace with these students and their needs. But how? Khine & Saleh managed to gather distinguished colleagues around this question within their book titled ―New Science of Learning: Cognition, Computers and Collaboration‖. The book is composed of 29 chapters within three major topics which are: cognition, computers and collaboration.
How many ways do exist to mix different ingredients, how many chances to win a gambling game, how many possible paths going from one place to another in a network ? To this kind of questions Mathematics applied to computer gives a stimulating and exhaustive answer. This text, presented in three parts (Combinatorics, Probability, Graphs) addresses all those who wish to acquire basic or advanced knowledge in combinatorial theories. It is actually also used as a textbook. Basic and advanced theoretical elements are presented through simple applications like the Sudoku game, search engine al
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of money spent on equipment, technology, and salaries. Therefore, it is very important to secure the outcome by restricting other people from copying and selling the invention. There are several ways of protecting our work: patents, design rights, copyrights, and trademarks. In software engineering...... the last two -- copyrights and trademarks -- are broadly used. Copyrighting computer programs is not only made for obtaining proper license fees in the future. Free software uses copyright to secure its freedom and to prohibit other users from making it proprietary and selling it for money. Making...
Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro
An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of
Hules, J. [ed.
National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).
Full Text Available Hildegard D Löhr1,2, Jan H Rosenvinge1,3, Rolf Wynn2,41Division of General Psychiatry, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Telemedicine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 4Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatry, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: We describe a psychoeducational program integrated in a basic computer skills course for participants suffering from social anxiety. The two main aims of the course were: that the participants learn basic computer skills, and that the participants learn to cope better with social anxiety. Computer skills were taught by a qualified teacher. Psychoeducation and cognitive therapy skills, including topics such as anxiety coping, self-accept, and self-regulation, were taught by a clinical psychologist. Thirteen of 16 participants completed the course, which lasted 11 weeks. A qualitative analysis was performed, drawing on observations during the course and on interviews with the participants. The participants were positive about the integration of psychoeducation sessions in the computer course, and described positive outcomes for both elements, including improved computer skills, improved self-esteem, and reduced social anxiety. Most participants were motivated to undertake further occupational rehabilitation after the course.Keywords: cognitive therapy, information technology, occupational rehabilitation, psychoeducation, self-help, social anxiety
Jacobs-Mata, Inga M
Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...
Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. O. O. Umoh, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom. State, Nigeria .... research may be lost through misunderstanding ..... advertisement, the media also should be used to ...
GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. ... media. From the over fifty tertiary institutions in the country graduates are churned .... few were collected at the contact addresses, ... acquisition is paramount for successful job hunting.
Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer
The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.
Scheibe, Timothy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Jeremy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a scientific user facility managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), conducted a one-day workshop on August 26, 2014 on the topic of “Multiscale Computation: Needs and Opportunities for BER Science.” Twenty invited participants, from various computational disciplines within the BER program research areas, were charged with the following objectives; Identify BER-relevant models and their potential cross-scale linkages that could be exploited to better connect molecular-scale research to BER research at larger scales and; Identify critical science directions that will motivate EMSL decisions regarding future computational (hardware and software) architectures.
Sader, Jennifer L.
This dissertation explored the ways that constructions of gender shaped the choices and expectations of women doctoral students in computer science. Women who do graduate work in computer science still operate in an environment where they are in the minority. How much of women's underrepresentation in computer science fields results from a problem of imagining women as computer scientists? As long as women in these fields are seen as exceptions, they are exceptions that prove the "rule" that computing is a man's domain. The following questions were the focus of this inquiry: What are the career aspirations of women doctoral students in computer science? How do they feel about their chances to succeed in their chosen career and field? How do women doctoral students in computer science construct womanhood? What are their constructions of what it means to be a computer scientist? In what ways, if any, do they believe their gender has affected their experience in their graduate programs? The goal was to examine how constructions of computer science and of gender---including participants' own understanding of what it meant to be a woman, as well as the messages they received from their environment---contributed to their success as graduate students in a field where women are still greatly outnumbered by men. Ten women from four different institutions of higher education were recruited to participate in this study. These women varied in demographic characteristics like age, race, and ethnicity. Still, there were many common threads in their experiences. For example, their construction of womanhood did not limit their career prospects to traditionally female jobs. They had grown up with the expectation that they would be able to succeed in whatever field they chose. Most also had very positive constructions of programming as something that was "fun," rewarding, and intellectually stimulating. Their biggest obstacles were feelings of isolation and a resulting loss of
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and... Computer and Information Science and Engineering (1115). Date and Time: November 1, 2011 from 12 p.m.-5:30... Computer and Information Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Suite...
Lin, Che-Li; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Su, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Teacher-centered instruction has been widely adopted in college computer science classrooms and has some benefits in training computer science undergraduates. Meanwhile, student-centered contexts have been advocated to promote computer science education. How computer science learners respond to or prefer the two types of teacher authority,…
Enriquez, Judith Guevarra
In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing social network analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…
Lyon, Louise Ann
Computer science not only displays the pattern of underrepresentation of many other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but has actually experienced a decline in the number of women choosing the field over the past two decades. Broken out by gender and race, the picture becomes more nuanced, with the ratio of females to males receiving bachelor's degrees in computer science higher for non-White ethnic groups than for Whites. This dissertation explores the experiences of university women differing along the axis of race, class, and culture who are considering majoring in computer science in order to highlight how well-prepared women are persuaded that they belong (or not) in the field and how the confluence of social categories plays out in their decision. This study focuses on a university seminar entitled "Women in Computer Science and Engineering" open to women concurrently enrolled in introductory programming and uses an ethnographic approach including classroom participant observation, interviews with seminar students and instructors, observations of students in other classes, and interviews with parents of students. Three stand-alone but related articles explore various aspects of the experiences of women who participated in the study using Rom Harre's positioning theory as a theoretical framework. The first article uses data from twenty-two interviews to uncover how interactions with others and patterns in society position women in relation to a computer science major, and how these women have arrived at the point of considering the major despite messages that they do not belong. The second article more deeply explores the cases of three women who vary greatly along the axes of race, class, and culture in order to uncover pattern and interaction differences for women based on their ethnic background. The final article focuses on the attitudes and expectations of the mothers of three students of contrasting ethnicities and how reported
Full Text Available Continuous technological changes have resulted in a rapid turnover of knowledge in the computing field. The impact of these changes directly affects the computer-related curriculum offered by educational institutions and dictates that curriculum must evolve to keep pace with technology and to provide students with the skills required by businesses. At the same time, accreditations of curricula from reviewing organizations provide additional guidelines and standardization for computing science as well as information science programs. One of the areas significantly affected by these changes is the field of information systems. This paper describes the evaluation and course structure for the undergraduate information science and systems program in the Computer and Information Sciences Department at the University of North Florida. A list of the major required and elective courses as well as an overview of the challenges encountered during the revision of the curriculum is given.
Marriott, F H C
Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co
Social science research on environmental problems has two main tasks: (1) to provide critical practice-oriented contributions to present and threatening environmental problems, and (2) to draw the humans-and-nature problematique into social science concepts and theoretical frameworks. In this paper, the prerequisites for achieving both tasks as well as the theoretical, political, and institutional aspects that affect them are discussed. The focus of the discussion is the interdependence between practical problem solving and development of theory. (orig.) [de
Matos, Eneida Catalina
Full Text Available The systematization of the authors' experiences as agents of the process of Ph. D. formative process in Pedagogical Sciences leads them to propose The Socialization Workshop, as a valid alternative for scientific valuation of pedagogical investigations, supported in the epistemic nature of this science, as well as the author’s previous contributions about epistemic communication. The definition of The Socialization Workshop, its rationale and corresponding methodological stages are presented.
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science during the period October 1, 1983 through March 31, 1984 is summarized.
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989 is summarized.
Zainab, A. N.
The internationalization characteristics of two Malaysian journals, Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society ( indexed by ISI) and the Malaysian Journal of Computer Science ( indexed by Inspec and Scopus) is observed. All issues for the years 2000 to 2007 were looked at to obtain the following information, (i) total articles published between 2000 and 2007; (ii) the distribution of foreign and Malaysian authors publishing in the journals; (iii) the distribution of articles by c...
Full Text Available Science fairs at one time started out with an interest of increasing participation in the sciences. But as time has passed, the definition of science has been narrowed to the point where any possible social science project has been eliminated in favor of the bench sciences only. Even here, natural curiosity of students has been deemphasized. It is not surprising that science majors in the USA are becoming fewer and fewer given the narrowing of the disciplines. Young people are discouraged from majoring in science by the science establishment.
Agarwal, Ravi P
The book records the essential discoveries of mathematical and computational scientists in chronological order, following the birth of ideas on the basis of prior ideas ad infinitum. The authors document the winding path of mathematical scholarship throughout history, and most importantly, the thought process of each individual that resulted in the mastery of their subject. The book implicitly addresses the nature and character of every scientist as one tries to understand their visible actions in both adverse and congenial environments. The authors hope that this will enable the reader to understand their mode of thinking, and perhaps even to emulate their virtues in life. … presents a picture of mathematics as a creation of the human imagination. … brings the history of mathematics to life by describing the contributions of the world’s greatest mathematicians. —Rex F. Gandy, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, TAMUK It starts with the explanation and history of numbers, arithmetic, ...
Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy-to-computational c......Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy...... resampling techniques, thereby systematically avoiding problems with overfitting. The first ever density functional presenting both reliable accuracy and convincing error estimation is generated. The methodology is general enough to be applied to more complex functional forms with higher-dimensional fitting...
Quirk, Thomas J
This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach social science statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical social science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in social science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Social Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formul...
Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles
The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.
Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.
Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords
van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander
Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords
Ehlers, Walter H.
After a discussion of the need for analyzing knowledge bases in the areas of psychology, Freudian concepts, child development, and the sociology of students entering a master's program in social work, this report examines concepts of simulation, straight line, and branching in computerized teaching, the diagnostic evaluation possibilities of…
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 35th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, SOFSEM 2009, held in Špindleruv Mlýn, Czech Republic, in January 2009. The 49 revised full papers, presented together with 9 invited contributions, were carefully...... reviewed and selected from 132 submissions. SOFSEM 2009 was organized around the following four tracks: Foundations of Computer Science; Theory and Practice of Software Services; Game Theoretic Aspects of E-commerce; and Techniques and Tools for Formal Verification....
The main objective of CSAIT 2013 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers and government officials involved in the general areas of Computational Sciences and Information Technology to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. A medium like this provides an opportunity to the academicians and industrial professionals to exchange and integrate practice of computer science, application of the academic ideas, improve the academic depth. The in-depth discussions on the subject provide an international communication platform for educational technology and scientific research for the world's universities, engineering field experts, professionals and business executives.
Chang, Mido; Kim, Sunha
This study examined the effects of computer access and computer use on the science achievement of elementary school students, with focused attention on the effects for racial and linguistic minority students. The study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K) database and conducted statistical analyses with proper weights and…
Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…
Rangeland science aims to create knowledge to sustain rangeland social-ecological systems over the long term. Range science has made substantial progress on understanding ecological dynamics of rangeland systems and the management practices that sustain them, and these findings have been systematica...
The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...
little thing happens involving computer security, or the breach thereof, the media goes fucking bat shit and...bunch of dumb kids that saw the movie and spent all there %sic% time asking "anyone got any k00l...the Quorum operators that we were AT&T technicians had the need occurred. Don’t let the kids ruin
Nijholt, Antinus; Kunii, T.L.; Hock Soon, S.; Sourin, A.
Presently, there are user interfaces that allow multimodal interactions. Many existing research and prototype systems introduced embodied agents, assuming that they allow a more natural conversation or dialogue between user and computer. Here we will first take a look at how in general people react
Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Hondorp, H.
Entertainment computing is on its way getting an established academic discipline. The scope of entertainment computing is quite broad (see the scope of the international journal Entertainment Computing). One unifying idea in this diverse community of entertainment researchers and developers might be a normative position to enhance human living through social transformation. One possible option in this direction is a shared `conscious' field. Several ideas about a new kind of field based on qu...
The book reports on new theories and applications in the field of intelligent systems and computing. It covers computational and artificial intelligence methods, as well as advances in computer vision, current issue in big data and cloud computing, computation linguistics, cyber-physical systems as well as topics in intelligent information management. Written by active researchers, the different chapters are based on contributions presented at the workshop in intelligent systems and computing (ISC), held during CSIT 2016, September 6-9, and jointly organized by the Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine, the Kharkiv National University of RadioElectronics, Ukraine, and the Technical University of Lodz, Poland, under patronage of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. All in all, the book provides academics and professionals with extensive information and a timely snapshot of the field of intelligent systems, and it is expected to foster new discussions and collaborations among different groups. ...
Okada, Akinori; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Weihs, Claus
This volume presents theoretical developments, applications and computational methods for the analysis and modeling in behavioral and social sciences where data are usually complex to explore and investigate. The challenging proposals provide a connection between statistical methodology and the social domain with particular attention to computational issues in order to effectively address complicated data analysis problems. The papers in this volume stem from contributions initially presented at the joint international meeting JCS-CLADAG held in Anacapri (Italy) where the Japanese Classification Society and the Classification and Data Analysis Group of the Italian Statistical Society had a stimulating scientific discussion and exchange.
Loveland, Donald W; Sterrett, S G
Demonstrating the different roles that logic plays in the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, and philosophy, this concise undergraduate textbook covers select topics from three different areas of logic: proof theory, computability theory, and nonclassical logic. The book balances accessibility, breadth, and rigor, and is designed so that its materials will fit into a single semester. Its distinctive presentation of traditional logic material will enhance readers' capabilities and mathematical maturity. The proof theory portion presents classical propositional logic and first-orde
Mehmet C. Ayar
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-cultural practices and interactions of learning science in a science classroom within the concept of communities of practice. Our qualitative data were collected through observing, taking field notes, and conducting interviews in a public science classroom during an entire school year. The study occurred in a seventh-grade classroom with a veteran physical science teacher, with more than 10 years teaching experience, and 22 students. For this article, we presented two classroom vignettes that reflect a sample of the participation, practice, and community that was observed in the science classroom on a daily basis. The first vignette illustrated a typical formula of Initiation–Response–Feedback (I-R-F that transfers knowledge to students through a teacher-led discussion with the entire class. The second vignette described a laboratory activity designed to allow students to apply or discover knowledge through practical experience, while taking responsibility for their learning through small-group work. The normative practices and routine behaviors of the science classroom are highlighted through the description of material resources, and different modes of participation accompanied by assigned roles and responsibilities. What we observed was that laboratory activities reproduced the epistemic authority of the I-R-F rather than creating collective cognitive responsibility where students have the independence to explore and create authentic science experiences.
Systems biology is centrally engaged with computational modelling across multiple scales and at many levels of abstraction. Formal modelling, precise and formalised abstraction relationships, and computation also lie at the heart of computer science--and over the past decade a growing number of computer scientists have been bringing their discipline's core intellectual and computational tools to bear on biology in fascinating new ways. This paper explores some of the apparent points of contact between the two fields, in the context of a multi-disciplinary discussion on conceptual foundations of systems biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hibbard, William L.; Paul, Brian E.; Santek, David A.; Dyer, Charles R.; Battaiola, Andre L.; Voidrot-Martinez, Marie-Francoise
Computers have become essential tools for scientists simulating and observing nature. Simulations are formulated as mathematical models but are implemented as computer algorithms to simulate complex events. Observations are also analyzed and understood in terms of mathematical models, but the number of these observations usually dictates that we automate analyses with computer algorithms. In spite of their essential role, computers are also barriers to scientific understanding. Unlike hand calculations, automated computations are invisible and, because of the enormous numbers of individual operations in automated computations, the relation between an algorithm's input and output is often not intuitive. This problem is illustrated by the behavior of meteorologists responsible for forecasting weather. Even in this age of computers, many meteorologists manually plot weather observations on maps, then draw isolines of temperature, pressure, and other fields by hand (special pads of maps are printed for just this purpose). Similarly, radiologists use computers to collect medical data but are notoriously reluctant to apply image-processing algorithms to that data. To these scientists with life-and-death responsibilities, computer algorithms are black boxes that increase rather than reduce risk. The barrier between scientists and their computations can be bridged by techniques that make the internal workings of algorithms visible and that allow scientists to experiment with their computations. Here we describe two interactive systems developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) that provide these capabilities to Earth and space scientists.
The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.
Martini, C.; Boumans, M.
This book brings together the research of philosophers and social scientists. It examines those areas of scientific practice where reliance on the subjective judgment of experts and practitioners is the main source of useful knowledge to address, and, possibly, bring solutions to social problems. A
Kopnina, H.; Keune, H.
In this new book the authors examine the contribution of social scientists to the topics of health and environment. They present diverse perspectives on classical and contemporary debates by focusing on social scientific framing of environment and health, as well as on the potential contribution of
This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...